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Sample records for low-level control system

  1. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  2. Reliability review of the LHC collimators low level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, A.; Donze, M.; Losito, R.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC collimators' low level control system is responsible for the positioning, with an accuracy of a few um, of more than 500 motor axes located around the entire LHC tunnel and synchronized at us level,The collimators' axes position is verified in Real Time, monitoring at 100 Hz more than 700 LVDT positioning sensors. Apart from the challenging requirements of timing and positioning accuracy, the system is characterized by a high level of reliability since the collimators have the crucial function of machine protection. In this paper we focus on the architectural and technical choices adopted to guarantee the level of reliability required by the application. We also present the tools and solutions developed to manage this huge control system making the support easier and faster for its operation. (authors)

  3. Design and development of Low Level RF (LLRF) control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandi, T.K.; Suman, S.; Pandey, H.K.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    All the linear accelerator cavities of Radioactive Ion Beam have separate RF power amplifiers. In these accelerators, high stabilities of the order of ± 0.5% in amplitude and ± 0.5° in phase of RF signal inside the cavities are required for proper and efficient acceleration of RIB. For this purpose, a low level RF (LLRF) control system is being designed which includes amplitude and phase controllers to ensure efficient and stable operation of the RF accelerators. The RF output of the LLRF system is finally amplified and fed to the accelerator cavities. The LLRF system is based on IQ (In-phase and Quadrature) modulation-demodulation technique in which an IQ modulator and a demodulator has been used to control the amplitude and phase of the RF carrier signal. The HigH-speed DAC and ADC have been used for processing the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components of the RF signal. This system is a closed-loop feedback control system. The feedback signal is obtained from the pick-up of accelerator cavity. PID control method is used to regulate the amplitude and phase of the RF signal to the desired/set value. The control system is optimized for minimum response time with satisfactory performance. The transfer function of the PID controller and the RF cavity is compared with the transfer function of a first order system and the values of proportional gain (Kp), integral gain (Ti) and derivative gain (Td) are obtained from Matlab- Simulink Simulation. The PID controller has been implemented into a high speed microcontroller (LPC2478) for fast operation. A GUI has been developed in NI LabView software to monitor the Amplitude and Phase of the RF signal and control manually if required. The detailed design and development of the control system will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  5. Overview of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac Low-Level RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Ma, Hengjie; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source Linac Low-Level RF control system is complete, and installation will be finished in Spring 2005. The warm linac beam commissioning run in Fall 2004 was the most extensive test to date of the LLRF control system, with fourteen (of an eventual 96) systems operating simultaneously. In this paper we present an overview of the LLRF control system, the experience in designing, building and installing the system, and operational results.

  6. General overview of the APS low-level rf control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.D.; Bridges, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed low-level rf system of the positron accumulator ring (PAR), the injector synchrotron, and the storage ring of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source. Four rf systems are described since the PAR consists of a fundamental frequency system at 9.8 MHz and a harmonic system at 117 MHz. A block diagram of an accelerating unit is shown and descriptions of various control loops are made (including amplitude control, phase control, and cavity tuning control). Also, a brief overview of the computer interface is given

  7. The Low-Level Control System for the CERN PS Multi-Turn Extraction Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Schipper, J; Boucly, C; Carlier, E; Fowler, T; Gaudillet, H; Noulibos, R; Sermeus, L

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the beam losses when preparing high intensity proton beam for the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) facility, a new Multi-Turn extraction (MTE) scheme has been implemented in the PS, to replace the present Continuous Transfer (CT) to the SPS. Industrial off-the-shelf components have been used for the low-level part of the MTE kicker control system. National Instruments PXI systems are used to control the high voltage pulse generators and a SIEMENS programmable logic controller (PLC) handles the centralised oil cooling and gas insulation sub-systems

  8. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  9. Operator interface for the PEP-II low level RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, S.; Claus, R.

    1997-05-01

    This paper focuses on the operational aspects of the low level RF control system being built for the PEP-II storage rings at SLAC. Subsystems requiring major operational considerations include displays for monitor and control from UNIX workstations, slow feedback loops and control sequences residing on microprocessors, and various client applications in the existing SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) control system. Since commissioning of PEP-II RF is currently in-progress, only those parts of the control system used during this phase are discussed in detail. Based on past experience with the SLC control system, it is expected that effort expended during commissioning on a solid user interface will result in smoother transition to full reliable 24-hour-a-day operation

  10. The Design and Performance of the Spallation Neutron Source Low-Level RF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Champion, M; Kasemir, K; Ma, H; Piller, C

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator low-level RF control system has been developed within a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge national laboratories. Three distinct generations of the system, described in a previous publication [1], have been used to support beam commissioning at Oak Ridge. The third generation system went into production in early 2004, with installation in the coupled-cavity and superconducting linacs to span the remainder of the year. The final design of this system will be presented along with results of performance measurements.

  11. 162.5 MHz digital low-level radio frequency control monitoring system design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruifeng; Wang Xianwu; Xu Zhe; Yi Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    162.5 MHz high-frequency low-level control system self-developed by Institute of Modern Physics for ADS project took digital technology. All parameters' reading and writing, including loop parameter setting, open and close-loop operation, and condition monitoring, were achieved through the monitoring system. The system used lightweight client-server working mode that client running in the PC sent command data, server running on high-frequency digital low level system responded instructions to complete parameter monitoring and control. The system consisted of three parts. Firstly, server hardware system was constructed based on Atera Stratix Ⅲ family of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) development board. Secondly, the server software system was designed based on Micro C/OS Ⅱ real-time operating systems and lightweight TCP/IP protocol stack, and finally a client PC program was designed based on MFC. After a long test, it was indicated that the monitoring system works properly and stably. TCP sends and receives throughput reached 11.931038 Mbps and 8.117624 Mbps. (authors)

  12. Design and development of low level S-Band RF control system for IRFEL injector LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Singh, Adarsh Pratap; Namdeo, Rajkumar; Baxy, Deodatta; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    A low level RF system has been designed and developed for phase and amplitude stabilization of S- Band microwave power being fed to fundamental buncher cavity and the injector LINAC structure of the Infra Red Free Electron Laser being developed at RRCAT Indore. The system uses analog phase shifters and voltage variable attenuators to control the phase and amplitude respectively, the control voltages for phase shifters and attenuators are generated using a 12 Bit ADC and is software controlled. The system has a slow feedback to correct phase and amplitude drifts occurring due to thermal variations and a fast feed forward mechanism to vary amplitude and phase of the output pulse to compensate beam loading and to shape the klystron output power. The present paper describes the design aspects of the LLRF system. (author)

  13. Development of a low-level RF control system for PET cyclotron CYCIAE-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengzhan, E-mail: lipengzhan@ciae.ac.cn; Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Zhao, Zhenlu

    2014-01-21

    The project of a 14 MeV PET cyclotron aiming at medical diagnosis and treatment was proposed and started at CIAE in 2010. The low-level RF system is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance of the cavity. Based on the experience of the existing CRM Cyclotron in CIAE, a new start-up sequence is developed and tested. The frequency sweeping is used to activate the RF system. Before the tuner is put into use, a new state called “DDS tuning” is applied to trace the resonance frequency to the designed value. This new option state helps to cover the tuning range, if a large frequency variation occurs because of a thermal cavity deformation. The logic control unit detects the spark, reflection, Pulse/CW state and the frequency of the RF source to perform all kinds of protection and state operations. The test bench and on-line test are carried out to verify the initial design. -- Highlights: • The low-level RF system is designed and verified for PET cyclotron CYCIAE-14. • The frequency sweeping is used to activate the RF system. • A new state called “DDS tuning” is applied to trace the resonance frequency. • This new option state helps to cover the tuning range. • Protection module allows a quick restart after an alarm and improves cyclotron's efficiency.

  14. Low-level rf control of Spallation Neutron Source: System and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengjie Ma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-level rf control system currently commissioned throughout the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS LINAC evolved from three design iterations over 1 yr intensive research and development. Its digital hardware implementation is efficient, and has succeeded in achieving a minimum latency of less than 150 ns which is the key for accomplishing an all-digital feedback control for the full bandwidth. The control bandwidth is analyzed in frequency domain and characterized by testing its transient response. The hardware implementation also includes the provision of a time-shared input channel for a superior phase differential measurement between the cavity field and the reference. A companion cosimulation system for the digital hardware was developed to ensure a reliable long-term supportability. A large effort has also been made in the operation software development for the practical issues such as the process automations, cavity filling, beam loading compensation, and the cavity mechanical resonance suppression.

  15. A low-level rf control system for a quarter-wave resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwon; Hwang, Churlkew

    2012-06-01

    A low-level rf control system was designed and built for an rf deflector, which is a quarter wave resonator, and was designed to deflect a secondary electron beam to measure the bunch length of an ion beam. The deflector has a resonance frequency near 88 MHz, its required phase stability is approximately ±1° and its amplitude stability is less than ±1%. The control system consists of analog input and output components and a digital system based on a field-programmable gate array for signal processing. The system is cost effective, while meeting the stability requirements. Some basic properties of the control system were measured. Then, the capability of the rf control was tested using a mechanical vibrator made of a dielectric rod attached to an audio speaker system, which could induce regulated perturbations in the electric fields of the resonator. The control system was flexible so that its parameters could be easily configured to compensate for the disturbance induced in the resonator.

  16. EPICS based low-level radio frequency control system in LIPAc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Julio, E-mail: julio.calvo@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Ciemat (Spain); Rivers, Mark L. [Department of Geophysical Sciences and Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago (United States); Patricio, Miguel A. [Departamento de Informatica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, Angel [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Ciemat (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system proposed can control amplitude and phase of each cavity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid diagnostics are refreshed in milliseconds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing control parameters will not increase consumed time neither complexity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IQ demodulation can be achieved thanks to the transformed values at driver level. - Abstract: The IFMIF-EVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) linear accelerator, known as Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA continuous wave (CW) deuteron accelerator prototype to validate the technical options of the accelerator design for IFMIF. The primary mission of such facility is to test and verify materials performance when subjected to extensive neutron irradiation of the type encountered in a fusion reactor to prepare for the design, construction, licensing and safe operation of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO). The radio frequency (RF) power system of IFMIF-EVEDA consists of 18 RF chains working at 175 MHz with three amplification stages each. The low-level radio frequency (LLRF) controls the amplitude and phase of the signal to be synchronized with the beam and it also controls the resonance frequency of the cavities. The system is based on a commercial compact peripheral component interconnect (cPCI) field programmable gate array (FPGA) board, provided by Lyrtech and controlled by a Windows host PC. For this purpose, it is mandatory to communicate the cPCI FPGA board from EPICS Channel Access [1]. A software architecture on EPICS framework in order to control and monitor the LLRF system is presented.

  17. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  18. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  19. Network Communication for Low Level RF Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Yin Chengke; Zhang Tongxuan; Fu Zechuan; Liu Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Low Level RF (LLRF) control system for storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has been built by digital technology. The settings of parameters and the feedback loop status are carried out through the network communication interface, and the local oscillation and clock, which is the important component of the digital LLRF control system, are also configured through network communication. NIOS II processor was employed as a core to build the embedded system with a real-time operating system MicroC/OS-II, finally Lightweight TCP/IP (LwIP) was used to achieve the communication interface. The communication network is stable after a long-term operation. (authors)

  20. Low-level RF control system issues for an ADTT accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziomek, C.D.; Regan, A.H.; Lynch, M.T.; Bowling, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    The RF control system for a charged-particle accelerator must maintain the correct amplitude and phase of RF field inside the accelerator cavity in the presence of perturbations, noises, and time varying system components. For an accelerator with heavy beam-loading, fluctuations in the beam current cause large perturbations to the RF field amplitude and phase that must be corrected by the RF control system. The ADTT applications require a high-current, heavily beam-loaded, continuous-wave (CW) accelerator. Additional concerns created by the CW operation include system start-up, beam interruption, and fault recovery. Also, the RF control system for an ADTT facility must include sophisticated automation to reduce the operator interaction and support. This paper describes an RF control system design that addresses these various issues by evaluation a combination of feedback and feed forward control techniques. Experience from the high-current Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) is drawn upon for this RF control system design. Comprehensive computer modeling with the Matrix x software has been used to predict the performance of this RF control system

  1. Digital low level RF control system for the DESY TTF VUV-FEL Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayvazyan, V.; Choroba, S.; Matyushin, A.; Moeller, G.; Petrosyan, G.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.N.; Vetrov, P.

    2005-01-01

    In the RF system for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) Linac each klystron supplies RF power to up to 32 cavities. The superconducting cavities are operated in pulsed mode and high accelerating gradients close to the performance limit. The RF control of the cavity fields to the level of 10 -4 for amplitude and 0.1 degree for phase however presents a significant technical challenge due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities which results in high sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency by mechanical vibrations (microphonics) and Lorenz force detuning. The VUV-FEL Linac RF control system employs a completely digital feedback system to provide flexibility in the control algorithms, precise calibration of the accelerating field vector-sum, and extensive diagnostics and exception handling capabilities. The RF control algorithm is implemented in DSP (Digital Signal Processor) firmware and DOOCS (Distributed Object Oriented Control System) servers. The RF control system design objectives are discussed. Hardware and software design of the DSP based RF control are presented. (orig.)

  2. Digital low level RF control system for the DESY TTF VUV-FEL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayvazyan, V.; Choroba, S.; Matyushin, A.; Moeller, G.; Petrosyan, G.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.N.; Vetrov, P.

    2005-07-01

    In the RF system for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) Linac each klystron supplies RF power to up to 32 cavities. The superconducting cavities are operated in pulsed mode and high accelerating gradients close to the performance limit. The RF control of the cavity fields to the level of 10{sup -4} for amplitude and 0.1 degree for phase however presents a significant technical challenge due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities which results in high sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency by mechanical vibrations (microphonics) and Lorenz force detuning. The VUV-FEL Linac RF control system employs a completely digital feedback system to provide flexibility in the control algorithms, precise calibration of the accelerating field vector-sum, and extensive diagnostics and exception handling capabilities. The RF control algorithm is implemented in DSP (Digital Signal Processor) firmware and DOOCS (Distributed Object Oriented Control System) servers. The RF control system design objectives are discussed. Hardware and software design of the DSP based RF control are presented. (orig.)

  3. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  4. Development of Low Level RF Control Systems for Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerators, Electron Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Kolesov, Sergej; Pekeler, Michael; Piel, Christian; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001 ACCEL Instruments is supplying low level RF control systems together with turn key cavity systems. The early LLRF systems used the well established technology based on discrete analogue amplitude and phase detectors and modulators. Today analogue LLRF systems can make use of advanced vector demodulators and modulators combined with a fast computer controlled analogue feed back loop. Feed forward control is implemented to operate the RF cavity in an open loop mode or to compensate for predictable perturbations. The paper will introduce the general design philosophy and show how it can be adapted to different tasks as controlling a synchrotron booster nc RF system at 500 MHz, or superconducting storage ring RF cavities, as well as a linear accelerator at 176 MHz formed by a chain of individually driven and controlled superconducting λ/2 cavities.

  5. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  6. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  7. Model-based development of low-level control strategies for transient operation of solid oxide fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Marco; Pianese, Cesare

    The exploitation of an SOFC-system model to define and test control and energy management strategies is presented. Such a work is motivated by the increasing interest paid to SOFC technology by industries and governments due to its highly appealing potentialities in terms of energy savings, fuel flexibility, cogeneration, low-pollution and low-noise operation. The core part of the model is the SOFC stack, surrounded by a number of auxiliary devices, i.e. air compressor, regulating pressure valves, heat exchangers, pre-reformer and post-burner. Due to the slow thermal dynamics of SOFCs, a set of three lumped-capacity models describes the dynamic response of fuel cell and heat exchangers to any operation change. The dynamic model was used to develop low-level control strategies aimed at guaranteeing targeted performance while keeping stack temperature derivative within safe limits to reduce stack degradation due to thermal stresses. Control strategies for both cold-start and warmed-up operations were implemented by combining feedforward and feedback approaches. Particularly, the main cold-start control action relies on the precise regulation of methane flow towards anode and post-burner via by-pass valves; this strategy is combined with a cathode air-flow adjustment to have a tight control of both stack temperature gradient and warm-up time. Results are presented to show the potentialities of the proposed model-based approach to: (i) serve as a support to control strategies development and (ii) solve the trade-off between fast SOFC cold-start and avoidance of thermal-stress caused damages.

  8. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  9. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  10. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  11. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  12. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, W.E. Jr.; Laylor, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water

  13. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  14. Architecture design of the application software for the low-level RF control system of the free-electron laser at Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Z.; Ayvazyan, V.; Simrock, S.

    2012-01-01

    The superconducting linear accelerator of the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH) provides high performance electron beams to the lasing system to generate synchrotron radiation to various users. The Low-Level RF (LLRF) system is used to maintain the beam stabilities by stabilizing the RF field in the superconducting cavities with feedback and feed forward algorithms. The LLRF applications are sets of software to perform RF system model identification, control parameters optimization, exception detection and handling, so as to improve the precision, robustness and operability of the LLRF system. In order to implement the LLRF applications in the hardware with multiple distributed processors, an optimized architecture of the software is required for good understandability, maintainability and extendibility. This paper presents the design of the LLRF application software architecture based on the software engineering approach for FLASH. (authors)

  15. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  16. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  17. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  18. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A.; Loria, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg -1 . The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author) [es

  19. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Ramusino, Angelo Cotta; Cretaro, Paolo; Lorenzo, Stefano Di; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup

  1. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  2. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  3. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  4. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  5. Computerized low-level waste assay system operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.F.; Cowder, L.R.; Martin, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An operation and maintenance manual for the computerized low-level waste box counter is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as theory of operation treated in sufficient depth so that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays. In addition, complete system schematics are included, along with a complete circuit description to facilitate not only maintenance and troubleshooting, but also reproduction of the instrument if desired. Complete software system descriptions are included so far as calculational algorithms are concerned, although detailed instruction listings would have to be obtained from Group R-1 at LASL in order to make machine-language code changes

  6. Modularized system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; DiSibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    A modularized system for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste is presented that attempts to overcome the past problems with shallow land burial and gain public acceptance. All waste received at the disposal site is packaged into reinforced concrete modules which are filled with grout, covered and sealed. The hexagonal shape modules are placed in a closely packed array in a disposal unit. The structural stability provided by the modules allow a protective cover constructed of natural materials to be installed, and the disposal units are decommissioned as they are filled. The modules are designed to be recoverable in the event remedial action is necessary. The cost of disposal with a facility of this type is comparable to current prices of shallow land burial facilities. The system is intended to address the needs of generators, regulators, communities, elected officials, licensees and future generations

  7. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework

  8. Conversion of a whole-body counter into a low-level whole-body scanning system controlled by a process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The report outlines the status of a research project in which a whole body counter with fixed geometries is converted into a scanning type system. The purpose of the project is the development of an adaptive system controlled by a process computer. The home-made scanning mechanics is explained, and a description is given of the advantages and the problems inherent in the application of step motors. For economic reasons no CAMAC system was purchased; instead, interfaces from and to the computer were designed which allowed the process periphery to be connected and operated. The inexpensive and relatively simple home-made designs are outlined; the example quoted refers to the conversion of a teletype output into a fast electronic data interface. (orig./ORU) [de

  9. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1983-09-01

    Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump.

  10. Integrated software system for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worku, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the continually changing and uncertain world of low level waste management, many generators in the US are faced with the prospect of having to store their waste on site for the indefinite future. This consequently increases the set of tasks performed by the generators in the areas of packaging, characterizing, classifying, screening (if a set of acceptance criteria applies), and managing the inventory for the duration of onsite storage. When disposal sites become available, it is expected that the work will require re-evaluating the waste packages, including possible re-processing, re-packaging, or re-classifying in preparation for shipment for disposal under the regulatory requirements of the time. In this day and age, when there is wide use of computers and computer literacy is at high levels, an important waste management tool would be an integrated software system that aids waste management personnel in conducting these tasks quickly and accurately. It has become evident that such an integrated radwaste management software system offers great benefits to radwaste generators both in the US and other countries. This paper discusses one such approach to integrated radwaste management utilizing some globally accepted radiological assessment software applications

  11. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  12. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  13. New low-level rf system for the Fermilab Booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.; Crisp, J.; Kerns, Q.; Miller, H.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes the Booster low-level rf system that was constructed to meet these recently added requirements: (1) synthesizer controlled capture frequency at injection, (2) very low-phase noise over the machine cycle, (3) smooth phase-lock of beam to an external reference frequency and (4) ability to accelerate either a full turn or partial turn of beam

  14. Low Level RF System for Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasz Plawski; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; J. Hovater; Thomas Powers

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) has been upgraded to test and commission SNS and CEBAF Energy Upgrade cryomodules. Part of the upgrade was to modernize the superconducting cavity instrumentation and control. We have designed a VXI based RF control system exclusively for the production testing of superconducting cavities. The RF system can be configured to work either in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) or Self Excited Loop (SEL) mode. It can be used to drive either SNS 805 MHz or CEBAF Energy Upgrade 1497 MHz superconducting cavities and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. The base design consists of RF-analog and digital sections. The RF-analog section includes a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), phase detector, IandQ modulator and ''low phase shift'' limiter. The digital section controls the analog section and includes ADC, FPGA, and DAC . We will discuss the design of the RF system and how it relates to the support of cavity testing

  15. Low-level rf system for the AGS Light Ion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, V.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.S.; Frankel, R.; Otis, A.; Pope, D.; Pritsker, M.; Raka, E.; Warkentien, R.

    1987-01-01

    The new low level rf system for the light ion acceleration program features direct digital control of a phase continuous rf synthesizer clocked by finite changes in the B field. The system, its operation and testing are described. The system covers the complete rf frequency range and switches over from single cavity acceleration to multiple cavity acceleration with no beam loss. It also switches from the programmed drive to the normal bootstrap system

  16. Intelligent low-level RF system by non-destructive beam monitoring device for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Asadi Malafeh, M. S.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Afarideh, H.; Chai, J. S.; Yoon, Sang Kim

    2016-04-01

    The project of a 10 MeV PET cyclotron accelerator for medical diagnosis and treatment was started at Amirkabir University of Technology in 2012. The low-level RF system of the cyclotron accelerator is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance frequency of the cavity. In this work an Intelligent Low Level Radio Frequency Circuit or ILLRF, suitable for most AVF cyclotron accelerators, is designed using a beam monitoring device and narrow band tunable band-pass filter. In this design, the RF phase detection does not need signal processing by a microcontroller.

  17. Control Loops for the J-PARC RCS Digital Low-Level RF Control

    CERN Document Server

    Schnase, Alexander; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Takagi, Akira; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    The low-level radiofrequency control for the Rapic Cycling Synchrotron of J-PARC is based on digital signal processing. This system controls the acceleration voltages of 12 magnetic alloy loaded cavities. To achive a short overall delay, mandatory for stable loop operation, the data-processing is based on distributed arithmetics in FPGA. Due to the broadband characteristic of the acceleration cavities, no tuning loop is needed. To handle the large beam current, the RF system operates simultaneously with dual harmonics (h=2) and (h=4). The stability of the amplitude loops is limited by the delay of the FIR filters used after downconversion. The phase loop offers several operation modes to define the phase relation of (h=2) and (h=4) between the longitudinal beam signal and the vector-sum of the cavity voltages. Besides the FIR filters, we provide cascaded CIC filters with smoothly varying coefficients. Such a filter tracks the revolution frequency and has a substantially shorter delay, thereby increasing the s...

  18. The Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    ALERT SYSTEM (LLWSAS). (May R.. a.-ol - 8..’P" Imng Organization Report No, 9, Perfo~ring Or~ni-otlon Ro-r. -andAddress 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) Federal...rather than electronic approach. The 2-minute average adheres to recommended International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards (referernce 14...speed of 140 knots. **Cold front. 80 ’ # 90 0 STRONG CASES: COFF , 1975 80 9STRONG CASES: UNPU1BLISHED 70 60 A STRONG CASES: COFF , et al., 1978 50 \\ 50 -0

  19. Simulation experiment on low-level RF control for dual-harmonic acceleration at CSNS RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Sirong; Li Xiao; Zhang Chunlin; Sun Hong; Tang Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    The design and test of the low-level RF (LLRF) control system for the dual-harmonic acceleration at the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) at phase Ⅰ is introduced. In order to implement the mode switch from the second harmonic to the fundamental during the acceleration cycle for one of the eight RF cavities, the LLRF system for the cavity has been designed differently from the others. Several technical measures such as the opening of the control loops during the mode switch and the reclosing of two tuning circuits of the RF amplifier at different moments, have been taken. The experimental results on the testing platform based on an RF prototype show good dynamic performance of the LLRF system and prove the feasibility of dual-harmonic operation. (authors)

  20. Low-level feedback control for the phase regulation of CLIC Drive Beam Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)752526

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of luminosity loss below 1% raises tight tolerances for the phase and power stability of the CLIC drive beam (DB) klystrons and consequently for the high voltage pulse ripple of the modulators. A low-level RF (LLRF) feedback system needs to be developed and combined with the modulator in order to guarantee the phase and amplitude tolerances. To this aim, three feedback control strategies were investigated, i) Proportional Integral (PI) controller, ii) Linear Quadratic Integral Regulator (LQI) and iii) Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The klystron, as well as the incident phase noise were modelled and used for the design and evaluation of the controllers. First simulation results are presented along with future steps and directions.

  1. Low level exposure to chemicals and immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosio, C.; Birindelli, S.; Corsini, E.; Galli, C.L.; Maroni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrialized countries are facing an increase of diseases attributable to an alteration of the immune system function, and concern is growing that this trend could be at least partially attributable to new and modified patterns of exposure to chemicals. Among chemicals matter of concern, pesticides can be included. The Authors have reviewed the existing evidence of pesticide immunotoxicity in humans, showing that existing data are inadequate to raise conclusions on the immunotoxic risk related to these compounds. The limits of existing studies are: poor knowledge on exposure levels, heterogeneity of the approach, and difficulty in giving a prognostic significance to the slight changes often observed. To overcome these limits, the Authors have proposed a tier approach, based on three steps: the first, addressed at pointing out a possible immunomodulation; the second, at refining the results and the third one, when needed, to finalize the study and to point out concordance with previous results. Studies should preferably be carried out through comparison of pre- and post-exposure findings in the same groups of subjects to be examined immediately after the end of the exposure. A simplification of the first step approach can be used by the occupational health physician and the occupational toxicologist. Conclusions on the prognostic significance of the slight changes often observed will be reached only by validating the hypothesis generated by field studies with an epidemiological approach. In this field, the most useful option is represented by longitudinal perspective studies

  2. Commissioning experience with the PEP-II low-level RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.; Allison, S.; Claus, R.; Ross, W.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Schwarz, H.D.; Tighe, R.; Yee, C.; Ziomek, C.

    1997-05-01

    The low-level RF system for PEP-II is a modular design housed in a VXI environment and supported by EPICS. All signal processing and control is done at baseband using in-phase and quadrature (IQ) techniques. Remotely configurable RF feedback loops are used to control coupled-bunch instabilities driven by the accelerating mode of the RF cavities. A programmable DSP based feedback loop is implemented to control phase variations across the klystron due to the required adjustment of the cathode voltage to limit cathode power dissipation. The DSP loop also adaptively cancels modulations caused by klystron power supply ripple at selected power line harmonics between 60 Hz and 10 kHz. The system contains a built-in baseband network analyzer which allows remote measurement of the RF feedback loop transfer functions and automated configuration of these loops. This paper presents observations and measured data from the system

  3. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  4. Digital Low Level RF Systems for Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, B.; Barnes, B.; Meisner, K.

    1997-05-01

    At Fermilab, a new Low Level RF system is successfully installed and operating in the Main Ring. Installation is proceeding for a Tevatron system. This upgrade replaces aging CAMAC/NIM components for an increase in accuracy, reliability, and flexibility. These VXI systems are based on a custom three channel direct digital synthesizer(DDS) module. Each synthesizer channel is capable of independent or ganged operation for both frequency and phase modulation. New frequency and phase values are computed at a 100kHz rate on the module's Analog Devices ADSP21062 (SHARC) digital signal processor. The DSP concurrently handles feedforward, feedback, and beam manipulations. Higher level state machines and the control system interface are handled at the crate level using the VxWorks operating system. This paper discusses the hardware, software and operational aspects of these LLRF systems.

  5. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  6. Low level signal data acquisition for the MFTF-B superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Acquisition of low level signals from sensors mounted on the superconducting magnets in the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) impose very strict requirements on the magnet signal conditioning and data acquisition system. Of the various types of sensors required, thermocouples and strain gages produce very low level outputs. These low level outputs must be accurately measured in the harsh environment of slowly varying magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures, high vacuum, 80 kV pulse power, 60 Hz, 17 MHz and 28, 35, and 56 GHz electrical noise and possible neutron radiation. Successful measurements require careful attention to grounding, shielding, signal handling and processing in the data acquisition system. The magnet instrumentation system provides a means of effectively measuring both low level signals and high level signals from all types of sensors. Various methods involved in the design and implementation of the system for signal conditioning and data gathering will be presented

  7. Low-level wastewater treatment facility process control operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1996-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of a new TK 102 level controller and total outflow integrator added to the NHCON software that controls the Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility (LLWTF). The test was performed with WHC-SD-CP-OTP 154, PFP Low-Level Wastewater Treatment Facility Process Control Operational Test. A complete test copy is included in appendix A. The new TK 102 level controller provides a signal, hereafter referred to its cascade mode, to the treatment train flow controller which enables the water treatment process to run for long periods without continuous operator monitoring. The test successfully demonstrated the functionality of the new controller under standard and abnormal conditions expected from the LLWTF operation. In addition, a flow totalizer is now displayed on the LLWTF outlet MICON screen which tallies the process output in gallons. This feature substantially improves the ability to retrieve daily process volumes for maintaining accurate material balances

  8. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low-level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  9. Annual report on the effluent control of low level liquid water in Tokai Works. FY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2005-08-01

    This report was written about the effluent control of low level liquid waste in JNC Tokai Works Fiscal Year 2004, from 1st April 2004 to 31th March 2005. In this period, the quantities and concentrations of radioactivity in liquid waste from Tokai Works were under the discharge limits of 'Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant' and regulations of government. (author)

  10. Low-level-signal data acquisition for the MFTF superconducting-magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Acquisition of low level signals from sensors mounted on the superconducting yin-yang magnet in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) imposes very strict requirements on the magnet signal conditioning and data acquisition system. Of the various types of sensors required, thermocouples, strain gages, and voltage taps produce very low level outputs. These low level outputs must be accurately measured in the harsh environment of slowly varying magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures, high vacuum, pulse power and 60 Hz electrical noise, possible neutron radiation, and high common mode voltage resulting from superconducting magnet quench. Successful measurements require careful attention to grounding, shielding, signal handling and processing in the data acquisition system. The magnet instrumentation system provides a means of effectively measuring both low level signals and high level signals from all types of sensors

  11. Operational experience with the new LEIR digital low-level RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME

    2010-01-01

    The LEIR Low-Level (LLRF) system is the first all-digital low LLRF system that has been put into operation in a CERN circular machine. It is a very compact system, composed of one VME64x crate and of few NIM modules. System capabilities include typical beam control tasks, such as frequency program, beam phase, radial and extraction synchronization feedback loops, as well as cavity voltage/phase feedback loops. The system is also capable of coping with the large variation of the revolution frequency during an acceleration cycle as well as with the high dynamic range required by the LEIR cavities operation. Extensive diagnostics and observation capabilities are built-in and the system’s control parameters are fully configurable remotely and in-between cycles. Over the various LEIR runs, the LLRF system has proven to be reliable and reproducible as well as extremely flexible and powerful. These characteristics are essential for a LLRF system and LEIR is already profiting from them. Moreover, high beam availabi...

  12. DOE systems approach to a low-level waste management information system: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, V.

    1987-01-01

    The LLWMP is performing an assessment of waste information systems currently in use at each DOE site for recording LLW data. The assessment is being conducted to determine what changes to the waste information systems, if any, are desirable to support implementation of this systems approach to LLW management. Recommendations will be made to DOE from this assessment and what would be involved to modify current DOE waste generator information practices to support an appropriately structured overall DOE LLW data systems. In support of reducing the uncertainty of decision-making, DOE has selected a systems approach to keep pace with an evolving regulatory climate to low-level waste. This approach considers the effects of each stage of the entire low-level waste management process. The proposed systems approach starts with the disposal side of the waste management system and progresses towards the waste generation side of the waste management system. Using this approach provides quantitative performance to be achieved. In addition, a systems approach also provides a method for selecting appropriate technology based on engineering models

  13. Infiltration control for low-level radioactive solid waste disposal areas: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.

    1980-11-01

    The primary mode of radionuclide transport from shallow land-disposal sites for low-level wastes can be traced to infiltration of precipitation. This report examines the factors that affect surface water entry and movement in the ground and assesses available infiltration-control technology for solid-waste-disposal sites in the humid eastern portion of the United States. A survey of the literature suggests that a variety of flexible and rigid liner systems are available as barriers for the stored waste and would be effective in preventing water infiltration. Installation of near-surface seals of bentonite clay admixed with dispersive chemicals seem to offer the required durability and low permeability at a reasonable cost. The infiltration rate in a bentonite-sealed area may be further retarded by the application of dispersive chemicals that can be easily admixed with the surface soil. Because the effectiveness of a dispersive chemical for infiltration reduction is influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the soil, appropriate laboratory tests should be conducted prior to field application

  14. Safety analysis and inventory control of transuranic and low-level waste in common storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Bonner, A.L.; Joyce, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed For the inventory control of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, when both are stored in the same location, and both contribute to an inventory constrained by safety considerations. Development of the method arose from the necessity to make safety analysis calculations for the addition of LLW, in quantities greater than existing inventory limits would allow when stored with TRU waste, in the Hanford Central Waste Complex (CWC)-Ensuring that the dose consequences of credible releases are maintained at low-hazard limits or less, was used to allow greater than Type A quantities of LLW into the CWC. Basically, what happens is the original limited amount of TRU allowed is reduced by some equivalent amount of LLW introduced. The total quantity of TRU, and LLW in excess of Type A quantities, must be administratively maintained via curie equivalency Factors to ensure operation as a low-hazard Facility. The ''equivalency'' between TRU and LLW proposed here is specific only to the CWC, but the methodology can be used for other specific applications, such as TRU and LLW storage or handling facilities where inventory limits must be enforced or where a simplified inventory system is required

  15. Design and Calibration of an RF Actuator for Low-Level RF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zheqiao; Hong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    X-ray free electron laser (FEL) machines like the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC require high-quality electron beams to generate X-ray lasers for various experiments. Digital low-level RF (LLRF) systems are widely used to control the high-power RF klystrons to provide a highly stable RF field in accelerator structures for beam acceleration. Feedback and feedforward controllers are implemented in LLRF systems to stabilize or adjust the phase and amplitude of the RF field. To achieve the RF stability and the accuracy of the phase and amplitude adjustment, low-noise and highly linear RF actuators are required. Aiming for the upgrade of the S-band Linac at SLAC, an RF actuator is designed with an I/Qmodulator driven by two digital-to-analog converters (DAC) for the digital LLRF systems. A direct upconversion scheme is selected for RF actuation, and an on-line calibration algorithm is developed to compensate the RF reference leakage and the imbalance errors in the I/Q modulator, which may cause significant phase and amplitude actuation errors. This paper presents the requirements on the RF actuator, the design of the hardware, the calibration algorithm, and the implementation in firmware and software and the test results at LCLS.

  16. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 8, introduction cementitious systems for Low-Level Waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.F.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Mason, T.O.; Brough, A.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents details about cementitious systems for low-level waste immobilization. Topics discussed include: composition and properties of portland cement; hydration properties; microstructure of concrete; pozzolans; slags; zeolites; transport properties; and geological aspects of long-term durability of concrete

  17. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 8, introduction cementitious systems for Low-Level Waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.F.; Kirkpatrick, R.J.; Mason, T.O.; Brough, A.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents details about cementitious systems for low-level waste immobilization. Topics discussed include: composition and properties of portland cement; hydration properties; microstructure of concrete; pozzolans; slags; zeolites; transport properties; and geological aspects of long-term durability of concrete.

  18. Low-level RF LabVIEW reg-sign control software user's manual: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This document details information on the low-level radio frequency (LLRF) software control package. The chapters in this manual cover the following topics: Chapter one describes the general operating principles of the LabVIEW software package, and also discusses the high-level menu panels which allow access to the individual control panels. Chapter two covers the control panels used for conditioning the cavity, and for controlling the accelerator under normal operating conditions. Chapter three provides information on the resonance detection and reflectometer calibration function, including the setup and status panels for each. Chapter four contain instructions on the use of those panels dedicated to controlling the cavity RF field. Chapter five discusses the control panels that provide setup and status information on the diagnostic monitor subsystem. Chapter six outlines those panels used to control the timing functions provided by the LLRF system. Finally, chapter seven describes the control panels used to monitor and adjust the alarm and limit functions of the system. Throughout the document, it is assumed that the reader has a general working knowledge of accelerators, high-power amplifier equipment, and low-level RF (LLRF) control systems. References are listed as footnotes as they occur in the text

  19. Low-level alcohol consumption during adolescence and its impact on cognitive control development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Sarah; Mennigen, Eva; Goschke, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for maturation of cognitive control and most adolescents start experimenting with alcohol around that time. On the one hand, recent studies indicate that low control abilities predict future problematic alcohol use. On the other hand, binge drinking during young adulthood can (further) impair cognitive control. However, so far no study examined the effects of low-level alcohol use during adolescence. In the present longitudinal fMRI study, we therefore investigated the development of cognitive control in a community-based sample of 92 adolescents at ages 14, 16 and 18. Two different cognitive control functions, i.e. inhibition of pre-potent responses (operationalized by incongruence effects) and switching between different task sets, were measured within one task. Alcohol use in our sample was low (mean: 54 g/week at age 18). The study revealed that neither behavioural nor neural measures of cognitive control function at age 14 predicted alcohol use at age 18 but confirmed established predictors such as gender and personality. As expected, from age 14 to 18, cognitive control abilities were improving (decreased reaction times and/or errors), and activation of cognitive control networks (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area) during incongruent trials increased. Unexpectedly, higher alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with a more pronounced increase in cognitive performance and a smaller increase of neural activation when incongruent trials afforded inhibitory control. We conclude that low-level alcohol use during adolescence does not severely impair ongoing maturation of cognitive control abilities and networks. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Consideration of post-closure controls for a near surface low level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.; Pinner, A.; Smith, A.; Quartermaine, J.

    1997-01-01

    There is currently an ongoing programme of disposal of low level radioactive wastes by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg, Cumbria, and this programme is likely to continue through the first few decades of the 21st century. Although control of the site is anticipated for a period of about 100 years post-closure, eventually restrictions on access will lapse. Thereafter, the possibility of human actions leading to exposure to, and/or exhumation of, the wastes exists and has to be addressed in post-closure radiological performance assessments. Potential modes of intrusion into the Drigg site have been studied using a suite of computer codes developed specifically for this purpose. Required inputs to these codes include information on possible future uses of the site and the various human actions associated with those uses. This information was obtained from a group of experts using formal elicitation procedures. Although the most likely site uses, notably those involving agricultural activities, are unlikely to result in intrusion into the wastes, others, such a urban development, do have the potential to result in such intrusion. In these circumstances, it seemed appropriate to give consideration to the degree to which documentary records and markers could protect the Drigg site against intrusive activities. Overall, it is concluded that provided that a variety of documentary records are established, ranging from local council archives to mass produced maps, then memory of the site can realistically be assumed whilst civilization continues to exist. However, if this first line of defence fails, markers constitute a second warning system. Finally, assessment calculations can be used to demonstrate that, even if these two lines of defence fail, risks from intrusion and radiation doses contingent upon intrusive events having occurred would not be unacceptably large. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering ‘how’ questions, a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering ‘why’ questions promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering “why” (high-level construal vs. “how” (low-level construal questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2. Participants exposed to “why” questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1, showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2, and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2 compared with participants exposed to “how” questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  2. Construing Morality at High versus Low Levels Induces Better Self-control, Leading to Moral Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Human morality entails a typical self-control dilemma in which one must conform to moral rules or socially desirable norms while exerting control over amoral, selfish impulses. Extant research regarding the connection between self-control and level of construal suggest that, compared with a low-level, concrete construal (highlighting means and resources, e.g., answering 'how' questions), a high-level, abstract construal (highlighting central goals, e.g., answering 'why' questions) promotes self-control. Hence, construing morality at higher levels rather than lower levels should engender greater self-control and, it follows, promote a tendency to perform moral acts. We conducted two experiments to show that answering "why" (high-level construal) vs. "how" (low-level construal) questions regarding morality was associated with a situational state of greater self-control, as indexed by less Stroop interference in the Stroop color-naming task (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants exposed to "why" questions regarding morality displayed a greater inclination for volunteerism (Experiment 1), showed a lower tendency toward selfishness in a dictator game (Experiment 2), and were more likely to return undeserved money (Experiment 2) compared with participants exposed to "how" questions regarding morality. In both experiments, self-control mediated the effect of a high-level construal of morality on dependent measures. The current research constitutes a new approach to promoting prosociality and moral education. Reminding people to think abstractly about human morality may help them to generate better control over the temptation to benefit from unethical acts and make it more likely that they will act morally.

  3. Timing and low-level rf system for an x-ray laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Otake

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL, SACLA, designed to open up new science, was constructed for generating coherent x rays with a peak power of more than 10 GW and a very short pulse of below 30 fs. This feature demands a very highly short-term temporal stability of less than 50 fs to the acceleration rf field of SACLA. For this reason, we developed a timing and low-level rf (LLRF system for SACLA based on that of the SPring8 compact SASE source (SCSS test accelerator for verifying the feasibility of an XFEL. The performance of the system using the in-phase and quadrature rf manipulation method was improved from SCSS’s system. Since the facility length of SACLA is 700 m, which is 10 times longer than that of the SCSS test accelerator, a phase-stabilized optical-fiber system designed to transmit time standard rf signals with low loss was also developed and deployed. This optical-fiber system equips fiber optical-length feedback control in order to mitigate environmental effects, such as temperature and humidity changes. On the other hand, the demanded maximum rf temporal stability is less than 50 fs, which is almost 10 times smaller than that of the SCSS test accelerator. Hence, reducing electric noise and increasing the temperature stability around timing and LLRF instruments were necessary and realized with a very low-noise power supply and a hemathermal 19-inch enclosure. The short-term temporal performance of the timing LLRF system finally attained a temporal stability of less than 13.6 fs in rms measured by a beam arrival-time measurement. This stability greatly helps to achieve the stable x-ray lasing of SACLA for routine operation during user experiments.

  4. Q2 - a very low level quantitative and qualitative waste assay and release certification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Low level radioactive waste disposal is very expensive, especially when all of the handling transportation and documentation costs are included. However for most generators, a large fraction of this low level waste is not contaminated at all, or only slightly so. The paper describes the development and performance of a low level counter that is convenient to use, and that can accurately identify and quantify the radioactivity of any gamma emitter thing that can be placed in a 55 gallon (200 liter) container. These measurement results can be used to verify the absence of radioactivity at a very low levels (10 nCi (370 Bq)/sample), and to identify the nuclides and quantities present, while differentiating against natural radioactivity (Radium, Thorium, Potassium). These results can be used as part of a 10CFR20.302 waste stream exemption program, and thus allow significant savings and a less than 1 year payback at a typical nuclear power plant. The Q1 system is fully shielded to allow it's use in the low level radwaste storage area. The detectors are either 3 Intrinsic Germanium detectors or 2 large NaI detectors. The software is fully automated for simple operation. Correlation factors can be entered to estimate non-gamma emitters from pre-established correlations to other nuclides. Typical Ge detector sensitivities are 8 nCi (300 Bq) LLD for Cs-137 at 0.8 g/cc for a 10 minute count time. NaI detector systems can achieve the same LLD in a 1 minute count. 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  6. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  7. Geochemical analysis of leachates from cement/low-level radioactive waste/soil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscenti, L.J.; Serne, R.J.

    1988-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted as part of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters/endash/Arid Program. These experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of solidified low-level nuclear waste in a typical arid, near-surface disposal site, and to evaluate the ability of laboratory tests to predict leaching in actual field conditions. Batch leaching, soil adsorption column, and soil/waste form column experiments were conducted using Portland III cement waste forms containing boiling-water reactor evaporator concentrate and ion-exchange resin waste. In order to understand the reaction chemistry of the cement waste form/soil/ground-water system, the compositions of the leachates from the laboratory experiments were studied with the aid of the MINTEQ ion speciation/solubility and mass transfer computer code. The purpose of this report is to describe the changes in leachate composition that occur during the course of the experiments, to discuss the geochemical modeling results, and to explore the factors controlling the major element chemistry of these leachates. 18 refs., 84 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Storage of low-level radioactive waste and regulatory control of sealed sources in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahola, T.; Markkanen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concentrated on the non nuclear low-level radioactive waste. The cornerstone for maintaining radioactive sources under control in Finland is that all practices involving sources are subject to authorization and all licensing information, including information on each individual source, are entered into a register which is continuously updated based on applications and notifications received from the licenses. Experiences during the past twenty years have shown that source-specific records of sources combined with regular inspections at the places of use have prevented efficiency losing control over sealed radioactive sources. The current capacity in the interim storage for State owned waste is not adequate for all used sealed sources and other small user waste which are currently kept in the possession of the licensees. Thus, expansion of the storage capacity and other options for taking care of the small user waste is under consideration. (N.C.)

  9. Subjective annoyance caused by indoor low-level and low frequency noise and control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Guo-qing; ZHANG Bang-jun; SHANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of low-level noise has not been widely noticed. This paper discovered that low-level and low frequency noise(Aweighted equivalent level Leq < 45 dB) causes higher probability of subjective annoyance. The fuzzy mathematic principle was applied to deal with the threshold level of subjective annoyance from noise in this study; there is preferable relationship between the indoor noise and noise annoyance at low frequency noise level. Study indicated at the same centered noise level, the change of annoyance probability is mainly caused by the change of the frequency spectrum characteristic of the indoor noise. Under low noise level environment, without change of the medium-low frequency noise, the slight increase of medium-high frequency noise level with the help of noise sheltering effect can significantly reduce the noise annoyance. This discovery brings a new resolution on how to improve the environmental quality of working or living places. A noise control model is given in this study according to the acoustic analysis.

  10. Design and construction of the low-level liquid waste treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Mateer, W.E.; Metzler, G.H.; Reeves, S.R.; Rickettson, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the design and construction of the Low-Level Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS). The LWTS is part of a system that will prepare High-Level Radioactive Waste for solidification in glass. This preparation includes removal of water and salts from the stored waste. The topics addressed are: the design objective to reuse the Process Building to contain LWTS, the special considerations that arise when building a new system inside a decontaminated facility, interface to existing plant systems, phased construction, and construction testing. 8 refs., 24 figs

  11. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  12. Influences of engineered barrier systems on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, L. P.

    1987-09-15

    There are major differences between the current practices of shallow land burial and alternative concepts for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Additional protection provided with engineered barrier systems can overcome major concerns the public has with shallow land burial: subsidence; percolating ground waters; radionuclide migration; and the vulnerability of shallow trenches to intrusion. The presence of a variety of engineered barriers to restrict water movement, retain radionuclides and to prevent plant animal or human intrusion leads to significant changes to input data for performance assessment models. Several programs which are underway to more accurately predict the long-term performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste will be described.

  13. Influences of engineered barrier systems on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.

    1987-09-01

    There are major differences between the current practices of shallow land burial and alternative concepts for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Additional protection provided with engineered barrier systems can overcome major concerns the public has with shallow land burial: subsidence; percolating ground waters; radionuclide migration; and the vulnerability of shallow trenches to intrusion. The presence of a variety of engineered barriers to restrict water movement, retain radionuclides and to prevent plant animal or human intrusion leads to significant changes to input data for performance assessment models. Several programs which are underway to more accurately predict the long-term performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste will be described

  14. The planning and management system of the low level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshida, K.; Miyamoto, J.; Sanui, T.; Noura, T.; Kitanishi, K.; Nara, S.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Transport Co, Ltd. (hereafter called NFT) was the first in Japan to transport low-level radioactive waste (LLW). It is now engaged in preparatory operations with the slogan 'Improved Safety and Reliability' and is introducing advanced mechanization systems to provide safety and reliability in software management such as transportation planning and transportation information management. The following is an introduction of these systems, which provide overall support in transportation planning determination and transportation management operations related to the LLW transportation cycle. (J.P.N.)

  15. Melter system technology testing for Hanford Site low-level tank waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Following revisions to the Tri-Party Agreement for Hanford Site cleanup, which specified vitrification for Complete melter feasibility and system operability immobilization of the low-level waste (LLW) tests, select reference melter(s), and establish reference derived from retrieval and pretreatment of the radioactive LLW glass formulation that meets complete systems defense wastes stored in 177 underground tanks, commercial requirements (June 1996). Available melter technologies were tested during 1994 to 1995 as part of a multiphase program to select reference Submit conceptual design and initiate definitive design technologies for the new LLW vitrification mission

  16. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  17. Evaluation of low-level waste analysis using the MADAM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Measurement and Accountability

    1994-08-01

    Previously, the important hardware features and capabilities for the Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system were reported. MADAM is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrated commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability together with multienergy X-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporated a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and high resolution gamma-ray isotopics analysis proficiency. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of its low-level waste measurement performance has been conducted using a set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards. The evaluation studied existing analysis algorithms, matrix and attenuation effects, source position as a function of detector response, instrument stability, and sensitivity. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software. This report discusses the results of the evaluation program and the software modifications that have been developed.

  18. Evaluation of low-level waste analysis using the MADAM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Previously, the important hardware features and capabilities for the Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system were reported. MADAM is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrated commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability together with multienergy X-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporated a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and high resolution gamma-ray isotopics analysis proficiency. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of its low-level waste measurement performance has been conducted using a set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards. The evaluation studied existing analysis algorithms, matrix and attenuation effects, source position as a function of detector response, instrument stability, and sensitivity. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software. This report discusses the results of the evaluation program and the software modifications that have been developed

  19. Stealth low-level manipulation of programmable logic controllers I/O by pin control exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Hashemi, M.; Zambon, E.; Etalle, S.; Havarneanu, G.; Setola, R.; Nassopoulos, H.; Wolthusen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Input/OutputisthemechanismthroughwhichProgrammable Logic Controllers (PLCs) interact with and control the outside world. Particularly when employed in critical infrastructures, the I/O of PLCs has to be both reliable and secure. PLCs I/O like other embedded devices are controlled by a pin based

  20. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Perego

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs. Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray, and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0, at the end (D4, 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20, and after 2 months (D65. Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.

  1. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Randomized Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guneet Guram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic treatment is time-consuming procedure. Pain is usually associated with orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM duration and pain perception. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blind splint-mouth controlled clinical study includes 20 (8 males and 12 females orthodontic patients requiring bilateral canine retraction. Time taken for canine retraction with LLLT (Group A over control (Group B quadrant on the same patient was assessed along with pain experience using facial pain scale. The data were tabulated and statistically evaluated using SPSS 20 for windows (Microsoft, Chicago, IL, USA and t-test with P 0.05. There was statistically significant decrease in rate of canine retraction in Group A compared to Group B. There was statistically significant difference for maxillary and mandibular arches in Group A whereas it was not significant in Group B. Pain experience was statistically significant till 2nd day, and after 3rd day, it was not significant between the groups. Conclusion: LLLT can reduce the fixed OTM timing and pain experience.

  2. Knowledge-based low-level image analysis for computer vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P.; Baxi, Himanshu; Ranganath, M. V.

    1988-01-01

    Two algorithms for entry-level image analysis and preliminary segmentation are proposed which are flexible enough to incorporate local properties of the image. The first algorithm involves pyramid-based multiresolution processing and a strategy to define and use interlevel and intralevel link strengths. The second algorithm, which is designed for selected window processing, extracts regions adaptively using local histograms. The preliminary segmentation and a set of features are employed as the input to an efficient rule-based low-level analysis system, resulting in suboptimal meaningful segmentation.

  3. Preliminary analysis of the ORNL Liquid Low-Level Waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, T.J.; DePaoli, S.M.; Robinson, S.M.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the status of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) Systems Analysis project. The focus of this project has been to collect and tabulate data concerning the LLLW system, analyze the current LLLW system operation, and develop the information necessary for the development of long-term treatment options for the LLLW generated at ORNL. The data used in this report were collected through a survey of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) literature, various letter reports, and a survey of all current LLLW generators. These data are also being compiled in a user friendly database for ORNL-wide distribution. The database will allow the quick retrieval of all information collected on the ORNL LLLW system and will greatly benefit any LLLW analysis effort. This report summarizes the results for the analyses performed to date on the LLLW system

  4. Seismic evaluation of existing liquid low level waste system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C.R.; Holmes, R.M.; Kincaid, J.H.; Singhal, M.K.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The existing liquid low level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to collect, neutralize, concentrate, and store the radioactive and toxic waste from various sources at the Laboratory. The waste solutions are discharged from source facilities to individual collection tanks, transferred by underground piping to an evaporator facility for concentration, and pumped through the underground piping to storage in underground tanks. The existing LLLW system was installed in the 1950s with several system additions up to the present. The worst-case accident postulated is an earthquake of sufficient magnitude to rupture the tanks and/or piping so as to damage the containment integrity to the surrounding soil and environment. The objective of an analysis of the system is to provide a level of confidence in the seismic resistance of the LLLW system to withstand the postulated earthquake

  5. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies' results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%

  6. Contextual control of audiovisual integration in low-level sensory cortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Atteveldt, N.; Peterson, Bradley S; Schroeder, Charles E

    Potential sources of multisensory influences on low-level sensory cortices include direct projections from sensory cortices of different modalities, as well as more indirect feedback inputs from higher order multisensory cortical regions. These multiple architectures may be functionally

  7. Case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sever, L.E.; Gilbert, E.S.; Hessol, N.A.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In a case-control study, the authors investigated the association of parental occupational exposure to low-level external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation and risk of congenital malformations in their offspring. Cases and controls were ascertained from births in two counties in southeastern Washington State, where the Hanford Site has been a major employer. A unique feature of this study was the linking of quantitative individual measurement of external whole-body penetrating ionizing radiation exposure of employees at the Hanford Site, using personal dosimeters, and the disease outcome, congenital malformations. The study population included 672 malformation cases and 977 matched controls from births occurring from 1957 through 1980. Twelve specific malformation types were analyzed for evidence of association with employment of the parents at Hanford and with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Two defects, congenital dislocation of the hip and tracheoesophageal fistula, showed statistically significant associations with employment of the parents at Hanford, but not with parental radiation exposure. Neural tube defects showed a significant association with parental preconception exposure, on the basis of a small number of cases. Eleven other defects, including Down syndrome, for which an association with radiation was considered most likely, showed no evidence of such an association. When all malformations were analyzed as a group, there was no evidence of an association with employment of the parents at Hanford, but the relation of parental exposure to radiation before conception was in the positive direction (one-tailed p value between 0.05 and 0.10). Given the number of statistical tests conducted, some or all of the observed positive correlations are likely to represent false positive findings. 30 references

  8. Regional LLRW [low-level radioactive waste] processing alternatives applying the DOE REGINALT systems analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Progam has developed a computer-based decision support system of models that may be used by nonprogrammers to evaluate a comprehensive approach to commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management. REGINALT (Regional Waste Management Alternatives Analysis Model) implementation will be described as the model is applied to a hypothetical regional compact for the purpose of examining the technical and economic potential of two waste processing alternaties. Using waste from a typical regional compact, two specific regional waste processing centers will be compared for feasibility. Example 1 will assume will assume that a regional supercompaction facility is being developed for the region. Example 2 will assume that a regional facility with both supercompation and incineration is specified. Both examples will include identical disposal facilities, except that capacity may differ due to variation in volume reduction achieved. The two examples will be compared with regard to volume reduction achieved, estimated occupational exposure for the processing facilities, and life cylcle costs per generated unit waste. A base case will also illustrate current disposal practices. The results of the comparisons will be evaluated, and other steps, if necessary, for additional decision support will be identified

  9. Two low-level gamma spectrometry systems of the IAEA Safeguards Analytical Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parus, J L [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Raab, W [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Donohue, D [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Jansta, V [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria); Kierzek, J [IAEA, SAL, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-03-01

    A gamma spectrometry system designed for the measurement of samples with low and medium radioactivity (activity from a few to about 10{sup 4} Bq in the energy range from 25 to 2700 keV) has been installed at the IAEA Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. The system consists of 3 low level detectors: (1) n-type coaxial Ge with 42.4% relative efficiency, 1.85 keV FWHM at 1.33 MeV (2) planar Ge with 2000 mm{sup 2} area and 20 mm thickness, 562 eV FWHM at 122 keV (3) NaI(Tl) annulus of 25.4 cm diameter and 25.4 cm height, hole diameter 90 mm. (orig./DG)

  10. Information systems to support low-level waste management: perspective from the State of Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaford, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) is required by state law to develop a comprehensive regulatory system for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management. Reliable, extensive information about LLW in Illinois is needed to plan and implement such a regulatory program. IDNS annually surveys, by mail and follow-up phone calls, approximately 260 LLW generators in Illinois. This information is being supplemented by a more detailed characterization of waste streams. Additional information needed for IDNS's regulatory program includes data on components of a waste disposal facility (e.g., concrete performance), site and performance computer models for various kinds of sites and for alternative waste disposal facility designs. In the future, all states will need more information than has been historically the case, given the changes in management and disposal systems and the increased role of the states

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components

  13. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE's mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements

  14. Digital Low-Level RF Controls for Future Superconducting Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The requirements for RF Control Systems of Superconducting Linear Colliders are not only defined in terms of the quality of field control but also with respect to operability, availability, and maintainability of the RF System, and the interfaces to other subsystems. The field control of the vector-sum of many cavities driven by one klystron in pulsed mode at high gradients is a challenging task since severe Lorentz force detuning, microphonics and beam induced field errors must be suppressed by several orders of magnitude. This is accomplished by a combination of local and global feedback and feedforward control. Sensors monitor individual cavity probe signals, and forward and reflected wave as well as the beam properties including beam energy and phase while actuators control the incident wave of the klystron and individual cavity resonance frequencies. The operability of a large llrf system requires a high degree of automation while the high availability requires robust algorithms, redundancy, and extremel...

  15. New digital low-level rf system for heavy-ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Klingbeil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR project, several new synchrotrons and storage rings will be built. The existing heavy-ion synchrotron SIS18 has to be upgraded to serve as an injector for the FAIR accelerators. All this imposes new requirements on the low-level rf (LLRF systems. These requirements include fast ramping modes, arbitrary ion species, and complex beam manipulations such as dual-harmonic operation, bunch merging/splitting, barrier bucket operation, or bunch compression. In order to fulfill these tasks, a completely new and unique system architecture has been developed since 2002, and the system is now used in SIS18 operation. The presentation of this novel system architecture is the purpose of this paper. We first describe the requirements and the design of the LLRF system. Afterwards, some key components and key interfaces of the system are summarized followed by a discussion of technological aspects. Finally, we present some beam experiment results that were obtained using the new LLRF system.

  16. Documentation of currently operating low-level radioactive waste treatment systems: Shredder/compactor report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The report documents a volume reduction waste treatment system for dry active waste, a shredder/compactor, and includes specifics on system selection, system descriptions, and detailed system performance data from three operational nuclear power plants. Data gathered from the plants have shown the ability to increase the density (thereby reducing the volume) of dry active waste to /approximately/50 pounds per cubic foot when using shredder/compactors and/approximately/80 to 100 pounds per cubic foot for shredder/high pressure compactors depending on reactor type and plant specific waste characteristics. An economic evaluation of various alternative volume reduction systems for dry active waste is also presented. The report presents a method on calculating the associated costs and paybacks achieved using various volume reduction alternatives. A 10 year cost (operating expenses and capital outlay for equipment) for a shredder/high pressure compactor is 1.85 million dollars for a BWR as compared to /approximately/3 million for a conventional drum compactor. The resulting payback for the shredder/compactor is as low as 1.7 years. The report provides generators of low level waste additional information to understand the nuances of shredder/compactor systems to select a system which best suits their individual needs. 4 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Mahoney, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites

  18. PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passard, Christian; Mariani, Alain; Jallu, Fanny; Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques; Recroix, Herve; Rodriguez, Michel; Loridon, Joel; Denis, Caroline; Toubon, Herve

    2002-01-01

    The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[α] (about 50 μg Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective 239 Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective 239 Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10 8 s -1 [4π]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant

  19. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste

  20. Regulatory control of solid low level radioactive waste disposal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, S.; Schwemlein, P.

    1998-01-01

    The following topics are described: (i) regulatory authorities; (ii) inspection; (iii) waste categories; (iv) disposal routes for low level waste; (v) inspection of disposal routes; (vi) waste quality checking; (vii) reporting and application of results; and (viii) European Network activities. (P.A.)

  1. Monitoring of low level environmental gamma exposure by the centralized radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Obata, Kazuichi; Kokubu, Morinobu; Itoh, Naoji

    1981-07-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a centralized automatic radiation monitoring system developed 20 years ago has recently been improved to monitor low level gamma radiation more accurately in normal operation of the nuclear facilities and to detect abnormal radioactive releases more effectively. The present state of the system is described. This system puts together environmental monitoring data such as gamma exposure rate (20 points), radioactive concentration in the air (4 points) and in water (2 drains), and meteorological items (14 including wind directions, wind speeds, solar radiation and air temperatures at a observation tower of 40 m height). Environmental monitoring around the JAERI site is carried out effectively using the system. Data processing system consists of a central processing unit, a magnetic disk, a magnetic tape, a line printer and a console typewriter. The data at respective monitoring points are transmitted to the central monitoring room by wireless or telephone line. All data are printed out and field in magnetic disk and magnetic tape every 10 minutes. When the emergency levels are exceeded, however, the data are automatically output on a line printer every 2 minute. This system can distinguish very low gamma exposure due to gaseous effluents, about 1 mR/y, from the background. Even in monthly exposures, calculated values based on the data of release amount and meteorology are in good agreement with the measured ones. (author)

  2. Evaluation of thermal hydraulics characteristics of natural cooling low level radioactive waste storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Toshihiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Koyama, Tomonori; Usui, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Hisao; Masaki, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to design a low level radioactive waste storage system so that the decay heat of radioactive waste does not breach the structural safety limit. Currently, this waste storage system is designed as a natural cooling system, which continuously cools the radioactive waste without an active device. It consists simply of a storage pit for radioactive waste and air inlet and outlet ducts. The radioactive waste is cooled by natural convective air flow, which is generated by the buoyancy of heated air due to the decay heat of radioactive waste. It is important to clarify the flow characteristics in the systems in order to evaluate the cooling performance. The air mass flow rate through the system is determined by the balance between the natural convective flow force and pressure loss within the system. Therefore, the pressure drop and flow pattern in the waste storage pit are important flow characteristics. In this study, the pressure drop and air temperature distribution, greatly influenced by the flow pattern in the pit, were measured using a 1/5 scale model and compared with the results obtained from CFD. Flow network analysis, which is a simple model that simulates the flow by nodes and junctions, was conducted and its validity was confirmed by experimental results and CFD. (author)

  3. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R ampersand D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350 degrees C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS copyright for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc

  4. Conceptual design of volume reduction system for ITER low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Je Keun, E-mail: jekeun.chon@iter.org; Beaudoin, Virginie; Pitcher, Charles S.

    2016-11-01

    For ITER Type A (low-level radwaste) radioactive waste process system, the super-compaction of solid wastes is introduced to reduce the waste volume in order to increase the quantity of waste to be enclosed in a final package. A study has been conducted to develop the conceptual design of super-compaction system by exploring the optimum design features of available equipment. The principal finding of the study is that a compactor with a vertical extrusion die that can apply a compressive force of up to 7000 kN will be fit for purpose of ITER Type A waste treatment. The confinement box has been proposed to limit the spread of aerial effluents that might escape from the compacted pellets. In order to increase the packing efficiency of the disposal containers, the height of each pellet will be recorded, enabling the disposal containers to be filled as close as possible to their limit if pellets of an appropriate size are available. The proposed conceptual design of super-compaction system is capable of meeting the objectives and constraints of target waste streams from ITER operation.

  5. Current status of research on radiation hormesis in the immune system after low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzheng

    1995-01-01

    The paper highlights the chief results of experimental studies recently carried out in the author's laboratory on the stimulatory effects of low level radiation on immunity. The intercellular relationship within the immune system after whole-body irradiation (WBI) with low doses of X- and gamma-rays was briefly outlined with the emphasis on the potential effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on the helper T cells which was thought to occupy a pivotal position in the process of immuno-stimulation. Data suggesting the facilitation by LDR of the signal transduction process within the T cells were presented. Some hypotheses prevailing in the literature for the explanation of the stimulatory effect of LDR were critically evaluated. Existing experimental data both from the literature and from the author's laboratory were analysed giving no strong support to the speculation of either the preferential deletion of the radiosensitive suppressor T subset or the increased apoptosis of the T cell 'precursors' in the thymus leading to secondary immunologic augmentation by low doses which stimulate immune functions. The possible influence of systemic changes, especially those in the neuroendocrine regulation, on the T cell potentiation following LDR was suggested. Finally the biological implications of the hermetic effects of LDR were discussed

  6. Setting up experimental incineration system for low-level radioactive samples and combustion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1997-01-01

    An incineration system was constructed which were composed of a combustion furnace (AP-150R), a cyclone dust collector, radioisotope trapping and measurement apparatus and a radioisotope storage room built in the first basement of the Radioisotope Center. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) used for the combustion experiment were composed of combustible material or semi-combustible material containing 500 kBq of 99m TcO 4 or 23.25 kBq of 131 INa. The distribution of radioisotopes both in the inside and outside of combustion furnace were estimated. We measured radioactivity of a smoke duct gas in terminal exit of the exhaust port. In case of combustion of LLRS containing 99m TcO 4 or 131 INa, concentration of radioisotopes at the exhaust port showed less than legal concentration limit of these radioisotopes. In cases of combustion of LLRS containing 99m TcO 4 or 131 INa, decontamination factors of the incineration system were 120 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  7. Low-level software for the pentek 6510 digital receiver board applied to the new AD beam measurement system

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    The new beam measurement system for the CERN Antiproton Decelerator heavily relies on a Pentek 6510 Digital Receiver (DRX) board. The new system goal is to extract beam parameters from pickup signals. Its digital implementation allows for higher precision, easier management of the hardware as well as modification and improvement with no hardware change. In this scheme, this innovative VME DRX board is responsible for parallel data acquisition, independent digital down conversion and processing of up to 4 digitised inputs. The in-house- developed low-level code (LLC), running on the board, takes care of several tasks, such as interfacing with the Real Time Task (RTT), data processing and board managing. The RTT runs on a PowerPC VME board and controls the DRX board as a master. The LLC is a state machine developed in C and Assembler, which services several interrupts and performs the FFT of complex input data. The DRX low-level system developed is highly modular and easily adaptable to other processing scenari...

  8. Guideline for benchmarking thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Hermes, W.H.; Bastian, R.E.; Davis, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    A process for benchmarking low-level mixed waste (LLMW) treatment technologies has been developed. When used in conjunction with the identification and preparation of surrogate waste mixtures, and with defined quality assurance and quality control procedures, the benchmarking process will effectively streamline the selection of treatment technologies being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for LLMW cleanup and management. Following the quantitative template provided in the benchmarking process will greatly increase the technical information available for the decision-making process. The additional technical information will remove a large part of the uncertainty in the selection of treatment technologies. It is anticipated that the use of the benchmarking process will minimize technology development costs and overall treatment costs. In addition, the benchmarking process will enhance development of the most promising LLMW treatment processes and aid in transferring the technology to the private sector. To instill inherent quality, the benchmarking process is based on defined criteria and a structured evaluation format, which are independent of any specific conventional treatment or emerging process technology. Five categories of benchmarking criteria have been developed for the evaluation: operation/design; personnel health and safety; economics; product quality; and environmental quality. This benchmarking document gives specific guidance on what information should be included and how it should be presented. A standard format for reporting is included in Appendix A and B of this document. Special considerations for LLMW are presented and included in each of the benchmarking categories

  9. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  10. Low level control of metal belt CVT considering shift dynamics and ratio valve on-off characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tal Chol; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, low level control algorithms of a metal belt CVT are suggested. A feedforward PID control algorithm is adopted for line pressure based on a steady state relationship between the input duty and the line pressure. Experimental results show that feedforward PID control of the line pressure guarantees a fast response while reducing the pressure undershoot which may result in belt slip. For ratio control, a fuzzy logic is suggested by considering the CVT shift dynamics and on-off characteristics of the ratio control valve. It is found from experimental results that a desired speed ratio can be achieved at steady state in spite of the fluctuating primary pressure. It is expected that the low level control algorithms for the line pressure and speed ratio suggested in this study can be implemented in a prototype CVT

  11. Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft 3 waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft 3 . The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type

  12. Alternatives to control subsidence at low-level radioactive waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have experienced geotechnical subsidence problems and may require stabilization. Ground surface manifestations of subsidence include: large cracks, basins, and cave-ins. Subsidence is primarily caused by void filling, and physicochemical degradation and solubilization of buried wastes. These surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass, pile driving and in situ incineration engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  13. Developing expert systems for hazardous and low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Stark, L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Information about management of hazardous and low level wastes has been deposited in data bases, text files, graphics files, and other types of computer programs. Integrating such diverse data so that they are easily and quickly retrievable represents a challenge for busy managers who require immediate answers to their problems. Expert programs have been developed using expert shells and artificial intelligence computer languages as the central environment to produce integration

  14. Effects of low-level radiation on biologic systems: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Hoditschek, B.

    1980-12-01

    This review presents an organized survey of scientific literature dealing with the biologic effects of low-level radiation. It includes brief discussions of topics of particular interest, a listing of useful review articles, an extensive bibliography, and listings of sources that can be used to update this document in the future. The topics discussed include experimental studies, the linear hypothesis, medical effects, occupational effects, effects of exposure to naturally occurring radiation, consumer products, and laws and regulations

  15. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-01-01

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  16. Control of water infiltration into near-surface, low-level waste-disposal units in humid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    This study's objective is to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste-disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large-scale lysimeters (75 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste-disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration are being investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g., clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained, the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below-grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover, and remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier or, perhaps even better, by a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. The latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry into waste without institutional care

  17. Low-Level RF Control of Microphonics in Superconducting Spoke-Loaded Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Z.A.; Kelly, M.P.; Sharamentov, S.I.; Shepard, K.W.; Davis, G.; Delayen, Jean; Doolittle, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of cw RF frequency control and RF phase-stabilization experiments performed with a piezoelectric fast tuner mechanically coupled to a superconducting, 345 MHz, < = 0.5 triple-spoke-loaded cavity operating at 4.2K. The piezoelectric fast tuner damped low-frequency microphonic-noise by an order of magnitude. Two methods of RF phase-stabilization were characterized: overcoupling with negative phase feedback, and also fast mechanical tuner feedback. The = 0.5 triple-spoke-loaded cavity RF field amplitude and phase errors were controlled to ±0.5% and ±30 respectively.

  18. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  19. Performance of high-level and low-level control for coordination of mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adinandra, S.; Caarls, J.; Kostic, D.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze performance of different strategies for coordinated control of mobile robots. By considering an environment of a distribution center, the robots should transport goods from place A to place B while maintaining the desired formation and avoiding collisions. We evaluate performance of two

  20. Geovisualisation of relief in a virtual reality system on the basis of low-level aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halik, Łukasz; Smaczyński, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the following paper was to present the geomatic process of transforming low-level aerial imagery obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) into a digital terrain model (DTM) and implementing the model into a virtual reality system (VR). The object of the study was a natural aggretage heap of an irregular shape and denivelations up to 11 m. Based on the obtained photos, three point clouds (varying in the level of detail) were generated for the 20,000-m2-area. For further analyses, the researchers selected the point cloud with the best ratio of accuracy to output file size. This choice was made based on seven control points of the heap surveyed in the field and the corresponding points in the generated 3D model. The obtained several-centimetre differences between the control points in the field and the ones from the model might testify to the usefulness of the described algorithm for creating large-scale DTMs for engineering purposes. Finally, the chosen model was implemented into the VR system, which enables the most lifelike exploration of 3D terrain plasticity in real time, thanks to the first person view mode (FPV). In this mode, the user observes an object with the aid of a Head- mounted display (HMD), experiencing the geovisualisation from the inside, and virtually analysing the terrain as a direct animator of the observations.

  1. Methodology for the technical evaluation of disposal systems for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamar, D.A.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology that will be used for the evaluation of alternative disposal concepts for Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The primary focus will be on the technical evaluation of various disposal concepts leading toward the identification of technically feasible disposal systems

  2. The exemption of regulatory control for the management of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, M.T.; Carboneras, P.

    1993-01-01

    A high number of wastes produced in different fields of science and technology, as well as nuclear power plants, contain a significant volume of byproducts contaminated with radioisotopes, having a very low radioactive level. This kind of wastes might be managed as ordinary wastes by conventional methods or even reused. In order to carry out this procedure, a new regulation exempting these products from the regulatory control normatives would be necessary. This paper analyzes the big advantages of introducing these exemptions (costs recycling, radioactive wastes minimization) and how they follow the recommendations of ICRP, IAEA, EC and NRC

  3. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW [low-level radioactive waste] disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.O.

    1990-12-01

    Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers a barriers to water infiltration are being investigated. They are: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earthen material (e.g. clay). The conductive layer barrier consists of a conductive layer in conjunction with a capillary break. As long as unsaturated flow conditions are maintained the conductive layer will wick water around the capillary break. Below grade layered covers such as (1) and (2) will fail if there is appreciable subsidence of the cover. Remedial action for this kind of failure will be difficult. A surface cover, called bioengineering management, is meant to overcome this problem. The bioengineering management surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence; therefore, it could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions. The bioengineering management procedure also has been shown to be effective in dewatering saturated trenches and could be used for remedial action efforts. After cessation of subsidence, that procedure could be replaced by a resistive layer barrier, or perhaps even better, a resistive layer barrier/conductive layer barrier system. This latter system would then give long-term effective protection against water entry to waste and without institutional care. These various concepts are being assessed in six large (70ft x 45ft x 10ft each) lysimeters at Beltsville, Maryland. 6 refs., 20 figs.,

  4. Contingency plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, S.M.; Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Brown, C.H.; Lin, K.H.

    1989-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is one of the major Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that performs various research and development (R ampersand D) activities. Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated in the course of this work. The primary objective of this task is to develop specific plans of action to be implemented, in the event that the storage space for the LLLW concentrate should approach the minimum value in the operational flexibility range or a problem should develop concerning storage space available for dilute LLLW. This report considers contingency plans/options in the light of six different scenarios, including ''normal operation'' and five others. Evaluation and prioritization of the options were carried out separately for each case. Brief discussions of these scenarios and contingency plans/options are presented. 20 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Performance objectives of the tank waste remediation system low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the U.S. Department of Energy. The performance assessment is to determine whether open-quotes reasonable assuranceclose quotes exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal require: the protection of public health and safety; and the protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all exposure pathways exposure limit is 25 mrem/year), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the Peer Review Panel which DOE has established to review performance assessments, interacting with program management to establish their needs, and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Indian tribes) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest

  6. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.; Armstrong, K.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: Whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so; whether is could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing

  7. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  8. Improved detection probability of low level light and infrared image fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Fu, Rongguo; Zhang, Junju; Wang, Wencong; Chang, Benkang

    2018-02-01

    Low level light(LLL) image contains rich information on environment details, but is easily affected by the weather. In the case of smoke, rain, cloud or fog, much target information will lose. Infrared image, which is from the radiation produced by the object itself, can be "active" to obtain the target information in the scene. However, the image contrast and resolution is bad, the ability of the acquisition of target details is very poor, and the imaging mode does not conform to the human visual habit. The fusion of LLL and infrared image can make up for the deficiency of each sensor and give play to the advantages of single sensor. At first, we show the hardware design of fusion circuit. Then, through the recognition probability calculation of the target(one person) and the background image(trees), we find that the trees detection probability of LLL image is higher than that of the infrared image, and the person detection probability of the infrared image is obviously higher than that of LLL image. The detection probability of fusion image for one person and trees is higher than that of single detector. Therefore, image fusion can significantly enlarge recognition probability and improve detection efficiency.

  9. Low-level laser therapy: An experimental design for wound management: A case-controlled study in rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hodjati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a wide array of articles in medical literature for and against the laser effect on wound healing but without discrete effect determination or conclusion. This experimental study aims to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy on wound healing. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four rabbits were randomly enrolled in two groups after creating a full thickness of 3 × 3 cm wound. The intervention group received low density laser exposure (4 J/cm 2 on days 0, 3 and 6 with diode helium-neon low-intensity laser device (wl = 808 nm and in control group moist wound dressing applied. Finally, wound-healing process was evaluated by both gross and pathological assessment. Results: Fibrin formation was the same in the two groups (P = 0.4 but epithelialisation was much more in laser group (P = 0.02. Wound inflammation of the laser group was smaller than that of the control groups but statistical significance was not shown (P = 0.09. Although more smooth muscle actin was found in the wounds of the laser group but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.3. Wound diameter showed significant decrease in wound area in laser group (P = 0.003. Conclusion: According to our study, it seems that low-level laser therapy accelerates wound healing at least in some phases of healing process. So, we can conclude that our study also shows some hopes for low level laser therapy effect on wound healing at least in animal model.

  10. Recommendations to the NRC for soil cover systems over uranium mill tailings and low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.D.; Kimbrell, A.F.

    1991-02-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) has provided recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the selection placement, compaction, testing, and acceptance of soils proposed to be placed in cover systems over uranium mill tailings and low-level radioactive wastes. The recommendations from WES are contained in three volumes of NUREG/CR-5432. Volume 1 identifies the various soil types and engineering properties that are needed to fulfill important soil cover functions. The identified soils are then ranked according to their capability to perform the low-permeability and filter and drainage functions. Volume 2 provides recommendations for conducting pertinent laboratory and field tests to ensure acceptable soil cover performance. Volume 3 covers recommendations from WES on proper field construction methods including guidance on quality control testing and inspections. Recommendations are given for sealing penetrations (e.g., observation wells) that are required to penetrate covers for environmental monitoring of disposal facility performance. 30 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Development of MHI's induction melting system for low level radio active solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi; Hashiba, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sato, Akio; Minemoto, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., (MHI) has developed melting facilities that reduce radioactive waste volume. The system uses a high-frequency induction to separately melt nonmetallic waste in SUS containers and metallic waste. Use of system extends refractory life. To validate system feasibility, major components were tested with the following results: (1) Two 200-liter drum cans of molten solid waste are produced per work day, (2) Radioactivity in molten solid was homogeneous with a coefficient of variation ≤10%, clarifying residue properties, (3) The radioactive decontamination factor of off-gas facilities --DF=Activity to system/Activity at the system exit --exceeded 10 7 . We confirmed system to fill the requirements for molten solid waste and have the merit of high volume-reduction and long-life refractory. (author)

  12. A fail-safe microprocessor-based protection system utilising low-level multiplexed sensor signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orme, S.; Evans, N.J.; Wey, B.O.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a fail-safe reactor protection system, called the individual sub-assembly temperature monitoring system (ISAT). It is being developed for the commercial demonstration fast reactor. The system incorporates recent advances in solid-state electronics and in particular microprocessors to implement time-shared data acquisition techniques to obtain and process data from around 1400 fast response thermocouples whilst meeting the required levels for reliability and availability. (author)

  13. NaNet: a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero; Fantechi, Riccardo; Lamanna, Gianluca; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Sozzi, Marco; Pontisso, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCIe Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  14. NaNet: a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, Roberto [INFN, Rome – Tor Vergata (Italy); Biagioni, Andrea; Frezza, Ottorino; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero [INFN, Rome – Sapienza (Italy); Fantechi, Riccardo [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Lamanna, Gianluca; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Sozzi, Marco [INFN, Pisa (Italy); Pontisso, Luca [University, Rome (Italy)

    2014-06-11

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCIe Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  15. NaNet:a low-latency NIC enabling GPU-based, real-time low level trigger systems

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00646837; Biagioni, Andrea; Fantechi, Riccardo; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pantaleo, Felice; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Tosoratto, Laura; Vicini, Piero

    2014-01-01

    We implemented the NaNet FPGA-based PCI2 Gen2 GbE/APElink NIC, featuring GPUDirect RDMA capabilities and UDP protocol management offloading. NaNet is able to receive a UDP input data stream from its GbE interface and redirect it, without any intermediate buffering or CPU intervention, to the memory of a Fermi/Kepler GPU hosted on the same PCIe bus, provided that the two devices share the same upstream root complex. Synthetic benchmarks for latency and bandwidth are presented. We describe how NaNet can be employed in the prototype of the GPU-based RICH low-level trigger processor of the NA62 CERN experiment, to implement the data link between the TEL62 readout boards and the low level trigger processor. Results for the throughput and latency of the integrated system are presented and discussed.

  16. Low-level multicounter {beta}/{gamma} systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsson, P [Iceland Univ. (Iceland). Science Inst.

    1997-03-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level {beta}/{gamma} multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  17. Low-level multicounter β/γ systems with external guards in surface and shallow underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorsson, P.

    1997-01-01

    When weak samples are measured it is important that they can be given ample counting time in order to obtain satisfactory accuracy and that the background count rate can be checked well. This calls for a high counting capacity, which multidetectors can bring us. I will discuss development possibilities of low-level β/γ multidetector systems with an external anticosmic shield that will in many cases be operated in underground laboratories. These simple and low-cost system can frequently help us in increasing the number of detectors. Three concepts are combined in these systems: (1) multidetectors, (2) an external anticosmic (or guard) detector arrangement and (3) overburden shielding. (orig.)

  18. Implantable Self-Powered Low-Level Laser Cure System for Mouse Embryonic Osteoblasts' Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Tian, Jingjing; Zheng, Qiang; Yan, Lin; Wang, Jiangxue; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-08-25

    Bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment is usually a long-term process. It is highly desirable to speed up the process for effective medical treatment. In this work, a self-powered low-level laser cure system for osteogenesis is developed using the power generated by the triboelectric nanogenerator. It is found that the system significantly accelerated the mouse embryonic osteoblasts' proliferation and differentiation, which is essential for bone and tooth healing. The system is further demonstrated to be driven by a living creature's motions, such as human walking or a mouse's breathing, suggesting its practical use as a portable or implantable clinical cure for bone remodeling or orthodontic treatment.

  19. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems

  20. Comparison of high temperature gas particulate collectors for low level radwaste incinerator volume reduction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, R.L.; Johnston, J.R.; Waters, R.M.; Zievers, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Incinerator system off-gases must be treated to prevent the release of particulates, noxious gases and radioactive elements to the environment. Fabric filters, venturi scrubbers, cyclone separators, an ceramic or metal filter candles have been used for particulate removal. Dry high temperature particulate collectors have the advantage of not creating additional liquid wastes. This paper presents a graphical comparison of different methods for filtering particles from high temperature incineration system off-gases. Eight methods of off-gas handling are compared. A much larger group may be present, but some judicious selection of different, but related systems was done for this paper based on experience with the Combustion Engineering Waste Incineration System (CE/WIS) Prototype. The eight types are: Inertial Devices, Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP), Standard Fabric Bags, Woven Ceramic Bags, Granular Beds, Sintered Metal Tubes, Felted Ceramic Bags and Ceramic Filter Candles. For high temperature LLRW particulate collection in incinerator off-gas systems, ceramic filter candles are the best overall choice

  1. Dual germanium detector system for the routine assay of low level transuranics in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    As an outgrowth of previous on soil radioassay, we have developed an automated assay system for determining the transuranic radionuclide content of soils, with particular interest in Pu. The system utilizes two commercial planar intrinsic germanium detectors in opposition. The large area of the detectors (2100 mm 2 ) and the thinness of the detector crystals (7 mm) permit sensitive analysis of the L x ray emission region of the transuranics (13 to 21 keV). With counting times of 5 hours, we obtain detection limits of 241 Am

  2. MM wave SAR sensor design: Concept for an airborne low level reconnaissance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesswetter, C.

    1986-07-01

    The basic system design considerations for a high resolution SAR system operating at 35 GHz or 94 GHz are given. First it is shown that only the focussed SAR concept in the side looking configuration matches the requirements and constraints. After definition of illumination geometry and airborne modes the fundamental SAR parameters in range and azimuth direction are derived. A review of the performance parameters of some critical mm wave components (coherent pulsed transmitters, front ends, antennas) establish the basis for further analysis. The power and contrast budget in the processed SAR image shows the feasibility of a 35/94 GHz SAR sensor design. The discussion of the resulting system parameters points out that this unusual system design implies both benefits and new risk areas. One of the benefits besides the compactness of sensor hardware turns out to be the short synthetic aperture length simplifying the design of the digital SAR processor, preferably operating in real time. A possible architecture based on current state-of-the-art correlator hardware is shown. One of the potential risk areas in achieving high resolution SAR imagery in the mm wave frequency band is motion compensation. However, it is shown that the short range and short synthetic aperture lengths ease the problem so that correction of motion induced phase errors and thus focussed synthetic aperture processing should be possible.

  3. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  4. Aerated Systems of the Type RH-RCl-Ethanol-Thymolsulphonphthalein Stable Low-Level Chemical Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornik, I.; Zec, U.; Anic, A.; Ranogajec, F. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1967-03-15

    The characteristic of dosimeters described in this paper is concerned with the very sensitive colorimetric method of dose evaluation giving a fair sensitivity with low G(HC1). In addition, the systems are thermally stable and simple to manufacture. With photocolorimetric or spectrophotometric evaluation of about 100 rad the dosimetric: error can be as low as 1 rad, or lower. The examined technique of visual colorimetric evaluation at the same dose level gives the combined error of 10-20 rad, and up to {+-} 5 or 10% at 500 rad. Owing to the practically unlimited shelf life of dosimeters and visual colorimeters, and to the very low production costs of both devices, such chemical dosimeters could be of special interest for massive use as personal gamma dosimeters for wide populations, or as dosimeters for gamma and fast neutron dosimetric topography of nuclear accidents. With tetrachloroethylene and iso-octane G(HC1) has been found constant (8.4) for temperatures of between -10 and +35 Degree-Sign C and for dose-rates of between 80 and 80 000 rad/h. The upper dose limit of colorimetric evaluation is about 2000 rad. With other components G(HC1) can be lower and the range extends to higher doses. The colorimetric properties of the systems RH-ethanol-thymolsulphonphthalein, as well as some of the most interesting features of the production procedure, are described. The radiation chemical aspects are discussed briefly. (author)

  5. Development of low level liquid waste treatment systems: April-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.K.; Colvin, C.M.; Bond, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The pilot plant reverse osmosis system was demonstrated to be effective in removing large percentages of cobalt-60, iodine-125, and a mixture of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and iodine-125 from two types of aqueous streams. The effectiveness of three membrane porosities, 0, 50, and 97% salt rejection, were explored with each isotope. The 97% salt rejection membrane was the most effective in each experiment. Removals as high as 97.5% of the cobalt, 92.9% of the iodine and 95.1% of the combined isotopes were achieved. The effect of possibly interfering factors on the adsorbence of cobalt-60 and iodine-129 on selected ion exchange resins were investigated. The factors thought to affect cobalt-60 adsorption were [OH - ], [NH 4 + ], and [SO 3 /sup =/]. None of the seven factors investigated had any effect on iodine-129 adsorption. Cesium-137 was removed from a 4600-gal aqueous waste containing a large amount of sodium hydroxide by treatment with sodium tetraphenyl boron. The cesium concentration of the supernatant portion was reduced from 570 to 4 counts/min/ml

  6. Joule-heated glass-furnace system for the incineration of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.; Doty, J.W.; Kramer, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 1-1/2 years, Mound has been preparing and evaluating a commercially available joule-heated glass furnace unit, coupled with a wet scrubbing system. The purpose of the glass furnace evaluation is to advance and document incinerator technology for such combustibles as solids, resins, and sludges, and to develop a stable waste form for subsequent disposal. Four (4) waste nonradioactive types were selected to determine the combustion efficiency of the furnace unit: (1) dry solid waste composed of paper, plastics, rubber, and cloth, (2) ion exchange resin of both the anionic and cationic type, (3) filter sludge composed of diatomaceous earth, organic cellulosic filter aid, and powdered ion exchange resin, and (4) cartridge filters having glass and plastic filter surfaces and nonmetallic cores. When completed, the combustion efficiency experiments for the proposed nonradioactive waste-types revealed the ability of the furnace to easily incinerate waste at feedrates of up to 150 lb/hr. During the course of the experiments, combustibles in the offgas remained consistently low, suggesting excellent combustion efficiency. Furthermore, ash produced by the combustion process was effectively incorporated into the melt by convective currents in the glass. Future work on the glass furnace incinerator will include spiking the waste to determine radioisotope behavior in the furnace

  7. Reaction of the immune system to low-level RF/MW exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation have been used in the modern world for many years. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones in recent years has seen increased interest in relation to the possible health effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 2011 a group of international experts organized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. The incomplete knowledge of RF/MW-related cancer risks has initiated searches for biological indicators sensitive enough to measure the “weak biological influence” of RF/MWs. One of the main candidates is the immune system, which is able to react in a measurable way to discrete environmental stimuli. In this review, the impacts of weak RF/MW fields, including cell phone radiation, on various immune functions, both in vitro and in vivo, are discussed. The bulk of available evidence clearly indicates that various shifts in the number and/or activity of immunocompetent cells are possible, however the results are inconsistent. For example, a number of lymphocyte functions have been found to be enhanced and weakened within single experiments based on exposure to similar intensities of MW radiation. Certain premises exist which indicate that, in general, short-term exposure to weak MW radiation may temporarily stimulate certain humoral or cellular immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions

  8. Reaction of the immune system to low-level RF/MW exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw, E-mail: szmigielski@wihe.waw.pl

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation have been used in the modern world for many years. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones in recent years has seen increased interest in relation to the possible health effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 2011 a group of international experts organized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. The incomplete knowledge of RF/MW-related cancer risks has initiated searches for biological indicators sensitive enough to measure the “weak biological influence” of RF/MWs. One of the main candidates is the immune system, which is able to react in a measurable way to discrete environmental stimuli. In this review, the impacts of weak RF/MW fields, including cell phone radiation, on various immune functions, both in vitro and in vivo, are discussed. The bulk of available evidence clearly indicates that various shifts in the number and/or activity of immunocompetent cells are possible, however the results are inconsistent. For example, a number of lymphocyte functions have been found to be enhanced and weakened within single experiments based on exposure to similar intensities of MW radiation. Certain premises exist which indicate that, in general, short-term exposure to weak MW radiation may temporarily stimulate certain humoral or cellular immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions.

  9. Sensitivity of tropical climate to low-level clouds in the NCEP climate forecast system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua; Schneider, Edwin K. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); George Mason University, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, College of Science, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hou, Yu-Tai; Yang, Fanglin [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Environmental Modeling Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Stan, Cristiana [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2011-05-15

    In this work, we examine the sensitivity of tropical mean climate and seasonal cycle to low clouds and cloud liquid water path (CLWP) by prescribing them in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS). It is found that the change of low cloud cover alone has a minor influence on the amount of net shortwave radiation reaching the surface and on the warm biases in the southeastern Atlantic. In experiments where CLWP is prescribed using observations, the mean climate in the tropics is improved significantly, implying that shortwave radiation absorption by CLWP is mainly responsible for reducing the excessive surface net shortwave radiation over the southern oceans in the CFS. Corresponding to large CLWP values in the southeastern oceans, the model generates large low cloud amounts. That results in a reduction of net shortwave radiation at the ocean surface and the warm biases in the sea surface temperature in the southeastern oceans. Meanwhile, the cold tongue and associated surface wind stress in the eastern oceans become stronger and more realistic. As a consequence of the overall improvement of the tropical mean climate, the seasonal cycle in the tropical Atlantic is also improved. Based on the results from these sensitivity experiments, we propose a model bias correction approach, in which CLWP is prescribed only in the southeastern Atlantic by using observed annual mean climatology of CLWP. It is shown that the warm biases in the southeastern Atlantic are largely eliminated, and the seasonal cycle in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is significantly improved. Prescribing CLWP in the CFS is then an effective interim technique to reduce model biases and to improve the simulation of seasonal cycle in the tropics. (orig.)

  10. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This document will be reissued at a future date and will then include the assessment of the installation of the replacement tank system. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements

  11. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  12. Properties of the cements and their use in the storage systems of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    The use of materials containing cement has generalized in the facilities of definitive storage of radioactive wastes due to their easy handling and availability. Besides conforming the buildings and structures, these materials are part of the barriers system that will maintain the isolated radioactive wastes of the biosphere until their activity has decayed at innocuous levels. However, to fulfill this function, the effectiveness and durability of these materials should be demonstrated fully. In Mexico the intention exists of building a definitive storehouse for the low-level radioactive wastes, however are few the studies on the behavior of the materials containing cement used in this type of facilities. With the purpose of to guide and promoting the study of the national cements, in this work is made a revision of the characteristics and properties of the cements with relationship to its use in the systems of definitive storage of low-level radioactive wastes, as well as of some studies that are realized to evaluate its acting as engineering barriers. (Author)

  13. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  14. The role of the meridional sea surface temperature gradient in controlling the Caribbean low-level jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Tito; Rutgersson, Anna; Caballero, Rodrigo; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Alfaro, Eric; Amador, Jorge

    2017-06-01

    The Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ) is an important modulator of regional climate, especially precipitation, in the Caribbean and Central America. Previous work has inferred, due to their semiannual cycle, an association between CLLJ strength and meridional sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in the Caribbean Sea, suggesting that the SST gradients may control the intensity and vertical shear of the CLLJ. In addition, both the horizontal and vertical structure of the jet have been related to topographic effects via interaction with the mountains in Northern South America (NSA), including funneling effects and changes in the meridional geopotential gradient. Here we test these hypotheses, using an atmospheric general circulation model to perform a set of sensitivity experiments to examine the impact of both SST gradients and topography on the CLLJ. In one sensitivity experiment, we remove the meridional SST gradient over the Caribbean Sea and in the other, we flatten the mountains over NSA. Our results show that the SST gradient and topography have little or no impact on the jet intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears, contrary to previous works. However, our findings do not discount a possible one-way coupling between the SST and the wind over the Caribbean Sea through friction force. We also examined an alternative approach based on barotropic instability to understand the CLLJ intensity, vertical, and horizontal wind shears. Our results show that the current hypothesis about the CLLJ must be reviewed in order to fully understand the atmospheric dynamics governing the Caribbean region.

  15. Control and tracking arrangements for solid low-level waste disposals to the UK Drigg disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, K.G.; Grimwood, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Drigg disposal site has been the principal disposal site for solid low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in the United Kingdom since 1959. It is situated on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometers to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives LLW from a wide range of sources including nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle activities, defense activities, isotope manufacture, universities, hospitals, general industry and clean-up of contaminated sites. This LLW has been disposed of in a series of trenches cut into the underlying clay layer of the site, and, since 1988, also into concrete lined vault. The total volume of LLW disposed of at Drigg is at present in the order of 800,000m 3 , with disposals currently approximately 25,000m 3 per year. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site. To meet operational and regulatory requirements, BNFL needs to ensure the acceptability of the disposed waste and be able to track it from its arising point to its specific disposal location. This paper describes the system that has been developed to meet these requirements

  16. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; López, José López; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). A diode laser was used in 78 BMS patients who were randomly assigned into four groups: IR1W, n=20 (830 nm, 100 mW, 5 J, 176 J/cm2, 50 s, LLLT weekly sessions, 10 sessions); IR3W, n=20 (830 nm, 100 mW, 5 J, 176 J/cm2, 50 s, three LLLT weekly sessions, 9 sessions); red laser, n=19 (685 nm, 35 mW, 2 J, 72 J/cm2, 58 s, three LLLT weekly sessions, 9 sessions); and control-group (CG), n=19. Symptoms were assessed at the end of the treatment and eight weeks later; quality of life related to oral health was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Statistical analysis was carried out using repeated measures analysis of variance followed by the posthoc Tukey test. There was significant reduction of the symptoms in all groups at the end of the treatment, which was maintained in the follow-up. The scores of the IR1W and IR3W laser groups differed significantly from those of the CG. There was also a decrease in the OHIP-14 scores in the four groups. The IR3W laser group scores differed significantly from those of the CG. LLLT reduces the symptoms of BMS and may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the relief of symptoms in patients with BMS.

  17. Reconstruction of a whole-body counter into a process computer-controlled low-level whole-body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, C.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the state of the research project to reconstruct our whole-body counter with solid geometries into a scanning type one. The object is to develop a process computer controlled 'adaptive system'. The self-built scan mechanics are explained and the advantages and problems of applying stepping motors are gone into. A stepping motor coordinates control is presented. As the planned scanner and the process computer form a digital controlled system, all theoretical and actual values as well as the control orders from the process computer must be directly controllable. A CAMAC system was not used for economical reasons, the process periphery was made controllable by self building of interfaces to and from the computer. As example, the available multi-channel analyzers were converted to external controlling. The price-moderate and relatively simple self-built set-up are outlined and an example is given of how a TELETYPE version is reconstructed into a fast electronic interface. A BUS-MULTIPLEX system was developed which generates all necessary DI/DO interfaces out of one DI and DO address of the process computer only. The essential part of this system is given. (orig./LH) [de

  18. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  19. Structural integrity assessments for the category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the structural integrity certification of 14 Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) Tank Systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and ten of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily, and (3) leak testing program results. Design plans and specifications were reviewed for a general description of the tanks and associated pipelines. Information of primary significance included tank age, material of construction, tank design and construction specifications. Design plans were also reviewed for the layouts and materials of pipeline constructions, and ages of pipelines. Next, a generic corrosion assessment was conducted for each tank system. Information was gathered, when available, related to the historical use of the tank and the likely contents. The corrosion assessments included a qualitative evaluation of the walls of each tank and pipelines associated with each tank, as well as the welds and joints of the systems. A general discussion of the stainless steel types encountered is included in Section 4.0 of this report. The potential for soils to have caused corrosion is also evaluated within the sections on the individual tank systems.

  20. Large-scale Circulation Control of the Occurrence of Low-level Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marco Y. T.; Zhou, Wen; Shun, Chi-Ming; Chan, Pak-Wai

    2018-04-01

    This study identifies the atmospheric circulation features that are favorable for the occurrence of low-level turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport [below 1600 feet (around 500 m)]. By using LIDAR data at the airport, turbulence and nonturbulence cases are selected. It is found that the occurrence of turbulence is significantly related to the strength of the southerly wind at 850 hPa over the South China coast. On the other hand, the east-west wind at this height demonstrates a weak relation to the occurrence. This suggests that turbulence is generated by flow passing Lantau Island from the south. The southerly wind also transports moisture from the South China Sea to Hong Kong, reducing local stability. This is favorable for the development of strong turbulence. It is also noted that the strong southerly wind during the occurrence of low-level turbulence is contributed by an anomalous zonal gradient of geopotential in the lower troposphere over the South China Sea. This gradient is caused by the combination of variations at different timescales. These are the passage of synoptic extratropical cyclones and anticyclones and the intraseasonal variation in the western North Pacific subtropical high. The seasonal variation in geopotential east of the Tibetan Plateau leads to a seasonal change in meridional wind, by which the frequency of low-level turbulence is maximized in spring and minimized in autumn.

  1. How the University of Texas system responded to the need for interim storage of low-level radioactive waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    Faced with the prospect of being unable to permanently dispose of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) generated from teaching, research, and patient care activities, component institutions of the University of Texas System worked collaboratively to create a dedicated interim storage facility to be used until a permanent disposal facility became available. Located in a remote section of West Texas, the University of Texas System Interim Storage Facility (UTSISF) was licensed and put into operation in 1993, and since then has provided safe and secure interim storage for up to 350 drums of dry solid LLRW at any given time. Interim storage capability provided needed relief to component institutions, whose on-site waste facilities could have possibly become overburdened. Experiences gained from the licensing and operation of the site are described, and as a new permanent LLRW disposal facility emerges in Texas, a potential new role for the storage facility as a surge capacity storage site in times of natural disasters and emergencies is also discussed.

  2. A Low-Level Real-Time In Situ Monitoring System for Tritium in Groundwater and Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, J. T.; Levitt, D. G.

    2002-12-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is also an integral part of the nuclear weapons industry and has been released into the environment through both the production and testing of nuclear weapons. There are many sites across the DOE complex where tritium has been released into the subsurface through the disposal of radioactive waste and at the Nevada Test Site, through the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Numerous DOE facilities have an on-going regulatory need to be able to monitor tritium concentrations in groundwater within deep hydrologic zones and in the shallower non-saturated vadose zone beneath waste disposal pits and shafts and other release sites. Typical access to groundwater is through deep monitoring wells and situated in remote locations. In response to this need, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and its subcontractor, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Harry Reid Center (HRC) for Environmental Studies has conducted the applied research and engineering and produced a real time, in situ monitoring system for the detection and measurement of low levels of tritium in the groundwater and in the shallower vadose zone. The monitoring system has been deployed to measure tritium in both the vadose zone near a subsurface radioactive waste package and the groundwater in a deep hydrologic reservoir at the Nevada Test Site. The monitoring system has been designed to detect tritium in the subsurface below federal and/or state regulatory limits for safe drinking water and has been successfully demonstrated. The development effort is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory and the DOE Nevada Operations Office Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI).

  3. Automated ventricular systems segmentation in brain CT images by combining low-level segmentation and high-level template matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kevin R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate analysis of CT brain scans is vital for diagnosis and treatment of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI. Automatic processing of these CT brain scans could speed up the decision making process, lower the cost of healthcare, and reduce the chance of human error. In this paper, we focus on automatic processing of CT brain images to segment and identify the ventricular systems. The segmentation of ventricles provides quantitative measures on the changes of ventricles in the brain that form vital diagnosis information. Methods First all CT slices are aligned by detecting the ideal midlines in all images. The initial estimation of the ideal midline of the brain is found based on skull symmetry and then the initial estimate is further refined using detected anatomical features. Then a two-step method is used for ventricle segmentation. First a low-level segmentation on each pixel is applied on the CT images. For this step, both Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM and Maximum A Posteriori Spatial Probability (MASP are evaluated and compared. The second step applies template matching algorithm to identify objects in the initial low-level segmentation as ventricles. Experiments for ventricle segmentation are conducted using a relatively large CT dataset containing mild and severe TBI cases. Results Experiments show that the acceptable rate of the ideal midline detection is over 95%. Two measurements are defined to evaluate ventricle recognition results. The first measure is a sensitivity-like measure and the second is a false positive-like measure. For the first measurement, the rate is 100% indicating that all ventricles are identified in all slices. The false positives-like measurement is 8.59%. We also point out the similarities and differences between ICM and MASP algorithms through both mathematically relationships and segmentation results on CT images. Conclusion The experiments show the reliability of the proposed algorithms. The

  4. Waste management system functional requirements for Interim Waste Management Facilities (IWMFs) and technology demonstrations, LLWDDD [Low-Level Disposal Development and Demonstration] Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to build upon the preceding decisions and body of information to prepare draft system functional requirements for each classification of waste disposal currently proposed for Low-Level Waste Disposal Development Demonstration (LLWDDD) projects. Functional requirements identify specific information and data needs necessary to satisfy engineering design criteria/objectives for Interim Waste Management Facilities. This draft will suppor the alternatives evaluation process and will continue to evolve as strategy is implemented, regulatory limits are established, technical and economic uncertainties are resolved, and waste management plans are being implemented. This document will become the planning basis for the new generation of solid LLW management facilities on new sites on the Reservation. Eighteen (18) general system requirements are identified which are applicable to all four Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal classifications. Each classification of LLW disposal is individually addressed with respect ot waste characteristics, site considerations, facility operations, facility closure/post-closure, intruder barriers, institutional control, and performance monitoring requirements. Three initial LLW disposal sites have been proposed as locations on the ORR for the first demonstrations

  5. Decision Support System For Management Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal At The Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, G.; Yucel, V.; Desotell, L.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term safety of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive disposal facilities is assessed by conducting a performance assessment -- a systematic analysis that compares estimated risks to the public and the environment with performance objectives contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Before site operations, facilities design features such as final inventory, waste form characteristics, and closure cover design may be uncertain. Site operators need a modeling tool that can be used throughout the operational life of the disposal site to guide decisions regarding the acceptance of problematic waste streams, new disposal cell design, environmental monitoring program design, and final site closure. In response to these needs the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has developed a decision support system for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site in Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site. The core of the system is a probabilistic inventory and performance assessment model implemented in the GoldSim R simulation platform. The modeling platform supports multiple graphic capabilities that allow clear documentation of the model data sources, conceptual model, mathematical implementation, and results. The combined models have the capability to estimate disposal site inventory, contaminant concentrations in environmental media, and radiological doses to members of the public engaged in various activities at multiple locations. The model allows rapid assessment and documentation of the consequences of waste management decisions using the most current site characterization information, radionuclide inventory, and conceptual model. The model is routinely used to provide annual updates of site performance, evaluate the consequences of disposal of new waste streams, develop waste concentration limits, optimize the design of new disposal cells, and assess the adequacy of environmental

  6. Analgesic effects of preinjection low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) before third molar surgery: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, Jacco G. C.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; Mertens, Ine C.; Keleş, Zühal; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.; Milstein, Dan M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on preinjection sites in patients scheduled for third molar removal. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 163 healthy patients undergoing third molar extractions. The study participants

  7. Design assessment for Melton Valley liquid low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This project is designed for collecting liquid low level waste (LLLW) from generating points inside the Radioisotope Engineering and Development Center (Buildings 7920 and 7930) facility and transferring this waste to the Collection Tank (F-1800) in the new Monitoring and Control Station (MCS) facility. The LLLW is transferred to the MCS in a new, underground, jacketed, stainless steel piping system. The LLLW will then be transferred from Tank F-1800 through a new, underground, jacketed, stainless steel piping system that connects the existing Bethel Valley LLLW Collection System and the Evaporator Facility Service Tanks. The interface for the two systems will be at the existing Interconnecting Pipe Line (ICPL) Valve Box adjacent to the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant. The project scope consists of the following systems: (1) Building 7920 LLLW Collection System; (2) Building 7930 LLLW Collection System; (3) LLLW Underground Transfer System to MCS; (4) MCS Building (including all equipment contained therein); (5) LLLW Underground Transfer System to ICPL Valve Box; and (6) Leak detection system for jacketed piping systems (3) and (5)

  8. Some experiences in controlling contamination of environmental materials during sampling and processing for low-level actinide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.R.; Lovett, M.B.; Boggis, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Selected experiences in the control of contamination and the threat it poses to the quality of analytical data are discussed in the context of the whole analytical process from collection of marine enviromental samples, through handling and radiochemical separation, to the final interpretation of results. Examples include a demonstration of the contamination introduced during sediment core sectioning, contamination of sea water by a ship's pumping system, and the effect of filtration on the apparent partioning of radionuclides between solid and liquid phases of sea water. (author) 11 refs.; 4 tabs

  9. Some experiences in controlling contamination of environmental materials during sampling and processing for low-level actinide analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, B R; Lovett, M B; Boggis, S J

    1987-10-01

    Selected experiences in the control of contamination and the threat it poses to the quality of analytical data are discussed in the context of the whole analytical process from collection of marine enviromental samples, through handling and radiochemical separation, to the final interpretation of results. Examples include a demonstration of the contamination introduced during sediment core sectioning, contamination of sea water by a ship's pumping system, and the effect of filtration on the apparent partioning of radionuclides between solid and liquid phases of sea water. (author) 11 refs.; 4 tabs.

  10. Quantification and speciation of technetium-99 in samples at low levels: contributions of capillary electrophoresis / ICP-MS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Given the low levels of 99 Tc (long half-lived artificial radionuclide) in the environment (10 -8 M to 10 -12 M), its determination currently necessitates an enrichment and separation from the sample matrix prior to instrumental measurement. Therefore, nuclear safety monitoring requires the knowledge of the redox and chemical properties of this element in order to predict its behaviour and transfer in the environment. So, a separative and very sensitive measurement technique must thus be employed. We have developed a new environmental measurement method applied to the quantification and speciation of 99 Tc in sample at environmental concentrations. Indeed, we have combined a Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The limit of detection of 99 Tc is about 2.10 -8 M by CE/ICP-MS system equipped with a PFA-50 nebuliser. In addition to the detection and measurement of technetium, we can separate online 99 Tc(VII) of its interfering radionuclides like molybdenum and ruthenium by CE/ICP-MS. Indeed, due do the different migration time of each anions, it's possible to determinate a signal at m/z= 99 which is only given to 99 Tc. Results obtained by this method have been compared to an usual radiochemical technique, extraction of Tc(VII) by a TEVA resin followed by ICP-MS measurement. Within the framework of storage of spent fuel, studies on the speciation of Tc(VII) by CE / ICP-MS iron-sulphide soils in anoxic conditions have shown that technetium VII is reduced by sulphured suspensions. (author)

  11. Effect of preoperative ibuprofen in controlling postendodontic pain with and without low-level laser therapy in single visit endodontics: A randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Nabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation and ibuprofen in reducing the onset and severity of postoperative pain following single visit endodontics. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were recruited for this study. Group A (n = 30 patients were administered 400 mg of ibuprofen orally 1 h before the institution of an endodontic procedure. Group B (n = 30 patients were given irradiation of a low-level laser at 50 Hz for 3 min after the standard endodontic procedure at the periapical region on both buccal and lingual aspect. Group C (n = 30 patients were given preoperative ibuprofen followed with a low-level laser at 50 Hz for 3 min after endodontic treatment. Group D (n = 30 patients were administered no preoperative ibuprofen nor low-level laser irradiation after the endodontic procedure. The patient immediately recorded his/her pain perception on the Heft Parker pain survey after completion of the appointment and at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively. Inter group analysis was carried out using the analysis of variances with “least significant difference” post hoc test. For intra group analysis, Student's t-test was used. Chi-square test was applied for nonparametric data. Results: Pain was significantly reduced in all the treatment groups postoperatively. Ibuprofen showed significant pain reduction at 4 h and 8 h period. The combination of low-level laser and ibuprofen showed the best results in terms of postoperative pain reduction. Conclusion: This study proved that low-level laser therapy can be an effective alternative for conventional use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in controlling postendodontic pain thereby eliminating the adverse effects of such drugs on the patients.

  12. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  13. Geomembranes as an interim measure to control water infiltration at a low-level radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishan, M.R.; Sonntag, T.L.; Shehane, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Using an exposed geomembrane an interim measure to cover a closed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area requires unique design and construction considerations. In response to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Administrative Consent Order, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) used very low-density polyethylene (VLDPE) geomembrane as an interim measure to cover two soil-capped, grass-covered waste trenches to address a rapid increase in water accumulation in the trenches. Two years later, NYSERDA covered the remaining grass-covered trench caps with a reinforced ethylene interpolymer alloy (EIA-R) geomembrane to reduce water accumulation in these trenches. This paper addresses the differences in geomembrane materials and discusses the lessons learned during design, construction, and operation since installation of the covers. Discussed are the successes and obstacles regarding the use of both geomembrane materials as an exposed cover, selecting the geomembrane materials, anchoring the geomembrane from wind uplift, and mitigating the increased surface water runoff from the geomembrane covered area

  14. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  15. Regionalization as a strategy for management of low-level and mixed wastes in the DOE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.D.; Garcia, E.C.; Gillins, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been routinely performing low-level waste volume reduction and/or stabilization treatment at various sites for some time. In general, treatment is performed on waste generated onsite. Disposal is also usually performed onsite since most DOE sites have their own LLW disposal facilities. The DOE initiated studies to evaluate strategies for treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes covered in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to ensure that DOE sites are in compliance with RCRA. These studies recommend regionalization as the most cost-effective solution to the treatment and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes. The DOE's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program conducted an additional survey of DOE sites to evaluate the status of one specific treatment method, incineration, at these sites. This study included facilities currently in use or intended for treatment of low-level and mixed wastes. A summary of the findings is presented in this paper

  16. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  17. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  18. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  19. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems, effects of low-level chronic irradiation on embryonic development, effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems, and teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Roesijadi, G.; Emery, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    It is conceivable, and possible, that with increasing applications of nuclear energy, greater quantities of potentially harmful radionuclides will be released to the environment. This may be particularly true for advanced reactor designs such as the fusion reactor where radionuclides, principally tritium, may be expected to escape from the plant both in gaseous and liquid effluents in quantities significantly greater than for present PWR or BWR designs. Foreseeing such contingencies, the research programs described herein are in response to the need to measure the potential radiation effects of tritium releases on individuals, and ultimately populations and biotic communities. As a first approach, our efforts are directed to determine effects of low-level chronic exposures on developing embryo and larval stages, clearly the most radiosensitive. The anticipated increase in the release of beryllium and lithium from mining, refining, and fabrication of materials used during construction of fusion reactors has also caused concern as to potential adverse effects on the environment. Accordingly, FY-78 fusion related research will include efforts to study the metabolism of each metal in the living organism, and to determine at what levels toxicity may be expected. Fusion related research will also include preliminary experiments on the effects of low-level magnetic fields. It is conceivable that magnetic fields of 70 to 450 gauss will be encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. Also, those personnel assigned to the areas immediately surrounding the reactor may be exposed

  20. Efficacy of low level electric current (A-C) for controlling quagga mussles in the Welland Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fears, C. [Delta Applied Technology, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mackie, G.L. [Water Systems Analysts, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The efficacy of systems (for which patents are pending) which use low-voltage A-C currents for preventing settlement and attachment by zebra mussels were tested with steel rods and plates placed near the intake of a pulp and paper plant in the Welland Canal at Thorold, Ontario. Six racks made of 16 ft. (4.9 m), 2x4s (5.1 x 10.2 cm) were placed into the Welland Canal on August 5, 1994. One rack had 1/8th in (3.2 mm) diam x 12 in (30.5 cm) long steel rods, each separated by 2 in (5.1 cm) attached to pressure treated wood and concrete blocks and an A-C current of 16 v (or 8 v/in); rack 2 had steel rods of the same configuration but 12 v (or 6 v/in) was applied; rack 3 was identical to these but no current was applied and was used as a rod control. The remaining three racks had steel plates, each plate being 3 in (7.6 cm) wide X 24 in (61 cm) long X 1/4 in (6.4 mm) thick and separated by 2 in (5.1 cm); one had 12 v applied (or 6 v/in), another had 16 v applied (or 8 v/in), and the third had no current and was used as a plate control. The racks were placed on the upstream and downstream side of the intake at a depth of about 7 ft (2.1 m) where the mussels populations were heaviest (as determined by SCUBA diving). All mussels were quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). The racks were pulled in mid November after settlement was complete and the results showed: (1) complete prevention of settlement of both new recruits and translocators at 8 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and with steel plate trash bars; (2) partial prevention of settlement at 6 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and steel plates; and (3) that, at current kilowatt hr rates, total efficacy at 8 volts/in would cost approximately $10.80/day/1000 sq ft using rods to protect concrete walls and about $16.32/day/1000 sq ft to protect 3 in wide x 1/4 in thick trash bars. These costs can be reduced even further with pulse dosed AC currents.

  1. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: design of a randomized single-blinded controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Rafael Inácio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common neuropathy in the upper extremity, resulting from the compression of the median nerve at wrist level. Clinical studies are essentials to present evidence on therapeutic resources use at early restoration on peripheral nerve functionality. Low-level laser therapy has been widely investigated in researches related to nerve regeneration. Therefore, it is suggested that the effect of low-level laser therapy associated with other conservative rehabilitation techniques may positively affect symptoms and overall hand function in compressive neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in addition to orthoses therapy and home orientations in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods/Design Patients older than 18 years old will be included, with clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome, excluding comorbidies. A physiotherapist will conduct intervention, with a blinding evaluator. Randomization will be applied to allocate the patients in each group: with association or not to low-level laser therapy. All of them will be submitted to orthoses therapy and home orientations. Outcome will be assessed through: pain visual analogic scale, Semmes Weinstein monofilaments™ threshold sensibility test, Pinch Gauge™, Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and two point discrimination test. Discussion This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial, which aim to assess the effectiveness of conservative treatment added to low-level laser therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Trial registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec - 75ddtf / Universal Trial Number: U1111-1121-5184

  2. Coupled sensor/platform control design for low-level chemical detection with position-adaptive micro-UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Carr, Ryan; Mitra, Atindra K.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the development of Position-Adaptive Sensors [1] for purposes for detecting embedded chemical substances in challenging environments. This concept is a generalization of patented Position-Adaptive Radar Concepts developed at AFRL for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For purposes of investigating the detection of chemical substances using multiple MAV (Micro-UAV) platforms, we have designed and implemented an experimental testbed with sample structures such as wooden carts that contain controlled leakage points. Under this general concept, some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chemical or biological (chem/bio) sensors that function as "electronic noses". The objective can be defined as improving the particle count of chem/bio concentrations that impinge on a MAV-based position-adaptive sensor that surrounds a chemical repository, such as a cart, via the development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms. The overall effect is to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics of the overall system. Within the major sections of this paper, we discuss a number of different aspects of developing our initial MAV-Based Sensor Testbed. This testbed includes blowers to simulate position-adaptive excitations and a MAV from Draganfly Innovations Inc. with stable design modifications to accommodate our chem/bio sensor boom design. We include details with respect to several critical phases of the development effort including development of the wireless sensor network and experimental apparatus, development of the stable sensor boom for the MAV, integration of chem/bio sensors and sensor node onto the MAV and boom, development of position-adaptive control algorithms and initial tests at IDCAST (Institute for the Development and

  3. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Although the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) addresses the entire Oak Ridge Reservation, specific requirements are set forth for the liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks and their associated piping and equipment, tank systems, at ORNL. The stated objected of the FFA as it relates to these tank systems is to ensure that structural integrity, containment and detection of releases, and source control are maintained pending final remedial action at the site. The FFA requires that leaking LLLW tank systems be immediately removed from service. It also requires the LLLW tank systems that do not meet the design and performance requirements established for secondary containment and leak detection be either upgraded or replaced. The FFA establishes a procedural framework for implementing the environmental laws. For the LLLW tank systems, this framework requires the specified plans and schedules be submitted to EPA and TDEC for approval within 60 days, or in some cases, within 90 days, of the effective date of the agreement

  4. Development of a multichannel RF field detector for the low-level RF control of the free-electron laser at Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Matthias

    2008-10-01

    Modern free electron lasers produce synchrotron radiation with constantly shortening wavelengths of up to 6 nm and pulse widths of up to 100 fs. That requires a constantly increasing stability of the beam energy and arrival time of the electron beam at the undulator entrance which is situated at the end of the accelerator. At the same time, the increasing speed of digital signal processing and data acquisition facilitates new possibilities for the digital radio frequency control and field detection. In this thesis the development of a multichannel radio frequency field detector for the low level radio frequency (LLRF) control of the superconducting cavities of the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH) is described. The applied method of IF sampling is state of the technology and is utilized in many areas of digital communication. It is evaluated concerning its applicability for the LLRF control. Analytical and numerical investigations of the noise behavior and transport in the control loop have been accomplished to define the requirements for the measurement accuracy of the field detector that was to be developed. Therefore, simplified models of the noise behavior of each system component of the control loop, e.g. amplifier, radio frequency mixer and analog-to-digital converter, were established and subsequently assorted to a the model of the control loop. Due to the application of the vector-sum control, where several separately measured field vectors are added to a vector-sum, requirements concerning the allowable compression error of the detector nonlinearity were defined. These were investigated by analytical and numerical methods, as well. Requirements for the hardware that was to be developed were compiled from the simulation results. For the development of the field detector, a modular and EMC-compatible concept with a high-level passive front-end for an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio was chosen. The following tests in the lab delivered the

  5. Development of a multichannel RF field detector for the low-level RF control of the free-electron laser at Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Matthias

    2008-10-15

    Modern free electron lasers produce synchrotron radiation with constantly shortening wavelengths of up to 6 nm and pulse widths of up to 100 fs. That requires a constantly increasing stability of the beam energy and arrival time of the electron beam at the undulator entrance which is situated at the end of the accelerator. At the same time, the increasing speed of digital signal processing and data acquisition facilitates new possibilities for the digital radio frequency control and field detection. In this thesis the development of a multichannel radio frequency field detector for the low level radio frequency (LLRF) control of the superconducting cavities of the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH) is described. The applied method of IF sampling is state of the technology and is utilized in many areas of digital communication. It is evaluated concerning its applicability for the LLRF control. Analytical and numerical investigations of the noise behavior and transport in the control loop have been accomplished to define the requirements for the measurement accuracy of the field detector that was to be developed. Therefore, simplified models of the noise behavior of each system component of the control loop, e.g. amplifier, radio frequency mixer and analog-to-digital converter, were established and subsequently assorted to a the model of the control loop. Due to the application of the vector-sum control, where several separately measured field vectors are added to a vector-sum, requirements concerning the allowable compression error of the detector nonlinearity were defined. These were investigated by analytical and numerical methods, as well. Requirements for the hardware that was to be developed were compiled from the simulation results. For the development of the field detector, a modular and EMC-compatible concept with a high-level passive front-end for an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio was chosen. The following tests in the lab delivered the

  6. Quality control in low-level radionuclide analysis. Results of recent intercomparisons and programme for 1979/80 of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Dybczynski, R; Tugsavul, A

    1979-05-01

    Several summary reports on the IAEA's analytical quality control programme have been issued in the past. A report mapping out areas of common interest with the ICRM has been presented to the Paris meeting of ICRM's low-level measurement techniques group in 1976 and subsequently published in environment international. General descriptions of the programme as it has developed in the past 15 years can be found in these publications, in addition detailed results of intercomparisons have been published in IAEA reports and in the open literature (about 30 publications), they are too numerous for citation here. This paper presents discussion of the results of recent intercomparisons of low level radionuclide determinations followed by a presentation of our schedule of distribution of intercomparison and reference materials for 1979 and 80.

  7. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  9. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David B; Paretti, Nicholas V; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S; Zaugg, Steven D; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Matter, William J; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-11-08

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17beta-estradiol than control females (p=0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r=0.00) versus control (r=-0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r=-0.45) and control (r=-0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  10. Metal X-ray microanalysis in the olfactory system of rainbow trout exposed to low level of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julliard, A.K.; Astic, L.; Saucier, D.

    1995-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a chronic copper exposure induces specific degeneration of olfactory receptor cells in rainbow trout; however, the exact mechanism of action of the metal is not yet known. Using X-ray microanalysis in transmission electron microscopy, we have studied the distribution of metal in the olfactory system of fish exposed for 15,30 and 60 days to 20 μg/l of copper. This was done in order to determine if it was accumulated in receptor cells and transported into the central nervous system via the olfactory nerve. No copper accumulation was detected either in the olfactory epithelium, in the olfactory nerve or in the olfactory bulb. The heavy metal was exclusively found within melanosomes of melanophores located in the lamina propria. After 60 days of exposure, the copper content in melanosomes was about two-fold higher than that in controls. As far as some morphological recovery took place in the olfactory organ during the metal exposure, which lets us suppose that some detoxication mechanism occurs, it could be suggested that metanophores might be somehow involved in such a mechanism. (authors). 57 refs., 15 figs

  11. Control of water infiltration into near surface low-level waste disposal units. Final report on field experiments at a humid region site, Beltsville, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1997-09-01

    This study''s objective was to assess means for controlling water infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work was carried out in large-scale lysimeters 21.34 m x 13.72 m x 3.05 m (70 ft x 45 ft x 10 ft) at Beltsville, Maryland. Results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three kinds of waste disposal unit covers or barriers to water infiltration were investigated: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and (3) bioengineering management

  12. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  13. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of hign-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing

  14. Low Level Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA has transferred the improved portable leak detector technology to UE Systems, Inc.. This instrument was developed to detect leaks in fluid systems of critical launch and ground support equipment. This system incorporates innovative electronic circuitry, improved transducers, collecting horns, and contact sensors that provide a much higher degree of reliability, sensitivity and versatility over previously used systems. Potential commercial uses are pipelines, underground utilities, air-conditioning systems, petrochemical systems, aerospace, power transmission lines and medical devices.

  15. WasteChem Corporation's Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system for low-level radwaste treatment: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Since 1965, low and medium level radwastes from nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants and nuclear research centers have been stabilized using the Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system. The VRS system uses an extruder/evaporator to evaporate the liquids from waste influents, while simultaneously incorporating the remaining radioactive solids in an asphalt binder. In the period 1965 to 1986 a minimum of 700,000 cubic feet of wastes have been processed with the VRS system. This report provides current operating data from various systems including the volume reduction factors achieved, and the progress of start-ups in the US. The report also provides previously unpublished experience with mixed wastes including uranium raffinate and nitrate-bearing sludges from surface impoundments. VRS systems in the US are currently operating at the Palisades and Hope Creek nuclear stations. These systems produce a variety of waste types including boric acid, bead resin, sodium sulfate and powdered resins. There are three start-ups of VRS systems scheduled in the US in 1987. These systems are at Fermi 2, Seabrook, and Nine Mile Point 2. Overseas, the startup of new systems continues with three VRS process lines coming on-line at the LaHague Reprocessing Center in France in 1986 and a start-up scheduled for 1987 at the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The US systems are operating continuously and with little required maintenance. Data on maintenance and the operator exposure are provided in this report. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  16. The help of simulation codes in designing waste assay systems using neutron measurement methods: Application to the alpha low level waste assay system PROMETHEE 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Jallu, F. E-mail: fanny.jallu@cea.fr; Toubon, H

    2003-11-01

    The design of a specific nuclear assay system for a dedicated application begins with a phase of development, which relies on information from the literature or on knowledge resulting from experience, and on specific experimental verifications. The latter ones may require experimental devices which can be restricting in terms of deadline, cost and safety. One way generally chosen to bypass these difficulties is to use simulation codes to study particular aspects. This paper deals with the potentialities offered by the simulation in the case of a passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system for alpha low level waste characterization; this system has been carried out at the Nuclear Measurements Development Laboratory of the French Atomic Energy Commission. Due to the high number of parameters to be taken into account for its development, this is a particularly sophisticated example. Since the PAN assay system, called PROMETHEE (prompt epithermal and thermal interrogation experiment), must have a detection efficiency of more than 20% and preserve a high level of modularity for various applications, an improved version has been studied using the MCNP4 (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code. Parameters such as the dimensions of the assay system, of the cavity and of the detection blocks, and the thicknesses of the nuclear materials of neutronic interest have been optimised. Therefore, the number of necessary experiments was reduced.

  17. The help of simulation codes in designing waste assay systems using neutron measurement methods: Application to the alpha low level waste assay system PROMETHEE 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Jallu, F.; Toubon, H.

    2003-01-01

    The design of a specific nuclear assay system for a dedicated application begins with a phase of development, which relies on information from the literature or on knowledge resulting from experience, and on specific experimental verifications. The latter ones may require experimental devices which can be restricting in terms of deadline, cost and safety. One way generally chosen to bypass these difficulties is to use simulation codes to study particular aspects. This paper deals with the potentialities offered by the simulation in the case of a passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system for alpha low level waste characterization; this system has been carried out at the Nuclear Measurements Development Laboratory of the French Atomic Energy Commission. Due to the high number of parameters to be taken into account for its development, this is a particularly sophisticated example. Since the PAN assay system, called PROMETHEE (prompt epithermal and thermal interrogation experiment), must have a detection efficiency of more than 20% and preserve a high level of modularity for various applications, an improved version has been studied using the MCNP4 (Monte Carlo N-Particle) transport code. Parameters such as the dimensions of the assay system, of the cavity and of the detection blocks, and the thicknesses of the nuclear materials of neutronic interest have been optimised. Therefore, the number of necessary experiments was reduced

  18. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  19. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed

  20. Implementation Plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These commitments were initially submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand Dl, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in this document. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5

  1. Implementation plan for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Plans and schedules for meeting the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were initially submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The information presented in the current document summarizes the progress that has been made to date and provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present the plans and schedules associated with the remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. A comprehensive program is under way at ORNL to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (EPA/TDEC) as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. The plans and schedules for implementing the FFA compliance program that were originally submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand D 1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste tanks Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are updated in the present document. Chapter I provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5

  2. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  3. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  4. Recombination chamber and a measuring system with sensitivity sufficient for in-flight and low-level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielczynski, M.; Golnik, N.; Shvidkij, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    A recombination chamber is proposed to be for determination of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) during high-altitude flights and space missions. Polarizing electrodes of the chamber are supplied from two capacitors permanently connected to the electrodes. Ions, collected on the measuring electrode, charge a measuring capacitor that is also permanently connected to the electrode. The collected charge is proportional to H*(10), so the chamber with only three capacitors creates a whole measuring system. The special procedure was introduced for charging the supplying capacitors and for reading the voltage on the measuring capacitor. The procedure has to be performed in laboratory conditions before and after the flight. The measuring system with recombination chamber of REM-2 type allows to measure the H*(10) above 10 μSv with uncertainly ca. 25% in any field of penetration radiation, with an integration time up to some days. The system has been checked in field conditions. (author). 1 fig

  5. Visual cues in low-level flight - Implications for pilotage, training, simulation, and enhanced/synthetic vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Johnson, Walter W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the sources of visual information that are available in the out-the-window scene and describes how these visual cues are important for routine pilotage and training, as well as the development of simulator visual systems and enhanced or synthetic vision systems for aircraft cockpits. It is shown how these visual cues may change or disappear under environmental or sensor conditions, and how the visual scene can be augmented by advanced displays to capitalize on the pilot's excellent ability to extract visual information from the visual scene.

  6. Using Low-Level Architectural Features for Configuration InfoSec in a General-Purpose Self-Configurable System

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas J. Macias; Peter M. Athanas

    2009-01-01

    Unique characteristics of biological systems are described, and similarities are made to certain computing architectures. The security challenges posed by these characteristics are discussed. A method of securely isolating portions of a design using introspective capabilities of a fine-grain self-configurable device is presented. Experimental results are discussed, and plans for future work are given.

  7. Low levels of strigolactones in roots as a component of the systemic signal of drought stress in tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Visentin, I.; Vitali, M.; Ferrero, M.; Zhang, Y.; Ruyter-Spira, C.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Lovisolo, C.; Schubert, A.; Cardinale, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 4 (2016), s. 954-963 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : abscisic-acid * plant-responses * lotus-japonicus * biosynthesis * arabidopsis * pea * hormone * growth * xylem * soil * abscisic acid (ABA) * drought * strigolactones (SL) * systemic signalling * tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  8. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems for fiscal year 1995 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document is the third annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in 1992 as ES/ER-17 ampersand D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW System as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that led to the plans and schedules that appear in Chaps. 2 through 5

  9. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the Federal Facility Agreement, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document is an annual revision of the plans and schedules for implementing the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance program, originally submitted in ES/ER-17 ampersand D1, Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This document summarizes the progress that has been made to date in implementing the plans and schedules for meeting the FFA commitments for the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information presented in this document provides a comprehensive summary to facilitate understanding of the FFA compliance program for LLLW tank systems and to present plans and schedules associated with remediation, through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process, of LLLW tank systems that have been removed from service. ORNL has a comprehensive program underway to upgrade the LLLW system as necessary to meet the FFA requirements. The tank systems that are removed from service are being investigated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Waste and risk characterizations have been submitted. Additional data will be prepared and submitted to EPA/TDEC as tanks are taken out of service and as required by the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Chapter 1 provides general background information and philosophies that lead to the plans and schedules that appear in Chapters 2 through 5

  10. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  11. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  12. Development and Deployment of a Full-Scale Cross-Flow Filtration System for Treatment of Liquid Low-Level Waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, T.E.

    2000-05-12

    A full-scale modular solid/liquid separation (SLS) system was designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully deployed for treatment of liquid low-level waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The SLS module, utilizing cross-flow filtration, was operated as part of an integrated tank waste pretreatment system (otherwise known as the Wastewater Triad) to remove suspended solids and prevent fouling of ion-exchange materials and heat exchange surfaces. The information gained from this testing was used to complete design specifications for the full-scale modular SLS system in May 1997. The contract for detailed design and fabrication of the system was awarded to NUMET in July 1997, and the design was completed in January 1998. Fabrication began in March 1998, and the completed system was delivered to ORNL on December 29, 1998. Installation of the system at the MVST facility was completed in May 1999. After completing an operational readiness assessment, approval was given to commence hot operations on June 7, 1999. Operations involving two of the eight MVSTs were performed safely and with very little unscheduled downtime. Filtration of supernatant from tank W-31 was completed on June 24, 1999 and W-26 processing was completed on August 20, 1999. The total volume processed during these two campaigns was about 45,000 gal. The suspended solids content of the liquid processed from tank W-31 was lower than expected, resulting in higher-than-expected filtrate production for nearly the entire operation. The liquid processed from tank W-26 was higher in suspended solids content, and filtrate production was lower, but comparable to the rates expected based on the results of previous pilot-scale, single-element filtration tests. The quality of the filtrate consistently met the requirements for feed to the downstream ion-exchange and evaporation processes. From an equipment and controls standpoint, the modular system (pumps

  13. Low-level laser therapy with 940 nm diode laser on stability of dental implants: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkzaban, Parviz; Kasraei, Shahin; Torabi, Sara; Farhadian, Maryam

    2018-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-invasive modality to promote osteoblastic activity and tissue healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of LLLT for improvement of dental implant stability. This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 dental implants placed in 19 patients. Implants were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40). Seven sessions of LLLT (940 nm diode laser) were scheduled for the test group implants during 2 weeks. Laser was irradiated to the buccal and palatal sides. The same procedure was performed for the control group implants with laser hand piece in "off" mode. Implant stability was measured by Osstell Mentor device in implant stability quotient (ISQ) value immediately after surgery and 10 days and 3, 6, and 12 weeks later. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the mean ISQ values (implant stability) in the test and control groups. Statistical test revealed no significant difference in the mean values of implant stability between the test and control groups over time (P = 0.557). Although the mean values of implant stability changed significantly in both groups over time (P laser group in the first weeks and increased from the 6th to 12th week, LLLT had no significant effect on dental implant stability.

  14. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Bacon, D.H.

    1998-02-01

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-activity waste (LAW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. The available computer codes with suitable capabilities at the time Revision 0 of this document was prepared were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical processes expected to affect LAW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. This analysis was repeated in this report but updated to include additional processes that have been found to be important since Revision 0 was issued and to include additional codes that have been released. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the STORM code developed at PNNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of arid land disposal sites

  15. Interactions of low-level, liquid radioactive wastes with soils. 1. Behavior of radionuclides in soil-waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.; Polzer, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of radioactive wastes and soils vary over a wide range. Liquid radioactive waste entering the environment will eventually contact the soil or geological matrix; interactions will be determined by the chemical and physical nature of the liquid, as well as the soil matrix. We report here the results from an investigation of certain of those characteristics as they relate to retention of radionuclides by soils. Three fractions were demonstrated in the waste as filterable, soluble-sorbable, and soluble-nonsorbable; the physical nature of each fraction was demonstrated using autoradiographic techniques. Isotopes of plutonium and uranium and americium-241 in the soluble fraction of the waste were shown to have a negative charge as determined by ion exchange techniques. In the soil-waste systems, the net charge for those radionuclides was shown to change from predominantly negative to predominantly positive. Nevertheless, cesium-137 was shown to be predominantly positited by TVA and approved by NRC (formerly AEC) since June 1973. This report is based upon the revisions, approved through the end of this reporting period

  16. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  17. A Structured, Manual-Based Low-Level Intervention vs. Treatment as Usual Evaluated in a Randomized Controlled Trial for Adolescents with Extreme Obesity - the STEREO Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Mühlig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare efficacy and safety of a manual-based low-level psychological intervention with treatment as usual (weight loss treatment. Methods: A two-armed randomized controlled trial without blinding and computer-based stratified block randomization included adolescents and young adults (14.0-24.9 years with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at five German university hospitals. Primary outcomes were adherence (participation rate ≥ 5/6 sessions and quality of life (DISABKIDS-37 6 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress scores. Results: Of 397 screened adolescents, 119 (mean BMI 40.4 ± 7.0 kg/m2, 49.6% female were randomized to the manual-based low-level intervention (n = 59 or treatment as usual (n = 60. We observed no group difference for adherence (absolute risk reduction 0.4%, 95% CI -14.7% to 15.5%; p = 1.0 or health-related quality of life (score difference 8.1, 95% CI -2.1 to 18.3; p = 0.11. Among all secondary outcomes, we detected explorative evidence for an effect on the DISABKIDS-37 ‘social exclusion' subscale (score difference 15.5; 95% CI 1.6-29.4; p = 0.03. 18/19 adverse events occurred in 26 participants, none were classified as serious. Conclusion: Adherence to a coping-oriented intervention was comparable to weight loss treatment, although it was weak in both interventions. Psychological interventions may help to overcome social isolation; further confirmation is required.

  18. Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, A.; Ferrari, A.; Tsoulou, E.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wijnands, T.

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the radiation damage induced by high-energy hadrons in the digital electronics of the RF low-level systems in the LHC cavities. High-energy hadrons are generated when the proton beams interact with the residual gas. The contributions from various elements - vacuum chambers, cryogenic cavities, wideband pickups and cryo-module beam tubes - have been considered individually, with each contribution depending on the gas composition and density. The probability of displacement damage and single event effects (mainly single event upsets) is derived for the LHC start-up conditions. (authors)

  19. Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, A; Ferrari, A; Tsoulou, E; Vlachoudis, V; Wijnands, T

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to estimate the radiation damage induced by high-energy hadrons in the digital electronics of the RF low-level systems in the LHC cavities. High-energy hadrons are generated when the proton beams interact with the residual gas. The contributions from various elements-vacuum chambers, cryogenic cavities, wideband pickups and cryomodule beam tubes-have been considered individually, with each contribution depending on the gas composition and density. The probability of displacement damage and single event effects (mainly single event upsets) is derived for the LHC start-up conditions.

  20. Trends and R and D in France to improve the performance of activity measurements systems for the reprocessing low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Deidier, L.; Silie, Ph.; Huver, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the frame of COGEMA actins to reduce the volume of the reprocessing waste, a new strategy of drumming and incinerating is going to start at LA HAGUE and MARCOULE, for the low level waste planned for surface storage. This strategy depends on the performance improvement of non destructive measurements systems used for the alpha waste evaluation. In this global, closer links between COGEMA, SGN, CEA and EURYSIS MESURE have taken place to define a program in order to obtain up to three years the required performances, using active methods with neutron generator. These developments and tests are carried out on the PROMETHEE R and D facility at CEA-CADARACHE. (authors)

  1. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  2. Evaluation of a simplified modified Atkins diet for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suvasini; Goel, Shaiphali; Jain, Puneet; Agarwala, Anuja; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-11-01

    This study was planned to develop and evaluate a simple, easy-to-understand variation of the modified Atkins diet, for use by parents with low levels of literacy in children with refractory epilepsy. This study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a simplified version of the modified Atkins diet was developed. In the second phase this was evaluated in children aged 2-14 years who had daily seizures despite the appropriate use of at least two anticonvulsant drugs, in an open-label randomized-controlled-trial. Children were randomized to receive either the simplified modified Atkins diet or no dietary intervention for a period of 3 months with the ongoing anticonvulsant medications being continued unchanged in both the groups. Reduction in seizure frequency was the primary outcome-measure. Data was analyzed using intention to treat approach. Adverse effects were also studied. (Clinical trial identifier NCT0189989). Forty-one children were randomly assigned to the diet-group, and 40 were assigned to the control-group. Two patients discontinued the diet during the study period. The proportion of children with>50% seizure reduction was significantly higher in the diet group as compared to the control group (56.1% vs 7.5%, pliteracy. This diet was found to be feasible, efficacious and well tolerated in children with refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  4. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results

  5. 1996 structural integrity assessments for the Category C Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a report of the efforts made to satisfy the Federal Facility Agreement for the structural integrity certification of ten Category C Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank systems on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Within this document, each Category C tank system is described including the associated pipeline segments evaluated as a part of those tank systems. A separate structural integrity assessment was conducted for each of the LLLW Tank Systems, four of which are located in Melton Valley, and six of which are located in Bethel Valley. The results of the structural integrity assessments are reported herein. The assessments are based on (1) a review of available tank design drawings, (2) a qualitative assessment of corrosion on the tank and pipelines, and primarily (3) leak testing program results.

  6. Role of Low-Level Laser Therapy as an Adjunct to Initial Periodontal Treatment in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Split-Mouth, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk-Gocgun, Oya; Baser, Ulku; Aykol-Sahin, Gokce; Dinccag, Nevin; Issever, Halim; Yalcin, Funda

    2017-02-01

    In this split-mouth clinical trial, we evaluated the clinical benefits of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The impaired wound healing seen in diabetic patients may affect the results of periodontal treatment and may require an additional approach. In total, 22 chronic periodontitis patients with type 2 DM were included. Applying a split-mouth design, two quadrants were treated with only scaling and root planing (SRP) as the control and those in the other two were treated with SRP + LLLT as the test sites in each patient. An 808 nm GaAlAs diode laser was performed in the test sites at the energy density of 4.46 J/cm 2 on days 1, 2, and 7 after SRP. Plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level were measured at baseline and again at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Deep periodontal pockets (PD ≥4 mm) were evaluated separately. Test sites showed significant improvement in PI and BOP in deep pockets at the 1-month follow-up period (p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively), whereas no difference was found between the control and the test sites in other periodontal parameters. LLLT during periodontal treatment offered minimal short-term additional benefit in deep pocket healing in patients with type 2 DM.

  7. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  8. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P levels and walking track analysis (P topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Design of electronic modules for the low-level RF systems at CERN. With particular regard to a new trigger unit for the Super Proton Synchrotron.

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, Thomas Edward; Knox, Andrew

    This report presents the work completed while the author was working for the BE-RF-FB group at the European Organization for Nuclear Research during the period of June to December 2010. The placement was completed as part of the University of Glasgow course ‘Industrial Project EE5’ which is requirement during the final year of the Degree of Master of Engineering. The report will pay particular attention to the hardware and firmware design of the ‘Dual Trigger Unit’, a new electronic module for the low-level RF system of the Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator which generates delayed timing pulses in order to trigger other hardware. In addition to this, the report will cover other projects completed during the period, including work on a prototype of the ‘VME Peak Detector’ card for the Large Hadron Collider beam observation system.

  10. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for Fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section IX and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review of approval. The issue of ES/ER-17 ampersand D1 Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. This document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA as presented in ES/ER-17 ampersand D I and summarizes the progress that has been made to date. This document supersedes all updates of ES/ER- 17 ampersand D 1. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System and the objectives of the FFA. Chapters 2 through 5 contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress

  11. Implementation plan for liquid low-level radioactive waste systems under the FFA for Fiscal years 1996 and 1997 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section IX and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review of approval. The issue of ES/ER-17&D1 Federal Facility Agreement Plans and Schedules for Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. This document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA as presented in ES/ER-17&D I and summarizes the progress that has been made to date. This document supersedes all updates of ES/ER- 17&D 1. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System and the objectives of the FFA. Chapters 2 through 5 contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress.

  12. Feasibility study on the solidification of liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trussell, S.

    1993-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to help determine the feasibility of solidifying a liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste in the inactive tank system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this report is to facilitate a decision on the disposition of these wastes by identifying any waste constituents that might (1) compromise the strength or stability of the waste form or (2) be highly leachable. Furthermore, its goal is to identify ways to circumvent interferences and to decrease the leachability of the waste constituents. This study has sought to provide an understanding of inhibition of cement set by identifying the fundamental chemical mechanisms by which this inhibition takes place. From this fundamental information, it is possible to draw some conclusions about the potential effects of waste constituents, even in the absence of particular studies on specific compounds

  13. Trends and R and D in France to improve the performance of activity measurements systems for the reprocessing low level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Deidier, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs; Masson, H.; Coryn, P. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Silie, Ph. [SGN Reseau Eurisys, 78 - Saint Quentin (France); Huver, M. [Eurysis Mesure, 78 - Saint-Quentin-en Yvelines (France)

    1995-12-31

    In the frame of COGEMA actins to reduce the volume of the reprocessing waste, a new strategy of drumming and incinerating is going to start at LA HAGUE and MARCOULE, for the low level waste planned for surface storage. This strategy depends on the performance improvement of non destructive measurements systems used for the alpha waste evaluation. In this global, closer links between COGEMA, SGN, CEA and EURYSIS MESURE have taken place to define a program in order to obtain up to three years the required performances, using active methods with neutron generator. These developments and tests are carried out on the PROMETHEE R and D facility at CEA-CADARACHE. (authors) 3 refs.

  14. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on important aquatic organisms and associted communities. Teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Emery, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Continuing studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on freshwater species emphasize the potential for genetic transmission of suppressed immune competence in offspring of parental rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to tritium (0, 0.04, 0.4, 40.0 rads) during embryogenesis. We plan to determine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta irradiation when compared to 60 Co gamma irradiation using the relatively radiosensitive immune process of rainbow trout. During FY 1979, we concluded genetic effects studies and prepared a manuscript for open literature publication summarizing FY 1977 and FY 1978 studies on the permanence of suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout sublethally irradiated during embryogenesis. We are also studying the potential effects of beryllium and lithium on aquatic systems. Because of mining and refining subsequent to the use of these metals in the construction of fusion reactors, increased levels of each are likely to be encountered in surface waters. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life stages of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies initiated in FY 1978 include evaluation of effects of low-level magnetic fields on embryologic development of rainbow trout. The objective of these studies to provide data useful in assessing potentially harmful effects of low-level magnetic fields encountered by attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors. This approach is less costly than using mammalian systems, provides large numbers of experimental organisms for meaningful statistical analysis and permits examination of potential latent effects in a representative vertebrate

  15. Low-level laser in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism induced by chronic autoimmune thyroiditis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, Danilo B; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Juliano, Adriana G; Cerri, Giovanni G; Knobel, Meyer; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2013-05-01

    Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism, which requires lifelong levothyroxine replacement therapy. Currently, no effective therapy is available for CAT. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with CAT-induced hypothyroidism by testing thyroid function, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), and ultrasonographic echogenicity. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a 9-month follow-up was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Forty-three patients with a history of levothyroxine therapy for CAT-induced hypothyroidism were randomly assigned to receive either 10 sessions of LLLT (830 nm, output power of 50 mW, and fluence of 707 J/cm(2); L group, n=23) or 10 sessions of a placebo treatment (P group, n=20). The levothyroxine was suspended 30 days after the LLLT or placebo procedures. Thyroid function was estimated by the levothyroxine dose required to achieve normal concentrations of T3, T4, free-T4 (fT4), and thyrotropin after 9 months of postlevothyroxine withdrawal. Autoimmunity was assessed by measuring the TPOAb and TgAb levels. A quantitative computerized echogenicity analysis was performed pre- and 30 days postintervention. The results showed a significant difference in the mean levothyroxine dose required to treat the hypothyroidism between the L group (38.59 ± 20.22 μg/day) and the P group (106.88 ± 22.90 μg/day, Phypothyroidism.

  16. Effects of low-level laser therapy applied before or after plyometric exercise on muscle damage markers: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2016-12-01

    Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of the long-term performance of the grout system for the disposal of a low-level radioactive waste stream at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D.G.; Farris, W.T.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1986-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is planning to design and construct a Transportable Grout Facility at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The facility will combine grout-forming materials with low-level liquid radioactive wastes to produce solidified grout monoliths for near-surface disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting studies to verify that the process is workable and that the waste, as disposed of in grout, will provide long-term protection for people and the environment. The long-term performance of the grout disposal system is sensitive to several parameters that affect radionuclide release and transport (e.g., local climate, leach rate, and monolith integrity). The purpose of this analysis was to investigate variations in these parameters in order to evaluate several design options for the grout system, including the proposed design for the grout startup campaign. The analysis was performed by postulating several scenarios that included conditions that could potentially compromise the effectiveness of the grout system. The grout system's performance was then evaluated, under each set of conditions, to measure its ability to reduce the transport rate of contaminants to the biosphere

  18. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  19. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; El-Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues; Frigero, Marcelo; Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; Vanin, Adriane Aver; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo

    2014-04-09

    Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index - normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2

  20. Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain, quality of life and sleep in patients with fibromyalgia: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Alves, Ana Carolina Araruna; Rambo, Caroline Sobral de Melo; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosa; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Albertini, Regiane; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2012-11-21

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely used as adjuvant strategy for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The light-tissue interaction (photobiostimulation) promotes analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and improves tissue healing, which could justify the recommendation of this therapy for patients with fibromyalgia, leading to an improvement in pain and possibly minimizing social impact related to this disease. The present study proposes to evaluate the effect of LLLT on tender points in patients with fibromyalgia, correlating this outcome with quality of life and sleep. One hundred and twenty patients with fibromyalgia will be treated at the Integrated Health Center and the Sleep Laboratory of the Post Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences of the Nove de Julho University located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. After fulfilling the eligibility criteria, a clinical evaluation and assessments of pain and sleep quality will be carried out and self-administered quality of life questionnaires will be applied. The 120 volunteers will be randomly allocated to an intervention group (LLLT, n = 60) or control group (CLLLT, n = 60). Patients from both groups will be treated three times per week for four weeks, totaling twelve sessions. However, only the LLLT group will receive an energy dose of 6 J per tender point. A standardized 50-minute exercise program will be performed after the laser application. The patients will be evaluated regarding the primary outcome (pain) using the following instruments: visual analog scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire and pressure algometry. The secondary outcome (quality of life and sleep) will be assessed with the following instruments: Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and polysomnography. ANOVA test with repeated measurements for the time factor will be performed to test between-groups differences (followed by the

  1. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  2. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue by local adipocyte injury but rather by modulation of systemic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Marek; Gawrych, Mariusz; Adamska, Urszula; Ciescinski, Jakub; Serafin, Zbigniew; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been applied recently to body contouring. However the mechanism of LLLT-induced reduction of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness has not been elucidated and proposed hypotheses are highly controversial. Non-obese volunteers were subject to 650nm LLLT therapy. Each patient received 6 treatments 2-3 days apart to one side of the abdomen. The contralateral side was left untreated and served as control. Subjects' abdominal adipose tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging at baseline and 2 weeks post-treatment. Our study is to the best of our knowledge, the largest split-abdomen study employing subcutaneous abdominal fat imaging. We could not show a statistically significant reduction of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue by LLLT therapy. Paradoxically when the measurements of the loss of fat thickness on treated side was corrected for change in thickness on non treated side, we have observed that in 8 out of 17 patients LLLT increased adipose tissue thickness. In two patients severe side effect occurred as a result of treatment: one patient developed ulceration within appendectomy scar, the other over the posterior superior iliac spine. The paradoxical net increase in subcutaneous fat thickness observed in some of our patients is a rationale against liquefactive and transitory pore models of LLLT-induced adipose tissue reduction. LLLT devices with laser diode panels applied directly on the skin are not as safe as devices with treatment panels separated from the patient's skin.

  3. Characterization of alpha low level waste in 118 litre drums by passive and active neutron measurements in the promethee assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Mariani, A.; Ma, J.L.; Baudry, G.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Recroix, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Loridon, J.; Denis, C.; Toubon, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the PROMETHEE (PROMpt, epithermal and THErmal interrogation experiment) waste assay system for alpha low level waste (LLW) characterization. This device, including both passive and active neutron measurement methods, is developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.), Cadarache Centre, in cooperation with COGEMA. Its purpose is to reach the requirements for incinerating alpha waste (less than 50 Bq[α], i.e. about 50 μg of Pu per gram of raw waste) in 118 litre- > drums. The PROMETHEE development and progress are performed with the help of simulation based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP4 [1]. These calculations are coupled with specific experiments in order to confirm calculated results and to obtain characteristics that can not be approached by the simulation (background for example). This paper presents the PROMETHEE measurement cell, its current performances, and studies performed at the laboratory about the most limiting parameters such as the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl..), its density and its heterogeneity degree -the localization and the self-shielding properties of the contaminant. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of alpha low level waste in 118 litre drums by passive and active neutron measurements in the promethee assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Mariani, A.; Ma, J.L.; Baudry, G.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Recroix, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Loridon, J.; Denis, C. [French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A./Cadarache), DED/SCCD/LDMN, Durance (France); Toubon, H. [COGEMA, VELIZY-VILLACOUBLAY (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper deals with the PROMETHEE (PROMpt, epithermal and THErmal interrogation experiment) waste assay system for alpha low level waste (LLW) characterization. This device, including both passive and active neutron measurement methods, is developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.), Cadarache Centre, in cooperation with COGEMA. Its purpose is to reach the requirements for incinerating alpha waste (less than 50 Bq[{alpha}], i.e. about 50 {mu}g of Pu per gram of raw waste) in 118 litre-<> drums. The PROMETHEE development and progress are performed with the help of simulation based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP4 [1]. These calculations are coupled with specific experiments in order to confirm calculated results and to obtain characteristics that can not be approached by the simulation (background for example). This paper presents the PROMETHEE measurement cell, its current performances, and studies performed at the laboratory about the most limiting parameters such as the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl..), its density and its heterogeneity degree -the localization and the self-shielding properties of the contaminant. (orig.)

  5. Federal Facility Agreement plans and schedules for liquid low-level radioactive waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA was January 1, 1992. Section 9 and Appendix F of the agreement impose design and operating requirements on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) tank systems and identify several plans, schedules, and assessments that must be submitted to EPA/TDEC for review or approval. The initial issue of this document in March 1992 transmitted to EPA/TDEC those plans and schedules that were required within 60 to 90 days of the FFA effective date. The current revision of this document updates the plans, schedules, and strategy for achieving compliance with the FFA, and it summarizes the progress that has been made over the past year. Chapter 1 describes the history and operation of the ORNL LLLW System, the objectives of the FFA, the organization that has been established to bring the system into compliance, and the plans for achieving compliance. Chapters 2 through 7 of this report contain the updated plans and schedules for meeting FFA requirements. This document will continue to be periodically reassessed and refined to reflect newly developed information and progress

  6. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  7. Radiological (MRI and Biochemical effects of Low Level LASER therapy in chronic Osteo arthritis in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Nambi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the degenerative diseases and Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been prescribed as nonoperative treatment in physiotherapy. But the available evidences of finding the radiological and biochemical effectiveness of LLLT are very few. So, the purpose of this study is to find the radiological and biochemical effect of Low level laser therapy (LLLT in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. 34 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups (Active Laser group – ALG & Placebo Laser group - PLG with randomized sampling method. ALG was treated with active laser head, whereas PLG treated same like ALG but without emission of energy. Both groups were applied with kinesio tape for 4 weeks. The frequency of the treatment was three times per week for 4 weeks in both groups. Subjects were assessed at baseline, 4th and 8th week. Contact area (mm2 – medial & lateral and cartilage thickness (percentage - medial & lateral was measured by Magnetic resonance image (MRI and CTX-II (μmg/mmol was measured by urine analysis. A statistically significant (p ≤0.05 difference between both groups were noted at the period of 8 week for contact area (lateral and CTX-II and insignificant (p ≥ 0.05 difference in contact area (medial and cartilage thickness (medial & lateral were noted. In conclusion, the low level laser therapy is helpful in modifying the biochemical components and leads to make changes in the cartilage which subsequently improve the quality of life of OA patients.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  9. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  10. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  11. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  12. The CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  13. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  14. Evaluation of muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism before and after low level laser applied to acupoints: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Mônica da Consolação Canuto; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Horliana, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Motta, Pamella de Barros; MesquitaFerrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-08-08

    Bruxism is a repetitive activity that causes tooth wear, audible sounds, and discomfort. Preventive measures have been studied for conditions that can exert a negative influence on physiological development in children. Low-level laser therapy administered over acupoints is an effective, painless, low-cost treatment option that has achieved good results. Thus, the aim of the proposed study is to evaluate changes in muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism after the application of low-level laser to accupoints. The children will be randomly allocated to four groups of 19 individuals: G1 - low-level laser; G2 - occlusal splint; G3 - placebo laser; and G4 - control (without bruxism). The BTS TMJOINT electromyography will be used to determine muscle activity and a digital gnathodynamometer will be used to measure bite force. Salivary cortisol will be analysed at baseline as well as one and six months after treatment. Two-way ANOVA will be employed and complemented by Tukey's test. Bruxism is a repetitive activity of the masticatory muscles that can have negative consequences if not treated, such as tooth wear, noises, discomfort and anxiety. Thus, control and treatment measures should be taken. Although low-level laser therapy over acupoints has been indicated for children, the effects of this treatment modality have not yet been studied. NCT02757261 on 8 April 2016. This study protocol received a grant from the Brazilian fostering agency São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP: #2015/24731-0).

  15. Heat sink management during CANDU low level operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liansheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the practice of low-level operation with opening on the main heat transport system during an outage for a Candu-6 nuclear power plant, analyses the risks of losing heat sink during this condition, and points out the safety measures and management requirement for controlling such risks. This paper can be used as a reference for improving and optimizing the heat sink management for the coming outages. (author)

  16. Low level of regulatory T cells and maintenance of balance between regulatory T cells and TH17 cells in HIV-1-infected elite controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Lea; Benfield, Thomas Lars; Mens, Helene

    2011-01-01

    A subgroup of HIV-1-infected individuals, elite controllers, have spontaneous viral control and offer an exceptional opportunity to study virological and immunolocigal factors of possible involvement in control of HIV-1 infection....

  17. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  18. Low level laser therapy for concurrent chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients – A triple blinded randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Ajay Prashad; Fernandes, Donald J.; Vidyasagar, Mamidipudi S.; Maiya, Arun G.; Vadhiraja, Bejadi M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Oral mucositis (OM) is most cumbersome acute side effect of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). OM associated pain affects oral functions and nutrition of the patient that may result in discontinuity of treatment. Several modalities have been tried to prevent and treat OM, but none proved completely successful until date. We used prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) for the prevention and treatment of CCRT induced OM. Materials and methods: In this triple blinded study, 221 HNC patients scheduled to undergo CCRT (Cisplatin (1, 22, 43 day) + RT = 66 Grays (2 Gy/fraction), 33 fractions, 5 fractions/week, for 45 days) were block randomized into laser (n = 111) and placebo (n = 110) group. Laser group received LLLT (HeNe, λ = 632.8 nm, power-density = 24 mW, dosage = 3.0 J/point, total dosage/session = 36–40 J, spot-size = 1 cm 2 , 5 sessions/week) while placebo received sham treatment daily prior to radiation. OM (RTOG/EORTC Scale), oral pain (VAS), dysphagia (FIS), weight loss and CCRT break were assessed. Data were analyzed using frequencies and percentage, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and odds ratio. Results: There was significant reduction in incidence of severe OM (F = 16.64, df = 8876, p < 0.0001) and its associated pain (F = 25.06, df = 8876, p < 0.0001), dysphagia (F = 20.17, df = 8876, p < 0.0001) and opioid analgesics use (p < 0.0001) in laser than placebo group patients. Conclusions: LLLT decreased the incidence of CCRT induced severe OM and its associated pain, dysphagia and opioid analgesics use.

  19. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  20. Establishment Criteria for Integrated Wind Shear Detection Systems: Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS), Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), and Modified Airport Surveillance Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Overviev . ......................................... 9 2. Programs , Syr!ems, and Services ........................ 11 a. National Weather Service...Equipment Appropriation. ADA, a computer system developed and maintained by the Office of Aviation Policy and rlans, facilitates APS-I processing... Program Plan. The primary benefit of LLWAS, TDWR, and modified airport surveillance radar is reduced risk and expected incidence of wind shear-related

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  2. A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.B.; Hall, D.S.

    1982-05-01

    Self-powered flux detectors are used in CANDU nuclear power reactors to determine the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor core for use by both the reactor control and safety systems. To establish the dynamic response of different types of flux detectors, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have an ongoing experimental irradiation program in the NRU research reactor for which a data acquistion system has been developed. The system described in this paper is used to measure the currents from the detectors both at a slow, regular logging interval, and at a rapid, adaptive rate following a reactor shutdown. Currents that range from 100 pA to 1 mA full scale can be measured from up to 38 detectors and stored at sampling rates of up to 20 samples per second. The dynamic characteristics of the detectors can be computed from the stored records. The data acquisition system comprises a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer, dual cartridge disks, floppy disks, a hard copy and a video display terminal. The RT-11 operating system is used and all application programs are written in FORTRAN

  3. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds

  4. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  5. Waste characterization data manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Sect. IX.G.1. This manual contains the results of sampling activities that were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1988. Thirty-three tanks were sampled and analyzed at that time. Sampling of the remaining inactive tanks is currently underway, and data from these tanks will be added to this manual as they become available. Data are presented from analysis of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds.

  6. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on aquatic communities. Teratological effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.; Skalaski, J.R.; Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on the relatively radiosensitive immune process of the rainbow trout suggest that a higher RBE value than is now recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may be required. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects of lithium in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies on teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields address the need to assess the potential harmful effects of magnetic fields on attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors

  7. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation

  8. Low-level radioactive waste vitrification: effect of Cs partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.S.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) immobilization options are cementation or bituminization. Either of these options could be followed by shallow-land burial (SLB) or above-ground disposal. These rather simple LLW procedures appeared to be readily available, to meet regulatory requirements, and to satisfy cost constraints. The authorization of State Compacts, the forced closure of half of the six SLB disposal facilities of the nation, and the escalation of transportation/disposal fees diminish the viability of these options. The synergetic combination of these factors led to a reassessment of traditional methods and to an investigation of other techniques. This paper analyzes the traditional LLW immobilization options, reviews the impact of the LLW stream composition on Low-Level Waste Vitrification (LLWV), then proposes and briefly discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV)

  9. Effect of Low-level LASER Therapy on P6 Acupoint to Control Gag Reflex in Children: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Goel

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: LLLT on PC6 point was found to be effective in lowering anxiety levels as observed by faces modified anxiety rating scale. Further, it was authenticated as the pulse rates were significantly reduced and oxygen saturation levels were significantly increased. Also, gag reflex was significantly controlled when LASER stimulation was done at PC6.

  10. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  11. Effect of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of cochlear tinnitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Mahboobeh Adami; Einolghozati, Sasan; Ghasemi, Seyyed Mohsen; Abolbashari, Samaneh; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Behzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Many treatments for chronic tinnitus have been attempted, but the condition remains difficult to cure, especially in the case of cochlear tinnitus. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of low-dose laser therapy on chronic cochlear tinnitus. Our study population was made up of 66 patients-33 who received active laser treatment (case group) and 33 who received inactive dummy treatment (control group). Patients in the laser group received 5 mV with a wavelength of 650 nm for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. The controls followed the same schedule, but they were "treated" with an inactive device. The degree of tinnitus was evaluated before and after treatment in each group in three ways: (1) the Tinnitus Severity Index (TSI), (2) a subjective 10-point self-assessment scale for tinnitus loudness, and (3) the Tinnitus Evaluation Test (TET). At study's end, we found no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups in the number of patients who experienced a reduction in TSI values (p = 0.589) or a reduction in subjective self-assessment scores (p = 0.475). Nor did we find any significant reductions in the loudness (p = 0.665) and frequency (p = 0.396) of tinnitus as determined by the TET. We conclude that 5-mV laser therapy with a wavelength of 650 nm is no better than placebo for improving hearing thresholds overall or for treating tinnitus with regard to age, sex, environmental noise level, and the duration of tinnitus.

  12. Low levels of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone correlate with severe evaporative dysfunctional tear syndrome in postmenopausal women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Caterina; Caruso, Salvatore; Napolitano, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Amato, Roberta; Reibaldi, Michele; Incarbone, Giuseppe; Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo; Avitabile, Teresio

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and total testosterone (TT) deficiency in the pathogenesis of severe evaporative dry eye syndrome (DES), investigating the relationship between tear osmolarity, tear film break-up time (TF-BUT), Schirmer test and serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women. 44 postmenopausal women were recruited for a case-control study: 22 women with severe evaporative DES (Group A) and 22 without DES (Group B). The tests performed included laboratory blood analysis: fasting plasma profile (17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and TT), glucose level and lipid profile. Detailed eye examinations, including corneal and conjunctival staining, tear osmolarity measurement, tear volume and TF-BUT, were performed. The Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire was also administered. Values of Schirmer test and TF-BUT in Group A were significantly lower in comparison with Group B (p<0.001). Serum levels of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and TT were significantly lower in Group A compared with Group B (p<0.05). In women with severe evaporative DES, the levels of 17-β-oestradiol, oestrone and TT were inversely correlated with the tear film osmolarity (r=-0.7, -0.88, -0.81, respectively). In postmenopausal women with severe evaporative DES, sex hormone levels are lower than control and that tear osmolarity is negatively correlated with sex hormone levels.

  13. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations)

  14. Background information on sources of low-level radionuclide emissions to air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbit, C.D.; Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Stout, L.A.; Corley, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    This report provides a general description and reported emissions for eight low-level radioactive source categories, including facilties that are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Agreement States, and non-Department of Energy (DOE) federal facilities. The eight categories of low-level radioactive source facilities covered by this report are: research and test reactors, accelerators, the radiopharmaceutical industry, source manufacturers, medical facilities, laboratories, naval shipyards, and low-level commercial waste disposal sites. Under each category five elements are addressed: a general description, a facility and process description, the emission control systems, a site description, and the radionuclides released to air (from routine operations).

  15. Can low-level laser therapy (LLLT) associated with an aerobic plus resistance training change the cardiometabolic risk in obese women? A placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; da Silveira Campos, Raquel Munhoz; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is one of the most important link factors to coronary artery disease development mainly due to the pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states favoring atherosclerosis progression. The LLLT acts in the cellular metabolism and it is highly effective to improve inflammation. The same occur in response to different kinds of exercise. However, we have not known the associate effects using LLLT therapies with aerobic plus resistance training as strategy specifically with target at human obesity control and its comorbidities. Investigate the effects of the LLLT associated with aerobic plus resistance training on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. Women aged 20-40 years (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), were divided into 2 groups: Phototherapy (PHOTO) and Placebo. They were trained aerobic plus resistance exercises (in a concurrent mode), 1h, 3 times/week during 16 weeks. Phototherapy was applied after each exercise session for 16 min, with infrared laser, wavelength 808 nm, continuous output, power 100 mW, and energy delivery 50 J. The body composition was measured with bioimpedance. Inflammatory mark concentrations were measured using a commercially available multiplex. LLLT associated with aerobic plus resistance training was effective in decrease neck (P=0.0003) and waist circumferences (P=0.02); percentual of fat (P=0.04); visceral fat area (P=0.02); HOMA-IR (P=0.0009); Leptin (P=0.03) and ICAM (P=0.03). Also, the reduction in leptin (P=0.008) and ICAM-1 (0, 05) was much more expressive in the phototherapy group in comparison to placebo group when analyzed by delta values. LLLT associated with concurrent exercise (aerobic plus resistance training) potentiates the exercise effects of decreasing the cardiometabolic risk factors in obese woman. These results suggest the LLLT associated with exercises as a new therapeutic tool in the control of obesity and its comorbidities for obese people, targeting to optimize the strategies to control the cardiometabolic risk

  16. Waste Characterization Data Manual for the inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This Waste Characterization Data Manual contains the results of an analysis of the contents of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), Section IX.G.1. Section IX.G.1 of the FFA requires waste characterizations be conducted and provided to EPA and TDEC for all LLLW tanks that are removed from service. These waste characterizations shall include the results of sampling and analysis of the tank contents, including wastes, liquids, and sludges. This manual was first issued as ORNL/ER-80 in June 1992. The waste characterization data were extracted from ORNL reports that described tank sampling and analysis conducted in 1988 for 32 out-of-service tanks. This revision of the manual contains waste characterization data for 54 tanks, including the 32 tanks from the 1988 sampling campaign (Sects. 2.1 through 2.32) and the 22 additional tanks from a subsequent sampling campaign in 1992 and 1993 (Sects. 2.33 through 2.54). Data are presented from analyses of volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, radiochemical compounds, and inorganic compounds. As additional data resulting from analyses of out-of-service tank samples become available, they will be added to this manual

  17. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  18. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system

  19. Low-level memory processes in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, S

    2000-06-01

    Psychophysical studies of the short-term memory for attributes or dimensions of the visual stimulus that are known to be important in early visual processing (spatial frequency, orientation, contrast, motion and color) identify a low-level perceptual memory mechanism. This proposed mechanism is located early in the visual processing stream, prior to the structural description system responsible for shape priming but beyond primary visual cortex (V1); it is composed of a series of parallel, special-purpose perceptual mechanisms with independent but limited processing resources. Each mechanism is devoted to the analysis of a single dimension and is coupled to a memory store.

  20. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (Uses) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus I that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  1. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Pregrain, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus 1 that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less

  2. Accelerometer-controlled automatic braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

    1973-01-01

    Braking system, which employs angular accelerometer to control wheel braking and results in low level of tire slip, has been developed and tested. Tests indicate that system is feasible for operations on surfaces of different slipperinesses. System restricts tire slip and is capable of adapting to rapidly-changing surface conditions.

  3. The UNK control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, V.N.; Brook, V.L.; Dunaitsev, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The IHEP proton Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK) includes in its first stage a 400 GeV conventional and a 3000 GeV superconducting ring placed in the same underground tunnel of 20.7 km circumference. The beam will be injected into UNK from the existing 70 GeV accelerator U-70. The experimental programme which is planned to start in 1995, will include 3000 GeV fixed target and 400 + 3000 GeV colliding beams physics. The size and complexity of the UNK dictate a distributed multiprocessor architecture of the control system. About 4000 of 8/16 bit controllers, directly attached to the UNK equipment will perform low level control and data acquisition tasks. The equipment controllers will be connected via the MIL-1553 field bus to VME based 32-bit front end computers. The TCP/IP network will interconnect front end computers in the UNK equipment buildings with UNIX workstations and servers in the Main Control Room. The report presents the general architecture and current status of the UNK control. (author)

  4. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  5. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Manh Toan; Nguyen Trieu Tu

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  6. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  7. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  8. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  9. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  10. Incineration of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussmann, H.; Klemann, D.; Mallek, H.

    1986-01-01

    At present, various incinerators for radioactive waste are operated with more or less good results worldwide. Both, plant manufacturers and plant owners have repeatedly brought about plant modifications and improvements over the last 10 years, and this is true for the combustion process and also for the waste gas treatment systems. This paper attempts to summarize requirements, in general, by owner/operators for the plants which are designed and erected today

  11. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  12. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  13. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  14. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  15. The Role of Low-Level Laser in Periodontal Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Heydari, Mohaddase; Barati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Treatment protocols with low-level Laser (also called ‘soft laser therapy) have been used in health care systems for more than three decades. Bearing in mind the suitable sub-cellular absorption and the cellular-vascular impacts, low-level laser may be a treatment of choice for soft tissues. Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. In this present review article, searches have been made in Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, focusing on the studies which included low-level lasers, flap-periodontal surgeries, gingivectomy, and periodontal graft. The present study has sought to review the cellular impacts of low-level lasers and its role on reducing pain and inflammation following soft tissue surgical treatments. PMID:25987968

  16. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved.

  17. 1997 structural integrity assessments for the Category C liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of a series of evaluations to determine if the individual Category C tank systems retain sufficient structural integrity to continue being used for liquid storage. The approach used to reach the final certification/conclusion consisted of three phases, including: (1) Review of the original engineering design drawings and construction materials to determine whether the tank and line systems were capable of containing liquids without leaking (and also to check that the construction materials were compatible with liquids that might have been placed in these systems). While drawings in this report may be of poor quality, they are copies of the best available originals. (2) A qualitative corrosion assessment conducted in 1995 that further evaluated both the potential internal corrosion effects of materials in the tank and in the potential external corrosion effects of the backfill and native soil at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ability to accurately measure or predict the amount of corrosion present on both the internal and external walls of the tanks and pipelines is extremely limited. However, when available, data were used to assess the historical tank contents and usage and the probable corrosive effects on the tank system materials of construction. (3) Performance of monthly leak tests were completed on the tanks and annual leak tests were completed on associated testable pipelines. This task was judged to be the most important criteria for determining structural integrity due to the proven performance of the technology and processes involved

  18. Centralized treatment facility for low level radioactive waste produced in Belgium. The CILVA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux; Debieve; Renard, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The CILVA unit is designed for β γ low level nuclear wastes treatments. CILVA is made of five units: the reception/storage/distribution unit, the waste preconditioning unit, the supercompaction unit, the incineration unit and the conditioning unit. Each unit will be controlled by a decentralized system connected to a central waste management monitoring system. (A.B.). 2 figs

  19. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  20. Control system for gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    An improved gamma camera arrangement is described which utilizing a solid state detector, formed of high purity germanium. the central arrangement of the camera operates to effect the carrying out of a trapezoidal filtering operation over antisymmetrically summed spatial signals through gated integration procedures utilizing idealized integrating intervals. By simultaneously carrying out peak energy evaluation of the input signals, a desirable control over pulse pile-up phenomena is achieved. Additionally, through the use of the time derivative of incoming pulse or signal energy information to initially enable the control system, a low level information evaluation is provided serving to enhance the signal processing efficiency of the camera

  1. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  2. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  3. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  4. Annual status report on Federal Facility Agreement compliance for the Liquid Low-Level Waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This annual report summarizes the status of Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) compliance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and describes the progress made over the past fiscal year. In fiscal 1994, ORNL issued the final submittal of the risk characterization data for the inactive tanks, the secondary containment design demonstration report for Category B piping, and the FFA Implementation Plan. In addition, two new LLLW tanks serving Building 2026 and the Transported Waste Receiving Facility were installed; leak testing was initiated for all active, singly contained tanks and piping; sources of inflow to inactive tanks were investigated and diversion to process waste was begun; and the W-12 tank system was repaired and a request to allow its temporary use was approved by EPA/TDEC. Programmatic improvements were also made during the year: a system for improved communication of FFA plans and activities was implemented in October 1993, a survey was conducted to ensure that all inactive drains are identified and sealed, and two meetings of the ORNL FFA Technical Advisory Group were held

  5. Low-Level Test of the New Read-Out-Driver (ROD) Module and Back-of-Crate (BOC) Module for ATLAS IBL Data Acquisition System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Hanindhito, Bagus

    2014-01-01

    During first long shutdown of The Large Hadron Collider, most of experiment infrastructures at CERN will be upgraded for preparation to operate at higher energy thus can open new possibilities to discover the unknown in particle physics. ATLAS, which is the biggest particle detector at CERN, will also be upgraded by constructing new pixel sensor layer. This new pixel sensor layer is called ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL will be installed between the existing pixel sensor and new, smaller radius beam pipe. The installation of IBL will introduce new level of radiation and pixel occupancy. Therefore, it requires development of new technologies to supports the ATLAS IBL upgrade and also improve the physics performance of the existing pixel sensor. One of the important key technologies that must be upgraded is data acquisition system. The development of new front-end ASIC, the FE-I4, to answer the challenge in data acquisition system will require new off-detector electronics. The new off-detector electronics ...

  6. Use of low level of continuous heat and Ibuprofen as an adjunct to physical therapy improves pain relief, range of motion and the compliance for home exercise in patients with nonspecific neck pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Laymon, Michael; Alshammari, Faris; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Lee, Haneul

    2017-01-01

    It has been well documented at heat reduces pain and increases healing by increasing blood flow in tissue. The purpose of this study was to see if the use of low level continuous heat (LLCH) and Ibuprofen used as a home therapy between physical therapy sessions at a clinic resulted in better therapy outcomes in people with chronic neck pain. Ninety-two patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain were randomly divided into 4 groups; LLCH group, LLCH with Ibuprofen (IP) group, sham LLCH with sham IP group, and controls. All subjects underwent 45 minutes of conventional physical therapy twice a week for 2 weeks. the neck disability index (NDI), subjective pain, range of motion (ROM), strength of the neck, and home exercise compliance were measured. Both LLCH and IP significantly reduced pain and NDI score, and increased ROM (ppain significantly improved pain attenuation and it causes greater compliance for home.

  7. GPU-based low-level trigger system for the standalone reconstruction of the ring-shaped hit patterns in the RICH Cherenkov detector of NA62 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Frezza, O.; Cicero, F. Lo; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Chiozzi, S.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Neri, I.; Lorenzo, S. Di; Fantechi, R.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Lamanna, G.; Piccini, M.

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to exploit the parallel computing power of a commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to implement fast pattern matching in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector for the level 0 (L0) trigger of the NA62 experiment. In this approach, the ring-fitting algorithm is seedless, being fed with raw RICH data, with no previous information on the ring position from other detectors. Moreover, since the L0 trigger is provided with a more elaborated information than a simple multiplicity number, it results in a higher selection power. Two methods have been studied in order to reduce the data transfer latency from the readout boards of the detector to the GPU, i.e., the use of a dedicated NIC device driver with very low latency and a direct data transfer protocol from a custom FPGA-based NIC to the GPU. The performance of the system, developed through the FPGA approach, for multi-ring Cherenkov online reconstruction obtained during the NA62 physics runs is presented.

  8. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  9. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  10. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  11. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  12. Use of Low Level of Continuous Heat as an Adjunct to Physical Therapy Improves Knee Pain Recovery and the Compliance for Home Exercise in Patients With Chronic Knee Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Laymon, Michael S; Alshammari, Faris S; Lee, Haneul

    2016-11-01

    Petrofsky, JS, Laymon, MS, Alshammari, FS, and Lee, H. Use of low level of continuous heat as an adjunct to physical therapy improves knee pain recovery and the compliance for home exercise in patients with chronic knee pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3107-3115, 2016-This study examined if the use of low level continuous heat (LLCH) wraps at home between physical therapy sessions at a clinic resulted in better therapy outcomes in patients with chronic knee pain. Fifty individuals with chronic nonspecific knee pain was randomly allocated to 2 groups: the LLCH group and the placebo group. All subjects underwent 1 hour of conventional physical therapy twice per week for 2 weeks at the outpatient clinic and they were asked to accomplish 1 hour of therapeutic exercise at home each day between sessions. The LLCH group applied LLCH knee wraps for 6 hours at home before home exercise while placebo group took a placebo ibuprofen. (This was done since placebo heat is impossible to use since subjects would notice that the wraps were cold) Before, during, and after intervention, pain intensity, active range of motion of the knee (AROM), knee strength, and home exercise compliance were measured. The LLCH group showed pain attenuation after 2 weeks of therapy sessions (p ≤ 0.05). AROM and strength of the knee significantly improved over time compared to the placebo group. Home exercise compliance was significantly higher in the LLCH group than placebo group (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicated that the use of LLCH as an adjunct to conventional physical therapy for chronic knee pain significantly improved pain attenuation and recovery of strength and movement in patients with chronic knee pain.

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  14. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  15. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  16. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  17. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    Male and female pattern hair loss are common, chronic dermatologic disorders with limited therapeutic options. In recent years, a number of commercial devices using low-level laser therapy have been promoted, but there have been little peer-reviewed data on their efficacy. To determine whether treatment with a low-level laser device, the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, increases terminal hair density in both men and women with pattern hair loss. Randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted at multiple institutional and private practices. A total of 146 male and 188 female subjects with pattern hair loss were screened. A total of 128 male and 141 female subjects were randomized to receive either a lasercomb (one of three models) or a sham device in concealed sealed packets, and were treated on the whole scalp three times a week for 26 weeks. Terminal hair density of the target area was evaluated at baseline and at 16- and 26-week follow-ups, and analyzed to determine whether the hypothesis formulated prior to data collection, that lasercomb treatment would increase terminal hair density, was correct. The site investigators and the subjects remained blinded to the type of device they dispensed/received throughout the study. The evaluator of masked digital photographs was blinded to which trial arm the subject belonged. Seventy-eight, 63, 49, and 79 subjects were randomized in four trials of 9-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 12-beam lasercomb treatment in female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb treatment in male subjects, compared with the sham device, respectively. Nineteen female and 25 male subjects were lost to follow-up. Among the remaining 122 female and 103 male subjects in the efficacy analysis, the mean terminal hair count at 26 weeks increased from baseline by 20.2, 20.6, 18.4, 20.9, and 25.7 per cm2 in 9-beam lasercomb-treated female subjects, 12-beam

  18. Properties of the cements and their use in the storage systems of low-level radioactive wastes; Propiedades de los cementos y su uso en los sistemas de almacenamiento de desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M. G., E-mail: guadalupe.almazan@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The use of materials containing cement has generalized in the facilities of definitive storage of radioactive wastes due to their easy handling and availability. Besides conforming the buildings and structures, these materials are part of the barriers system that will maintain the isolated radioactive wastes of the biosphere until their activity has decayed at innocuous levels. However, to fulfill this function, the effectiveness and durability of these materials should be demonstrated fully. In Mexico the intention exists of building a definitive storehouse for the low-level radioactive wastes, however are few the studies on the behavior of the materials containing cement used in this type of facilities. With the purpose of to guide and promoting the study of the national cements, in this work is made a revision of the characteristics and properties of the cements with relationship to its use in the systems of definitive storage of low-level radioactive wastes, as well as of some studies that are realized to evaluate its acting as engineering barriers. (Author)

  19. Low level radwaste packaging: why not cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years many words have been expended in a quest to define a variety of competing radioactive waste immobilization technologies. With the more recent recognition of the technical pitfalls of urea-formaldehyde (UF) a liquid chemical binder considered as optimum less than two years ago, utilities, architect-engineers and systems vendors find themselves in a technology void, awaiting the inevitable breakthrough which will identify the perfect immobilization agent. The culmination of these pressures has brought about the introduction of new immobilization technologies including: one which offers both volume reduction and immobilization in yet another new binder agent; the costly development of highly sophisticated volume reduction systems, the highly-concentrated products from which may pose as-yet unknown immobilization problems; and, the marketing of several new more expensive liquid chemical binders which are reputed to have eliminated the kinds of problems associated with urea-formaldehyde. This paper addresses these issues by coming full circle and arriving back at the initial approach employed for low level radwaste immobilization, the use of cement. Based on an evaluation of the three principal competing immobilization approaches, liquid chemical, bitumen and cement, the merits and drawbacks of each is examined. As will be described, an objective assessment of these competing technologies has resulted in a somewhat surprising conclusion that, while none of the approaches is without disadvantages, cement can be shown to offer the most reliable, versatile long-term solution to today's needs

  20. Low level waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, A.D.; Truitt, D.J.; Logan, J.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. is the lead contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program, established in 1979. In this role, the company uses its waste management expertise to provide management and technical direction to support the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) in a manner that protects the environment and the public health and safety while improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Program activities are divided into two areas: defense-related and commercial nuclear reactor programs. The defense program was established to develop technology improvements, provide technology transfer, and to ensure a more efficient and uniform system for low level waste disposal. To achieve the program's goals, it is necessary to improve, document, and, where necessary, develop new methods for waste generation reduction, waste treatment, shallow-land burial, greater confinement disposal, and measures to correct existing site deficiencies. The commercial low level waste management program provides support to assist the states in developing an effective national low level waste management system and provides technical assistance for siting of regional commercial LLW disposal sites. The program provides technical and informational support to state officials, low level waste generators, managers, and facility operators to resolve low level waste problems and to improve the systems' overall effectiveness. Procedures are developed and documented and made available to commercial users through this program. Additional work is being conducted to demonstrate the stabilization and closure of low level radioactive waste disposal sites and develop the criteria and procedures for acceptance of such sites by the Department of Energy after closure has been completed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  4. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  5. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  6. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  7. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  8. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  9. Low-level-waste-treatment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, S.D.; Goeller, H.E.; Holladay, D.W.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initial draft of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. A revised draft is scheduled to be delivered to DOE Headquarters in December 1982. The Handbook is designed to be useful to all individuals and groups concerned with low-level wastes. It is one of several volumes that will ultimately comprise a Low-Level Waste Technology Handbook. The objective of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook is to present an overview of current practices related to the segregation, classification, volume reduction, solidification, handling, packaging, and transportation of LLW for disposal in a shallow land burial facility. The Handbook is intended to serve as a guide to individuals interested in the treatment and handling of low-level radioactive waste. The Handbook will not explicitly tell the user how to design and operate LLW treatment facilities, but rather will identify (1) kinds of information required to evaluate the options, (2) methods that may be used to evaluate these options, and (3) limitations associated with the selection of the treatment options. The focus of the Handbook is providing guidance on how to do waste treatment for disposal by shallow land burial

  10. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  11. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  12. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  13. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  14. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  16. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2012-01-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....

  17. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  18. Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Therapy for Pain Control in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andréa Conceição Gomes; Fernandes, Gilderlene Alves; Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse; de Barros Araújo, Raimundo; de Oliveira, Rauirys Alencar; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for reducing pain in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts. This study was conducted on 120 volunteers who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, LLLT [λ = 640 nm and spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) = 1.06 J/cm(2)], and LED (λ = 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF = 0.24 J/cm(2)). Participants were also divided into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic subgroups, according to their fasting blood glucose test result before surgery. The outcome assessed was pain during coughing by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The patients were followed for 1 month after the surgery. The LLLT and LED groups showed a greater decrease in pain, with similar results, as indicated by both the VAS and the McGill questionnaire (p ≤ 0.05), on the 6th and 8th postoperative day compared with the placebo and control groups. The outcomes were also similar between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients. One month after the surgery, almost no individual reported pain during coughing. LLLT and LED had similar analgesic effects in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, better than placebo and control groups.

  19. Low level image processing techniques using the pipeline image processing engine in the flight telerobotic servicer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashman, Marilyn; Chaconas, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    The sensory processing system for the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM) for telerobotic control is described. This control system architecture was adopted by NASA of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer. The control system is hierarchically designed and consists of three parallel systems: task decomposition, world modeling, and sensory processing. The Sensory Processing System is examined, and in particular the image processing hardware and software used to extract features at low levels of sensory processing for tasks representative of those envisioned for the Space Station such as assembly and maintenance are described.

  20. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  1. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  2. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  3. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...... network is conducted. Comparisons (t-test) between CSR tweets and general tweets and between specialized CSR Twitter accounts and general accounts reveal that the low levels of interactivity are due to a reactive interaction approach and a lack of specialization....

  4. The cryogenic control system of BEPCⅡ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Ke-Xiang; ZHAO Ji-Jiu; YUE Ke-Juan; DAI Ming-Sui; HUANG Yi-Ling; JIANG Bo

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider Upgrade Project(BEPCⅡ).The system consists of a Siemens PLC(ST-PLC,Programmable Logic Controller)for the compressor control,an Allen Bradley(AB)PLC for the cryogenic equipments,and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System(EPICS)that integrates the PLCs.The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control,PID(Proportional-Integral-Differential)control loops,real-time data access and data storage,alarm handler and human machine interface.It is capable of automatic recovery as well.This paper describes the BEPCⅡ cryogenic control system,data communication between ST-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers(IOCs),and the integration of the flow control,the low level interlock,the AB-PLC,and EPICS.

  5. Hanford low-level vitrification melter testing -- Master list of data submittals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting a two-phased effort to evaluate melter system technologies for vitrification of liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams. The evaluation effort includes demonstration testing of selected glass melter technologies and technical reports regarding the applicability of the glass melter technologies to the vitrification of Hanford LLW tank waste. The scope of this document is to identify and list vendor document submittals in technology demonstration support of the Hanford Low-Level Waste Vitrification melter testing program. The scope of this document is limited to those documents responsive to the Statement of Work, accepted and issued by the LLW Vitrification Program. The purpose of such a list is to maintain configuration control of vendor supplied data and to enable ready access to, and application of, vendor supplied data in the evaluation of melter technologies for the vitrification of Hanford low-level tank wastes

  6. LLW (Low-Level Waste) Forum meeting report, February 10-13, 1998, San Diego, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum met in San Diego, California, on February 10--13, 1998. Twenty-four Forum Participants, Alternate Forum Participants, and meeting designees representing 19 compacts, host states, and unaffiliated states participated. Additional information was provided by 19 resource people from, variously, the States of California, Colorado, and Utah; the National Governors' Association; the Department of the Army; EPA; DOE and DOE's National Low-Level Waste Management Program; NRC; the Electric Power Research Institute and the Nuclear Energy Institute; US Ecology, Chem-Nuclear Systems, Envirocare of Utah, and Waste Control Specialists (represented by Egan and Associates); and Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power. Also in attendance, as observers, were six other state and compact officials; a staff person from DOE's National Low-Level Waste Management Program; one NRC headquarters staff person; and seven representatives of other interested parties, including a regional generators' organization, two generators, one California anti-nuclear group, and two private companies

  7. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  8. LEDA LLRF control system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, A.H.; Balleyguier, P.; Ziomek, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) for the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) project will be built at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The low-level RF (LLRF) control system portion of this accelerator must perform many functions, of which the primary one is controlling the RF fields in the accelerating cavities. Plans have been made to provide for on-line characterization of the LLRF control system and the complete RF system through use of stimulus and response buffers, and a digital signal processor built into the field control system electronics. The purpose of this circuitry is to characterize the behavior of the entire RF system (klystron, waveguides, high power splitters, accelerator cavity, etc.). This characterization feature can be used to measure the performance of the closed loop system with respect to the open loop system, to provide an automated way to set loop parameters, to determine the cavity Q-curve, and to detect any abnormal behavior in the RF chain. The types of measurements include frequency and time-domain responses to given perturbations, amplitude modulations, etc. This paper will discuss types of algorithms that can be implemented and present a description and block diagram of the electronics to be used

  9. The Test of LLRF control system on superconducting cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhenglong; Wang, Xianwu; Wen, Lianghua; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Gao, Zheng; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The first generation Low-Level radio frequency(LLRF) control system independently developed by IMPCAS, the operating frequency is 162.5MHz for China ADS, which consists of superconducting cavity amplitude stability control, phase stability control and the cavity resonance frequency control. The LLRF control system is based on four samples IQ quadrature demodulation technique consisting an all-digital closed-loop feedback control. This paper completed the first generation of ADS LLRF control s...

  10. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  12. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  14. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  15. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  16. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 25-30 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak areas * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Slovak_en.pdf

  17. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 28-28 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  18. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  19. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  20. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  3. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  4. Low-level waste management at the Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.; Vallarino, V.; Calisto, W.

    1986-01-01

    A general overview of low-level radioactive waste management at the Nuclear Investigation Centre (CIN) of Uruguay is presented. The CIN is a pilot centre of research and development of techniques for implementing measurements for radioactive waste storage and control. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  6. The French centralized low level radwaste treatment centre named CENTRACO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Sixou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Socodei, a subsidiary company of EdF and Cogema is commissioned to design, finance, build and operate two low level radwaste treatment facilities: a contaminated scrap metal melting unit, and a solid and liquid waste incinerator. These units frame a low level radwaste treatment centre named Centraco, located near Marcoule in the south of France, and will receive in 1998 waste coming from dismantling, maintenance and operating works of French and foreign nuclear sites. The decision to create this centre is due to the low density and large variety of low level radwaste which take a volume out of proportion with their activity, specially in the surface storage centre. Up to now, all low level radwaste were sent and stored with no treatment optimization in surface storage centres. Socodei proposes in one single site, to optimize low level radwaste management and reduce the volume of ultimate waste to be stored: in a ratio of one to ten by casting ingots coming from melting contaminated scrap metals; in a ratio of one to twenty by encapsulating earth ashes and ashes resulting from incineration of solid and liquid waste. This is a centralized treatment centre and that's why Centraco is a new waste management system. Getting together all means in one place reduces costs, avoids mismanagement and risk increase, and allows consistency in safety, environmental impact, transport and personnel radioprotection. (author)

  7. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites

  8. Effect of single-dose low-level helium-neon laser irradiation on orthodontic pain: a split-mouth single-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shariati, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the most common complication of orthodontic treatment. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as a new analgesic treatment free of the adverse effects of analgesic medications. However, it is not studied thoroughly, and the available studies are quite controversial. Moreover, helium neon (He-Ne) laser has not been assessed before. This split-mouth placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on 16 male and 14 female orthodontic patients requiring bilateral upper canine retraction. The study was performed at a private clinic in Sari, Iran, in 2014. It was single blind: patients, orthodontist, and personnel were blinded of the allocations, but the laser operator (periodontist) was not blinded. Once canine retractor was activated, a randomly selected maxillary quarter received a single dose of He-Ne laser irradiation (632.8 nm, 10 mw, 6 j/cm(2) density). The other quarter served as the placebo side, treated by the same device but powered off. In the first, second, fourth, and seventh days, blinded patients rated their pain sensed on each side at home using visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires. There was no harm identified during or after the study. Pain changes were analyzed using two- and one-way repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and t-test (α = 0.01, β > 0.99). This trial was not registered. It was self-funded by the authors. Sixteen males and 11 females remained in the study (aged 12-21). Average pain scores sensed in all 4 intervals on control and laser sides were 4.06 ± 2.85 and 2.35 ± 1.77, respectively (t-test P < 0.0001). One-way ANOVA showed significant pain declines over time, in each group (P < 0.0001). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effects for LLLT (P < 0.0001) and time (P = <0.0001). Single-dose He-Ne laser therapy might reduce orthodontic pain caused by retracting maxillary canines.

  9. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution's (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation

  10. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  11. The oral cavity as a guide for the application of low level laser energy and its direct effect on the autonomic nervous system providing true energy healing for all health practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolin, Herbert S.

    2008-03-01

    This manuscript is intended to demonstrate the important role that dentistry plays in regulating the balance of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) through the proprioceptive feedback of the posterior teeth to the brain. An old paradigm called Dental Distress Syndrome, relatively unknown in dentistry today, has at its core, the importance of the height of the posterior (back) teeth and its impact on total body health which is greatly aided by low level laser energy. The rationale behind the belief that the alteration of the posterior teeth affects the ANS begins with basic concepts in embryology. The functioning of the ANS will support the fact of Dental Distress Syndrome. Health practitioners of all disciplines can learn to recognize Dental Distress Syndrome and initiate non-invasive treatment and team with a trained dentist to enhance the wellness and health of the patient if they so desire. A synopsis of my oral paper presented to the Academy of Laser Dentistry demonstrating temporary balancing of the Autonomic Nervous System with three minutes of cold laser energy, as well as my rationale as to why results vary with different cold lasers will be discussed. Clinical case studies will be presented.

  12. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  13. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction; a brief description of low-level radioactive wastes and their management; system-side issues; waste reduction and packaging; transportation; disposal; issues for further study; and summary of recommendations. Nine appendices are included

  14. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  15. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  16. Low-level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  17. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  18. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  19. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  20. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.

    1993-06-01

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered

  1. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  2. Development of a low-level radioactive waste shipper model. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    During 1982, Inter/Face Associates, Inc., conducted a low-level radioactive waste management survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in Massachusetts for the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program. In the process of conducting the survey, a model was developed, based on existing NRC license classification systems, that would identify licensees who ship low-level waste for disposal. This report presents the model and documents the procedures used in developing and testing it. After the model was tested, several modifications were developed with the goal of determining the model's ability to identify waste shippers under different parameters. The report includes a discussion of the modifications

  3. Metallograph for the examination of low-level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Shaffer, D.S.; Petty, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    A new remote-controlled metallograph was built for use in a low-level radiation background. The metallograph is low cost compared to a conventional remote-controlled metallograph. The motors that drive the stage motions and focus are commercially available and attach to the metallograph without modification. The metallograph was installed on a drawer in a blister behind a shielding door. This allows the metallograph to be reached quickly and easily for maintenance and repair

  4. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  5. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  6. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  7. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  8. Low-level and mixed waste incinerator survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Low-Level and Mixed Waste Survey Task was initiated to investigate and document current and planned incinerator facilities in the Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) system. A survey was mailed to the DOE field offices requesting information regarding existing or planned incinerator facilities located under their jurisdiction. The information requested included type, capacities, uses, costs, and mechanical description of the incinerators. The results of this survey are documented in this report. Nine sites responded to the survey, with eight sites listing nine incineration units in several stages of operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory listed two operational facilities. There are four incinerators that are planned for start-up in 1991. Of the existing incinerators, three are used mostly for low-level wastes, while the planned units will be used for low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. This report documents the current state of the incineration facilities in the DOE-DP system and provides a preliminary strategy for management of low-level wastes and a basis for implementing this strategy. 5 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  9. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  10. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL

  11. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-12-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

  12. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  13. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  14. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  15. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  16. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  17. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  18. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  19. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  20. Using a Control System Ethernet Network as a Field Bus

    CERN Document Server

    De Van, William R; Lawson, Gregory S; Wagner, William H; Wantland, David M; Williams, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    A major component of a typical accelerator distributed control system (DCS) is a dedicated, large-scale local area communications network (LAN). The SNS EPICS-based control system uses a LAN based on the popular IEEE-802.3 set of standards (Ethernet). Since the control system network infrastructure is available throughout the facility, and since Ethernet-based controllers are readily available, it is tempting to use the control system LAN for "fieldbus" communications to low-level control devices (e.g. vacuum controllers; remote I/O). These devices may or may not be compatible with the high-level DCS protocols. This paper presents some of the benefits and risks of combining high-level DCS communications with low-level "field bus" communications on the same network, and describes measures taken at SNS to promote compatibility between devices connected to the control system network.

  1. Design and operation of a low-level solid-waste disposal site at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, K.A.; Wilson, N.E.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Since the mid-1940's, approximately 185000 m 3 of low-level and transuranic radioactive solid waste, generated in operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, have been disposed of by on-site shallow land burial. Procedures and facilities have been designed and evaluated in the areas of waste acceptance, treatment and storage, disposal, traffic control, and support systems. The methodologies assuring the proper management and disposal of radioactive solid waste are summarized

  2. Low-level radioactive wastes: Their treatment, handling, disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P [Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Radiological Health Research Activities, Cincinnati, OH(United States)

    1964-07-01

    The release of low level wastes may result in some radiation exposure to man and his surroundings. This book describes techniques of handling, treatment, and disposal of low-level wastes aimed at keeping radiation exposure to a practicable minimum. In this context, wastes are considered low level if they are released into the environment without subsequent control. This book is concerned with practices relating only to continuous operations and not to accidental releases of radioactive materials. It is written by use for those interested in low level waste disposal problems and particularly for the health physicist concerned with these problems in the field. It should be helpful also to water and sewage works personnel concerned with the efficiency of water and sewage treatment processes for the removal of radioactive materials; the personnel engaged in design, construction, licensing, and operation of treatment facilities; and to student of nuclear technology. After an introduction the following areas are discussed: sources, quantities and composition of radioactive wastes; collection, sampling and measurement; direct discharge to the water, soil and air environment; air cleaning; removal of radioactivity by water-treatment processes and biological processes; treatment on site by chemical precipitation , ion exchange and absorption, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and other methods; treatment on site including evaporation and storage; handling and treatment of solid wastes; public health implications. Appendices include a glossary; standards for protection against radiation; federal radiation council radiation protection guidance for federal agencies; site selection criteria for nuclear energy facilities.

  3. Recent Developments in Low-Level Software Security

    OpenAIRE

    Agten , Pieter; Nikiforakis , Nick; Strackx , Raoul; Groef , Willem ,; Piessens , Frank

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Keynotes; International audience; An important objective for low-level software security research is to develop techniques that make it harder to launch attacks that exploit implementation details of the system under attack. Baltopoulos and Gordon have summarized this as the principle of source-based reasoning for security: security properties of a software system should follow from review of the source code and its source-level semantics, and should not depend on details of the compi...

  4. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  5. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  6. Low-Level Exploitation Mitigation by Diverse Microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Otterstad , Christian; Yarygina , Tetiana

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Microservices and Containers; International audience; This paper discusses a combination of isolatable microservices and software diversity as a mitigation technique against low-level exploitation; the effectiveness and benefits of such an architecture are substantiated. We argue that the core security benefit of microservices with diversity is increased control flow isolation. Additionally, a new microservices mitigation technique leveraging a security monitor service is introduced t...

  7. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  8. Argobots: A Lightweight Low-Level Threading and Tasking Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sangmin; Amer, Abdelhalim; Balaji, Pavan; Bordage, Cyril; Bosilca, George; Brooks, Alex; Carns, Philip; Castello, Adrian; Genet, Damien; Herault, Thomas; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Jindal, Prateek; Kale, Laxmikant V.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lifflander, Jonathan; Lu, Huiwei; Meneses, Esteban; Snir, Marc; Sun, Yanhua; Taura, Kenjiro; Beckman, Pete

    2018-03-01

    In the past few decades, a number of user-level threading and tasking models have been proposed in the literature to address the shortcomings of OS-level threads, primarily with respect to cost and flexibility. Current state-of-the-art user-level threading and tasking models, however, either are too specific to applications or architectures or are not as powerful or flexible. In this paper, we present Argobots, a lightweight, low-level threading and tasking framework that is designed as a portable and performant substrate for high-level programming models or runtime systems. Argobots offers a carefully designed execution model that balances generality of functionality with providing a rich set of controls to allow specialization by end users or high-level programming models. We describe the design, implementation, and performance characterization of Argobots and present integrations with three high-level models: OpenMP, MPI, and colocated I/O services. Evaluations show that (1) Argobots, while providing richer capabilities, is competitive with existing simpler generic threading runtimes; (2) our OpenMP runtime offers more efficient interoperability capabilities than production OpenMP runtimes do; (3) when MPI interoperates with Argobots instead of Pthreads, it enjoys reduced synchronization costs and better latency-hiding capabilities; and (4) I/O services with Argobots reduce interference with colocated applications while achieving performance competitive with that of a Pthreads approach.

  9. Argobots: A Lightweight Low-Level Threading and Tasking Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sangmin; Amer, Abdelhalim; Balaji, Pavan; Bordage, Cyril; Bosilca, George

    2017-01-01

    In the past few decades, a number of user-level threading and tasking models have been proposed in the literature to address the shortcomings of OS-level threads, primarily with respect to cost and flexibility. Current state-of-the-art user-level threading and tasking models, however, are either too specific to applications or architectures or are not as powerful or flexible. In this article, we present Argobots, a lightweight, low-level threading and tasking framework that is designed as a portable and performant substrate for high-level programming models or runtime systems. Argobots offers a carefully designed execution model that balances generality of functionality with providing a rich set of controls to allow specialization by the user or high-level programming model. Here, we describe the design, implementation, and optimization of Argobots and present integrations with three example high-level models: OpenMP, MPI, and co-located I/O service. Evaluations show that (1) Argobots outperforms existing generic threading runtimes; (2) our OpenMP runtime offers more efficient interoperability capabilities than production OpenMP runtimes do; (3) when MPI interoperates with Argobots instead of Pthreads, it enjoys reduced synchronization costs and better latency hiding capabilities; and (4) I/O service with Argobots reduces interference with co-located applications, achieving performance competitive with that of the Pthreads version.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  11. Control system modelling for superconducting accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarski, T.; Pozniak, K.; Romaniuk, R.

    2006-01-01

    A digital control of superconducting cavities for a linear accelerator is presented. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. FPGA based controller supported by MATLAB system was developed to investigate the novel firmware implementation. Algebraic model in complex domain is proposed for the system analyzing. Calibration procedure of a signal path is considered for a multi-channel control. Identification of the system parameters is carried out by the least squares method application. Control tables: Feed-Forward and Set- Point are determined for the required cavity performance, according to the recognized process. Feedback loop is tuned by fitting a complex gain of a corrector unit. Adaptive control algorithm is applied for feed-forward and feedback modes. Experimental results are presented for a cavity representative operation. (orig.)

  12. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  13. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  14. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  15. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  16. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  17. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  18. The Davros III supervisory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnox Electric's Remote Operations Branch deploy a wide variety of remote inspection and maintenance tools into nuclear plant in order to perform a variety of tasks. In recent years much progress has been made on low-level control of individual manipulator axes, and a parallel need has emerged for a supervisory system to assist the operator in the control of the whole system. Some requirements are: 1) to improve operator control of systems; 2) to simplify software maintenance and version control; 3) to reduce the likelihood of damage to manipulators; 4) to assist with rehearsals and simulations. Davros III is a PC software system which has been developed over a number of years to address these requirements. In a single program capable of being configured for a wide variety of applications, it provides a technique for following pretaught routes, a comprehensive and fully configurable interlock system and several different facilities for simulation. (author)

  19. The Davros III supervisory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnox Electric's Remote Operations Bbranch deploy a wide variety of remote inspection and maintenance tools into nuclear plant in order to perform a variety of tasks. In recent years much progress has been made on low-level control of individual manipulator axes and a parallel need has emerged for a supervisory system to assist the operator in the control of the whole system. Some requirements are: 1, To improve operator control of systems. 2, To simplify software maintenance and version control. 3, To reduce the likelihood of damage to manipulators. 4, To assist with rehearsals and simulations. Davros III is a PC software system which has been developed over a number of years to address these requirements. In a single program capable of being configured for a wide variety of applications, it provides a technique for following pretaught routes, a comprehensive and fully configurable interlock system and several different facilities for simulation. (author)

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  1. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  2. Proto-object categorisation and local gist vision using low-level spatial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaime A; Rodrigues, J M F; du Buf, J M H

    2015-09-01

    Object categorisation is a research area with significant challenges, especially in conditions with bad lighting, occlusions, different poses and similar objects. This makes systems that rely on precise information unable to perform efficiently, like a robotic arm that needs to know which objects it can reach. We propose a biologically inspired object detection and categorisation framework that relies on robust low-level object shape. Using only edge conspicuity and disparity features for scene figure-ground segregation and object categorisation, a trained neural network classifier can quickly categorise broad object families and consequently bootstrap a low-level scene gist system. We argue that similar processing is possibly located in the parietal pathway leading to the LIP cortex and, via areas V5/MT and MST, providing useful information to the superior colliculus for eye and head control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  4. Long-range low-level waste management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In all waste management considerations, it is necessary to establish the waste source; characterize the waste components; determine treatability; evaluate specific details that comprise a systems approach to overall waste management; and implement practical collection, packaging, storage disposal and monitoring technology. This paper evaluates management considerations by defining the source and magnitude of low-level wastes (LLW), relating LLW disposal, defining principles of LLW burial, and listing LLW burial considerations. 17 refs

  5. Effects of RF low levels electromagnetic fields on Paramecium primaurelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofani, S.; Testa, B.; Agnesod, G.; Tartagbino, L.; Bonazzola, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years many studies have been performed to examine biological effects of prolonged exposure at electric field low levels. This great interest is linked to a specific interaction possibility, also related to the exposure length, between electromagnetic fields and biological systems without remarkable enhancement of organism's temperature. Hence the need to investigate in vitro the possible cellular regulation mechanisms involved in these interactions, varying physical exposure parameters

  6. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  7. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  8. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  9. Recent progress in low-level gamma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, C.; Girones, Ph.; Lamadie, F.; Le Goaller, C.

    2007-01-01

    The CEA's Aladin gamma imaging system has been operated successfully for several years in nuclear plants and during decommissioning projects with additional tools such as gamma spectrometry detectors and dose rate probes. The radiological information supplied by these devices is becoming increasingly useful for establishing robust and optimized decommissioning scenarios. Recent technical improvements allow this gamma imaging system to be operated in low-level applications and with shorter acquisition times suitable for decommissioning projects. The compact portable system can be used in places inaccessible to operators. It is quick and easy to implement, notably for onsite component characterization. Feasibility trials and in situ measurements were recently carried out under low-level conditions, mainly on waste packages and glove boxes for decommissioning projects. This paper describes recent low-level in situ applications. These characterization campaigns mainly concerned gamma emitters with γ energy < 700 keV. In many cases, the localization of hot spots by gamma camera was confirmed by additional measurements such as dose rate mapping and gamma spectrometry measurements. These complementary techniques associated with advanced calculation codes (MCNP, Mercure 6.2, Visiplan and Siren) offer a mobile and compact tool for specific assessment of waste packages and glove boxes. (authors)

  10. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  11. Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of the effect two different low-level laser therapies (LLLT)--intraoral and extraoral--on trismus and facial swelling following surgical extraction of the lower third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Mutan Hamdi; Güngörmüş, Metin

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of extraoral and intraoral low-level laser therapies (LLLT) on postoperative trismus and oedema following the removal of mandibular third molars. Forty-eight patients who were to undergo surgical removal of their lower third molars were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: extraoral LLLT, intraoral LLLT, or placebo. In the study, a Ga-Al-As diode laser device with a continuous wavelength of 808 nm was used, and the laser therapy was applied by using a 1 x 3-cm handpiece. The flat-top laser beam profile was used in this therapy. For both of the LLLT groups, laser energy was applied at 100 mW (0.1 W) for a total of 120 s (0.1 W x 120 s = 12 J). Patients in the extraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation, and the laser was applied at the insertion point of the masseter muscle immediately after the operation. Patients in the intraoral-LLLT group (n = 16) received 12-J (4 J/cm(2)) low-level laser irradiation intraorally at the operation site 1 cm from the target tissue. In the placebo group (n = 16), the handpiece was inserted intraorally at the operation site and then was touched extraorally to the masseter muscle for 1 min at each site (120 s total), but the laser was not activated. The size of the interincisal opening and facial swelling were evaluated on the second and seventh postoperative days. At the second postoperative day, trismus (29.0 +/- 7.6 mm [p = 0.010]) and swelling (105.3 +/- 5.0 mm [p = 0.047]) in the extraoral-LLLT group were significantly less than in the placebo group (trismus: 21.1 +/- 7.6 mm, swelling: 109.1 +/- 4.4 mm). Trismus (39.6 +/- 9.0 mm [p = 0.002]) in the extraoral-LLLT group at the seventh postoperative day was also significantly less than in the placebo group (29.0 +/- 6.2 mm). However, at the seventh postoperative day in the intraoral-LLLT group, only trismus (35.6 +/- 8.5 [p = 0.002]) was significantly less than

  12. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  13. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Development of batch electrolytic enrichment cells with 100-fold volume reduction, control electronic units and neutralization/distillation unit, to enable better sensitivity to be achieved in low-level tritium measurements when liquid scintillation counting follows the enrichment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.

    1980-06-01

    Full details of the batch-cell tritium enrichment system design are provided including electronic control circuits specially developed for these cells. The system incorporates a new type of concentric electrode cell (outer cathode of mild steel, anode of stainless steel, inner cathode of mild steel) with volume reduction capability 1 l to ca 9 ml. Electrolysis of 20 cells is performed in 2 steps. Down to sample volume ca 20 ml, the cells are series connected at constant currents up to 14.5 A, in the 2nd step, each cell is connected to its own individual current supply (2A) and control circuit. Automatic shut-off at the desired final volume is achieved by sensing the drop in current through the inner cathode as the electrolyte level falls below a PTFE insulator. The large electrode surface area and careful dimensioning at the foot of the cell allow operation with low starting electrolyte concentration 1.5 g Na 2 O 2 .l -1 . After electrolysis, quantitative recovery as distilled water of all hydrogen from the enriched residue is achieved by CO 2 -neutralisation and vacuum distillation at 100 0 C in a distillation unit which handles 20 cells simultaneously

  15. A digital retina-like low-level vision processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertoguno, S; Bourbakis, N G

    2003-01-01

    This correspondence presents the basic design and the simulation of a low level multilayer vision processor that emulates to some degree the functional behavior of a human retina. This retina-like multilayer processor is the lower part of an autonomous self-organized vision system, called Kydon, that could be used on visually impaired people with a damaged visual cerebral cortex. The Kydon vision system, however, is not presented in this paper. The retina-like processor consists of four major layers, where each of them is an array processor based on hexagonal, autonomous processing elements that perform a certain set of low level vision tasks, such as smoothing and light adaptation, edge detection, segmentation, line recognition and region-graph generation. At each layer, the array processor is a 2D array of k/spl times/m hexagonal identical autonomous cells that simultaneously execute certain low level vision tasks. Thus, the hardware design and the simulation at the transistor level of the processing elements (PEs) of the retina-like processor and its simulated functionality with illustrative examples are provided in this paper.

  16. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  17. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  18. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  19. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  20. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  1. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  2. Low-level radioactive gas monitor for natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1969-11-01

    A portable radioactivity detection system for monitoring the tritium content of natural gas under field conditions has been developed. The sensing device employed is a complex proportional counting assembly operated without the use of massive shielding previously employed with such low-level radiation detectors. The practical limit of detection for the system is a tritium content of 10 -9 microcurie per cc of natural gas. All components of the system are packaged in three waterproof cases weighing slightly less than 30 kg each. Power requirement is 500 watts of 120 volt, 60 Hz current. Operation is fully automatic with a printed record produced at predetermined time intervals

  3. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  4. Integrated control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that instrument manufacturers must develop standard network interfaces to pull together interrelated systems such as automatic start-up, optimization programs, and online diagnostic systems. In the past individual control system manufacturers have developed their own data highways with proprietary hardware and software designs. In the future, electric utilities will require that future systems, irrespective of manufacturer, should be able to communicate with each other. Until now the manufactures of control systems have not agreed on the standard high-speed data highway system. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in conjunction with several electric utilities and equipment manufactures, is working on developing a standard protocol for communicating between various manufacturers' control systems. According to N. Michael of Sargent and Lundy, future control room designs will require that more of the control and display functions be accessible from the control room through CRTs. There will be less emphasis on traditional hard-wired control panels

  5. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  6. A national control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    An effective control of nuclear fissionable material is dependent on three different kinds of control, the industry - laboratory management, a national control system and an international safeguards system. The national systems of control differ greatly between various industrialized countries. Two principal reasons for fact can be mentioned. The type and the amounts for nuclear material may be different depending upon the stage of development of the nuclear industry in the country in question. Another reason may be that the country may wish to establish a very elaborate national system of control in order to minimize the IAEA control as much as possible. The two safeguards agreements between the Agency and Sweden on one hand and the Agency and Japan on the other hand can serve as examples for the understanding of the latitude of the IAEA safeguards system under NPT due to the influence of the national control system. If it thus is apparent that the national control system is strongly interrelated to the international safeguards system it is equally influenced by the control and accountancy systems which exist at the nuclear plants and development laboratories. A detailed study of national control systems and their relations to plant management control would fall outside the scope of this article. Some important features will however be examined. (author)

  7. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  8. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  9. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  10. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  11. The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on calciotropic hormones and bone mineral density in obese subjects with low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d: results from a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Richelsen, Bjørn; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are associated with increased bone turnover and risk of fractures. Plasma 25OHD is inversely related to body mass index, and vitamin D deficiency is common in obesity. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation affects bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in obese subjects. Fifty-two healthy obese men and women aged 18-50 years with plasma 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/L were randomized to 7,000 IU of cholecalciferol daily or placebo for 26 weeks. We measured plasma levels of 25OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone turnover, as well as BMD at the hip, spine, forearm, and whole body. Compared with placebo, treatment with cholecalciferol increased mean plasma 25OHD from 35 to 110 nmol/L (p importance to bone health in young obese subjects as increased levels of 25OHD are associated with a decrease in both PTH and bone turnover and with an increase in BMD at the forearm.

  12. Intelligent systems supporting the control room operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.

    1997-01-01

    The operational experience obtained with the various applications of the systems discussed in this paper shows that more consequent use of the systems will make detection and management of disturbances still more efficient and faster. This holds true both for a low level of process automation and for power plants with a high level of automation. As for conventional power plants, the trend clearly is towards higher degrees of automation and consequent application of supporting systems. Thus, higher availability and rapid failure management are achieved, at low effects on normal operation. These systems are monitoring and process control systems, expert systems, and systems for optimal use of the equipment, or systems for post-incident analyses and computer-assisted on-shift protocols, or operating manuals. (orig./CB) [de

  13. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  14. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  15. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on Gambusia affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1944, White Oak Lake (WOL), located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, has served as a final settling basin for low-level radioactive effluents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Organisms inhabiting the lake have been exposed for many generations to chronic low-level radiation significantly higher than background. During the past decade, studies on Gambusia affinis from WOL have been carried out to relate estimated radiation doses to effects on the fitness of the Gambusia population. Results of studies on fecundity, temperature tolerance, and embryonic mortality have led to the conclusion that the Gambusia population in White Oak Lake has an increased frequency of deleterious and recessive lethal genes which may be attributed to the radiation exposure history. The frequency of nonviable embryos from WOL Gambusia did not change significantly from 1966 to 1978; however, it was still significantly greater than that of a control population. In July 1977, Gambusia from a control population were stocked into a 0.45-ha pond which had served as a low-level waste settling basin. The beta and gamma dose rate in this pond averaged from 37 rad/yr at the water surface, 394 rad/yr at mid-depth, and 1150 rad/yr at the surface of the sediments. Preliminary results from samples taken in August 1978 showed that although the frequency of nonviable embryos increased, the frequency was not significantly greater than that of the control parent population. Additional sampling of future generations of Gambusia in this pond will determine whether the frequency of nonviable embryos increases as succeeding generations are exposed to dose rates that are higher than the dose rates in WOL

  16. The ILC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R and D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  17. Regional compacting for low-level waste management: an innovative approach in national problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Nern, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the current efforts by the states to institute a reliable national system for low-level radioactive waste management is analyzed. The history of low-level waste management over the last five years is not detailed. It is sufficient to say that there has been a seriously diminished availability of commercial disposal capacity for low-level waste. Some observations and insights into the process the nation has undertaken to solve this problem are offered

  18. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  19. Flow proportional sampling of low level liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, D.; Jenkins, R.

    1989-01-01

    A flow proportional sampler for use on low level radioactive liquid effluent has been developed for installation on all CEGB nuclear power stations. The sampler, operates by drawing effluent continuously from the main effluent pipeline, through a sampler loop and returning it to the pipeline. The effluent in this loop is sampled by taking small, frequent aliquots using a linear acting shuttle valve. The frequency of operation of this valve is controlled by a flowmeter installed in the effluent line; sampling rate being directly proportional to effluent flowrate. (author)

  20. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  1. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action.Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  2. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  3. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  4. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  5. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  6. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  7. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  8. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  9. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  10. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  11. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  12. Neutron generator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  13. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  14. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  15. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-15

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  16. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  17. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  18. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  19. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  20. The control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The present control system has matured both in terms of age and capacity. Thus a new system based on a local area network (LAN) is being developed. A pilot project has been started but, owing to difficulties encountered with the present operating system used with the microprocessors, it has become necessary to reconsider the choice of operating system. A recently-released multi-tasking operating system that runs on the existing hardware has been chosen. 1 fig