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Sample records for low-level 63ni activity

  1. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part E. Evaluation of fast neutron 63Ni transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    The 63 Ni measurements for fast neutrons in copper samples are compared to the calculated free-in-air 63 Ni neutron activation given in Chapter 3 by use of transmission factors. Transmission factors were calculated to account for the modification of the fluence and activation at each sample's in situ location. For the purposes of this discussion, the transmission factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of the in situ sample activation divided by the untilted free-in-air (FIA) activation at a height of 1 m above ground at the same ground range. Examples of the application of TF's will be provided in this section. (author)

  2. Validation of a method for the determination of 14C and 63Ni activity in concrete matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, Olga; Galambos, Michal; Pupak, Matus

    2010-01-01

    Simple and reliable methods were developed for the determination of 14 C and 63 Ni activity in concrete by using a low-background liquid scintillation counter. Direct CO 2 absorption was used in the determination of 14 C whereas extraction chromatography on a Nickel Resin column (Eichrom) served to determine 63 Ni. The methods were validated by engagement in the Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise 2008, complying with ISO/IEC 17025:2005

  3. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part D. Evaluation of cosmic-ray-induced 63Ni background in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Rugel, Georg; Faestermann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    As a result of a joint collaboration between the University of Utah, LLNL, the Technical University Munich and the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, it became possible to determine A-bomb induced 63 Ni in pure copper samples from Hiroshima beyond a ground range of 1,000 m (see Chapter 9, Part B). The low 63 Ni activities induced in copper samples due to neutrons from the A-bomb explosion at large distance require, however, a careful discussion of the fraction of 63 Ni produced in these samples due to cosmic radiation. In this section, an analysis of the production of 63 Ni in copper samples due to cosmic radiation is performed. Production due to neutrons, protons, stopped muons, and photonuclear reactions is discussed. It is obvious from Figure 1 (Pfennig et al. 1995) that a variety of reactions induced by neutrons, protons, muons and photons can contribute to the production of 63 Ni in copper. The most important of these processes will be discussed here. Since the cross-sections for the production of 63 Ni in copper samples due to fast and stopped muons were not known, they were determined experimentally. (J.P.N.)

  4. Neutron-induced {sup 63}Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi, E-mail: shizuma@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Quantum Energy Applications, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Endo, Satoru [Quantum Energy Applications, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Materials Joining Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Fukushima, Hiroshi [Materials Physics, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for {sup 63}Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in {sup 63}Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in {sup 63}Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of {sup 63}Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the {sup 63}Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  5. Activation measurements for fast neutrons. Part B. 63Ni measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Rugel, Georg; Marchetti, Alfredo A.

    2005-01-01

    The AMS-measurements of 63 Ni in copper samples obtained from different distances in Hiroshima represent the first detection of fast neutrons after more than 50 years, and the first reliable bomb-induced fast neutron measurements beyond 700 m from the hypocenter. A major significance of these 63 Ni results is that they provide, for the first time, fast neutron measurements at the distances most relevant to atomic-bomb survivor locations (900-1,500 m). The measurement of 63 Ni in copper samples using AMS provides a substantial improvement in fast neutron detection compared with the 32 P measurements made in 1945. For example, the measurement-to-background ratio at about 400 m from the hypocenter is about 55 for 63 Ni and only about 2 for the 32 P measurements. Also, the 63 Ni measurements reach background levels at about 1,800 m from the hypocenter compared with only about 700 m for 32 P. At distances of ∼1,800 m from the hypocenter, out to at least 5,000 meters, the measurements appear to level off at a value on the order of 7x10 4 atoms of 63 Ni/g of Cu, suggesting a background of approximately that magnitude. When this background is subtracted and the resulting data corrected to 1945, the measured 63 Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima are in good agreement with DS02 sample-specific calculations. Comparisons with DS86 calculations also show good agreement except at the Bank of Japan. The difference at that distance is significant when compared with DS86 calculations. (J.P.N.)

  6. Radiochemical method for 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Nilsson, U.; Hallstadius, L.

    1985-01-01

    A radianalytical method for the determination of 63 Ni content in environmental samples of activated corrosion products is described. After chemical separation and electrodepositing of 63 Ni on silver briquets, the chemical yield is determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. For the detection of low-energy beta activity, an open gas flow GM-counter with an anticoincidence guard counter is put to use

  7. Tracer technique for measuring specific activity of 63 Ni, using 4πβ-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.

    1979-01-01

    The specific activity of a 6 3 Ni solution has been measured by an efficiency tracer technique using a 4 π β - γ coincidence system. 6 3 Ni was chosen. Because it's a very low energy pure beta emitter. Due to chemical compatibility and beta spectral shapes, 6 0 Co has been chosen as tracer. In the determination of 6 3 Ni, the specific activity. As the efficiency tracer techniques requires a previous knowledge of tracer activity, this has been measured by a conventional 4 π β -γ coincidence method. (author)

  8. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  9. Flowsheet for 63Ni production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.F.; Knauer, J.B.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Wiggins, J.T.; Porter, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The production of large quantities of high specific activity 63 Ni (>10Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched 62 Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products (mainly transition metals) can be easily removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present as 51 Cr, and manganese, present as 54 Mn, are exceptions and require solvent extraction of the in-cell product to achieve the desired purity. In addition to summarizing the current development and production experience, optimized flowsheets are discussed

  10. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ( 63 Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of 63 Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of 63 Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain 63 Ni. The primary source of 63 Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable 62 Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. 63 Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of 63 Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq a per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). 63 Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from 235 U or 239 Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in 63 Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains ∼9% total Ni or ∼0.3% 63 Ni)

  11. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  12. Determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities by liquid scintillation counting in the environmental samples close to French nuclear power plants located on Loire and Garonne rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Deniau, I. [SUBATECH, IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environment from a wide range of radioactive contaminants released by nuclear industry requires continuous monitoring of radionuclides released into the environment. Specific measurement methods depending of the radionuclide are used to determinate this contribution. A lot of radionuclide can easily be measured at low level by gamma spectrometry, like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co..., but others like {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni or {sup 55}Fe require prior specific radiochemical separations. Activity of {sup 90}Sr values in environmental samples are available but only few measurements of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities have been carried out in samples collected in the environment close to French nuclear power plants located on the Loire and Garonne rivers despite they represent 12% to 24% for {sup 63}Ni activity and <1% for {sup 55}Fe + other minor radionuclides of total activity of their liquid effluent discharges. {sup 90}Sr is not rejected by the liquid effluent discharges of Nuclear Power Plants and can be found in the environmental samples because of thermonuclear test and subsequently after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Considering the French Nuclear Power Plant located on Loire and Garonne rivers, the determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe levels in the environmental samples around French nuclear power plants is carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides originating from nuclear technology activities. The environment around five French nuclear Power Plants was investigated for 4 years between 2009 and 2014. The radionuclide activities determined by liquid scintillation counting after chemical steps were performed on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 90

  13. Radioactive 63Ni in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 63 Ni in biological research are reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigations of nickel metabolism and toxicology in experimental animals. The radiochemistry of 63 Ni is summarized, including consideration of the preparation of certain 63 Ni compounds (e.g. 63 Ni(CO) 4 and 63 Ni 3 S 2 ) that are of current interest in toxicology, teratology and cancer research. Practical guidance is given regarding the detection and determination of 63 Ni in biological materials by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  14. Synthesis of electroplated {sup 63}Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using {sup 63}Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated {sup 63}Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including {sup 62}Ni and {sup 63}Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}. The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively.

  15. Synthesis of electroplated 63Ni source and betavoltaic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Yoo, Kwon Mo; Choi, Sang Mu; Kim, Jin Joo; Son, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotope (Nuclear) battery using 63 Ni was prepared as beta cell. The electroplated 63 Ni on Ni foil is fabricated, and beta cell and photovoltaic hybrid battery was designed to use at both day and night in space project. A Ni-plating solution is prepared by dissolving metal particles including 62 Ni and 63 Ni from neutron irradiation of (n,γ). Electroplating solution of a chloride bath consists on nickel ions in HCl, H 3 BO 3 , and KOH. The deposition was carried out at current density of 10 mA cm -2 . The prepared beta source was attached on a PN junction and measured I-V properties. The power output at activity of 0.07 mCi and 0.45 mCi were 0.55 pW and 2.69 nW, respectively

  16. Radiochemical procedure and quantitative determination of the activation product, 63Ni, in environmental soft water samples with high Ca and Mg phosphate concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, N.; Michel, H.; Barci-Funel, G.; Barci, V.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel-63 is a low energy beta-emitter needing a radiochemical separation before β-counting. Several papers described the separation and the detection of 63 Ni in environmental samples. The method used in our work was first developed by SKWARZEC and HOLM. The main steps of this separation are the selective precipitation of nickel with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and the use of the non-sorption of nickel on anion resin in hydrochloric acid solutions. In this paper, a new step is added to eliminate high quantities of calcium and magnesium phosphate disturbing the iron hydroxide precipitation step. The procedure has been applied to soft water samples: sediments, plants and fishes. The chemical yields are 60, 70 and 20%, respectively. The detection limit of 63 Ni by liquid scintillation spectrometer is 10 mBq. (author)

  17. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  18. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  19. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Masayasu; Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination of α and β rays with liquid scintillation counting was investigated for the purpose of low level α activity measurements. Various liquid scintillators for pulse shape discrimination were examined by means of pulse rise time analysis. A new scintillator of low cost and of superior characteristics was found. The figure of merits better than 3.5 in risetime spectrum and the energy resolution better than 9% were obtained for carefully prepared samples. The background counting rate for a sample of 10 ml was reduced to 0.013 cpm/MeV in the range of α ray energy 5 to 7 MeV. (author)

  20. Segregation of low-level dry active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblith, L. Jr.; Naughton, M.D.; Welsh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been carried out to characterize the Dry Active Waste (DAW) stream from a typical PWR power plant in order to determine the usefulness of large-volume DAW monitors for segregating such waste in order to dispose of it in appropriate facilities. A waste monitor using plastic scintillation counters was used for measuring the waste. The monitor had a volume of about 300 liters and an overall efficiency of about 12% for a typical fission product mixture. It provides automatic compensation for background radioactivity and can measure a bag of waste in less than a minute, including background measurements. Six hundred consecutively generated bags of DAW were measured. These had a total activity of about one millicurie and an average specific activity of about 540 nanocuries per kilogram. About half of the bags contained less than 1000 nanocuries and had specific activities of less than 100 nanocuries per kilogram. Based on simplified preliminary calculations, it appears that an evaluation of the risks of disposal of bags such as these in a landfill other than a low-level waste disposal facility could be carried out that would demonstrate that such disposal of half or more of these bags would not result in any substantial hazard, either short or long term

  1. Separation and radiometric determination of 59Ni, 63Ni, 55Fe, 99Tc and 94Nb in radioactive wastes of low and intermediate activities from PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temba, Eliane Silvia Codo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was the development and establishment of a specific analytical protocol for the determination of the 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 55 Fe, 99 Tc and 94 Nb radionuclides in low and intermediate radioactive waste samples of Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, CNAAA, located in the city of Angra dos Reis, RJ. The separation and purification techniques used have taken into account the particularities of each radionuclide studied. Chemical separation methods were used, as well as carriers and radioisotope tracers, and ion-exchange and extraction chromatography involving specific resins. The main techniques used for the analysis and determination of the radionuclides were Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Gamma Spectrometry. Also used were Atomic Emission Spectroscopy with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for the chemical yield determination. Concerning to the 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 55 Fe radionuclides, the methodology of sequential separation proved to be very appropriate for their separation and determination, as could be observed by the results obtained. Chemical yields in the range from 39 to 100%, and LSC counting efficiencies in the range of 37.8% for 55 Fe, and 71.5% for 63 Ni, are in accordance with the results found in the literature. The spectra of LSC showed that the methodology used to separation and purification of these radionuclides was very successful. The results for 59 Ni have shown that the use of a 55 Fe certified standard for calibration of the equipment was a viable alternative. In the case of the 99 Tc radionuclide the use of rhenium as carrier and chemical yield monitor, resulted in high chemical yields. Use of Gamma Spectrometry analysis made it possible to check that the main interfering agents were actually removed with the combined use of anion exchange chromatography and TEVA resin. The chemical yield of 94 Nb was measured by Gamma Spectrometry analysis of the 94 mNb nuclide formed by

  2. Development of 63Ni sources for defence related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udhayakumar, J.; Pardeshi, G.S.; Gandhi, Shyamala S.; Dash, A.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2004-01-01

    63 Ni is seen as a good substitute for the conventional sources of ionization used in electron capture detectors in Gas Chromatography applications. It has advantages such as source stability, reasonably long shelf life due to its long half-life and viable for safe and easy handling due to low energy beta emission. At the special request from the Defence Establishments in India for supply of 63 Ni beta source on special dimension of a curved inner copper ring area, the new electro-deposition cell was designed and used for routine preparation and supply of such sources. The paper describes the procedure for fabrication of 63 Ni beta sources by electro-deposition method. Activity up to ∼370 MBq (∼10 mCi) was electrodeposited exclusively on inner curved area of ∼4 sq.cm. Copper annular ring, using Boric acid electrolyte bath solution at a temperature range of 50 deg - 60 deg C with a current density of ∼ 6 ma/sq.cm. For this purpose, a new electro depositing cell was specially designed and used. The paper discusses the details regarding source requirement, source preparation parameters, film thickness and its impact on beta output, source quality control aspects and other applications of the sources. The paper also highlights the demand and supply scenario of such electrodeposited sources, in terms of commercial supply sale value, as an import substitute. (author)

  3. Selection of optimum ROI for dual radionuclide analysis of 55Fe-63Ni and 63Ni-60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, S.; Prabhath Ravi, K.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Rao, D.D.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dual label counting in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) enables simultaneous activity determination of two radionuclides. Dual counting procedure for 3 H and 14 C has been well established. There are several other nuclides like 63 Ni (E β- =67keV), 55 Fe (6 keV X-ray and auger electron) which are often chemically separated using detailed procedures with high decontamination factors (DF) and quantified using LSC. Despite the laborious separations, traces of these nuclides in the chemically separated fractions can mutually make their quantification difficult due to overlap of counts from both radionuclides in the spectrum, which gets further complicated in presence of traces of 60 Co. For dual label counting technique, it is essential to establish the discriminator setting at which there will be spillover of counts from both radionuclides in the two counting regions required for the inclusion method. The objective of the current work is to establish two counting ROI's for dual counting of (i) 63 Ni- 55 Fe and (ii) 63 Ni- 60 Co in a TDCR based LSC system

  4. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  5. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  6. Separation and radiometric determination of {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 94}Nb in radioactive wastes of low and intermediate activities from PWR nuclear power plants; Separacao e determinacao radiometrica dos radionuclideos {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 99}Tc e {sup 94}Nb em rejeitos radioativos de baixa e media atividades provenientes de centrais nucleares do tipo PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temba, Eliane Silvia Codo

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this work was the development and establishment of a specific analytical protocol for the determination of the {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 94}Nb radionuclides in low and intermediate radioactive waste samples of Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant, CNAAA, located in the city of Angra dos Reis, RJ. The separation and purification techniques used have taken into account the particularities of each radionuclide studied. Chemical separation methods were used, as well as carriers and radioisotope tracers, and ion-exchange and extraction chromatography involving specific resins. The main techniques used for the analysis and determination of the radionuclides were Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Gamma Spectrometry. Also used were Atomic Emission Spectroscopy with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) for the chemical yield determination. Concerning to the {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe radionuclides, the methodology of sequential separation proved to be very appropriate for their separation and determination, as could be observed by the results obtained. Chemical yields in the range from 39 to 100%, and LSC counting efficiencies in the range of 37.8% for {sup 55}Fe, and 71.5% for {sup 63}Ni, are in accordance with the results found in the literature. The spectra of LSC showed that the methodology used to separation and purification of these radionuclides was very successful. The results for {sup 59}Ni have shown that the use of a {sup 55}Fe certified standard for calibration of the equipment was a viable alternative. In the case of the {sup 99}Tc radionuclide the use of rhenium as carrier and chemical yield monitor, resulted in high chemical yields. Use of Gamma Spectrometry analysis made it possible to check that the main interfering agents were actually removed with the combined use of anion exchange chromatography and TEVA resin. The chemical yield of {sup 94}Nb was

  7. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The increase in obesity levels in South African adolescents is attributed to an energy imbalance such that physical inactivity is causally related to adiposity. However, in some settings obesity occurs in spite of high physical activity levels. Objectives. To examine objectively measured physical activity levels of ...

  8. Maxey Flats low-level waste disposal site closure activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, C.P.; Mills, D.; Razor, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Fleming County, Kentucky is in the process of being closed. The facility opened for commercial business in the spring of 1963 and received approximately 4.75 million cubic feet of radioactive waste by the time it was closed in December of 1977. During fourteen years of operation approximately 2.5 million curies of by-product material, 240,000 kilograms of source material, and 430 kilograms of special nuclear material were disposed. The Commonwealth purchased the lease hold estate and rights in May 1978 from the operating company. This action was taken to stabilize the facility and prepare it for closure consisting of passive care and monitoring. To prepare the site for closure, a number of remedial activities had to be performed. The remediation activities implemented have included erosion control, surface drainage modifications, installation of a temporary plastic surface cover, leachate removal, analysis, treatment and evaporation, US DOE funded evaporator concentrates solidification project and their on-site disposal in an improved disposal trench with enhanced cover for use in a humid environment situated in a fractured geology, performance evaluation of a grout injection demonstration, USGS subsurface geologic investigation, development of conceptual closure designs, and finally being added to the US EPA National Priority List for remediation and closure under Superfund. 13 references, 3 figures

  9. Study of 63Ni adsorption on NKF-6 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Yu Xianjin; Chen Lei; Jing Yongjie; Ge Zhiwei

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of 63 Ni from aqueous solutions using NKF-6 zeolite was investigated by a batch technique under ambient conditions. The adsorption was investigated as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances (FA/HA) and temperature. The kinetic adsorption was well described by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The adsorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength, and the adsorption of 63 Ni increased with increasing NKF-6 zeolite content. At low pH values, the presence of FA enhanced the adsorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite, but the presence of HA had no drastic effect. At high pH values, the presence of FA or HA decreased the adsorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite. The adsorption isotherms were well represented by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) for the adsorption of 63 Ni were determined from the temperature dependent isotherms at 293.15, 313.15 and 333.15 o K, respectively, and the results indicate that the adsorption reaction was favored at high temperature. The results suggest that the adsorption process of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite is spontaneous and endothermic. - Research highlights: → As an economical and efficient method, adsorption technique has been widely applied in the disposal of wastewaters. The study of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite, especially the thermodynamic data of 63 Ni adsorption on NKF-6 zeolite and the effect of humic substances on 63 Ni uptake to humic-zeolite hybrids, is still scarce. In this paper, the sorption of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite is studied as a function of various environmental conditions such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic substances and temperature. Based on the obtained experimental results, the adsorption mechanism of 63 Ni on NKF-6 zeolite is stated in detail. This study will have an important reference value in evaluating the physiochemical behavior of radionuclide 63 Ni.

  10. Low level beta-activity radiometer with compensation of the background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vankov, I [and others

    1996-12-31

    New type of the low level beta-activity scintillation detector system is developed. The procedure of finding the beta activity and the operation of the recording unit of the radiometer are considered. 3 refs.; 5 figs.

  11. A Simple theoretical model for 63Ni betavoltaic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZUO, Guoping; ZHOU, Jianliang; KE, Guotu

    2013-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the energy deposition distribution in semiconductors is performed for 63 Ni beta particles. Results show that the energy deposition distribution exhibits an approximate exponential decay law. A simple theoretical model is developed for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery based on the distribution characteristics. The correctness of the model is validated by two literature experiments. Results show that the theoretical short-circuit current agrees well with the experimental results, and the open-circuit voltage deviates from the experimental results in terms of the influence of the PN junction defects and the simplification of the source. The theoretical model can be applied to 63 Ni and 147 Pm betavoltaic batteries. - Highlights: • The energy deposition distribution is found following an approximate exponential decay law when beta particles emitted from 63 Ni pass through a semiconductor. • A simple theoretical model for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery is constructed based on the exponential decay law. • Theoretical model can be applied to the betavoltaic batteries which radioactive source has a similar energy spectrum with 63 Ni, such as 147 Pm

  12. Status of activities: Low-level radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.B.; Shilkett, R.C.; Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    A primary objective of low-level radioactive waste management in the United States is to protect the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. In support of this objective is the development of waste treatment and disposal technologies designed to provide stabilization and long-term institutional control of low-level radioactive wastes. Presented herein is a technical review of specific low-level radioactive waste management activities in the United States. Waste treatment and disposal technologies are discussed along with the performance objectives of the technologies aimed at protecting the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. 13 refs., 4 figs

  13. Potential low-level waste disposal limits for activation products from fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) scientists are involved in studies considering alternative construction materials for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors. To permit a comparison of radioactivity levels, both the level of activation and an acceptable limit for the radionuclides present must be known. Generic material composition guidelines can be developed using the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations governing the near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. These regulations consider wastes defined as containing source, special nuclear, or by-product materials arising from research, industrial, medical, and nuclear fuel-cycle activities. However, not all of the activation products produced in low-level wastes from fusion reactors are considered by the NRC in their regulations. The purpose of this report is to present potential low-level waste-disposal limits for ten radionuclides resulting from fusion reactor operations that are not considered in the NRC low-level waste regulations. These potential limits will be used by HEDL scientists to complete their generic material composition guidelines for the first wall of commercial fusion reactors

  14. Studies on {sup 63}Ni based check-light sources for TL readers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Venkataraman, G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Protection Services Div.; Udhayakyumar, J. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology; Page, A.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of indigenously produced, electrodeposited {sup 63}Ni sources having 10 mm x 10 mm active area and individually coupled to a plastic scintillator has been studied. TL phosphors such as CaF{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}:Dy, CaF{sub 2}:Tm, CaF{sub 2}:Eu, TLD-100 and CaSO{sub 4}:Dy with {sup 63}Ni have been studied for their possible use as check-light sources for testing TL readers. Stability at ambient temperatures (298-323 K), build-up and decrease of light output with time have been examined. A preliminary study of the fluorescent species in the gamma irradiated plastic scintillator has been made. (author).

  15. Is the low level of physical activity a public policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Michal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies and scientific evidence confirm a positive effect of physical activity on the quality of life and human health. Physical activity, which is also one of the key factors preventing mass non-communicable diseases, is decreasing in Europe, including the Czech Republic, both in children and adults. Serious health consequences for the population and economy of the countries are a reason for a discussion about including the low level of physical activity among public policy issues and a higher allocation of public sources into the area of physical activity promotion. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the paper is to determine whether the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue. An issue that should by systematically addressed by national, regional as well as local policy. METHODS: Through the policy analysis approach we conducted a content analysis of 25 systematically selected foreign national strategies aimed at the issue of physical activity promotion. The data source was an internal database of the World Health Organization - the International Inventory of Documents on Physical Activity Promotion. The content analysis of the strategies was performed using the Atlas.ti software tool. RESULTS: During a content analysis of 25 foreign strategies a total of 411 text segments (quotations relating to the low level of physical activity were selected. These text segments showed five basic features of a public policy issue according to a conceptual framework developed by Bardach (2000 and Patton and Sawicky (1993 - 1 affects the lives of a significant number of people of a society; 2 is analysable; 3 can be solved through public policy tools; 4 the primary cause or problem can be defined; 5 cannot be solved easily and quickly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the low level of physical activity is a public policy issue that must be systematically addressed at national level.

  16. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  17. Low-level waste research and development activities of the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the technical activities of the Department of Energy's Defense and Nuclear Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Programs (LLWPs). Although each Program was established with a different purpose, the technologies developed and demonstrated by each are transferable for use in both the commercial and DOE sectors. This paper presents an overview of the technical activities being pursued through both the Defense and Nuclear Energy LLWP's. These technologies have been placed in the following categories; Criteria and Standards, Systems Analysis, Information and Technology Transfer, Waste Treatment and Wast Form, Improved Near Surface Disposal, Greater Confinement Disposal, Corrective Measures, and Monitoring

  18. Low-level dosimetry based on activation analysis of badge film, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Kaoru; Yamashita, Kazuya; Inamoto, Kazuo; Maeda, Masayuki; Sato, Takashi; Ono, Koichi.

    1988-01-01

    Underexposed badge film contains a minor quantity of silver which corresponds to the low radiation dose even after completion of the photographic densitometry ; however, it cannot be detected with a photographic densitometer. We intended to clarify the minor silver content based on radioactivation analysis with thermal neutrons at KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor). The natural silver consists of two stable nuclides, i.e., 107 Ag and 109 Ag. These can be activated with irradiation of thermal neutrons to two radionuclides, i.e., 108 Ag and 110 Ag. In this paper, through the activation analysis of an underexposed badge film, methods of measurements are shown regarding both 108 Ag produced by the 107 Ag (n, γ) reaction and 110 Ag by the 109 Ag (n, γ). After underexposed badge films were irradiated with thermal neutrons, some gamma-rays emitted from the radionuclides in the activated films were measured with a high pure Ge detector or a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. The following results were obtained: (1) several elements such as silver, iodine, gold, antimony, manganese and copper were detected by activation analyses of films exposed to low level 60 Co gamma-rays, (2) the exposure vs 108 Ag or 110 Ag activity curve was linear in the lower dose range of 60 Co gamma-rays. These data indicate that low level radiation doses, which is indeterminable by ordinary photographic densitometry, can be estimated by activation analysis of silver atoms in badge films. (author)

  19. Low-level viremia and proviral DNA impede immune reconstitution in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Thim, Per T.

    2005-01-01

    Immunological and virological consequences of low-level viremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain to be determined....

  20. Understanding low levels of physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities : A systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity. Aims: To enhance understanding concerning low levels of physical activity in people with ID, this study has three aims: (1) to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in

  1. The status of siting activities for a low level waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Visitacion, M.; Palattao, B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Venida, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The process of site selection for a low level waste repository was initiated in 1976 when the Philippine Government decided to go nuclear and constructed the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant in the Bataan Peninsula. However, all siting activities were suspended when the nuclear power plant was mothballed and the final decision was made to convert the plant into a combined cycle power plant. In 1995, an inter-agency committee was created under the Nuclear Power Steering Committee and mandated to conduct studies on siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities, and at the same time, perform R and D activities in support of the project. This paper describes the various siting activities carried out to date. (author)

  2. PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passard, Christian; Mariani, Alain; Jallu, Fanny; Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques; Recroix, Herve; Rodriguez, Michel; Loridon, Joel; Denis, Caroline; Toubon, Herve

    2002-01-01

    The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[α] (about 50 μg Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective 239 Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective 239 Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10 8 s -1 [4π]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant

  3. Microbial activity of trench leachates from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dobbs, S.; Nine, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Trench leachate samples collected anoxically from shallow-land, low-level radioactive waste disposal sites were analyzed for total aerobic and anaerobic populations, sulfate reducers, denitrifiers, and methanogens. Among the several aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated, only Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and Clostridium sp. were identified. Mixed bacterial cultures isolated from the trench leachates were able to grow anaerobically in trench leachates, which indicates that the radionuclides and organic chemicals present were not toxic to these bacteria. Changes in concentrations of several of the organic constituents of the waste leachate samples were observed due to anaerobic microbial activity. Growth of a mixed culture of trench-water bacteria in media containing a mixture of radionuclides, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 134 137 Cs, was not affected at total activity concentrations of 2.6 x 10 2 and 2.7 x 10 3 pCi/ml

  4. Update on the activities of the central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since its formation in 1983, the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact Commission has moved at a deliberate pace to meet the responsibilities placed on the states by federal law. In addition to the normal activities associated with an agency empowered to regulate a specific industry, the Commission has conducted a number of studies designed to help it meet its responsibilities. The Phase I Site Exclusionary Study identified those areas in each of the member states that failed to meet criteria set out in 10 CFR 61. The key elements of a Management Study are: an evaluation of the region's waste stream, development of the procedures the Commission will use to select a developer for the region's waste facility, an assessment of disposal alternatives, and the development of a plan to review the results of the management plan. The Commission is conducting a Phase II Site Exclusionary Study in which a closer analysis of each area will allow the Commission to determine if there are areas in each state that are capable of being sited. The Commission is also considering the draft Request for Proposals to Develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facility within the Region

  5. Relationship between {sup 63}Ni and {sup 3}H in an environmental monitoring program for water of a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R.; Herranz, M.; Legarda, F. [Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU (Spain); De Lucas, M.J. [Medidas Ambientales S.L. (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    During four years deep water coming from twelve different sampling points in the neighborhood of a nuclear facility have been quarterly analyzed for different radionuclides ({sup 63}Ni, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 14}C, {sup 3}H, {sup 240+239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243+244}Cm, gross alpha, gross beta and gamma emitters) and for typical chemical components (pH, Conductivity (25 deg. C), Chlorides, Bicarbonates, Sulfates, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium). Sampling points are well characterized by measuring in situ and in every sampling campaign, its level (m), temperature, depth, pH, conductivity and free oxygen (mg/l). For the determination of alpha and beta specific radionuclides, methods, equipment and measurement parameters were chosen to be able to obtain low detection limits in order to characterize these waters. These detection limits, obtained following the ISO 11929 standard methodology, were around 2E-01 Bq/m{sup 3} for alpha emitters, around 2E+01 Bq/m{sup 3} for {sup 63}Ni, and {sup 55}Fe and around 3E+03 Bq/m{sup 3} for {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H. Despite these low detection limits, only small amounts of {sup 3}H and {sup 63}Ni have been systematically detected in some of these waters. These artificial radionuclides have different origins, being {sup 3}H mainly a tertiary fission product and {sup 63}Ni an activation product. {sup 3}H was determined by distillation followed by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and {sup 63}Ni was determined by radiochemical isolation using specific Ni-resin, followed also by LSC. In this work, the relationship between {sup 3}H and {sup 63}Ni content values is obtained and analyzed and a multivariate analysis among the chemical water components and its {sup 3}H and {sup 63}Ni contents has been carried out in order to explain the behaviour of these radionuclides and its migration from the facility to the deep waters. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Development of diode junction nuclear battery using 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmen, B.; Miley, G.H.; Desai, P.D.; Moghaddam, S.; Masel, R.I.

    2009-01-01

    The diode junction nuclear battery is a long-lived, high-energy-density, but low electrical current power source with many specialized applications. In this type of battery, nuclear radiation is directly converted to electric power. A model is described and used to design the device configuration. Details of fabrication and testing of a planar geometry battery with 63 Ni radiation source are described. The electron beam induced current (EBIC) measurement technique and CASINO Monte Carlo simulation code were employed to analyze the device performance. Finally, an improved design with 3-dimensional surface microstructures that will provide improved performance is presented. (author)

  7. Estimation of low level gross alpha activities in the radioactive effluent using liquid scintillation counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Johnson, Bella E.; Singh, Sanjay; Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for simultaneous measurement of gross alpha and gross beta activity concentration in low level liquid effluent samples in presence of higher activity concentrations of tritium. For this purpose, alpha beta discriminating Pulse Shape Analysis Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique was used. Main advantages of this technique are easy sample preparation, rapid measurement and higher sensitivity. The calibration methodology for Quantulus1220 LSC based on PSA technique using 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y as alpha and beta standards respectively was described in detail. LSC technique was validated by measuring alpha and beta activity concentrations in test samples with known amount of 241 Am and 90 Sr/ 90 Y activities spiked in distilled water. The results obtained by LSC technique were compared with conventional planchet counting methods such as ZnS(Ag) and end window GM detectors. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in spiked samples, obtained by LSC technique were found to be within ±5% of the reference values. (author)

  8. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  9. Low Levels of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Hsieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID are more likely to lead sedentary lifestyles and have low levels of physical activity (LLPA. The present study investigated the prevalence of reported LLPA and time spent watching TV in adults with ID and identified the associated factors for these behaviors. The proxy informants of 1618 adults with ID completed the surveys regarding their health behaviors. Multiple logistic regressions were employed for LLPA and multiple linear regressions for time spent watching TV. About 60% of adults with ID had LLPA and average time spent watching TV was 3.4 h a day. Some characteristics and health and function variables were identified as associated factors. While engaging in community activities and involvement in Special Olympics were inversely associated with LLPA, they were not associated with time spent watching TV. Attending day/educational programs or being employed were associated with spending less time watching TV. Findings highlight differential factors associated with LLPA versus TV-watching behavior in adults with ID. Hence, a key strategy aimed at increasing physical activity includes promoting participation in social and community activities, while targeted activities for reducing sedentary behavior might focus on providing day programs or employment opportunities for adults with ID.

  10. Multimorbidity in Atlantic Canada and association with low levels of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Melanie R; Cui, Yunsong; DeClercq, Vanessa; Dummer, Trevor J B; Forbes, Cynthia; Grandy, Scott A; Hicks, Jason; Sweeney, Ellen; Yu, Zhijie Michael; Parker, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Owing to an aging population and medical advances, the anticipated growth and prevalence of multimorbidity has been recognized as a significant challenge and priority in health care settings. Although physical activity has been shown to play a vital role in the primary and secondary prevention of chronic disease, much less is known about the relationship between physical activity and multimorbidity. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and multimorbidity in male and female adults after adjusting for key demographic, geographical, and lifestyle factors. The study drew data from a prospective cohort in Atlantic Canada (2009-2015). The sample included 18,709 participants between the ages of 35-69. Eighteen chronic diseases were identified. Physical activity levels were estimated based on the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that multimorbid individuals were significantly more likely to be physically inactive (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.10, 1.44) after adjusting for key sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Additional stratified analyses suggest that the magnitude of the effect between multimorbidity and physical activity was stronger for men (OR=1.41; 95% CI 1.12, 1.79) than women (OR=1.18; CI 1.00, 1.39) and those living in rural (OR=1.43; CI 1.10, 1.85) versus urban (OR=1.20; CI 1.02, 141) areas. Given the generally low levels of physical activity across populations and a growing prevalence of multimorbidity, there is a need for a prospective study to explore causal associations between physical activity, multimorbidity, and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, S.

    1995-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities that the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during fiscal year 1995

  12. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfilling its responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) outlines the key activities tat the NLLWMP will accomplish in the following fiscal year. Additional activities are added during the fiscal year as necessary to accomplish programmatic goals. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during Fiscal Year 1996

  13. 63Ni schottky barrier nuclear battery of 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Ying Li; Yong Ren; Xue-Jiao Chen; Da-Yong Qiao; Wei-Zheng Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a 4H-SiC Schottky betavoltaic nuclear battery based on MEMS fabrication technology are presented in this paper. It uses a Schottky diode with an active area of 3.14 mm 2 to collect the charge from a 4 mCi/cm 2 63 Ni source. Some of the critical steps in process integration for fabricating silicon carbide-based Schottky diode were addressed. A prototype of this battery was fabricated and tested under the illumination of the 63 Ni source with an activity of 0.12 mCi. An open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.27 V and a short circuit current density (J SC ) of 25.57 nA/cm 2 are measured. The maximum output power density (P max ) of 4.08 nW/cm 2 and power conversion efficiency (η) of 1.01% is obtained. The performance of this battery is expected to be significantly improved by using larger activity and optimizing the design and processing technology of the battery. By achieving comparable performance with previously constructed p-n or p-i-n junction energy conversion structures, the Schottky barrier diode proves to be a feasible approach to achieve practical betavoltaics. (author)

  14. Low-level dry active waste management planning for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.N.; Feizollani, F.; Jarboe, Th.B.

    1984-01-01

    To offset the rising cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal and to provide contingency measures for disposal space unavailability after January 1, 1986, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG and E) has undertake efforts to establish a long-term waste management program. This plan, which was developed after detailed study of a number of options, consists of four elements: management of dry active wastes; implementation of 10CFR61 requirements; storage of process wastes; and enhancement of liquid/solid waste systems and equipment performance. Each element was scheduled for implementation in accordance with an established set of priorities. Accordingly, detailed engineering for implementation of the first two elements was initiated in December of 1982. This paper focuses on BGandE's experience in implementation of the first element o the program, i.e., the management of dry active waste (DAW). DAW is managed by providing a new buildin dedicated to its handling, processing, volume-reduction, and storage. This building, which is equipped with state-of-the-art decontamination and processing techniques, allows for implementation of waste minimization and for interim storage of DAW in a safe and cost effective manner

  15. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perales, J. J.; Burgos Gallego, J.; Alvarez Mir, F.; Luis de Diego, J.; Adrada Garcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  16. The Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste Containing Detergent by Biological Activated Sludge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing persil detergent from laundry operation of contaminated clothes by activated sludge process has been done, for alternative process replacing the existing treatment by evaporation. The detergent concentration in water solution from laundry operation is 14.96 g/l. After rinsing operation of clothes and mixing of laundry water solution with another liquid waste, the waste water solution contains about ≤ 1.496 g/l of detergent and 10 -3 Ci/m 3 of Cs-137 activity. The simulation waste having equivalent activity of Cs-137 10 -3 Ci/m 3 , detergent content (X) 1.496, 0.748, 0.374, 0.187, 0.1496 and 0.094 g/l on BOD value respectively 186, 115, 71, 48, 19, and 16 ppm was processed by activated sludge in reactor of 18.6 l capacity on ambient temperature. It is used Super Growth Bacteria (SGB) 102 and SGB 104, nitrogen and phosphor nutrition, and aeration. The result show that bacteria of SGB 102 and SGB 104 were able to degrade the persil detergent for attaining standard quality of water release category B in which BOD values 6 ppm. It was need 30 hours for X ≤ 0.187 g/l, 50 hours for 0.187 < X ≤ 0.374 g/l, 75 hours for 0.374 < X ≤ 0.748, and 100 hours for 0.748 < X ≤ 1.496 g/l. On the initial period the bacteria of SGB 104 interact most quickly to degrade the detergent comparing SGB 102. Biochemical oxidation process decontaminate the solution on the decontamination factor of 350, Cs-137 be concentrate in sludge by complexing with the bacteria wall until the activity of solution be become very low. (author)

  17. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  18. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  19. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  20. Background compensated GM counter for the measurement of low level #betta#-activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Kumanomido, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    When low level activity of a #betta#-ray source or surface contamination is to be measured with a GM counter, it is desirable to obtain a net count without background count through a single measurement. An end-window GM counter for such a purpose was constructed. The counter has a diaphragm to divide it into two parts. The front part, the window side, can detect #betta#-rays and background radiations, while the rear part only detects background, since #betta#-rays coming through the front are absorbed by the diaphragm. In the counter type I, the sensitive volumes of the two parts are the same and the anode wire of the front is connected to that of the rear through an electric resistor which leads to yielding different pulse heights and rise times. The net count of #betta#-rays can be obtained through a single measurement by subtracting the count in the rear part from that in the front part. In the counter type II, the lengths of the anode wires of the two parts are different, which gives rise to different pulse heights. With a background compensated GM counter, it is possible to shorten the measuring time, keeping nearly the same accuracy compared with a conventional GM counter. (orig.)

  1. National Low-Level Waste Management Program final summary report of key activities and accomplishments for fiscal year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenberg, R.B.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 to assist states and compacts in their siting and licensing efforts for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) is the element of the DOE that performs the key support activities under the Act. The NLLWMP's activities are driven by the needs of the states and compacts as they prepare to manage their low-level waste under the Act. Other work is added during the fiscal year as necessary to accommodate new requests brought on by status changes in states' and compacts' siting and licensing efforts. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the NLLWMP during FY 1997

  2. Integration of complex-wide mixed low-level waste activities for program acceleration and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) chartered a contractor-led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which would allow the Environmental Management program to accomplish its mission objectives in an accelerated fashion and at a reduced cost. These alternatives, or opportunities, could then be evaluated by DOE and stakeholders for possible implementation, given precursor requirements (regulatory changes, etc.) could be met and benefits to the Complex realized. This contractor effort initially focused on six waste types, one of which was Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). Many opportunities were identified by the contractor team for integrating MLLW activities across the DOE Complex. These opportunities were further narrowed to six that had the most promise for implementation and savings to the DOE Complex. The opportunities include six items: (1) the consolidation of individual site analytical services procurement efforts, (2) the consolidation of individual site MLLW treatment services procurement efforts, (3) establishment of ''de minimus'' radioactivity levels, (4) standardization of characterization requirements, (5) increased utilization of existing DOE treatment facilities, and (6) using a combination of DOE and commercial MLLW disposal capacity. The results of the integration effort showed that by managing MLLW activities across the DOE Complex as a cohesive unit rather than as independent site efforts, the DOE could improve the rate of progress toward meeting its objectives and reduce its overall MLLW program costs. Savings potential for MLLW, if the identified opportunities could be implemented, could total $224 million or more. Implementation of the opportunities also could result in the acceleration of the MLLW ''work off schedule'' across the DOE Complex by five years

  3. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  4. The influence of low-level radiation on nucleolus activity of cyprinidae embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipchuk, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The number and sizes of nucleoli in embryos of Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to low-level radiation at a dose-rate of 10 μ Gy/h and down were larger than those on non-irradiated controls

  5. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  6. Sorption properties of new composite materials suitable for radioanalytical determination of 59-Ni and 63-Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Sebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    New composite materials for separation and radioanalytical determination of radionickel ( 59, 63 Ni) were prepared and their sorption properties were examined. Chelating agents dimethylglyoxime (DMG) and diphenylglyoxime (DFG) as active components were immobilized in porous matrix of binding polymer polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Sorption properties of these materials were compared with commercial Ni Resin (Eichrom Technologies, USA). Weight distribution ratios, sorption kinetics and operating capacities were investigated during experiments performed. The highest weight distribution ratios were found for the material DFG-PAN. The sorbent DMG-PAN has the highest operating capacity. The fastest kinetics of nickel sorption was determined for the commercial Ni Resin. Elution of nickel with nitric acid solution allows subsequent and direct determination of radionickel by liquid scintillation counting. (author)

  7. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  8. Assessment of DOE low-level radioactive solid waste disposal storage activities: task 103. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.

    1977-01-01

    From a survey of DOE sites, facilities, and practices for the disposal/storage of low-level radioactive solid waste, the following can be summarized: (1) No health hazard has been reported. (2) Some burial grounds are releasing small quantities of radionuclides to the immediate environment. These releases are well within release limits at all sites with the exception of on-site concentrations at ORNL. At ORNL, concentrations in the Clinch River are less than 1% of the release limits. (3) Many practices have been instituted in the last few years which have improved disposal/storage operations considerably. The most notable are: (a) improved record keeping and a centralized computer data file, (b) improved burial site surface maintenance and drainage control, (c) initiation of the use of waste compactors and current plans for their use at most burial sites, (d) initiation of studies at major sites for evaluation of the long-term impact of buried waste, (e) improvement of modeling/monitoring programs at all major sites, (f) initiation of studies to provide engineering methods of reducing burial ground discharges at ORNL, and (g) initiation of the shallow land burial technologoy program.Overall, the low-level waste is being disposed of and stored in a safe and orderly manner. Recent and planned improvements will provide increased environmental protection. The only unsatisfactory area involves record keeping. Records of waste buried years ago are either poor or nonexistent. This makes it very difficult to evaluate the total impact of some 30 years of disposal operations. While some of this important history is lost forever, projects now under way should be able to reconstruct most of it

  9. Effect of low level doses of fast neutrons on the activity of the snake venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafy, Magda S.; Amin, Aida M.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low level doses of fast neutrons from 252 Cf on snake venom (Cerastes cerastes) was studied through measurements of biophysical and haematological changes. The absorption spectrum (200-700 nm) of haemoglobin (Hb) collected from the blood of rats after 3 and 24 hours post injection with irradiated and non-irradiated snake venom with neutron fluences of 3x10 6 , 2.8x10 7 and 3X10 8 n/cm 2 was measured. The results indicated that injection of animals with either non- irradiated or irradiated venom ( with different neutron fluences) resulted into the decrease of the absorption band intensities of Hb. These changes in the properties of the characteristic band showed to be a marker for irradiated venom and is dose dependent. It was concluded that neutron irradiation of the venom leads to the decrease of its toxicity and, consequently, to the increase of the chance of repair mechanism in livings. Obvious changes of most haematological erythrocytic values of Hb, packed cell volume (PCV), red blood counts (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCHb) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were observed in the blood of the rats injected with non-irradiated venom (as a first group) and those injected with the irradiated venom (as a second group). The microcytic haemolytic anemia was more acute in the first group than in the second one which showed lesser extent. It is concluded from this study that low level doses of fast neutrons could postpone and lower acute haematological action induced by the venom. (authors)

  10. Extension of the activities of the Israeli SSDL down to the low level region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuszpet, M.

    1981-11-01

    The report describes the actions taken at the Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories SSDL in order to carry out low level calibrations. The reference instrument (a NE balloon chamber) was calibrated against the therapy level secondary standard, using a PTW 30 cm 3 chamber as a link instrument. A check of the stability of the reference instrument over an eight months period, showed a drift of 1.5+-1.5%. Thus, routine instrument's calibration should be carried out to keep the accuracy below acceptable limits. An analysis of the uncertainties introduced by the transfer of the calibration shows that the accuracy can be kept within acceptable limits (less than +-2% at a 92% confidence level). Calibrations are carried out using three different series: 50 mrad/h, 500 mrad/h and 5000 mrad/h. Before routine calibrations were carried out, preliminary measurements were made to check the proper operation of the set-up. These measurements included beam homogeneity, reproducibility of distance, reproducibility and energy dependence of the transmission monitor chamber, HVL determinations, etc. An estimation of the uncertainties introduced by the calibration process led to a figure of +-4% at the 92% confidence level, which is considered adequate for routine calibrations of field instruments

  11. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low- level waste system (active tanks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A leak testing plan for a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is provided in the two volumes that form this document. This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of this agreement was 1 January 1992. The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four different categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA's specific requirements for leak testing of the Category C systems is addressed in this plan. The plan also addresses leak testing of the Category B portions of the LLLW system. Leak testing of the Category B components was brought into the plan to supplement the secondary containment design demonstration effort that is under way for these components

  12. Bioaccumulation, distribution and retention of 63Ni2+ in the brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaelve, Hans; Gottofrey, James; Borg, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Brown trout, Salmo trutta, were exposed to water containing 0.1 or 10 μgl -1 of 63 Ni 2+ for 1 or 3 weeks. Additional trout were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μgl -1 of 63 Ni 2+ during 3 weeks followed by a 1- or 3-week period without exposure to the metal. At termination of the experimental periods the uptake and distribution of the 63 Ni 2+ in the fishes were determined by whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. The average whole-fish concentration of 63 Ni 2+ in the fishes was about 3 times higher than the concentration of 6 Ni 2+ in the water after 1 week's exposure and about 7-8 times higher than in the water after three weeks' exposure. Our results show that there is a moderate bioaccumulation of nickel by fishes from the water. (author)

  13. 60Co, 63Ni and 94Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mohamad, S.A.; Mueck, K.; Horak, O.

    1995-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors for 60 Co, 63 Ni and 94 Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The soil-to-plant transfer factors decreased from 63 Ni to 60 Co and 94 Nb. Mean values from all experiments ranged from 1.12 ( 63 Ni) to 0.0045 ( 94 Nb). The transfer values obtained for 60 Co and 63 Ni are comparable to literature values, but 94 Nb-transfer seems to be lower than previous estimates. All radionuclides showed differences between plant species and plant organs. Transfer values were also dependent on the soil type. (author)

  14. Enhanced constitutive invasion activity in human nontumorigenic keratinocytes exposed to a low level of barium for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen D; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ichihara, Gaku; Kato, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that exposure to barium for a short time (≤4 days) and at a low level (5 µM = 687 µg/L) promotes invasion of human nontumorigenic HaCaT cells, which have characteristics similar to those of normal keratinocytes, suggesting that exposure to barium for a short time enhances malignant characteristics. Here we examined the effect of exposure to low level of barium for a long time, a condition mimicking the exposure to barium through well water, on malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes. Constitutive invasion activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein expression and activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) protein expression in primary cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes, HaCaT keratinocytes, and HSC5 and A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were augmented following an increase in malignancy grade of the cells. Constitutive invasion activity, FAK phosphorylation, and MMP14 expression levels of HaCaT keratinocytes after treatment with 5 µM barium for 4 months were significantly higher than those of control untreated HaCaT keratinocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that exposure to a low level of barium for a long time enhances constitutive malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes via regulatory molecules (FAK and MMP14) for invasion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low levels of physical activity in patients with severe mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Lene; Lund, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes, both being highly prevalent in patients with severe mental illness. Though physical activity has become an important issue in psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation in the past decade......, systematic evaluations of physical activity level in psychiatric populations could be more disseminated. Aim: The primary aim of the study was to investigate the physical activity level of psychiatric patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods: Patients with severe mental illness (n =47......) and a group of healthy controls (n =28) matched on sex and age reported their physical activity level using the Physical Activity Scale (PAS). PAS was administered as an interview in relation to patients and as a questionnaire in relation to healthy controls. Results: Patients had statistically significant...

  16. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  17. Development of MHI's induction melting system for low level radio active solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi; Hashiba, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sato, Akio; Minemoto, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., (MHI) has developed melting facilities that reduce radioactive waste volume. The system uses a high-frequency induction to separately melt nonmetallic waste in SUS containers and metallic waste. Use of system extends refractory life. To validate system feasibility, major components were tested with the following results: (1) Two 200-liter drum cans of molten solid waste are produced per work day, (2) Radioactivity in molten solid was homogeneous with a coefficient of variation ≤10%, clarifying residue properties, (3) The radioactive decontamination factor of off-gas facilities --DF=Activity to system/Activity at the system exit --exceeded 10 7 . We confirmed system to fill the requirements for molten solid waste and have the merit of high volume-reduction and long-life refractory. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis of low-level element contents in silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerner, W [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Berger, A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Niese, S [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Matthes, M [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Gawlik, D [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Semiconductor silicon is among the purest materials having ever been produced by modern technology. Thus, it is quite suitable as a primary reference material validating the correctness and the detection capabilities of developed analytical methods. Among them neutron activation analysis plays a competitive role. The U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) has initiated and carried out an interlaboratory comparison in order to study the spread of analytical results worldwide evolved by several laboratories dealing with specimens of extreme purity. The outcome of the experiment was intended to review the capabilities of NAA as well as to differentiate between bulk and surface contamination. (orig./DG)

  19. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschner, J.; Schaller, G.

    1993-12-01

    Using radioecological models, nuclide-specific ''basic values'' were established for the specific activity of radioactive contaminated waste. These basic values were determined in order to avoid dose equivalents of more than 10 μSv/a (de minimis concept) when disposing the waste in conventional waste deposits or burning it in incineration plants. The basic values vary within 16 orders of magnitude, ranging between 4.3E-02 Bq/g for Cm-250 and 2.2E+14 Bq/g for Po-212. About 82% of the basic values are between 1 Bq/g und 1000 Bq/g. The critical exposure for most of the radionuclides is that from direct radiation or inhalation at the slag-deposit. For 54% of the radionuclides the basic value for the specific activity of waste is lower at least by a factor of 10 than the 10 -4 -fold value per gram of the release limit (German Radiation Protection Ordinance). Appropriate nuclide-specific and dose-related limits were derived from these basic values. The respective limits are ranging between 1E-01 Bq/g and 1E+07 Bq/g. About 95% of the limits are between 1 Bq/g and 1000 Bq/g. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Levels for the specific activity at disposing low-level contaminated municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschner, J.; Schaller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Using radioecological models, nuclide specific values were calculated for the specific activity of low contaminated radioactive waste, which is disposed in conventional waste deposits or burned in incineration plants. The calculation of these values is based on a limit of 10 μSv effective dose in one year, i.e. effective dose possibly resulting from waste disposal or burning should not exceed a 'de-minimis'-value of some 10 μSv per year. The applied radioecological models describe exposure of the public by direct radiation, inhalation and ingestion for the operational period of a deposit or an incineration plant, but also cover post-operational scenarios, collecting and sorting of waste and road accidents of the waste-truck. Referring to the dose limit of 10 μSv/a, a value for the specific activity of waste was calculated for each scenario and each radionuclide considered. The smallest of these values for a radionuclide, the 'basic value' was rounded to a 'reference value'. For about 600 radionuclides reference values were derived. About 90% of the reference values are ranging between 1 and 1 000 Bq/g. For about 90% of the radionuclides direct radiation or inhalation at the deposit proved to be the critical path of exposure. (orig.) [de

  1. Determination of low-level Radium isotope activities in fresh waters by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Porras, Arnold; Condomines, Michel; Seidel, Jean Luc

    2017-01-01

    A new portable sampling system was developed to extract Radium isotopes from large volumes (up to 300 L) of fresh surface- and ground-waters of low Ra-activities (<5 mBq/L). Ra is quantitatively adsorbed on a small amount (6.5 g) of MnO_2-coated acrylic fibers, which are then dried and burned at 600 °C in the laboratory. The resulting Mn-oxide powder (about 2 cm"3 when compacted) is then analyzed through gamma-ray spectrometry which allows measurement of the whole Ra quartet ("2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra, "2"2"4Ra and "2"2"3Ra) in a single counting of a few days. The usual relative standard combined uncertainties (1σ) are 2–3% for "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"2"4Ra; and less than 10% for "2"2"3Ra. This method was applied to the analysis of Ra in karstic waters of the Lez aquifer, and surface- and ground-waters of the upper and middle Vidourle watershed (South of France). The analyzed waters have relatively low "2"2"6Ra activities (1–4 mBq/L) in both cases, regardless of the contrasted geology (Mesozoic limestone vs crystalline Variscan basement), but clearly distinct ("2"2"8Ra/"2"2"6Ra) ratios in agreement with the differences in Th/U ratios of the two drained areas. Short-lived Ra isotopes ("2"2"4Ra and "2"2"3Ra) appear to be mainly influenced by near-surface desorption/recoil processes for most of the sampling sites. - Highlights: • New portable system for sampling fresh- and ground-waters of low Ra activities. • Simultaneous measurement of all four radium isotopes through gamma-spectrometry. • Relative uncertainties are 2% to 3% for "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Ra and "2"2"4Ra; and <10 % for "2"2"3Ra. • ("2"2"8Ra/"2"2"6Ra) ratios are valuable tracers of water origin in karstic aquifers.

  2. Measurement of low-level beta activity of samples in liquid state using plastic scintillator vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezranowski, E.; Panczyk, E.; Radwan, M.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic scintillation vials having walls from a plastic scintillator and the bottom from perspex were used. Wall thickness was 0.8 to 3 mm. The solution radioactivity was measured by a scintillation beta spectrometer. The total measurement errors were found for the following radionuclides: 14 C +-3.7%; 204 Tl +-3%; 32 P +-2.8%; 137 Cs +-2%, and 72 Ga +-5%. Detection efficiency was found to decrease rapidly with the solution layer thickness. For a solution thickness of 0.2 mm the highest detection efficiency was observed with the 4% measurement error. Linear dependence was found of detection efficiency on beta energy. For a solution layer thickness of 0.2 mm the minimum measurable activities were determined to be 30.3 pCi for 14 C and 2.12 pCi for 32 P. The use of the above vials permits quick and simple measurement without sample chemical preparation. (J.P.)

  3. Beyond low-level activity: On a 'non-radioactive' gas mantle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poljanc, Karin [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Steinhauser, Georg [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: georg.steinhauser@ati.ac.at; Sterba, Johannes H. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Buchtela, Karl [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Bichler, Max [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-01

    Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be 'non-radioactive' and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), {gamma}-spectroscopy, and Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). We found massive thorium contents of up to 259 mg per gas mantle. Leaching experiments showed that only 0.4% of the Th but approximately 90% of the decay products of {sup 232}Th can be leached under conditions simulating sucking and chewing with human saliva. In this paper, the investigation of these gas mantles including the consideration of the environmental hazard caused by disposed mantles and the health hazard for unsuspecting consumers is presented and legal consequences are discussed for this fraud.

  4. Beyond low-level activity: On a 'non-radioactive' gas mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljanc, Karin; Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H.; Buchtela, Karl; Bichler, Max

    2007-01-01

    Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be 'non-radioactive' and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), γ-spectroscopy, and Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). We found massive thorium contents of up to 259 mg per gas mantle. Leaching experiments showed that only 0.4% of the Th but approximately 90% of the decay products of 232 Th can be leached under conditions simulating sucking and chewing with human saliva. In this paper, the investigation of these gas mantles including the consideration of the environmental hazard caused by disposed mantles and the health hazard for unsuspecting consumers is presented and legal consequences are discussed for this fraud

  5. Use of sEMG in identification of low level muscle activities: features based on ICA and fractal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    This paper has experimentally verified and compared features of sEMG (Surface Electromyogram) such as ICA (Independent Component Analysis) and Fractal Dimension (FD) for identification of low level forearm muscle activities. The fractal dimension was used as a feature as reported in the literature. The normalized feature values were used as training and testing vectors for an Artificial neural network (ANN), in order to reduce inter-experimental variations. The identification accuracy using FD of four channels sEMG was 58%, and increased to 96% when the signals are separated to their independent components using ICA.

  6. A case of tongue edema associated with radiation-induced ulcer with low level of C1 inhibitor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Tsuyoshi; Hosoda, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    A 66-year-old man became aware of sudden swelling of the tongue with swallowing disturbance. He had a medical history of tongue cancer treated by interstitial radiotherapy and had undergone a cytological examination of an ulcer on the right side of the tongue three weeks earlier because of suspected recurrence. The cytological examination result was class I with no malignant findings. Angioneurotic edema, so-called ''Quincke's edema'', associated with radiation-induced ulcer of the tongue, was diagnosed. Tranexamic acid, d-chlorpheniramine maleate, and epinephrine were administered. After six days, the tongue edema had almost disappeared. Laboratory examination revealed a low level of C1 inhibitor activity with normal levels of CH50, C1, C3, and C4 at the time of swelling. Hereditary angioneurotic edema with absence of hereditary trait was suspected based on the sudden edema attack and low level of C1 inhibitor activity. The C1 inhibitor activity returned to normal after disappearance of the tongue edema. (author)

  7. The influence of antioxidants on the disturbance of the brain activity induced by low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godukhin, O.V.; Arkhipov, V.I.; Shipakina, T.G.; Kalemenev, S.V.; Burlakova, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of α-tocopherol (30 mg/kg per day) and synthetic antioxidant IHFAN-30 (30 mg/day) in rats were compared during low-level ionizing radiation (10 days, dose rate 5 mGy/h, total dose 1.2 Gy). There were analysed: (1) amplitude of population spike of hippocampal slices; (2) endogenous phosphorilation in vitro of hippocamplal synaptic proteins in the presense of cAMP; (3) formation, manifestation and reduction of food-procuring reflex. The findings showed that antioxidants made some correction of the functional state of pippocampal slices and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation system activity in brain cells from irradiated animals. No influence on training and memory functions was detected. 12 refs.; 3 figs

  8. A gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na/(7)Be activity ratio measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Stukel, Matthew; Mekarski, Pawel

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a digital gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer was developed and examined for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na and (7)Be in air-filter sample monitoring. The spectrometer consists of two bismuth germanate scintillators (BGO) and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The spectrometer design allows a more selective measurement of (22)Na with a significant background reduction by gamma-gamma coincidence events processing. Hence, the system provides a more sensitive way to quantify trace amounts of (22)Na than normal high resolution gamma spectrometry providing a critical limit of 3 mBq within a 20 h count. The use of a list-mode data acquisition technique enabled simultaneous determination of (22)Na and (7)Be activity concentrations using a single measurement by coincidence and anticoincidence mode respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  10. Low-level laser therapy activates NF-kB via generation of reactive oxygen species in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C-H Chen

    Full Text Available Despite over forty years of investigation on low-level light therapy (LLLT, the fundamental mechanisms underlying photobiomodulation at a cellular level remain unclear.In this study, we isolated murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF from transgenic NF-kB luciferase reporter mice and studied their response to 810 nm laser radiation. Significant activation of NF-kB was observed at fluences higher than 0.003 J/cm(2 and was confirmed by Western blot analysis. NF-kB was activated earlier (1 hour by LLLT compared to conventional lipopolysaccharide treatment. We also observed that LLLT induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production similar to mitochondrial inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone and paraquat. Furthermore, we observed similar NF-kB activation with these mitochondrial inhibitors. These results, together with inhibition of laser induced NF-kB activation by antioxidants, suggests that ROS play an important role in the laser induced NF-kB signaling pathways. However, LLLT, unlike mitochondrial inhibitors, induced increased cellular ATP levels, which indicates that LLLT also upregulates mitochondrial respiration.We conclude that LLLT not only enhances mitochondrial respiration, but also activates the redox-sensitive NFkB signaling via generation of ROS. Expression of anti-apoptosis and pro-survival genes responsive to NFkB could explain many clinical effects of LLLT.

  11. Standardization of 3H, 14C and 63Ni radiation sources by calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khol'nova, E.A.; Kul'kova, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    The calorimetric method of determination of activity of radionuclides 3 H, 14 C and 63 Ni with low mean energies of β-particles has, as compare to other methods which had been used for determination of activity of these nuclides, a number of advantages, because a nuclide to be measured can be introduced into the calorimeter in any physical and chemical state. It is not necessary to distroy integrity ane leek-proofness of a source wnich can be of arbitrary type. There is no correction for absorption and self-absorption of β-particles and measuring instruments are relatively simple. As a limitation of this method is it's low sensitivity which can be owercomed by means of application of modern high sensitivity calorimeters. Such calorimeters have been developed in the Mendeleev All-Union research Institute. The calorimetric installation consists of 3 independent β-calorimeters of differential-double type, working in the regime of heat equilibrium and beeng intended for different by sise and shape sources. Then, there are thermostatting device of special desighn and electric measuring device. Number of thermocouples in each calorimeter is from 75 to 120 and sensitivity of calorimeters is from 2.45x10 -7 to 4.5x10 -7 Bt/mm depending on the type of calorimeter. Calorimeters are intended for measuring activities from 10 9 to 10 12 Bk. Error of measurement of activities equals 0.8-1.5% (with confidence level of 0.99%). The main portion of error consists of error in the medium energy β-spectra. The calorimeter error itself is much more lower. Soueces, which have been measured in the calorimeter than can be used for preparation of solutions and sources of lower activity [ru

  12. Distribution of /sup 63/Ni in mice by means of whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry

    1974-11-01

    The uptake of Ni which was known to be contained in the dental alloy to the mammalian tissue was studied. /sup 63/Ni was injected intravenously to mice, and its distribution in their body was observed by counting radioactivity using whole body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counter from 30 minutes after the injection to 3 weeks later. Whole body autography revealed high uptake in the kidney, lung, incisor, intervertebral disc, epidermis cuticle, hair follicle, and liver during 30 minutes later to 8 hours period, and in the lung, renal cortex, central nerve, epidermis cuticle, and hair follicle during 2 days to 3 weeks period. /sup 63/Ni taken up in the tissue or organs rapidly disappeared by 8 hours period, and the rank of high uptake tissues slightly changed during 30 minutes later to 8 hours period. /sup 63/Ni administered in the body was considered to be excreted through the kidney, however, /sup 63/Ni taken up in the central nerve showed remarkably delayed excretion.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  14. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI. This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuous improvement process. Recently, two High Efficiency diodes have been integrated to the MADERE platform in order to manage the accurate low level activity measurements (few Bq per sample. This new equipment provides a good level of efficiency over the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV. The background continuum is reduced due to the use of a Ultra Low Background (ULB lead shielding. Relative and absolute X-ray measurement techniques have been improved in order to facilitate absolute rhodium activity measurement (Rh103m on solid samples. Additional efforts have been made to increase the accuracy of the relative niobium (Nb93m activity measurement technique. The way of setting up an absolute measurement method for niobium is under investigation. After a presentation of the MADERE's measurement devices, this paper focuses on the technological options taken into account for the design of high efficiency measurement devices. Then, studies performed on X-ray measurement techniques are presented. Some details about the calculation of uncertainties and correction factors are also mentioned. Finally, future research and development axes are exposed.

  15. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  16. Quantitative sensory response of the SCM muscle on sustained low level activation simulating co-contractions during bruxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Lydia; Terebesi, Sophia; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas; Hellmann, Daniel; Schindler, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitter, Marc; Pfau, Doreen

    2018-02-01

    Bruxism is discussed as an etiological factor in the pathogenesis of orofacial and cervical pain. As the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) is co-activated during clenching, our aim was to investigate, whether the muscle loading leads to peripheral or central sensitizations. In twenty-one healthy female volunteers, somatosensory profiles of the SCM were recorded according to the test battery of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) prior to and after an isometric muscle exercise. QST comprised thermal and mechanical stimuli. A submaximal activation of the SCM (15% MVC) was kept for 10min in sitting position. In separate test sessions one month apart, one sham and one verum experiment were conducted in randomized order. During the muscle loading, the parameters cold detection threshold (CDT), mechanical pain sensitivity (MPS) and pressure pain treshold (PPT) were tested and experimental pain recorded by visual analogoue scales (VAS). All test sessions were performed during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (day 5), to avoid effects on pain perception. Data were analyzed with Repeated Measures ANOVA (SPSS 22.0) RESULTS: No significant changes were found during or after (sham) loading except for stimulus-response-function (SR, P=0.01) and PPT (P=0.02) in the sham test. No effect was observed in the verum experiment (P=0.12 up to 1.0). Prolonged low level contraction of the SCM does not evoke painful sensitization. In contrast, submaximal muscle activation seems to have a protective effect corresponding to a training effect preventing sensitization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE's obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option

  18. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun eYen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB. Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition, implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD

  19. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  20. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  1. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., 108m Ag, 93 Mo, 36 Cl, 10 Be, 113m Cd, 121m Sn, 126 Sn, 93m Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., 14 C, 129 I, and 99 Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments

  2. Detailed Leak Detection Test Plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the pipelines that comprise the active, singly contained, portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (FFA) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The LLLW system is an interconnected complex of tanks and pipelines. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems within this complex: new or replacement tank systems with secondary containment (Category A), existing tank systems with secondary containment (Category B), existing tank systems without secondary containment (Category C), and tank systems that have been removed from service (Category D). The FFA specifically requires that DOE demonstrate that the Category C systems are not leaking. This plan and schedule addresses testing of the Category C pipelines and the pipelines which are part of Category B tank systems that do not fully meet the requirements for secondary containment as listed in the FFA. A key feature of the plan is that it is based on the use of performance standards for the conduct of release detection testing, and on the use of methods whose performance has been evaluated and shown to meet those standards. Another feature of the plan is that it is based in part on relevant portions of current federal EPA regulations applicable to underground storage tanks and pipelines (UST systems) that store and transfer petroleum products and other hazardous substances. While the FFA does not require that the testing at ORNL follow these regulations, the regulations do provide industry- and regulator-accepted performance standards, as well as a schedule for repeated testing of UST components

  3. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G's Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC's), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC's), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 ampersand 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G's disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred

  4. Long-term management of wastes resulting from dismantling operations. Storing the very low-level activity wastes at Morvilliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, F.; Dutzer, M.; Beranger, V.; Lecoq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Extension of dismantling operations in France in the years to come poses the question of availability of long-term waste facility. Large amount of such wastes will be produced after progressive shutdown of the 58 pressurized water reactors now in operation, not before 2010. However, France is already confronted with dismantling of 9 power reactors (6 of which of gas cooled graphite type), the first reprocessing plant at Marcoule, as well as, dismantling of other installations, for instance the CEA reactors or laboratories. The systems of processing the dismantling waste are not different from those used for wastes resulting from nuclear operations. For the high-level or long-term intermediate level activity disposal the debates must start by 2006, as based on the results of the research conducted according to different provisions of the December 30, 1991 law. These wastes represent however small amounts from the dismantling (around 2000 t for the 9 reactors at shutdown) and they will be stored until a decision will be made. A specific storing system should be implemented by 2008-2010 for the graphite wastes (around 23,000 t) which contain significant amount of long-lived radioelements, although their gross activity is low. But the most significant amount will come from low-level or intermediate-level of short lifetime or from wastes of very low activity. The first category is stored at Storage Center at Aube (CSA), its capacity being of 1,000,000 m 3 of drums. The total volume stored by the end of 2002 amounted 136,500 m 3 with an annual delivering of 12-15,000 m 3 at design rate of 30,000 m 3 /y. This center will be able to absorb the flux increase resulting from dismantling of the decommissioned nuclear installations (around 50,000 t from the dismantling of the 9 power reactor). The Center at Aube can be also adapted for storing wastes of large sizes as for instance the lid of the reactor vessel. According to the French regulation, the wastes produced within a

  5. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  6. Could low level laser therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy lead to complete eradication of HIV-1 in vitro?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lugongolo, Masixole Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available used to treat different medical conditions such as diabetic wounds, sports injuries and others. The technique involves exposure of cells or tissue to low levels of red and near infrared laser light. Both HIV infected and uninfected cells were laser...

  7. [sup 60]Co, [sup 63]Ni and [sup 94]Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mohamad, S.A.; Mueck, K.; Horak, O. (Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences)

    1994-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors for [sup 60]Co, [sup 63]Ni and [sup 94]Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The soil-to-plant transfer factors decreased from [sup 63]Ni to [sup 60]Co and [sup 94]Nb. Mean values from all experiments ranged from 1.12 ([sup 63]Ni) to 0.0045 ([sup 94]Nb). The transfer values obtained for [sup 60]Co and [sup 63]Ni are comparable to literature values, but [sup 94]Nb-transfer seems to be lower than previous estimates. All radionuclides showed differences between plant species and plant organs. Transfer values were also dependent on the soil type. (author).

  8. Prediction of the phyto-availability of two radionuclides (63Ni and 99Tc) in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denys, S.

    2001-10-01

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the biosphere is needed for the safety assessment of deep underground nuclear waste repositories. Soils support terrestrial food chains and are thus a key compartment in the determination of transfers of radionuclides to Man. Tyre prediction of soil-to-plant transfers is based on the characterization of the phyto-availability of radionuclides in soils by taking into account all the transfer processes inside the soil profile. The aim of this study was to predict phyto-availability of radionuclides in cultivated soils. The phyto-availability of two radionuclides varying in their mobility, 63 Ni and 99 Tc, was studied a the level of the sieved soil sample and of the cultivated soil profile. Three soils showing contrasted hydraulic and physico-chemical properties were sampled in order to isolate undisturbed soil cores (50 cm x 50 cm): a rendzina, a clayey colluvial soil and a sandy-loam acidic soil. The cores were placed in a greenhouse and equipped with porous cups and leachate collectors in order to sample soil solution and drainage water. The first year, maize (Zea mays L.) was grown and irrigated. Soils were contaminated once on the surface by irrigation at the beginning of the summer season. After harvest, in early October, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was sawn. The cores were again contaminated in March: once in the case of 63 Ni and three tinges for 99 Tc. Transfers of radionuclides to water and aerial parts of crops were monitored throughout the two-year experiment. Results showed that the phyto-availability of radionuclides can be estimated from that of chemical or isotopic analogues ire the case of simple or multiple contamination. 63 Ni is diluted in the pool of isotopically exchangeable Ni 2+ ions in the soils. 99 TcO 4 - is diluted in the pool of available NO 3 - ions. Radionuclides stayed in the upper layer of the soils until harvest due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize

  9. Development of 63Ni-voltaic nuclear micro-battery prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaming; Hu Rui; Wang Guanquan; Gao Hui; Liu Guoping; Luo Shunzhong

    2013-01-01

    Crystal silicon based energy-conversion unit was prepared using the parameters from theoretical simulation. A battery prototype was assembled through ascertaining the process of 63 Ni deposition, the formula of sealing materials and the sealing technique. The electric output properties were assessed with accelerating ageing and changing the temperatures. The results show that the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the manufactured nuclear micro-battery prototype are 88.0 mV and 5.97 nA, and the maximum power output and the energy conversion efficiency are 0.255 nW and 0.561%, respectively. It preserves steadily over 220 days. (authors)

  10. Modeling, design, fabrication and experimentation of a GaN-based, 63Ni betavoltaic battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Munson, C., IV; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Sundaram, S.; Rogers, D. J.; de Sanoit, J.; Voss, P. L.; Ramdane, A.; Salvestrini, J. P.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2018-01-01

    GaN is a durable, radiation hard and wide-bandgap semiconductor material, making it ideal for usage with betavoltaic batteries. This paper describes the design, fabrication and experimental testing of 1 cm2 GaN-based betavoltaic batteries (that achieve an output power of 2.23 nW) along with a full model that accurately simulates the device performance which is the highest to date (to the best of our knowledge) for GaN-based devices with a 63Ni source.

  11. Intercomparison test for the determination of low-level tritium activities in natural waters for age dating purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohokar, Hemant; Diksha; Sinha, U.K.; Joseph, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide inter-comparison was undertaken to assess the quality of 3 H data produced by laboratories worldwide, primarily aimed at those conducting groundwater age dating applications in hydrogeology. These low-level tritium test samples encompass 3 H concentrations currently observed in modern precipitation, surface and ground waters, whereupon each participating laboratory employed routine pre-treatment or electrolytic enrichment procedures and 3 H counting methods. The test water samples were comprised of one tritium-free water and seven water samples. Fifty-eight laboratories reported test data to the IAEA for all, or a sub-set, of the eight test samples. The method applied by our laboratory was electrolytic enrichment followed by counting in liquid scintillation counter

  12. Separation for the determination of 59/63Ni in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Choi, Kwang Soon; Jee, Kwang Young; Kim, Won Ho; Jung, Kie Chul

    2005-01-01

    A study on the separation of 99 Tc, 94 Nb, 55 Fe, 90 Sr and 59/63 Ni in various radioactive wastes discharged from nuclear power plants has been performed for a use in their quantification which is indispensable for the evaluation of the radionuclide inventory. Ni was recovered along with Ca, Mg, Al, Cr, Ti, Mn, Ce, Na, K. and Cu through the sequential separation procedure of Re (as a surrogate of 99 Tc), Nb, Fe and Sr by anion exchange and Sr-SPec extraction chromatography. In this research, chemical separation of Ni from the co-existing elements was investigated by cation exchange and Ni-Spec extraction chromatography. Precipitation behaviour of Ni and the co-existing elements with dimethylglyoxime(DMG) was investigated in ammonium citrate/ethanol-H 2 O and tartaric acid/acetone-H 2 O in order to purify separated Ni fractions and to prepare 59/63 Ni source for the radioactivity measurement using a gas proportional counter. Recovery of Ni separated through ion exchange chromatographic separation procedure was 93.1% with relative standard deviation of 0.9%. In addition, recovery of Ni with DMG in the tartaric acid/acetone-H 2 O was 85.6% with relative standard deviation of 1.9%

  13. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  14. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document

  15. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document.

  16. Chemical yield determination for 59Ni, 63Ni and 56Fe in low and intermediate nuclear wastes by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Milton B.; Santos Neto, Francisco C. dos; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Iron and nickel are constituents of a wide range of metallic materials used in nuclear reactor construction and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low and intermediate-level wastes. The most significant radioisotopes of iron and nickel, in terms of quantity and half life, are 55 Fe (t 1/2 =2.73y), 59 Ni (t 1/2 =7.6x10 4 y) and 63 Ni (t 1/2 =10 2 y) and they are activation products of stable iron and nickel. 59 Ni is an X-ray - emitting and 55 Fe and 63 Ni are β-particle-emitting radionuclides and so they are radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. For their determination in the radioactive wastes is necessary to know the chemical yield for the radiochemical separation procedures prior analytical measurements. In this work Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique was used for this aim. Total nickel and iron in waste samples from nuclear power plants were determined before and after the radiochemical separation at specific wavelengths, 231.604 nm and 259.940 nm respectively. The chemical yields for nickel and iron recovery were around 82 % for iron and 59 % for nickel according the analytical methodology adopted. (author)

  17. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  18. A population-based randomized controlled trial of the effect of combining a pedometer with an intervention toolkit on physical activity among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Severin, Maria; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2012-01-01

    To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness.......To examine if receiving a pedometer along with an intervention toolkit is associated with increased physical activity, aerobic fitness and better self-rated health among individuals with low levels of physical activity or fitness....

  19. Tracer diffusion of 60Co and 63Ni in amorphous NiZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Averback, R.S.; Hahn, H.; Rothman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 60 Co and 63 Ni in equiatomic amorphous NiZr alloy in the temperature range between 486 and 641 0 K can be described by: D/sub Co/sup */ = 3.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(135 +- 14) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec and D/sub Ni//sup */ = 1.7 x 10 -7 exp[-(140 +- 9) kJ mole -1 /RT] m 2 /sec. The values of D/sub Ni//sup */ are in reasonable agreement with those measured by the Rutherford backscattering technique. The measured diffusivities were independent of time, indicating that no relaxation took place during diffusion. 27 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Very Low Levels of Physical Activity in Older Patients During Hospitalization at an Acute Geriatric Ward: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villumsen, Morten; Jorgensen, Martin Gronbech; Andreasen, Jane; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Mølgaard, Carsten Møller

    2015-10-01

    Lack of activity during hospitalization may contribute to functional decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the time spent walking during hospitalization by geriatric patients referred to physical and/or occupational therapy and (2) the development in time spent walking during hospitalization. In this observational study, 24-hr accelerometer data (ActivPal) were collected from inclusion to discharge in 124 patients at an acute geriatric ward. The median time spent walking was 7 min per day. During the first quartile of hospitalization, the patients spent 4 (IQR:1;11) min per day walking, increasing to 10 (IQR:1;29) min during the last quartile. Improvement in time spent walking was primarily observed in the group able to perform the Timed Up & Go task at admission. When walking only 7 min per day, patients could be classified as inactive and at risk for functional decline; nonetheless, the physical activity level increased significantly during hospitalization.

  1. Radioisotope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical applications of activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Design modifications in radioisotope scanners are discussed. Studies on the radiation dose distribution in patients from /sup 90m/Tc-albumin microspheres in the lungs, 59 Fe-citrate, 131 I-hippuran in kidney transplants, and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphates are reported. Data on the levels of fallout 137 Co in normal individuals during 1975, as measured by whole-body counting, are reported. Results of studies on iodine metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism and with T 3 -thyrotoxicosis during 131 I therapy with activities up to 17 mCi showed that the apparent volumes of distribution for different iodine compounds do not change appreciably during therapy in this dose range. Methods are described for measuring the content of Ca alone and Ca and P in bone tissues by transmission scanning using a 252 Cf neutron source for activation of Ca and P

  2. Improvements on Low Level Activity Gamma Measurements and X-ray Spectrometry at the CEA-MADERE Measurement Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeyeva Victoria; Domergue Christophe; Destouches Christophe; Girard Jean Michel; Philibert Hervé; Bonora Jonathan; Thiollay Nicolas; Lyoussi Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    The CEA MADERE platform (Measurement Applied to DosimEtry in REactors) is a part of the Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory (LDCI). This facility is dedicated to the specific activity measurements of solid and radioactive samples using Gamma and X-ray spectrometry. MADERE is a high-performance facility devoted to neutron dosimetry for experimental programs performed in CEA and for the irradiation surveillance programmes of PWR vessels. The MADERE platform is engaged in a continuo...

  3. Dizzy - why not take a walk? Low level physical activity improves quality of life among elderly with dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwall, Anna; Lindberg, Asa; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-01-01

    Dizziness is a very common complaint. The frequency of dizziness increases with age. It affects quality of life negatively for older persons in several ways. This study intended to investigate which variables (physical activity, loneliness, health complaints, need of help for daily living and falls) differed between those with and without dizziness and also to investigate which factors affected quality of life among older persons with dizziness. An age-stratified, randomised sample of senior citizens - aged 75 or older - living in the south of Sweden (n = 4,360) answered a questionnaire concerning demographic data, social network, health complaints and diseases, feelings of loneliness, quality of life (Short Form 12), frequency of falls and activities. Dizziness was associated with an increased risk of falling. Falls in the last 3 months were reported in 31% of the subjects with dizziness compared to 15% among those without (p < 0.001). Dizziness also correlated with depression, with 42.5% feeling depressed among the elderly reporting dizziness as compared with 13.2%. Exercise, both light (i.e. go for a walk) or heavy (i.e. work in the garden), correlated with reduced risk of low quality of life among older, dizzy persons, both mental (light exercise OR 0.58; heavy OR 0.48) and physical (light OR 0.62; heavy OR 0.21). The proportion of dizzy persons doing light exercise was 75.6% versus 87.4% among the not dizzy (p < 0.001). Exercise reduces the risk of falling and the risk of being depressed, and increases quality of life. Even light exercise seems beneficial both for improving quality of life and to decrease the risk of falling, which in turn will lower the mortality rate. Older persons reporting dizziness should be encouraged and perhaps helped to exercise. If one could increase physical activity among the elderly, it would reduce the number of falls, diminish medical costs, suffering for the individual, and be of paramount medicosocial importance for society.

  4. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Kevin; Meyer, Colette; Miller, Nicola; Sims, Andrew H; Cagnan, Ilgin; Faratian, Dana; Harrison, David J; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125 I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3 H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3 H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Breast cancers exhibit a range of GnRH-R immunostaining, with higher levels of

  5. Cervical Shedding of HIV-1 RNA Among Women With Low Levels of Viremia While Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Michael N.; Benning, Lorie; Xu, Jiaao; Strickler, Howard D.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Bremer, James; Levine, Alexandra M.; Kovacs, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Among women with low o r undetectable quantities of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, factors associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding, including choice of treatment regimen, are poorly characterized. Methods We measured HIV-1 RNA in cervical swab specimens obtained from participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who had concurrent plasma viral RNA levels <500 copies/mL, and we assessed factors associated with genital HIV shedding. The study was powered to determine the relative effects of antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on viral RNA shedding. Results Overall, 44 (15%) of 290 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA in cervical specimens. In the final multivariate model, shedding was independently associated with NNRTI (vs. PI) use (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24, 1.13 to 4.45) and illicit drug use (OR, 95% CI: 2.41, 0.96 to 5.69). Conclusions This is the largest study to define risks for genital HIV-1 RNA shedding in women with low/undetectable plasma virus. Shedding in this population was common, and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (vs. PI-based HAART) was associated with genital HIV shedding. Further study is required to determine the impact of these findings on transmission of HIV from mother to child or to sexual partners. PMID:17106279

  6. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  7. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  8. Trends and R and D in France to improve the performance of activity measurements systems for the reprocessing low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Deidier, L.; Silie, Ph.; Huver, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the frame of COGEMA actins to reduce the volume of the reprocessing waste, a new strategy of drumming and incinerating is going to start at LA HAGUE and MARCOULE, for the low level waste planned for surface storage. This strategy depends on the performance improvement of non destructive measurements systems used for the alpha waste evaluation. In this global, closer links between COGEMA, SGN, CEA and EURYSIS MESURE have taken place to define a program in order to obtain up to three years the required performances, using active methods with neutron generator. These developments and tests are carried out on the PROMETHEE R and D facility at CEA-CADARACHE. (authors)

  9. Low levels of HIV-1 RNA detected in the cerebrospinal fluid after up to 10 years of suppressive therapy are associated with local immune activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Viktor; Peterson, Julia; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gisslen, Magnus; Palmer, Sarah; Price, Richard W

    2014-09-24

    Though combination antiretroviral therapy reduces the concentration of HIV-1 RNA in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) below the detection limit of clinical assays, low levels of HIV-1 RNA are frequently detectable in plasma using more sensitive assays. We examined the frequency and magnitude of persistent low-level HIV-1 RNA in CSF and its relation to the central nervous system (CNS) immune activation. CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA were measured using the single-copy assay with a detection limit of 0.3 copies/ml in 70 CSF and 68 plasma samples from 45 treated HIV-1-infected patients with less than 40 copies/ml of HIV-1 RNA in both fluids by standard clinical assays. We also measured CSF neopterin to assess intrathecal immune activation. Theoretical drug exposure was estimated using the CNS penetration-efficacy score of treatment regimens. CSF HIV-1 RNA was detected in 12 of the 70 CSF samples (17%) taken after up to 10 years of suppressive therapy, compared to 39 of the 68 plasma samples (57%) with a median concentration of less than 0.3 copies/ml in CSF compared to 0.3 copies/ml in plasma (P < 0.0001). CSF samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA had higher CSF neopterin levels (mean 8.2 compared to 5.7 nmol/l; P = 0.0085). Patients with detectable HIV-1 RNA in CSF did not differ in pretreatment plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, nadir CD4 cell count or CNS penetration-efficacy score. Low-level CSF HIV-1 RNA and its association with elevated CSF neopterin highlight the potential for the CNS to serve as a viral reservoir and for persistent infection to cause subclinical CNS injury.

  10. Enhanced low-level LSC performance for carbon-14 dating using a bismuth germanate (Bi4Ge3O12) quasi-active guard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Packard 2770TR/SL is a novel low-level liquid scintillation spectrometer which employs bismuth germanate (BGO - Bi 4 Ge 3 O 12 ) as a quasi-active guard to reduce background count rates and improve limits of detection. The results of this study indicate that this system shows tremendous potential for radiocarbon dating. Its great advantage is that it can give exceptional performance using standard low 40 K borosilicate glass vials costing only a few cents each. For example, in an optimized counting window, 4.6-mL 14 C benzene contained in a standard 7-mL glass vial produced a background count rate of 0.49 cpm and an efficiency of 70.3%, yielding a figure of merit (E 2 V 2 /B) value of 213,000 ±9,000 (where B = background count rate in counts per minute [cpm], E = percentage efficiency, and V = volume of benzene). This performance is comparable to published data for low-level instruments which employ active coincidence guard detectors and standard glass vials. When the same vials were recounted in vial holders, specially fabricated from BGO, the corresponding optimum values for background, efficiency and figure of merit, respectively, were 0.24 cpm, 61.0% and 328,000 ± 19,000. This performance is comparable to that of other low-level counting instruments when they are used in combination with specialized Teflon and silica vials. The BGO vial holders were also used in previous generations of Packard instruments which employ time resolved liquid scintillation counting (TR-LSC) for electronic background reduction and this resulted in significant improvements in performance

  11. Low-level overexpression of p53 promotes warfarin-induced calcification of porcine aortic valve interstitial cells by activating Slug gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Ji, Yue; Lu, Yan; Qiu, Ming; Shen, Yejiao; Wang, Yaqing; Kong, Xiangqing; Shao, Yongfeng; Sheng, Yanhui; Sun, Wei

    2018-03-09

    The most frequently used oral anti-coagulant warfarin has been implicated in inducing calcification of aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), whereas the mechanism is not fully understood. The low-level activation of p53 is found to be involved in osteogenic transdifferentiation and calcification of AVICs. Whether p53 participates in warfarin-induced AVIC calcification remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of low-level p53 overexpression in warfarin-induced porcine AVIC (pAVIC) calcification. Immunostaining, quantitative PCR, and Western blotting revealed that p53 was expressed in human and pAVICs and that p53 expression was slightly increased in calcific human aortic valves compared with non-calcific valves. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining indicated that apoptosis slightly increased in calcific aortic valves than in non-calcific valves. Warfarin treatment led to a low-level increase of p53 mRNA and protein in both pAVICs and mouse aortic valves. Low-level overexpression of p53 in pAVICs via an adenovirus vector did not affect pAVIC apoptosis but promoted warfarin-induced calcium deposition and expression of osteogenic markers. shRNA-mediated p53 knockdown attenuated the pAVIC calcium deposition and osteogenic marker expression. Moreover, ChIP and luciferase assays showed that p53 was recruited to the slug promoter and activated slug expression in calcific pAVICs. Of note, overexpression of Slug increased osteogenic marker Runx2 expression, but not pAVIC calcium deposition, and Slug knockdown attenuated pAVIC calcification and p53-mediated pAVIC calcium deposition and expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, we found that p53 plays an important role in warfarin induced pAVIC calcification, and increased slug transcription by p53 is required for p53-mediated pAVIC calcification. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Low-level bisphenol A increases production of glial fibrillary acidic protein in differentiating astrocyte progenitor cells through excessive STAT3 and Smad1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Zhu, Jun; Yu, Tao; Sasaki, Kazuo; Umetsu, Hironori; Kidachi, Yumi; Ryoyama, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the differentiation of serum-free mouse embryo (SFME) cells, the astrocyte progenitor cells in the central nervous system, were examined. SFME cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and 10 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to increase glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and induce cell differentiation. Various concentrations of BPA (0.1 pg/ml-1 μg/ml) were then added to determine their effects on the cell differentiation. SFME cells were effectively differentiated by LIF and BMP2 in completely serum-free cultures. Cell proliferation following cell differentiation was not significantly affected by low-level BPA. However, GFAP expression was significantly increased in SFME cells in the presence of 1-100 pg/ml BPA. These increases were due to excessive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1 (Smad1) by the low-level BPA

  13. Elementary study of encapsulation of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni radio-voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi; Fu Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector. the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package has been evaluated in the previous work. in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supply effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  14. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  15. Trends and R and D in France to improve the performance of activity measurements systems for the reprocessing low level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Deidier, L. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs; Masson, H.; Coryn, P. [Cogema, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Silie, Ph. [SGN Reseau Eurisys, 78 - Saint Quentin (France); Huver, M. [Eurysis Mesure, 78 - Saint-Quentin-en Yvelines (France)

    1995-12-31

    In the frame of COGEMA actins to reduce the volume of the reprocessing waste, a new strategy of drumming and incinerating is going to start at LA HAGUE and MARCOULE, for the low level waste planned for surface storage. This strategy depends on the performance improvement of non destructive measurements systems used for the alpha waste evaluation. In this global, closer links between COGEMA, SGN, CEA and EURYSIS MESURE have taken place to define a program in order to obtain up to three years the required performances, using active methods with neutron generator. These developments and tests are carried out on the PROMETHEE R and D facility at CEA-CADARACHE. (authors) 3 refs.

  16. Hyperfine structure of electronic levels and the first measurement of the nuclear magnetic moment of {sup 63}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' yachkov, A.B.; Firsov, V.A.; Gorkunov, A.A.; Labozin, A.V.; Mironov, S.M.; Saperstein, E.E.; Tolokonnikov, S.V.; Tsvetkov, G.O.; Panchenko, V.Y. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Laser resonant photoionization spectroscopy was used to study the hyperfine structure of the optical 3d{sup 8}4s{sup 2} {sup 3}F{sub 4} → 3d{sup 8}4s4p {sup 3}G{sup o}{sub 3} and 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3} → 3d{sup 8}4s4p {sup 3}G{sup o}{sub 3} transitions of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 61}Ni isotopes. Experimental spectra allowed us to derive hyperfine interaction constants and determine the magnetic dipole moment of the nuclear ground state of {sup 63}Ni for the first time: μ = +0.496(5)μ{sub N}. The value obtained agrees well with the prediction of the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems. (orig.)

  17. Validation of a method for the determination of 14C and 63Ni in samples of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, Olga; Galambos, Michal; Pupak, Matus

    2009-01-01

    For the determination of 14 C, the concrete sample was distilled in inert atmosphere and the released 14 CO 2 was trapped in a scintillation vial with Carbo-Sorb E. Permafluor E was added and the well mixed sample was kept in the dark for 24 h, after which the preparation was measured on a liquid scintillation spectrometer. For the determination of 63 Ni the sample was ignited at 550 deg C overnight and subjected to acid leaching. Nickel was then separated by a procedure which included separation from Fe by precipitation with NH 4 OH and precipitation of Ni with dimethylglyoxime and purification by extraction chromatography on Ni Resin; 63 Ni was determined by liquid scintillation spectrophotometry of the beta radiation. The participation in the interlaboratory comparison exercise gave evidence of the reliability and quality of the results achieved by the laboratory. (P.A.)

  18. Different behaviour of 63Ni and 59Fe during absorption in iron-deficient and iron-adequate jejunal rat segments ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Fassbender, M.; Elsenhans, B.; McKie, A.T.; Schuemann, K.

    2003-01-01

    Nickel exhibits low oral toxicity. It shares the absorptive pathways for iron, though there are substantial quantitative differences in handling of both metals. To analyse these differences more closely, jejunal segments from iron-deficient and iron-adequate rats were luminally perfused ex vivo with 59 Fe and 63 Ni at six different concentrations (1-500 μmo1/l) under steady state conditions. 59 Fe over-all absorption increased 2.0-4.6-fold in iron-deficiency at luminal concentrations between 1 and 100 μmol/l, while 63 Ni absorption increased to a much lower extent (2.6-fold at 1 μmol/l and 1.5-fold at higher luminal concentrations). Moreover, there was a 5-7-fold higher concentration for 63 Ni in the jejunal tissue than in the absorbate at luminal concentrations above 50 μmol/l which was not observed at 1 μmol 63 Ni/l and not for 59 Fe. 63 Ni tissue load showed a linear and a saturable fraction. In iron-deficiency the saturable 63 Ni fraction increased 4-fold as compared to only 1.5-fold increments for 59 Fe. Moreover, a substantially higher share of 63 Ni was retained in the jejunal tissue at high as compare to low luminal concentrations after perfusion had been continued without luminal radioactivity. This was not found for 59 Fe and suggests a concentration-dependent block of 63 Ni export across the enterocytes' basolateral membrane. To explain these results one may speculate that 63 Ni may bind more tightly to tissue ligands than 59 Fe due to the higher thermodynamic and kinetic stability of nickel complexes. In particular, nickel may bind to a basolateral population of metal carriers and block its own basolateral transfer in a concentration-dependent manner. Tight 63 Ni binding to non-specific jejunal ligands is responsible for the unaltered high linear fraction of jejunal 63 Ni load in iron-deficient and iron-adequate segments. Binding of 63 Ni to food and tissue ligands in the small intestine may, thus, be a likely explanation for the low oral nickel

  19. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Coe, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63 Ni and 59 Ni to 60 Co for PWRs and to 58 Co for BWRs, 90 Sr to 137 Cs for BWRs and 241 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm to 144 Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  20. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  1. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  2. Long-term changes in open field activity of male mice irradiated with low levels of gamma rays at late stage of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi.

    1996-01-01

    The open field activity of first generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with γ-rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months, 12-13 months and 19-20 months. Doses were 0.1 Gy or 0.2 Gy. Open field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every sec through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 units of 8 cm square. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The time which the 0.2-Gy group recorded at 6-7 months, spent in the 4 squares in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. The walking distance of the 0.1-Gy group recorded at 12-13 months was longer than that for the age matched control group. No effect of radiation was found on any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 19-20 months. The results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of γ-rays on the 14th day of gestation results in behavioral changes, which occur at 6-7 and 12-13 months but not 19-20 months. (author)

  3. Long-term changes in open field activity of male mice irradiated with low levels of gamma rays at late stage of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, T; Hirokaga, K

    1996-06-01

    The open field activity of first generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with gamma-rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months, 12-13 months and 19-20 months. Doses were 0.1 Gy or 0.2 Gy. Open field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every sec through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 units of 8 cm square. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The time which the 0.2-Gy group recorded at 6-7 months, spent in the 4 squares in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. The walking distance of the 0.1-Gy group recorded at 12-13 months was longer than that for the age matched control group. No effect of radiation was found on any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 19-20 months. The results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of gamma-rays on the 14th day of gestation results in behavioral changes, which occur at 6-7 and 12-13 months but not 19-20 months.

  4. Long-term changes in open field activity of male mice irradiated with low levels of gamma rays at late stage of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamisawa, Takeru [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan); Hirokaga, Kouichi

    1996-06-01

    The open field activity of first generation (F{sub 1}) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with {gamma}-rays on the 14th day of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months, 12-13 months and 19-20 months. Doses were 0.1 Gy or 0.2 Gy. Open field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every sec through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 units of 8 cm square. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The time which the 0.2-Gy group recorded at 6-7 months, spent in the 4 squares in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. The walking distance of the 0.1-Gy group recorded at 12-13 months was longer than that for the age matched control group. No effect of radiation was found on any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 19-20 months. The results demonstrate that exposure to low levels of {gamma}-rays on the 14th day of gestation results in behavioral changes, which occur at 6-7 and 12-13 months but not 19-20 months. (author)

  5. KMOS"3"D Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS"3"D survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M _⊙ yr"−"1), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.

  6. KMOS{sup 3D} Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wuyts, Stijn [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-05-20

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS{sup 3D} survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.

  7. Muscle Shear Moduli Changes and Frequency of Alternate Muscle Activity of Plantar Flexor Synergists Induced by Prolonged Low-Level Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Akagi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During prolonged low-level contractions, synergist muscles are activated in an alternating pattern of activity and silence called as alternate muscle activity. Resting muscle stiffness is considered to increase due to muscle fatigue. Thus, we investigated whether the difference in the extent of fatigue of each plantar flexor synergist corresponded to the difference in the frequency of alternate muscle activity between the synergists using muscle shear modulus as an index of muscle stiffness. Nineteen young men voluntarily participated in this study. The shear moduli of the resting medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG and soleus muscle (SOL were measured using shear wave ultrasound elastography before and after a 1-h sustained contraction at 10% peak torque during maximal voluntary contraction of isometric plantar flexion. One subject did not accomplish the task and the alternate muscle activity for MG was not found in 2 subjects; therefore, data for 16 subjects were used for further analyses. The magnitude of muscle activation during the fatiguing task was similar in MG and SOL. The percent change in shear modulus before and after the fatiguing task (MG: 16.7 ± 12.0%, SOL: −4.1 ± 13.9%; mean ± standard deviation and the alternate muscle activity during the fatiguing task (MG: 33 [20–51] times, SOL: 30 [17–36] times; median [25th–75th percentile] were significantly higher in MG than in SOL. The contraction-induced change in shear modulus (7.4 ± 20.3% and the alternate muscle activity (37 [20–45] times of LG with the lowest magnitude of muscle activation during the fatiguing task among the plantar flexors were not significantly different from those of the other muscles. These results suggest that the degree of increase in muscle shear modulus induced by prolonged contraction corresponds to the frequency of alternate muscle activity between MG and SOL during prolonged contraction. Thus, it is likely that, compared with

  8. Prediction of the phyto-availability of two radionuclides ({sup 63}Ni and {sup 99}Tc) in soils; Prediction de la phytodisponibilite de deux radionucleides ({sup 63}Ni et {sup 99}Tc) dans les sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denys, S

    2001-10-01

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the biosphere is needed for the safety assessment of deep underground nuclear waste repositories. Soils support terrestrial food chains and are thus a key compartment in the determination of transfers of radionuclides to Man. Tyre prediction of soil-to-plant transfers is based on the characterization of the phyto-availability of radionuclides in soils by taking into account all the transfer processes inside the soil profile. The aim of this study was to predict phyto-availability of radionuclides in cultivated soils. The phyto-availability of two radionuclides varying in their mobility, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 99}Tc, was studied a the level of the sieved soil sample and of the cultivated soil profile. Three soils showing contrasted hydraulic and physico-chemical properties were sampled in order to isolate undisturbed soil cores (50 cm x 50 cm): a rendzina, a clayey colluvial soil and a sandy-loam acidic soil. The cores were placed in a greenhouse and equipped with porous cups and leachate collectors in order to sample soil solution and drainage water. The first year, maize (Zea mays L.) was grown and irrigated. Soils were contaminated once on the surface by irrigation at the beginning of the summer season. After harvest, in early October, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was sawn. The cores were again contaminated in March: once in the case of {sup 63}Ni and three tinges for {sup 99}Tc. Transfers of radionuclides to water and aerial parts of crops were monitored throughout the two-year experiment. Results showed that the phyto-availability of radionuclides can be estimated from that of chemical or isotopic analogues ire the case of simple or multiple contamination. {sup 63}Ni is diluted in the pool of isotopically exchangeable Ni{sup 2+} ions in the soils. {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}- is diluted in the pool of available NO{sub 3}- ions. Radionuclides stayed in the upper layer of the soils until harvest due

  9. Characterization of alpha low level waste in 118 litre drums by passive and active neutron measurements in the promethee assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Mariani, A.; Ma, J.L.; Baudry, G.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Recroix, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Loridon, J.; Denis, C.; Toubon, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the PROMETHEE (PROMpt, epithermal and THErmal interrogation experiment) waste assay system for alpha low level waste (LLW) characterization. This device, including both passive and active neutron measurement methods, is developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.), Cadarache Centre, in cooperation with COGEMA. Its purpose is to reach the requirements for incinerating alpha waste (less than 50 Bq[α], i.e. about 50 μg of Pu per gram of raw waste) in 118 litre- > drums. The PROMETHEE development and progress are performed with the help of simulation based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP4 [1]. These calculations are coupled with specific experiments in order to confirm calculated results and to obtain characteristics that can not be approached by the simulation (background for example). This paper presents the PROMETHEE measurement cell, its current performances, and studies performed at the laboratory about the most limiting parameters such as the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl..), its density and its heterogeneity degree -the localization and the self-shielding properties of the contaminant. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of alpha low level waste in 118 litre drums by passive and active neutron measurements in the promethee assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Mariani, A.; Ma, J.L.; Baudry, G.; Romeyer-Dherbey, J.; Recroix, H.; Rodriguez, M.; Loridon, J.; Denis, C. [French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A./Cadarache), DED/SCCD/LDMN, Durance (France); Toubon, H. [COGEMA, VELIZY-VILLACOUBLAY (France)

    2003-07-01

    This paper deals with the PROMETHEE (PROMpt, epithermal and THErmal interrogation experiment) waste assay system for alpha low level waste (LLW) characterization. This device, including both passive and active neutron measurement methods, is developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission (C.E.A.), Cadarache Centre, in cooperation with COGEMA. Its purpose is to reach the requirements for incinerating alpha waste (less than 50 Bq[{alpha}], i.e. about 50 {mu}g of Pu per gram of raw waste) in 118 litre-<> drums. The PROMETHEE development and progress are performed with the help of simulation based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP4 [1]. These calculations are coupled with specific experiments in order to confirm calculated results and to obtain characteristics that can not be approached by the simulation (background for example). This paper presents the PROMETHEE measurement cell, its current performances, and studies performed at the laboratory about the most limiting parameters such as the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl..), its density and its heterogeneity degree -the localization and the self-shielding properties of the contaminant. (orig.)

  11. Low Levels of Usual Physical Activity Are Associated with Higher 24 h Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Teixeira Neto Zucatti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between usual physical activity and 24 h blood pressure (BP profile in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. This is a cross-sectional study of 151 participants with type 2 DM. Usual physical activity was assessed by step counting and self-reported questionnaire. BP was measured in office and by 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; 24 h, daytime and nighttime. Mean participant age was 61.1 ± 8.4 years, 64% was women, and mean duration of diabetes was 14.3 ± 8.5 years. Ninety-two percent of participants had hypertension, and office BP was 138 ± 18/78 ± 10 mmHg. Inverse correlations were observed between step count and 24 h BP (systolic, r=−0.186; p=0.022, daytime BP (systolic, r=−0.198; p=0.015, and nighttime BP (pulse pressure, r=−0.190; p=0.019. People were categorized into tertiles of daily step count, and the 1st tertile had higher 24 h systolic BP, daytime systolic BP, daytime mean BP, and daytime systolic BP load than those in the other tertiles, even after adjusting for age and HbA1c. Participants with type 2 DM and low levels of physical activity exhibit higher 24 h and daytime systolic ambulatory BP values as compared with those who performed more steps per day, even after adjustments for confounding factors.

  12. A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting to determine 63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celine; Colin, Christele; Garcia, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting was performed to measure 63 Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Three dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-based radiochemical procedures (solvent extraction, precipitation, extraction chromatography) were investigated, the solvent extraction method being considered as the reference method. Theoretical speciation calculations enabled to better understand the chemical reactions involved in the three protocols and to optimize them. In comparison to the method based on DMG precipitation, the method based on extraction chromatography allowed to achieve the best results in one single step in term of recovery yield and accuracy for various samples. (author)

  13. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide 63Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C 9 H 10 ClN 5 O 2 ), clothianidin (C 6 H 8 ClN 5 O 2 S) and thiamethoxam (C 8 H 10 ClN 5 O 3 S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide 63 Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources 63 Ni within carrier gas N 2 . The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  14. Analysis of neonicotinoids by gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni - Electron Capture Detector - GC/ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Crepaldi, Caike; Bustillos, Oscar V., E-mail: priscilaoamaral@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio.leao@usp.br, E-mail: marceloredigolo@gmail.com, E-mail: caike1995@gmail.com, E-mail: ovega@ipen.bremails [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Recently, several reports have been published discussing reduction in bee population which polymerizes cultures around the world this phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). The phenomenon describes the lack of worker honeybees in the colony despite having pups and food. The causes of this problem are unknown but there are studies that claim that reduction of population of bees is linked to poisoning through insecticides specifically neonicotinoids. Among this type of pesticide are imidacloprid (C{sub 9}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}), clothianidin (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 2}S) and thiamethoxam (C{sub 8}H{sub 10}ClN{sub 5}O{sub 3}S). This paper presents the analysis of neonicotinoids - clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam - by the technique of gas chromatography coupled to nuclide {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The electron capture detector (ECD) is a gas chromatography detector that has been used for the detection of organic halogens, nitriles, nitrates and organometallic compounds. The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected and create a current that are amplified and generates a chromatographic peak. Methodology and details of the analysis are present in this work. (author)

  15. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  16. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  17. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  18. The radiation resistance and cobalt biosorption activity of yeast strains isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chin; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Ching-Tu; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Fong-In

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes has made them the pioneers in radionuclides adsorption and transport. In this study, the radiation resistance and nuclide biosorption capacity of microbes isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) repository in Taiwan was assessed, the evaluation of the possibility of using the isolated strain as biosorbents for (60)Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution and the potential impact on radionuclides release. The microbial content of solidified waste and broken fragments of containers at the Lanyu LLRW repository reached 10(5) CFU/g. Two yeast strains, Candida guilliermondii (CT1) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae (RT1) were isolated. The radiation dose necessary to reduce the microbial count by one log cycle of CT1 and RT1 was 2.1 and 0.8 kGy, respectively. Both CT1 and RT1 can grow under a radiation field with dose rate of 6.8 Gy/h, about 100 times higher than that on the surface of the LLRW container in Lanyu repository. CT1 and RT1 had the maximum (60)Co biosorption efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% and 98.3 ± 0.2%, respectively in (60)Co aqueous solution (700 Bq/mL), and the (60)Co could stably retained for more than 30 days in CT 1. Nearly all of the Co was absorbed and reached equilibrium within 1 h by CT1 and RT1 in the 10 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Biosorption efficiency test showed almost all of the Co (II) was adsorbed by CT1 in 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution, the efficiency of biosorption by RT1 in 10 μg/g of Co (II) was lower. The maximum Co (II) sorption capacity of CT1 and RT1 was 5324.0 ± 349.0 μg/g (dry wt) and 3737.6 ± 86.5 μg/g (dry wt), respectively, in the 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Experimental results show that microbial activity was high in the Lanyu LLRW repository in Taiwan. Two isolated yeast strains, CT1 and RT1 have high potential for use as biosorbents for (60)Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution, on the other hand, but may have the

  19. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  20. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  1. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  2. The radiation resistance and cobalt biosorption activity of yeast strains isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chia-Chin; Chung, Hsiao-Ping; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Chang, Ching-Tu; Wang, Ya-Ting; Chou, Fong-In

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous nature of microbes has made them the pioneers in radionuclides adsorption and transport. In this study, the radiation resistance and nuclide biosorption capacity of microbes isolated from the Lanyu low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) repository in Taiwan was assessed, the evaluation of the possibility of using the isolated strain as biosorbents for 60 Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution and the potential impact on radionuclides release. The microbial content of solidified waste and broken fragments of containers at the Lanyu LLRW repository reached 10 5  CFU/g. Two yeast strains, Candida guilliermondii (CT1) and Rhodotorula calyptogenae (RT1) were isolated. The radiation dose necessary to reduce the microbial count by one log cycle of CT1 and RT1 was 2.1 and 0.8 kGy, respectively. Both CT1 and RT1 can grow under a radiation field with dose rate of 6.8 Gy/h, about 100 times higher than that on the surface of the LLRW container in Lanyu repository. CT1 and RT1 had the maximum 60 Co biosorption efficiency of 99.7 ± 0.1% and 98.3 ± 0.2%, respectively in 60 Co aqueous solution (700 Bq/mL), and the 60 Co could stably retained for more than 30 days in CT 1. Nearly all of the Co was absorbed and reached equilibrium within 1 h by CT1 and RT1 in the 10 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Biosorption efficiency test showed almost all of the Co (II) was adsorbed by CT1 in 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution, the efficiency of biosorption by RT1 in 10 μg/g of Co (II) was lower. The maximum Co (II) sorption capacity of CT1 and RT1 was 5324.0 ± 349.0 μg/g (dry wt) and 3737.6 ± 86.5 μg/g (dry wt), respectively, in the 20 μg/g Co (II) aqueous solution. Experimental results show that microbial activity was high in the Lanyu LLRW repository in Taiwan. Two isolated yeast strains, CT1 and RT1 have high potential for use as biosorbents for 60 Co and Co (II) from contaminated aqueous solution, on the other hand, but may have the impact on

  3. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  4. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  5. Explosives vapour identification in ion mobility spectrometry using a tunable laser ionization source: a comparison with conventional 63Ni ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.; Deas, R.M.; Kosmidis, C.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Marshall, A.; Singhal, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Laser multiphoton ionization (MPI) is used to produce ions from explosive vapours at atmospheric pressure in air for analysis by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). In the positive ion mode of detection, NO + ions, generated directly by multiphoton dissociation/ionization of the explosive compounds, show strong variation with laser wavelength. This provides a means of identifying the presence of nitro-containing compounds. Moreover, electrons formed in the MPI of gaseous components in the air carrier stream, primarily O 2 , are transferred via neutral molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to trace explosive vapour, forming negative ions which give rise to characteristic and identifiable ion mobility spectra. Further, negative ion mobility spectra of several explosive vapours are presented using conventional 63 Ni ionization and are compared qualitatively with the laser ionization approach. (author)

  6. Evaluation of muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism before and after low level laser applied to acupoints: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Mônica da Consolação Canuto; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Horliana, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Motta, Pamella de Barros; MesquitaFerrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-08-08

    Bruxism is a repetitive activity that causes tooth wear, audible sounds, and discomfort. Preventive measures have been studied for conditions that can exert a negative influence on physiological development in children. Low-level laser therapy administered over acupoints is an effective, painless, low-cost treatment option that has achieved good results. Thus, the aim of the proposed study is to evaluate changes in muscle activity, bite force and salivary cortisol in children with bruxism after the application of low-level laser to accupoints. The children will be randomly allocated to four groups of 19 individuals: G1 - low-level laser; G2 - occlusal splint; G3 - placebo laser; and G4 - control (without bruxism). The BTS TMJOINT electromyography will be used to determine muscle activity and a digital gnathodynamometer will be used to measure bite force. Salivary cortisol will be analysed at baseline as well as one and six months after treatment. Two-way ANOVA will be employed and complemented by Tukey's test. Bruxism is a repetitive activity of the masticatory muscles that can have negative consequences if not treated, such as tooth wear, noises, discomfort and anxiety. Thus, control and treatment measures should be taken. Although low-level laser therapy over acupoints has been indicated for children, the effects of this treatment modality have not yet been studied. NCT02757261 on 8 April 2016. This study protocol received a grant from the Brazilian fostering agency São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP: #2015/24731-0).

  7. The role of public involvement in managing political conflict: A comparative case study of public involvement activities in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzoumis, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of political conflict based on the components of scope, intensity and visibility is used to rank the degree of conflict for states hosting a low-level radioactive waste facility in the US. Data were gathered from sixty-five telephone interviews and comparisons made with ten national experts. Public involvement and compensation packages (reviewed in Chapter IV) to be potential conflict management tools for practitioners. The role of the governor and the complexity of the siting process are two additional factors that are important in escalating a conflict. Technical factors of complexity and source of the waste along with the past performance of the company handling the facility have no link to conflict. Conflict escalation is proposed as a means towards understanding the agenda-building process

  8. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  9. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  10. Association between discordant immunological response to highly active anti-retroviral therapy, regulatory T cell percentage, immune cell activation and very low-level viraemia in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, J; Ferry, T; Demaret, J; Maucort Boulch, D; Venet, F; Perpoint, T; Ader, F; Icard, V; Chidiac, C; Monneret, G

    2014-06-01

    The mechanisms sustaining the absence of complete immune recovery in HIV-infected patients upon long-term effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) remain elusive. Immune activation, regulatory T cells (T(regs)) or very low-level viraemia (VLLV) have been alternatively suspected, but rarely investigated simultaneously. We performed a cross-sectional study in HIV-infected aviraemic subjects (mean duration of HAART: 12 years) to concomitantly assess parameters associated independently with inadequate immunological response. Patients were classified as complete immunological responders (cIR, n = 48) and inadequate immunological responders (iIR, n = 39), depending on the CD4(+) T cell count (> or response to long-term HAART, activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, T(reg) percentages and very low-level viraemia. Causative interactions between T(regs) and CD4(+) T cells should now be explored prospectively in a large patients cohort. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  12. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  13. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  14. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  15. Low-level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  16. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  17. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  18. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  19. Natural Ni speciation in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rocks: implications for potential 63Ni isotopic exchange and retention mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangeon, S.; Tournassat, C.; Schaefer, T.; Lerouge, C.; Wille, G.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the perspective of deep underground long-term nuclear waste storage, 63 Ni is considered as a priority radio-element to be studied. 63 Ni behaviour prediction is made difficult mainly because its geochemical behaviour is still subject to debate. For instance, the solubility of Ni simple compounds at high pH is ill-defined, and the knowledge on solubility control phases is still pending. Clay rocks such as Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) contain non negligible amounts of natural and stable isotopes of Ni. As a consequence, a good understanding of the natural speciation of Ni in the formation could help to understand 63 Ni controls in this environment, including long term isotopic exchange with naturally present Ni. We focused our study on the COx formation, where the Bure (France) ANDRA underground research laboratory is located. Speciation of naturally occurring Ni was studied by combining chemical, microscopic and spectrometric methods. Chemical methods consisted of total rock analyses and sequential extractions on various COx samples representative of the variability of the formation (from carbonate rich samples to clay rich samples). This method enabled quantifying the main Ni reservoirs. Physical methods were used to get a closer look at the Ni-bearing phases. Optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify and isolate minerals from thin rock sections, originating from different geological horizons. Chemical results indicate that the mean Ni concentration in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock is of ∼30 ppm (10 -6 g/g). Identified Ni-bearing minerals were mainly primary minerals (biotite, chlorite, muscovite), calcite and pyrite; organic matter being also observed. Electron microprobe and X-ray fluorescence analyses were performed in order to quantify the amounts and variability of Ni contents in these different Callovo-Oxfordian components. Ni is occasionally present in primary minerals with

  20. Amelioration of cardiac function and activation of anti-inflammatory vasoactive peptides expression in the rat myocardium by low level laser therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Trindade Manchini

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO generation.

  1. Amelioration of Cardiac Function and Activation of Anti-Inflammatory Vasoactive Peptides Expression in the Rat Myocardium by Low Level Laser Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchini, Martha Trindade; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Feliciano, Regiane dos Santos; Santana, Eduardo Tadeu; Antônio, Ednei Luis; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Montemor, Jairo; Crajoinas, Renato Oliveira; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Silva, José Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS) vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO) generation. PMID:24991808

  2. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  3. Low level of objectively measured physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, and high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Pakistani male immigrants in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Andersen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The level of physical fitness in south Asian immigrants living in Norway is largely unknown, but the level of physical activity seems to be low, possibly in part explaining their high prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, previous studies have used self-reported measures of physical activity, and it might be questioned whether the previous data reflect the true physical activity level.Aim: To describe objectively measured physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes risk in a group of Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway.Methods: One hundred and fifty Pakistani immigrant men in the age group 25-60 years were included. Physical activity level was assessed with an accelerometer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured until exhaustion on a treadmill, and diabetes risk was evaluated with an oral glucose tolerance test.Results: Mean age was 37.3 years (SD=7.7. Total physical activity level was 308 counts/min (SD=131, and peak oxygen uptake was 34.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 (SD=5.6. Fifty percent of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, and 76% were obese. Physical activity level and cardiorespiratory fitness level were lower, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome higher in a subgroup of taxi drivers as compared with those inother occupations (P<0.05.Conclusions: Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness levels are low and diabetes risk high among Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, especially in taxi drivers

  4. Elementary study on encapsulation reliability of radioisotope battery prototype based on 63Ni Radio-Voltaic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hui; Zhang Huaming; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Heyi

    2012-01-01

    For isotope battery application, it is necessary to encapsulate in a certain method. After having accomplished selection of material composing and proportion, procedure and encapsulating process based on GD3217Y detector, the different types of device come from untouched, loaded by slip of stainless steel with or without 63 Ni isotope were encapsulated respectively. Despite necessary reliability of package was evaluated in the previous work, in view of specialty due to the incorporation of radioactive isotopes into device, the reliability issue must be further taken into account for actual application. Hence, we emphasize on the comparison about electrical capability of types of devices under the different situations, namely, before and after encapsulation, the natural aging and artificial accelerated aging. The results of the comparison indicate that the adoption of the method of the encapsulation supplies effectively stable electrical capability at the condition of ensuring safety of radioactive source besides improving environmental adaptability for device. Further, it offers technological support for the encapsulation of radioisotope battery based on β radio-voltaic effect. (authors)

  5. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

  6. Low Levels of Serum Paraoxonase Activities are Characteristic of Metabolic Syndrome and May Influence the Metabolic-Syndrome-Related Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Martinelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDLs are characteristic in metabolic syndrome (MS. The antioxidant ability of HDLs is, at least in part, attributable to pleiotropic serum paraoxonase (PON1. Different PON1 activities have been assessed in 293 subjects with (=88 or without MS (=205 and with (=195 or without (=98 angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD. MS subjects had low PON1 activities, with a progressively decreasing trend by increasing the number of MS abnormalities. The activity versus 7-O-diethyl phosphoryl,3-cyano,4-methyl,7-hydroxycoumarin (DEPCyMC, which is considered a surrogate marker of PON1 concentration, showed the most significant association with MS, independently of both HDL and apolipoprotein A-I levels. Subjects with MS and low DEPCyMCase activity had the highest CAD risk (OR 4.34 with 95% CI 1.44–13.10, while no significant increase of risk was found among those with MS but high DEPCyMCase activity (OR 1.45 with 95% CI 0.47–4.46. Our results suggest that low PON1 concentrations are typical in MS and may modulate the MS-related risk of CAD.

  7. Low levels of serum paraoxonase activities are characteristic of metabolic syndrome and may influence the metabolic-syndrome-related risk of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicola; Micaglio, Roberta; Consoli, Letizia; Guarini, Patrizia; Grison, Elisa; Pizzolo, Francesca; Friso, Simonetta; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Corrocher, Roberto; Olivieri, Oliviero; Girelli, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDLs) are characteristic in metabolic syndrome (MS). The antioxidant ability of HDLs is, at least in part, attributable to pleiotropic serum paraoxonase (PON1). Different PON1 activities have been assessed in 293 subjects with (n = 88) or without MS (n = 205) and with (n = 195) or without (n = 98) angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD). MS subjects had low PON1 activities, with a progressively decreasing trend by increasing the number of MS abnormalities. The activity versus 7-O-diethyl phosphoryl,3-cyano,4-methyl,7-hydroxycoumarin (DEPCyMC), which is considered a surrogate marker of PON1 concentration, showed the most significant association with MS, independently of both HDL and apolipoprotein A-I levels. Subjects with MS and low DEPCyMCase activity had the highest CAD risk (OR 4.34 with 95% CI 1.44-13.10), while no significant increase of risk was found among those with MS but high DEPCyMCase activity (OR 1.45 with 95% CI 0.47-4.46). Our results suggest that low PON1 concentrations are typical in MS and may modulate the MS-related risk of CAD.

  8. Overcoming low environmental temperatures in the primary feeding season: low-level activity and long basking in the tortoise Homopus signatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, V.J.T.; Stark, T.; Weterings, M.J.A.; Kuipers, H.

    2015-01-01

    Tortoises that live in regions where food plants grow in winter may have to cope with relatively low environmental temperatures to obtain resources. The speckled tortoise, Homopus signatus, inhabits an arid winter rainfall range where it is active in winter and spring at environmental temperatures

  9. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  10. Desktop calculator-assisted liquid scintillation spectrometry of 3H and 14C with special consideration of low level activities and spectrometer instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, P.; May, K.

    1977-01-01

    For the liquid scintillation measurement of 3 H and 14 C in single- and dual-labelled samples with the same spectrometer settings, which are desirable for routine work, the lower discriminator level of the 14 C channel has to be set down to a value for which the tritium crosstalk α amounts to about 15%. Under these conditions, the short time variations of α are important for the overall attainable precision. A simple method for the automatic computation of drift corrections based on the continuous measurement of a standard sample is presented. Furthermore, for low activities an appreciable improvement of the precision may be achieved by systemetic re-use of the glass vials together with the cumulated measurements of their individual backgrounds. The precision of low activity measurements is also enhanced by correction of background counting rates for quenching

  11. Late onset neurodegeneration in the Cln3-/- mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is preceded by low level glial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikis, Charlie C; Cella, Claire V; Parihar, Nisha; Lim, Ming J; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep; Mitchison, Hannah M; Mobley, William C; Rezaie, Payam; Pearce, David A; Cooper, Jonathan D

    2004-10-15

    Mouse models of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) exhibit many features of the human disorder, with widespread regional atrophy and significant loss of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and neocortex. Reactive gliosis is a characteristic of all forms of NCL, but it is unclear whether glial activation precedes or is triggered by neuronal loss. To explore this issue we undertook detailed morphological characterization of the Cln3 null mutant (Cln3(-/-)) mouse model of juvenile NCL (JNCL) that revealed a delayed onset neurodegenerative phenotype with no significant regional atrophy, but with widespread loss of hippocampal interneurons that was first evident at 14 months of age. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated upregulation of markers of astrocytic and microglial activation in presymptomatic Cln3(-/-) mice at 5 months of age, many months before significant neuronal loss occurs. These data provide evidence for subtle glial responses early in JNCL pathogenesis.

  12. Radioisotope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical applications of activation analysis. Progress report. [Nuclear medicine research studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, A.B.

    1976-04-30

    Design modifications in radioisotope scanners are discussed. Studies on the radiation dose distribution in patients from /sup 90m/Tc-albumin microspheres in the lungs, /sup 59/Fe-citrate, /sup 131/I-hippuran in kidney transplants, and /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphates are reported. Data on the levels of fallout /sup 137/Co in normal individuals during 1975, as measured by whole-body counting, are reported. Results of studies on iodine metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism and with T/sub 3/-thyrotoxicosis during /sup 131/I therapy with activities up to 17 mCi showed that the apparent volumes of distribution for different iodine compounds do not change appreciably during therapy in this dose range. Methods are described for measuring the content of Ca alone and Ca and P in bone tissues by transmission scanning using a /sup 252/Cf neutron source for activation of Ca and P. (CH)

  13. Low levels of endogenous or X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks activate apoptosis in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara; Rickett, Nicole; Ju, Limei; Jeggo, Penny A

    2015-10-01

    The embryonic neural stem cell compartment is characterised by rapid proliferation from embryonic day (E)11 to E16.5, high endogenous DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and sensitive activation of apoptosis. Here, we ask whether DSBs arise in the adult neural stem cell compartments, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and whether they activate apoptosis. We used mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4(Y288C)), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm(-/-)) and double mutant Atm(-/-)/Lig4(Y288C) mice. We demonstrate that, although DSBs do not arise at a high frequency in adult neural stem cells, the low numbers of DSBs that persist endogenously in Lig4(Y288C) mice or that are induced by low radiation doses can activate apoptosis. A temporal analysis shows that DSB levels in Lig4(Y288C) mice diminish gradually from the embryo to a steady state level in adult mice. The neonatal SVZ compartment of Lig4(Y288C) mice harbours diminished DSBs compared to its differentiated counterpart, suggesting a process selecting against unfit stem cells. Finally, we reveal high endogenous apoptosis in the developing SVZ of wild-type newborn mice. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Chronic low-level arsenic exposure causes gender-specific alterations in locomotor activity, dopaminergic systems, and thioredoxin expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardullas, U.; Limon-Pacheco, J.H.; Giordano, M.; Carrizales, L.; Mendoza-Trejo, M.S.; Rodriguez, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid widely present in the environment. Human exposure to As has been associated with the development of skin and internal organ cancers and cardiovascular disorders, among other diseases. A few studies report decreases in intelligence quotient (IQ), and sensory and motor alterations after chronic As exposure in humans. On the other hand, studies of rodents exposed to high doses of As have found alterations in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, and oxidative stress. In the present study both male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of As such as 0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg As/L of drinking water for 4 months, and locomotor activity was assessed every month. Male mice presented hyperactivity in the group exposed to 0.5 mg As/L and hypoactivity in the group exposed to 50 mg As/L after 4 months of As exposure, whereas female mice exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 mg As/L exhibited hyperactivity in every monthly test during As exposure. Furthermore, striatal and hypothalamic dopamine content was decreased only in female mice. Also decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx-1) mRNA expression in striatum and nucleus accumbens were observed in male and female mice, respectively. These results indicate that chronic As exposure leads to gender-dependent alterations in dopaminergic markers and spontaneous locomotor activity, and down-regulation of the antioxidant capacity of the brain.

  15. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to low levels of gamma rays on open-field activity in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisawa, Takeru; Hirokaga, Kouichi

    1995-01-01

    The open-field activity of first-generation (F 1 ) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with γ rays on day 14 of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months (young), 12-13 months (adult) and 19-20 months (old). Doses were 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. Open-field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every second through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 8-cm 2 units. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The walking speed of the 1.0-Gy group recorded at 19-20 months was higher than that for the comparably aged control group. The time which the irradiated group, recorded at 19-20 months, spent in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. Conversely, the time spent by the irradiated group in the middle fields when recorded at 19-20 months was shorter than in the comparably aged control group. No effect of radiation was shown for any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 6-7 and 12-13 months. The results demonstrate that such exposure to γ rays on day 14 of gestation results in behavioral changes which occur at 19-20 but not at 6-7 or 12-13 months. 10 refs. 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to low levels of gamma rays on open-field activity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamisawa, T; Hirokaga, K

    1995-11-01

    The open-field activity of first-generation (F1) hybrid male C57BL/6 x C3H mice irradiated with gamma rays on day 14 of gestation was studied at the following ages: 6-7 months (young), 12-13 months (adult) and 19-20 months (old). Doses were 0.5 Gy or 1.0 Gy. Open-field activity was recorded with a camera. The camera output signal was recorded every second through an A/D converter to a personal computer. The field was divided into 25 8-cm2 units. All recordings were continuous for 60 min. The walking speed of the 1.0-Gy group recorded at 19-20 months was higher than that for the comparably aged control group. The time which the irradiated group, recorded at 19-20 months, spent in the corner fields was high in comparison with the control group at the same age. Conversely, the time spent by the irradiated group in the middle fields when recorded at 19-20 months was shorter than in the comparably aged control group. No effect of radiation was shown for any of the behaviors observed and recorded at 6-7 and 12-13 months. The results demonstrate that such exposure to gamma rays on day 14 of gestation results in behavioral changes which occur at 19-20 months but not at 6-7 or 12-13 months.

  17. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  18. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  19. Analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments by GC/ECD generated by nuclide {sup 63}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Katia A.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O. V., E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic organic compounds resistant to environmental degradation. Besides, POPs bioaccumulation with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention on POPs is a program that enables collection of comparable monitoring data from all regions of the world to assess the effectiveness in minimizing human and environmental exposure to POPs. The scope of this work is to develop and validate a method for the extraction and determination of POPs in sediments collected at Billings dam locate in São Paulo Metropolitan City. The compounds studied in this work are: Aldrin (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}C{sub l6}), DDD (C{sub 14}H{sub 10}C{sub l4}), DDE (C{sub 14}H{sub 8}Cl{sub l4)}, DDT (C{sub 14}H{sub 9}C{sub l5}), Dieldrin (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}C{sub l6}O), Endrin (C{sub 12}H{sub 8}Cl{sub 6}O) and Heptachlor (C{sub 10}H{sub 5}C{sub l7}). This work use the QuEChERS extraction method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) for sediment samples and the analysis of the compounds were carried out by gas chromatography with the electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources {sup 63}Ni within carrier gas N{sub 2}. The electrons produced in this process are collected, create an amplified current, and generating the chromatographic peak. The recovery of this method obtained values between 57% and 65% and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values are between 1 and 4%. Details of the analytical method beside quantitative analyses data are presented in this work. (author)

  20. Lung clearance and disposition of 63Ni in F344/N rats after intratracheal instillation of nickel sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medinsky, M.A.; Benson, J.M.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology studies have indicated increased incidences of respiratory tract and renal cancer in nickel refinery workers. Since the most likely route of exposure to nickel in the workplace is via the respiratory tract, the objectives of the experiments described here were to determine the retention pattern of Ni in the lungs, identify the target organs for Ni absorbed from the respiratory tract, and determine rates for excretion of Ni. Male and female F344 rats were given 17, 190, or 1800 nmoles Ni (as a nickel sulfate solution) in saline, containing trace amounts of 63 Ni, by intratracheal instillation. Urine and feces were collected, and rats were necropsied at predetermined times up to 96 hr after instillation. At all times, lungs, trachea, larynx, kidney, and urinary bladder contained the highest concentrations of Ni as determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Urine was the major route for excretion of Ni, accounting for 50% of the dose after instillation of 17 or 190 nmoles Ni, and 80% of the dose after instillation of 1800 nmoles Ni. The half-time for urinary excretion of Ni increased from 4.6 hr at the highest dose to 23 hr at the lowest dose used. Fecal excretion accounted for 30% (17- and 190-nmole doses) or 13% (1800 nmoles) of the initial dose. Of the Ni remaining in the body at the end of 96 hr, over 50% was in the lungs. The long-term half-time for clearance of Ni from the lungs ranged from 21 hr at the highest dose to 36 hr at the lowest dose instilled. As the amount of instilled Ni decreased, the fraction of the instilled Ni associated with the long-term clearance component increased (from 24% at the highest dose to 40% at the lowest dose). Results suggest that, over the range of doses studied, both pulmonary clearance of Ni and routes for excretion of Ni were dependent on the instilled dose

  1. Analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments by GC/ECD generated by nuclide 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Katia A.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic organic compounds resistant to environmental degradation. Besides, POPs bioaccumulation with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention on POPs is a program that enables collection of comparable monitoring data from all regions of the world to assess the effectiveness in minimizing human and environmental exposure to POPs. The scope of this work is to develop and validate a method for the extraction and determination of POPs in sediments collected at Billings dam locate in São Paulo Metropolitan City. The compounds studied in this work are: Aldrin (C 12 H 8 C l6 ), DDD (C 14 H 10 C l4 ), DDE (C 14 H 8 Cl l4) , DDT (C 14 H 9 C l5 ), Dieldrin (C 12 H 8 C l6 O), Endrin (C 12 H 8 Cl 6 O) and Heptachlor (C 10 H 5 C l7 ). This work use the QuEChERS extraction method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) for sediment samples and the analysis of the compounds were carried out by gas chromatography with the electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources 63 Ni within carrier gas N 2 . The electrons produced in this process are collected, create an amplified current, and generating the chromatographic peak. The recovery of this method obtained values between 57% and 65% and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values are between 1 and 4%. Details of the analytical method beside quantitative analyses data are presented in this work. (author)

  2. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  3. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  4. Lack of exercise of "moderate to vigorous" intensity in people with low levels of physical activity is a major discriminant for sociodemographic factors and morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Serrano-Sánchez

    Full Text Available The aim is to examine the differences between participation at low and zero moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in relation to their trends and associations with known socio-demographic and health factors. We hypothesised that the number of people at zero MVPA level could be rising despite a parallel increase in the population meeting the recommended MVPA level. We also hypothesised that graded associations of sociodemographic and health factors exist across MVPA levels.Two independent population-based samples (n = 4320 [2004] and n = 2176 [1997], were recruited with a stratified and random sampling procedure and interviewed at home by professional interviewers. The MVPA was assessed by validated questionnaire. The participants were classified into three MVPA levels: zero, low and recommended MVPA. The trend of each MVPA level was analysed with the standardized prevalence ratios. Correlates of low and zero MVPA levels were examined using multinomial logistic regression.The population at zero and recommended MVPA levels rose between 1997-2004 by 12% (95% CI, 5-20% and 7% (95% CI,-4-19% respectively, while the population at low MVPA level decreased. At zero MVPA level, associative patterns were observed with sociodemographic and health factors which were different when compared to the population at low MVPA level.Despite the slight increase of population meeting the recommended MVPA level, a higher trend of increase was observed at zero MVPA level. Both recommended and low MPVA levels increased their participation by absorbing participants from the low MVPA level. The sociodemographic profile of those with low MVPA was more similar to the population at recommended MVPA than at zero MVPA level. Methodological implications about the combination of light and moderate-intensity PA could be derived. The prevention of decline in actual low MVPA could change the trend of increase in the population at zero MVPA level, particularly among

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  7. Determination of 90Sr in low-level radioactive wastes using extraction chromatography and LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temba, Eliane S.C.; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Mingote, Raquel M.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of 90 Sr in low-level radioactive wastes is presented in this work. It is a part of a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides in low-level radioactive wastes. These radionuclides comprises the actinides and 55 Fe, 63 Ni and 90 Sr, classified as difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides in the radioactive waste characterization, because they cannot be measured by direct measurements, like gamma spectrometry. A variety of methods have been reported in the literature, based on precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange. In this work, the separation was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography using the Sr Resin (Eichrom). This resin is strontium-selective, the extractant is a crown ether-derivative immobilized on an inert polymeric support. The 90 Sr eluted from column was measured by LSC. The counting was carried out within 5 hours of the start of yttrium ingrowth to minimize interferences from 90 Y. The counting efficiency was calculated by using a 90 Sr standard solution purified by the specific resin. The chemical yield of the procedure was determined gravimetrically by the addition of a stable Sr carrier. Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC setting were determined using simulated samples. This procedure showed to be rapid and achieved a good chemical recovery, with an average of 84 %, and a detection limit of 0.6 Bq L -1 . (author)

  8. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  9. Assessment report: Application from OKG AB for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbom, G.; Wiebert, A.; Norden, M.; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Loefgren, T.; Lumpus, J.

    2000-10-01

    OKG AB has to SSI submitted an application for a license according to the Act on Nuclear Activities (1984:3) concerning a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste in Simpevarp in the Oskarshamn municipality. The application for a license covers permission to build, possess and operate a shallow land burial/landfill for low-level nuclear waste. Attached to the application is an environmental impact statement. An application for a license according to the Environmental Act (1998:808) has been submitted to the Environmental Court in Vaexjoe. SSI has circulated the application for consideration to the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the County Government Board of Kalmar and the Oskarshamn municipality. SSI has informed the European Commission about the application in accordance with the EURATOM Treaty, article 37. This assessment report constitutes the base for the decision by SSI 2000-09-18 for approval and radiation protection conditions. In the report, earlier permissions for shallow land burials/landfills at the Swedish nuclear installations are described. This report shows the development of the legal system during the last years, the premises for the assessment of the application, and SSI's review of OKG's plans, consequence analysis and environmental impact statement

  10. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  12. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  13. Evaluation of NDA techniques applying to the measurement of alpha-activities in medium or low level radioactive reprocessing wastes (part 5). The development of LiF coating semiconductor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Takatoshi; Ishii, Keiichiro [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1988-12-01

    In order to design the neutron detection system in the non-destructive assay device applying to the measurement of alpha-activity in medium or low level radioactive reprocessing wastes, we examined the property of the LiF coating semiconductor detector applying to gamma-radiation field. The sensitivity for thermal neutron of LiF coating ion implanted detector is 1.6 cps/nv, and reduced to half in about 300 R/h gamma-radiation field. Compared with the other neutron detectors, for example proportional counters, the performance of this detector is almost similar to that of them. This new detector has a merit to be possible to use a dry battery instead of a high voltage supply. (author).

  14. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  15. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  16. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  17. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  19. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  20. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  1. Low-level-waste-treatment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, S.D.; Goeller, H.E.; Holladay, D.W.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initial draft of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. A revised draft is scheduled to be delivered to DOE Headquarters in December 1982. The Handbook is designed to be useful to all individuals and groups concerned with low-level wastes. It is one of several volumes that will ultimately comprise a Low-Level Waste Technology Handbook. The objective of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook is to present an overview of current practices related to the segregation, classification, volume reduction, solidification, handling, packaging, and transportation of LLW for disposal in a shallow land burial facility. The Handbook is intended to serve as a guide to individuals interested in the treatment and handling of low-level radioactive waste. The Handbook will not explicitly tell the user how to design and operate LLW treatment facilities, but rather will identify (1) kinds of information required to evaluate the options, (2) methods that may be used to evaluate these options, and (3) limitations associated with the selection of the treatment options. The focus of the Handbook is providing guidance on how to do waste treatment for disposal by shallow land burial

  2. Low level waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, A.D.; Truitt, D.J.; Logan, J.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. is the lead contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program, established in 1979. In this role, the company uses its waste management expertise to provide management and technical direction to support the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) in a manner that protects the environment and the public health and safety while improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Program activities are divided into two areas: defense-related and commercial nuclear reactor programs. The defense program was established to develop technology improvements, provide technology transfer, and to ensure a more efficient and uniform system for low level waste disposal. To achieve the program's goals, it is necessary to improve, document, and, where necessary, develop new methods for waste generation reduction, waste treatment, shallow-land burial, greater confinement disposal, and measures to correct existing site deficiencies. The commercial low level waste management program provides support to assist the states in developing an effective national low level waste management system and provides technical assistance for siting of regional commercial LLW disposal sites. The program provides technical and informational support to state officials, low level waste generators, managers, and facility operators to resolve low level waste problems and to improve the systems' overall effectiveness. Procedures are developed and documented and made available to commercial users through this program. Additional work is being conducted to demonstrate the stabilization and closure of low level radioactive waste disposal sites and develop the criteria and procedures for acceptance of such sites by the Department of Energy after closure has been completed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  4. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  5. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  6. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  7. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...... network is conducted. Comparisons (t-test) between CSR tweets and general tweets and between specialized CSR Twitter accounts and general accounts reveal that the low levels of interactivity are due to a reactive interaction approach and a lack of specialization....

  8. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  9. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  10. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  11. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  12. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  14. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  15. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 25-30 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak areas * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Slovak_en.pdf

  16. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 28-28 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  17. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  18. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  19. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  20. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  1. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  2. The French centralized low level radwaste treatment centre named CENTRACO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Sixou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Socodei, a subsidiary company of EdF and Cogema is commissioned to design, finance, build and operate two low level radwaste treatment facilities: a contaminated scrap metal melting unit, and a solid and liquid waste incinerator. These units frame a low level radwaste treatment centre named Centraco, located near Marcoule in the south of France, and will receive in 1998 waste coming from dismantling, maintenance and operating works of French and foreign nuclear sites. The decision to create this centre is due to the low density and large variety of low level radwaste which take a volume out of proportion with their activity, specially in the surface storage centre. Up to now, all low level radwaste were sent and stored with no treatment optimization in surface storage centres. Socodei proposes in one single site, to optimize low level radwaste management and reduce the volume of ultimate waste to be stored: in a ratio of one to ten by casting ingots coming from melting contaminated scrap metals; in a ratio of one to twenty by encapsulating earth ashes and ashes resulting from incineration of solid and liquid waste. This is a centralized treatment centre and that's why Centraco is a new waste management system. Getting together all means in one place reduces costs, avoids mismanagement and risk increase, and allows consistency in safety, environmental impact, transport and personnel radioprotection. (author)

  3. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  4. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop

  5. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  6. Low level radioactive liquid waste treatment at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lasher, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant has been constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek

  7. Management of low level waste generated from ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushina, Tomoyuki

    1987-01-01

    Low level wastes are generated during nuclear power plant operation. In the case of ISER, low level wastes from the reactor are basically the same as of existing light water reactors. Various low level wastes, including solid, liquid and gaseous, are listed and discussed. In normal operation, high-activity wastes are not subjected to any treatment. For contaminated equipment or reactor parts, it may be desirable to transfer most of the activity to liquid phase through an appropriate decontamination procedure. Highly active solid wastes are usually fixed in a solid form through incorporation into either concrete or asphalt as containment material. Decantation and filtration treatments are usually sufficient before dilution and release of liquid wastes into the environment. Except for ordinary gas filtration, there in normally no other treatment. Under certain circumstances, however, it may be important to apply the decay storage before release to the atmosphere. In accidental circumstances, specific filtration is recommended or even sometimes needed. There are some alternatives for storage and-or disposal of low level wastes. In many cases, shallow land burial is chosen as a realistic method for storage and-or disposal of solid waste. In chosing a disposal method, the radiation dose rate from solid wastes or the specific activity should be taken into account. Boric acid is a retarder for cement setting. This effect of boric acid is inhibited by adding a complexing agent before mixing the waste with cement. (Nogami, K.)

  8. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  9. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  11. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  12. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  13. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  14. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  15. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  16. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  17. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  18. Improved gamma spectrometry of very low level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineira, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today, many laboratories face the need to perform measurements of very low level activities using gamma spectroscopy. The techniques in use are identical to those applicable for higher levels of activities, but there is a need to use better adapted materials and modify the measurement conditions to minimize the background noise around the area. This paper presents the design of a very low level activity laboratory which has addressed the laboratory itself, the measuring chamber and the detector. The lab is constructed underground using specially selected materials of construction. The lab atmosphere is filtered and recycled with frequent changeovers. The rate of make-up fresh air is reduced and is sampled high above ground and filtered

  19. Low-level memory processes in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, S

    2000-06-01

    Psychophysical studies of the short-term memory for attributes or dimensions of the visual stimulus that are known to be important in early visual processing (spatial frequency, orientation, contrast, motion and color) identify a low-level perceptual memory mechanism. This proposed mechanism is located early in the visual processing stream, prior to the structural description system responsible for shape priming but beyond primary visual cortex (V1); it is composed of a series of parallel, special-purpose perceptual mechanisms with independent but limited processing resources. Each mechanism is devoted to the analysis of a single dimension and is coupled to a memory store.

  20. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  1. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  2. Network Communication for Low Level RF Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Yin Chengke; Zhang Tongxuan; Fu Zechuan; Liu Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Low Level RF (LLRF) control system for storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has been built by digital technology. The settings of parameters and the feedback loop status are carried out through the network communication interface, and the local oscillation and clock, which is the important component of the digital LLRF control system, are also configured through network communication. NIOS II processor was employed as a core to build the embedded system with a real-time operating system MicroC/OS-II, finally Lightweight TCP/IP (LwIP) was used to achieve the communication interface. The communication network is stable after a long-term operation. (authors)

  3. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  4. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  5. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  6. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  10. Changes in the binding of concanavalin A after mouse lymphocyte activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draber, P; Draber, P [Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague. Institute of Molecular Genetics

    1982-01-01

    Binding /sup 63/Ni-concanavalin A (/sup 63/Ni-Con A) to the cell surface of freshly prepared (non-activated) and Con A-activated spleen cells and the inhibitory effect of pea lectin (PsA) on this binding was investigated. Binding of /sup 63/Ni-Con A to activated cells was much greater as compared with non-activated cells. In the presence of PsA the binding of /sup 63/Ni-Con A was inhibited. 51% of non-activated cells, 3a% of Con A-activated cells and 7 to 14% of permanently transformed cells (myeloma cells NS-1, cells of sarcoma Sa-1 and fibroblasts L-A9) were inhibited by PsA. The results indicate changes (either qualitative or topographic) in the binding sites for Con A in the course of cell activation.

  11. Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Wen-Dien; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Jiang, Joe-Air; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chang, Yang-Chyuan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG) changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz) to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  12. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  13. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  14. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  15. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  16. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  17. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  18. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  19. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  20. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  1. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  2. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  3. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  4. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  5. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  6. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  7. Application of nuclear activation analysis (NAA) and low-level gamma counting to determine the radionuclide and trace element pollutant releases from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduong, P.; Thanh, V.T.; Dien, P.Q.; Binh, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Results are reported of the application of NAA using research reactors TRIGA II in Dalat, Vietnam, and Vienna, Austria (with pyrolysis separation for Hg, Se, and As before irradiation), to determine As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Co, Pb, Sn and Zn. Low-level gamma counting was used to measure Ra-226, Th-228 and K-40, released from coal-fired power plants in Vietnam. Results showed that: (1) the content of the air pollutants in the vicinity of the operating power plants (in 1991, the Phalai plant produced 1700 million kWh, and the Ninhbinh plant 100 million kWh) depends on the coal combustion which is used for their applied operation technology, both plants used Quangninh anthracite as fuel. The content of trace elements pollutants (TEP) in the environment of the Ninhbinh plant is higher than in the Phalai plant. (2) In the vicinity of both plants, rain water is highly polluted by trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni, Co, Cd, Se, U, Th and sulphuric acid. Therefore, this kind of water is not acceptable for human consumption. (3) The algae growing in the waterfield in the vicinity of the power plants can be used to monitor TEP. Four NAA methods, in combination with low-level gamma counting and AAS, can be successfully used to monitor TEP released from power plants

  8. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  9. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  10. Low level radwaste packaging: why not cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years many words have been expended in a quest to define a variety of competing radioactive waste immobilization technologies. With the more recent recognition of the technical pitfalls of urea-formaldehyde (UF) a liquid chemical binder considered as optimum less than two years ago, utilities, architect-engineers and systems vendors find themselves in a technology void, awaiting the inevitable breakthrough which will identify the perfect immobilization agent. The culmination of these pressures has brought about the introduction of new immobilization technologies including: one which offers both volume reduction and immobilization in yet another new binder agent; the costly development of highly sophisticated volume reduction systems, the highly-concentrated products from which may pose as-yet unknown immobilization problems; and, the marketing of several new more expensive liquid chemical binders which are reputed to have eliminated the kinds of problems associated with urea-formaldehyde. This paper addresses these issues by coming full circle and arriving back at the initial approach employed for low level radwaste immobilization, the use of cement. Based on an evaluation of the three principal competing immobilization approaches, liquid chemical, bitumen and cement, the merits and drawbacks of each is examined. As will be described, an objective assessment of these competing technologies has resulted in a somewhat surprising conclusion that, while none of the approaches is without disadvantages, cement can be shown to offer the most reliable, versatile long-term solution to today's needs

  11. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  12. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  13. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  14. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  15. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  16. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  17. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  18. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  19. Halogenated pesticide analysis in orange juice by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with "6"3Ni nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhani, Kelly C.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O.V.; Mendes, Cristiana de A.; Lacerda, João P.A. de; Silva, Jorge L. da; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has been gain space in the market of orange juice in the last years. For the exportation of this product to keep growing, its quality of this product must be ensured by putting in force more strict legislations and custom barriers, in order to improve the well-being and health of the population. In this work were analyzed four orange juices brands produced in the State of São Paulo. It was quantified the acaricide known as Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol) widely used to combat the Citrusleprosis virus, transmitted by mites to the citrus culture. This pesticide was chosen due to its importance in the production of orange in large scale and their indiscriminate use may pose risks to humans and of environment. The analytical technique applied was gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the "6"3Ni nuclide. This beta (β) radiation source ionizes the carrier gas (N_2), generating an electron current that forms the baseline. The analites pass through the detector and capture electrons, generating the analytical signal that is proportional to the concentration of analite. The sample preparation was done by QuEChERS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found were 0.005 and 0.025 mg kg"-"1 respectively. The applied methodology was efficient and presented excellent analytical sensitivity for the pesticide Dicofol, being that of four samples analyzed, only in one was found concentration of 0.03 mg kg"-"1, above the LOQ, however below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for fruits (0.1 mg kg"-"1) established by Codex alimentarius. (author)

  20. Halogenated pesticide analysis in orange juice by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with {sup 63}Ni nuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhani, Kelly C.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O.V.; Mendes, Cristiana de A.; Lacerda, João P.A. de; Silva, Jorge L. da, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: kmanhani@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CQMA/IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente; Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (LAQ- CQuim/IPT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análises Químicas

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has been gain space in the market of orange juice in the last years. For the exportation of this product to keep growing, its quality of this product must be ensured by putting in force more strict legislations and custom barriers, in order to improve the well-being and health of the population. In this work were analyzed four orange juices brands produced in the State of São Paulo. It was quantified the acaricide known as Dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol) widely used to combat the Citrusleprosis virus, transmitted by mites to the citrus culture. This pesticide was chosen due to its importance in the production of orange in large scale and their indiscriminate use may pose risks to humans and of environment. The analytical technique applied was gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) using the {sup 63}Ni nuclide. This beta (β) radiation source ionizes the carrier gas (N{sub 2}), generating an electron current that forms the baseline. The analites pass through the detector and capture electrons, generating the analytical signal that is proportional to the concentration of analite. The sample preparation was done by QuEChERS. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) found were 0.005 and 0.025 mg kg{sup -1} respectively. The applied methodology was efficient and presented excellent analytical sensitivity for the pesticide Dicofol, being that of four samples analyzed, only in one was found concentration of 0.03 mg kg{sup -1}, above the LOQ, however below the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) for fruits (0.1 mg kg{sup -1}) established by Codex alimentarius. (author)

  1. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  2. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  3. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Caseria, E.S.; Salom, D.S.; Alamares, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137 Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  4. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  5. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E M; Marcelo, E A; Junio, J B; Caseria, E S; Salom, D S; Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Manila (Philippines). Radiation Protection Services

    1997-02-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing {sup 137}Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Towards Smart Homes Using Low Level Sensory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Koo Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Life Care (u-Life care is receiving attention because it provides high quality and low cost care services. To provide spontaneous and robust healthcare services, knowledge of a patient’s real-time daily life activities is required. Context information with real-time daily life activities can help to provide better services and to improve healthcare delivery. The performance and accuracy of existing life care systems is not reliable, even with a limited number of services. This paper presents a Human Activity Recognition Engine (HARE that monitors human health as well as activities using heterogeneous sensor technology and processes these activities intelligently on a Cloud platform for providing improved care at low cost. We focus on activity recognition using video-based, wearable sensor-based, and location-based activity recognition engines and then use intelligent processing to analyze the context of the activities performed. The experimental results of all the components showed good accuracy against existing techniques. The system is deployed on Cloud for Alzheimer’s disease patients (as a case study with four activity recognition engines to identify low level activity from the raw data captured by sensors. These are then manipulated using ontology to infer higher level activities and make decisions about a patient’s activity using patient profile information and customized rules.

  7. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  8. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  9. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  10. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  12. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  13. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  14. Low level scintillation counting of 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, M.; Minarik, F.; Cierna, V.

    1984-01-01

    For measuring the content of 239 Pu in samples taken from the working or living environment, methods should be used which are sufficiently sensitive for determining activities of the order of 10 -3 Bq. It is useful to use liquid scintillators for reasons of their 4π geometry and the exclusion of kinetic energy losses of particles detected in the sample and on the path between the sample and the detector. The method of background discrimination according to pulse shape may be used to suppress gamma background in the area of alpha particle peaks to the level 2.5x10 -4 s -1 . The diagram is given of electronic circuits for shape discrimination. The scintillator used was a SLS-31 with a PBD activator, a POPOP spectrum shifter and a mixture of solvents: toluene, dioxane and methanol. The efficiency of 239 Pu alpha particle detection is estimated at 78% and may further be improved by improving shape discrimination. (M.D.)

  15. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  16. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  17. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  18. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  19. Intercomparison of low-level tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipka, V.; Zupancic, M.; Hadzisehovic, M.; Bacic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA organized the fourth intercomparison for low-level tritium counting in waters. Four water samples with different 3 H concentration were sent to 85 laboratories willing to participate. The results from the different laboratories were presented in the unified questionnaires and coded. The participation in the intercomparisons for every laboratory doing low-level 3 H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. This is a best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standards used. Since our laboratories are doing the natural 3 H concentration measurement in the waters for the environmental control and hydrology reasons it was necessary to take part in this intercomparison. Our standard procedure was applied. The 3 H activity in the samples was measured by liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment. The results of our measurements of the four water samples, received from the organizers, are presented on the figures and tables presenting summary of the intercomparison. It is clear that our measurement (procedure and standards) have given satisfactory results (author)

  20. Rokkasho low-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited commenced the operation of the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste from reactor operation, in 1992 at Rokkasho site in Aomori Prefecture. JNFL is private company whose main activities within the responsibility of JNFL are: 1) Disposal of low-level radioactive waste, 2) Uranium enrichment, 3) Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, 4) Temporary storage of returned wastes from COGEMA and BNFL by reprocessing contracts, prior to disposal. JNFL selected the site for the disposal of LLW at Rokkasho in Aomori Prefecture, then bought land of 3.4 million m 2 . Among waste spectrum, LLWs from nuclear power plants, from uranium enrichment and from reprocessing are to be managed by JNFL, including dismantling of these facilities, and JNFL has plan to dispose about 600 thousand m 3 of wastes ultimately. On the middle of November 1990 JNFL got the permission of the application for 40 thousand m 3 (equivalent to 200,000 drums each with a 200-liter capacity) of reactor operating wastes which is solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics as a first stage. And after the construction work for about 2 years, the operations started at Dec. 8th, 1992. The Disposal center has already accepted about 24,000 LLW drums as of the end of February, 1994. (author)

  1. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in its role as associate lead contractor of the DOE LLWMP has responsibility for the management of program-funded technology development activities. In this role with general guidance provided by DOE and the lead contractor (EG and G Idaho), the ORNL program office is charged with the responsibility to (1) develop program plans for the major technology areas, (2) recommend allocations for the program resources, (3) review the technology development tasks to ensure that program objectives are being met, and (4) to assist the lead contractor in coordinating the DOE LLWMP with other on-going US and foreign waste technology programs. Although the ORNL office generally assists the lead laboratory in management of the total program, our emphasis is on management of R and D for development of basic technology and to assess concepts for alternative systems of processing and disposal of LLW. Technical progress for each of the tasks of this program for FY 1982 is summarized

  2. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data

  3. Discrepancy between low levels of mTOR activity and high levels of p-S6 in primary central nervous system lymphoma may be explained by PAS domain-containing serine/threonine-protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marosvari, Dora; Nagy, Noemi; Kriston, Csilla

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine mTOR-pathway activity in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), which could be a potential target for therapy. After demonstrating that p-S6 positivity largely exceeded mTOR activity, we aimed to identify other pathways that may lead to S6...... phosphorylation. We measured mTOR activity with immunohistochemistry for p-mTOR and its downstream effectors p(T389)-p70S6K1, p-S6, and p-4EBP1 in 31 cases of PCNSL and 51 cases of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and evaluated alternative S6 phosphorylation pathways with p-RSK, p(T229)-p70S6K1...... responsible for S6 phosphorylation, PASK proved to be positive in all cases of PCNSL and DLBCL. Inhibition of PASK resulted in reduced expression of p-S6 in BHD1-cells. This is the first study demonstrating an mTOR independent p-S6 activity in PCNSL and that PASK may contribute to the phosphorylation of S6...

  4. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  5. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves

  6. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing

  8. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  9. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  10. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  11. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  12. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  13. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  14. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  15. Low-level counting techniques in the underground laboratory `Felsenkeller` in Dresden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niese, S [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Koehler, M [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Low radioactivity measurements are characterized by low detection limits. They are mainly determined by the background. The contribution of cosmic rays may be reduced drastically by installation of measurement devices in an underground laboratory. In 1982 we installed a chamber with a shield of ultramafic rock for low-level measurements within a cave of an old brewery named `Felsenkeller`. In this laboratory we used low-level {gamma}-spectrometry for the measurement of neutron activated samples of semiconductor silicon (Niese (1986)), of cosmic induced radioactivity in meteorites, chemically separated long-lived nuclides in low-level wastes, contaminated materials and of environmental samples. (orig./DG)

  16. Legislator's guide to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.M.; Melson, L.G.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the guide is to provide state legislators and their staff with information on low-level radioactive waste management, issues of special concern to the states, and policy options. During 1979, producers of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) faced a crisis. Two of the three commercial disposal sites were temporarily closed and some LLW producers were running short on storage space. For hospitals, clinics, research organizations, and some industries, this meant potential curtailment of activities that produced these materials. Commercial nuclear reactors were not as hard hit during the crisis because they have larger storage areas. The two sites at Beatty, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington, reopened and the immediate crisis was averted. However, the longer term problem of shortage of disposal capacity was just beginning to be recognized. States should be concerned with this problem for several reasons. First, all states produce LLW although the volumes differ among states. Second, states have the responsibility to protect the public health and welfare of their citizens. Third, states may be given the authority to regulate LLW disposal if they enter into agreements with the federal government (Agreement States Program), and 26 states have that authority. Fourth, because of the long-term monitoring and surveillance necessary at a disposal site, states rather than private industry will be held responsible for ensuring that the disposal site is performing safely. Finally, Congress established a policy in 1980 that each state is responsible for the safe disposal of LLW generated within its borders. This policy also includes provisions that could lead to excluding states from using disposal facilities unless they have entered into regional agreements with other states. Two primary options exist for a state: developing its own disposal facility for LLW generated within its borders or joining with other states to develop a regional disposal facility

  17. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  18. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  19. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  20. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  1. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Manh Toan; Nguyen Trieu Tu

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  2. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  3. Guidelines for interim storage of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.; Castagnacci, A.; Clymer, G.; Kelly, J.; Naughton, M.; Saunders, P.; Stoner, P.; Walker, N.; Cazzolli, R.; Dettenmeier, R.; Loucks, L.; Rigsby, M.; Spall, M.; Strum, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents an overview of on-site storage of Low Level Waste while providing guidelines for using the complete Interim On-Site Storage of Low Level Waste report series. Overall, this report provides a methodology for planning and implementing on-site storage

  4. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR ...

  5. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  6. The Role of Low-Level Laser in Periodontal Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Heydari, Mohaddase; Barati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Treatment protocols with low-level Laser (also called ‘soft laser therapy) have been used in health care systems for more than three decades. Bearing in mind the suitable sub-cellular absorption and the cellular-vascular impacts, low-level laser may be a treatment of choice for soft tissues. Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. In this present review article, searches have been made in Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, focusing on the studies which included low-level lasers, flap-periodontal surgeries, gingivectomy, and periodontal graft. The present study has sought to review the cellular impacts of low-level lasers and its role on reducing pain and inflammation following soft tissue surgical treatments. PMID:25987968

  7. Application of CAMAC in low-level activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the measuring and data processing facilities designed for use in the bioassay laboratory which is now under construction in the SAAS. The detector units, especially alpha and quantum spectrometers, are linked to a PDP11/34 based CAMAC system enabling fully-automatic data acquisition and processing operations to be made by making use of an event-driven technique via CAMAC interrupts. (author)

  8. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Masayasu.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of α rays with pulse shape discrimination was applied to the analysis of 226 Ra and 239+240 Pu in environmental samples and of α-emitters in/on a filter paper. The instrument used in this study was either a specially designed detector or a commercial liquid scintillation counter with an automatic sample changer, both of which were connected to the pulse shape discrimination circuit. The background counting rate in α energy region of 5-7 MeV was 0.01 or 0.04 cpm/MeV, respectively. The figure of merit indicating the resolving power for α- and β-particles in time spectrum was found to be 5.7 for the commercial liquid scintillation counter. (author)

  9. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  10. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  11. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  12. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  13. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt %), activated charcoal (6 wt %), synthetic zeolite (20 wt %), and soil (73 wt %) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite of clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  15. A Low Level Radioactivity Monitor for Aqueous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, E.J.M.

    1968-04-01

    A system is described for continuous monitoring of very low levels of radioactivity in waste water containing typically 3.5 g/l dissolved solids. Spray evaporation of the water enables the dissolved solids to be recovered in the form of an aerosol and collected on a filter tape where the radioactivity is measured by a radiation detector. The advantage of this method compared with a direct measurement is that the attenuating effect of the water is removed and thus greater sensitivity is obtained. Compensation for background and any contamination is achieved by feeding distilled water to the aerosol generator every alternate sampling period and recording the count difference between two successive sampling periods . A printed record of the totalised count difference is obtained once per hour during the integration time of one month. For β radioactivity the minimum values of specific activity measurable extend from 1 x 10 -6 Ci/m 3 to 6 x 10 -8 Ci/m depending on the B end-point energy in the range 167 KeV to 2.26 MeV. The estimated minimum measurable specific activity is 6 x 10 -8 Ci/m 3

  16. Low-level radioactive waste associated with plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Zigler, G.; Walsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Many utilities operating nuclear power plants are expected to seek to extend the useful life of their plants through license renewal. These US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are expected to implement enhanced inspection, surveillance, testing, and monitoring (ISTM) as needed to detect and mitigate age-related degradation of important structures, systems, and components (SSCs). In addition, utilities may undertake various refurbishment and upgrade activities at these plants to better assure economic and reliable power generation. These activities performed for safety and/or economic reasons can result in radioactive waste generation, which is incremental to that generated in the original licensing term. Work was performed for the NRC to help define and characterize potential environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal and plant life extension. As part of this work, projections were made of the types and quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) likely to be generated by licensee programs. These projections were needed to estimate environmental impacts related to the disposal of such wastes

  17. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs

  19. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  20. A Low Level Radioactivity Monitor for Aqueous Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, E J.M.

    1968-04-15

    A system is described for continuous monitoring of very low levels of radioactivity in waste water containing typically 3.5 g/l dissolved solids. Spray evaporation of the water enables the dissolved solids to be recovered in the form of an aerosol and collected on a filter tape where the radioactivity is measured by a radiation detector. The advantage of this method compared with a direct measurement is that the attenuating effect of the water is removed and thus greater sensitivity is obtained. Compensation for background and any contamination is achieved by feeding distilled water to the aerosol generator every alternate sampling period and recording the count difference between two successive sampling periods . A printed record of the totalised count difference is obtained once per hour during the integration time of one month. For {beta} radioactivity the minimum values of specific activity measurable extend from 1 x 10{sup -6} Ci/m{sup 3} to 6 x 10{sup -8} Ci/m depending on the B end-point energy in the range 167 KeV to 2.26 MeV. The estimated minimum measurable specific activity is 6 x 10{sup -8} Ci/m{sup 3}.

  1. [Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. The study included 879 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met

  3. 1989 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites: National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.L.; Culbertson-Arendts, K.

    1990-12-01

    The National Low-Level Waste Management Program has published eleven annual state-by-state assessment reports. These reports provide both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive wastes. Data in this report are divided into generator category, waste class, volume, and activity. Included in this report are tables showing a distribution of wastes by state for 1989 and a comparison of waste volumes by state for 1985 through 1989; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1989. In this year's report, a distinction has been made between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and that handled by an intermediary. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  5. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  6. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  7. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  8. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  9. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  10. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont

  11. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal Agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  12. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  13. West Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The West Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in West Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in West Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in West Virginia

  14. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  15. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah.

  16. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  17. New York State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The New York State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New York. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New York. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New York

  18. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, E.L.; Hume, R.D.; Briggs, H.R.; Feigenbaum, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  19. Hawaii State briefing book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Hawaii State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Hawaii. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Hawaii. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Hawaii

  20. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  1. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  2. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina

  3. Louisiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Louisiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Louisiana. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Louisiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Louisiana

  4. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  5. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  6. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  7. California State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The California State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in California. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in California. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in California

  8. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts

  9. Arizona State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Arizona State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arizona. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arizona. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arizona

  10. Iowa State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Iowa State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Iowa. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Iowa. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Iowa

  11. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  12. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  13. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  14. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  15. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  16. Idaho State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Idaho State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Idaho. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Idaho. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Idaho

  17. Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Virginia

  18. Illinois State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Illinois State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Illinois. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Illinois. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Illinois

  19. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon

  20. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  1. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  2. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  3. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  4. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  5. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  6. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming

  7. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  8. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  9. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island

  10. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut

  11. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina

  12. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  13. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  14. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio

  15. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey

  16. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  17. Michigan State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Michigan State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Michigan. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Michigan. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Michigan

  18. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  19. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  20. Alabama State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Alabama State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Alabama. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alabama. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alabama

  1. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal cmmunications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  2. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  3. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi

  4. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  5. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico

  6. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  7. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  8. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  9. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  10. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  11. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas

  12. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  13. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah

  14. Greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste management concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 assigned to the Federal Government responsibility for the disposal of commercial greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1987, DOE committed to Congress to accept GTCC LLW and provide storage and other waste management as necessary until disposal capacity is available. Current estimates are that about 6,000 m 3 of unpackaged GTCC LLW will be generated to the year 2020. Generators estimate that 100 m 3 of raw GTCC LLW might exceed planned storage capacity to the year 2020. This paper reports the activities of the National Low-Level Waste Program to manage GTCC low-level radioactive waste

  15. Minnesota State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Minnesota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Minnesota. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Minnesota conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Minnesota

  16. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, N.; Ochi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should t reat , ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these

  17. Progress report on the design of a Low-Level Waste Pilot Facility at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, L.C.; Turner, V.L.; Pruitt, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    All low-level radioactive solid wastes, excluding TRU wastes, are disposed of by shallow land burial at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contaminated liquids and sludges are hydrofractures. The TRU wastes are stored in a retrievable fashion in concrete storage facilities. Currently, the capacity for low-level radioactive waste burial at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is adequate for another six years of service at the current solids disposal rate which ranges between 80,000 and 100,000 cu ft per year. Decontamination and decommissioning of a number of ORNL facilities will be a significant activity in the next few years. Quantities of radioactive materials to be stored or disposed of as a result of these activities will be large; therefore, the technology to dispose of large quantities of low-level radioactive wastes must be demonstrated. The UCC-ND Engineering Division, in concert with divisions of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has been requested to prepare a conceptual design for a facility to both dispose of the currently produced low-level radioactive waste and also to provide a test bed for demonstration of other processes which may be used in future low-level radioactive wastes disposal facilities. This facility is designated as the Low-Level Waste Pilot Facility (LLWPF). This paper describes the status of the conceptual design of a facility for disposal of the subject radioactive waste

  18. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  19. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  20. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  1. Conflict resolution in low-level waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Siting a low-level waste facility is only one part of the low-level waste management process. But it is a crucial part, a prism that focuses many of the other issues in low-level waste management. And, as the 1990 and 1992 milestones approach, siting has a urgency that makes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques especially appropriate, to avoid protracted and expensive litigation and to reach creative and durable solutions. Drawing upon literature in the ADR field, this paper discusses ADR techniques as they apply to low-level waste management and the groundwork that must be laid before they can be applied. It also discusses questions that can arise concerning the terms under which negotiations are carried out. The paper then give suggestions for achieving win/win negotiations. Potential objections to negotiated agreements and potential answers to those objections are reviewed, and some requisites for negotiation are given

  2. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  3. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  4. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  5. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  6. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  7. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  8. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  9. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  10. Low level GAMMA0 spectrometry by beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, E.L.; Luca, A.; Razdolescu, A.C.; Ivan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry has a wide application, especially in environmental monitoring. Two variants, based on a beta-gamma coincidence technique, were studied. The equipment was composed of a beta detector and a Ge(Li) gamma detector (6% - relative efficiency), with the associated electronics. The gamma rays are recorded by the multichannel analyzer (4096 channels) only if the associated beta particles, which precede the gamma transitions, are registered in coincidence. Two types of beta detectors were used: plastic and liquid scintillators. In both cases, an external lead shield of 5 cm thick was used. The integral gamma background (50-1700 KeV) was reduced about 85 and 50 times, respectively. The corresponding MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) values decreased about 1.5 and (3-7) times, respectively. The 2π sr plastic beta detector was placed on top the Ge(Li). The sample was inserted between the two detectors. The measurement time was 10 4 s. A 4π sr detector, built of the same material, was also studied, but it proved to be less advantageous because the background was reduced only 16 times; for a MDA reduction similar with that of the 2π sr variant, a longer measurement was needed (3.10 4 s). The other type of beta detector used, was a liquid scintillator. The dissolving of the samples in scintillator ensures a 4π sr measurement geometry. The vials with scintillator (10 ml volume) were placed on top the Ge(Li) and visualised by the photocathode of a phototube. This setup was surrounded by an enclosure which prevent the light penetration. The measurement time was 10 4 s. The only difficulty encountered in this low level measurement method is the accurate determination of the beta efficiency. A limitation is the possibility to measure only small mass samples. These variants are more simple and cheaper than others, previously studied. The advantage of the method is obvious when, instead of low MDA values, shorter measurement times are preferred. The

  11. Synaptic Correlates of Low-Level Perception in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard-Mercier, Florian; Carelli, Pedro V; Pananceau, Marc; Troncoso, Xoana G; Frégnac, Yves

    2016-04-06

    The computational role of primary visual cortex (V1) in low-level perception remains largely debated. A dominant view assumes the prevalence of higher cortical areas and top-down processes in binding information across the visual field. Here, we investigated the role of long-distance intracortical connections in form and motion processing by measuring, with intracellular recordings, their synaptic impact on neurons in area 17 (V1) of the anesthetized cat. By systematically mapping synaptic responses to stimuli presented in the nonspiking surround of V1 receptive fields, we provide the first quantitative characterization of the lateral functional connectivity kernel of V1 neurons. Our results revealed at the population level two structural-functional biases in the synaptic integration and dynamic association properties of V1 neurons. First, subthreshold responses to oriented stimuli flashed in isolation in the nonspiking surround exhibited a geometric organization around the preferred orientation axis mirroring the psychophysical "association field" for collinear contour perception. Second, apparent motion stimuli, for which horizontal and feedforward synaptic inputs summed in-phase, evoked dominantly facilitatory nonlinear interactions, specifically during centripetal collinear activation along the preferred orientation axis, at saccadic-like speeds. This spatiotemporal integration property, which could constitute the neural correlate of a human perceptual bias in speed detection, suggests that local (orientation) and global (motion) information is already linked within V1. We propose the existence of a "dynamic association field" in V1 neurons, whose spatial extent and anisotropy are transiently updated and reshaped as a function of changes in the retinal flow statistics imposed during natural oculomotor exploration. The computational role of primary visual cortex in low-level perception remains debated. The expression of this "pop-out" perception is often assumed

  12. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL

  13. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  14. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Hills, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  15. Performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, D.; Claridge, F.B.

    1987-09-01

    Geotechnical Resources Ltd., in association with Komex Consultants Ltd., was retained to collect, synthesize and evaluate the available information on the long term performance of engineered barriers for low-level radioactive wastes disposed in Canada. Literature was researched from Canadian, United States and European sources. A variety of barrier materials were assessed in the study and included natural clays, concrete and cement, metals, bentonite-sand admixes, bitumen and bituminous admixes, soil cement and polymeric membranes. The generalized geological and geotechnical conditions encountered within the soil and rock host media currently under consideration for disposal sites in southern Ontario were also summarized. Both internal barriers, or buffers, to immobilize the waste material and reduce radionuclide mobility, as well as external barriers to limit the migration of contaminants were examined. Microbial activities within the waste forms were analyzed, including cellulose degradation, methanogenesis and bicarbonate and organic reactions. Microbial interactions with the various engineered barrier materials under consideration were also assessed. Finally, the anticipated long term performances of the respective barrier materials under consideration were evaluated, along with the general suitability of the geological host media being proposed for disposal sites

  16. A case study in low-level radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, W.; Rella, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the current trend in Federal and State legislation, utilities are faced with the invitable problem of on-site storage of radioactive waste. Recognizing this problem, the New York Power Authority has taken measures to preclude the possibility of a plant shutdown due to a lack of space allocation for waste disposal at commercial burial sites coincident with an inability to safely store radioactive waste on-site. Capital funds have been appropriated for the design, engineering, and construction of an interim low-level radioactive waste storage facility. This project is currently in the preliminary design phase with a scheduled engineering completion date of September 1, 1984. Operation of the facility is expected for late 1985. The facility will provide storage space solidified liners, drums, and low specific activity (LSA) boxes at the historic rate of waste generation at the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, which is owned and operated by the New York Power Authority. Materials stored in the facility will be suitable for burial at a licensed burial facility and will be packaged to comply with the Department of Transportation regulations for shipment to a licensed burial ground. Waste shipments from the facility will normally be made on a first-in, first-out basis to minimize the storage time of any liner, drum or

  17. Current status of low-level-waste-segregation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    The adoption of improved waste segregation practices by waste generators and burial sites will result in the improved disposal of low-level wastes (LLW) in the future. Many of the problems connected with this disposal mode are directly attributable to or aggravated by the indiscriminate mixing of various waste types in burial trenches. Thus, subsidence effects, contact with ground fluids, movement of radioactivity in the vapor phase, migration of radionuclides due to the presence of chelating agents or products of biological degradation, deleterious chemical reactions, and other problems have occurred. Regulations are currently being promulgated which will require waste segregation to a high degree at LLW burial sites. The state-of-the-art of LLW segregation technology and current practices in the USA have been surveyed at representative facilities. Favorable experience has been reported at various sites following the application of segregation controls. This paper reports on the state-of-the-art survey and addresses current and projected LLW segregation practices and their relationship to other waste management activities

  18. Expert system for liquid low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system prototype has been developed to support system analysis activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for waste management tasks. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. The concept under which the expert system has been designed is integration of knowledge. There are many sources of knowledge (data bases, text files, simulation programs, etc.) that an expert would regularly consult in order to solve a problem of liquid waste management. The expert would normally know how to extract the information from these different sources of knowledge. The general scope of this project would be to include as much pertinent information as possible within the boundaries of the expert system. As a result, the user, who may not be an expert in every aspect of liquid waste management, may be able to apply the content of the information to a specific waste problem. This paper gives the methodological steps to develop the expert system under this general framework

  19. Operation for Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamizono, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Center is located in Oishitai, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikitagun, of Aomori Prefecture. This district is situated in the southern part of Shimohita Peninsula in the northeastern corner of the prefecture, which lies at the northern tip of Honshu, Japan's main island. The Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center deals with only LLW generated by operating of nuclear power plants. The No.1 and No.2 disposal facility are now in operation. The disposal facilities in operation have a total dispose capacity of 80,000m 3 (equivalent to 400,000 drums). Our final business scope is to dispose of radioactive waste corresponding to 600,000 m 3 (equivalent to 3000,000 drums). For No.1 disposal facility, we have been disposing of homogeneous waste, including condensed liquid waste, spent resin, solidified with cement and asphalt, etc. For No.2 disposal facility, we can bury a solid waste solidified with mortar, such as activated metals and plastics, etc. Using an improved construction technology for an artificial barrier, the concrete pits in No.2 disposal facility could be constructed more economical and spacious than that of No.1. Both No.1 and No.2 facility will be able to bury about 200,000 waste packages (drums) each corresponding to 40,000 m 3 . As of March 17, 2008, Approximately 200,00 waste drums summing up No.1 and No.2 disposal facility have been received from Nuclear power plants and buried. (author)

  20. Low-level radioactive wastes in subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes will continue to be buried in shallow-land waste disposal sites. Several of the burial sites have been closed because of the problems that developed as a result of poor site characteristics, types of waste buried, and a number of other environmental factors. Some of the problems encountered can be traced to the activities of microorganisms. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, production of radioactive gases, and production of microbial metabolites capable of complexation, solubilization, and bioaccumulation of radionuclides. Improvements in disposal technology are being developed to minimize these problems. These include waste segregation, waste pretreatment, incineration, and solidification. Microorganisms are also known to enhance and inhibit the movement of metals. Little is known about the role of autotrophic microbial transformations of radionuclides. Such microbial processes may be significant in light of improved disposal procedures, which may result in reductions in the organic content of the waste disposed of at shallow-land sites. 102 references, 5 figures, 19 tables

  1. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure

  2. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jester, W.A.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss some of the current rationale behind the environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive materials are as follows: Committee 4 of the International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) defined three broad objectives for environmental monitoring: 1) assessment of the actual or potential exposure of humans to radioactive materials or radiation present in their environment or the estimation of the probable upper limits of such exposure; 2) scientific investigation, sometimes related to the assessment of exposures, sometimes to other objectives; 3) improved public relations. Various regulations have been written requiring environmental monitoring to ensure that the public is not being exposed to excessive amounts of radiation from natural sources or from human activities. An example of the monitoring of natural sources of radiation is a requirement of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations whereby U.S. water supply companies must have drinking water monitored at least once every four years for radionuclides, primarily the naturally occurring radium-226

  3. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  4. Low-level measurements by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting has become a convenient tool for analysis of many beta- and alpha-emitters even in ultra low-level concentration ranges. Extremely low background is achieved in a commercially available counter by an active shielding and heavy lead shielding. Thus special time saving radiochemical separation processes could be designed. Extremely simple sample preparation techniques can be used. Counting time can be reduced and sample throughput enhanced. Also precision can be enhanced. From the author's research, several applications are discussed. They include: tritium in water without enrichment, tritium in urine (excretion analysis), carbon-14 in samples like alcohol or vinegar, Rn-222 in water and air, even gaseous Kr-85. A simple and fast method for Sr-90 in environmental samples and food has been developed and the Ra-226-concentration in water can be measured as low as 30 mBq/l without any chemical separation or enrichment. The instrument has been used successfully for screening purposes after the Chernobyl accident as well as for monitoring groundwater after a large scale contamination in Lower Austria. Using a 'gross-beta-measurement' effluents from a nuclear installation are monitored, clearly showing advantages over traditional methods. α-β-discrimination reduces the background for alpha emitters to practically zero. Examples from the determination of Ra-226 in water are shown

  5. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-12-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL.

  6. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 2, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This is a publication of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants. The topics of the publication include DOE policy, state concerns and activities, court hearings and decisions, federal agency activities, US NRC waste management function reorganization, low-level radioactive waste storage and compaction, and US NRC rulemaking and hearings

  7. Low-Level Waste Forum notes and summary reports for 1994. Volume 9, Number 2, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This is a publication of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants. The topics of the publication include DOE policy, state concerns and activities, court hearings and decisions, federal agency activities, US NRC waste management function reorganization, low-level radioactive waste storage and compaction, and US NRC rulemaking and hearings.

  8. Equilibrium leach testing of low level waste. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Gale, M.D.; Godfrey, J.G.; Woodwark, D.R.

    1989-02-01

    The equilibrium leach test was developed to simulate the chemical conditions in a repository after water has penetrated the near field barriers. The principal components of the repository (the waste, backfill and canister simulant) are equilibrated with water under static conditions to simulate the very low water flows likely to be encountered in the repository. The water is sampled at various times over a 1-2 year period and analysed for radionuclides. Equilibrium leach testing has now been extended to low level wastes and this report describes the effects of different backfill compositions. Later reports will deal with the effects of other variables. A series of experiments have been conducted using four different backfills with ferric floc sludge wastes in both oxidising and reducing environments. The water was sampled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and analysed for actinides, fission and activation products and inactive components. It was demonstrated that the activities released depended on the nature of the backfill but not very much on the redox potential of the system. Whereas fission and activation products generally reached steady state values by three months, this was not so for the actinides which had not reached a steady value even after twelve months. Initial experiments using membrane filters indicated this was partly due to the presence of colloidal material in the leachates. Similar tests for the inactive components of the leachates did not show any significant colloidal contribution from these elements except for iron and this only in a few cases. The role of these materials cannot be precluded however, since the amounts required to interact with actinides would be very small and might be difficult to detect. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the seventh annual participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The Seventh Annual Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP) Participants' Information Meeting was held September 10-13, 1985 in Las Vegas, Nevada. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste management activities, requirements, and plans. Attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, interim operations offices and their contractor operators; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Environmental Protection Agency, US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of Great Britain, France, and Canada; representatives of utilities, private contractors, and parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for the exchange of information and the promotion of discussion on specific aspects of low-level waste management. Plenary sessions were held at the start and conclusion of the meeting while seven concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening day and a half. Session chairmen from each of these concurrent sessions presented a summary of the discussion and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions at the final plenary session

  10. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  11. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  12. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  13. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  14. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C.; Vieira, R.P.; Oliveira, L.V.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 μL of concentrated venom (40 μg/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm 2 energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  15. Low-level radioactive waste management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Although reviews of disposal practices and site performance indicated that there were no releases to the environment that would affect public health and safety, it became clear that: (a) several burial grounds were not performing as expected; (b) long-term maintenance of closed trenches could be a costly problem, and (c) more cost-effective methods could be developed for the treatment, packing, and disposal of low-level waste. As a result of these reviews, the Department of Energy developed the Low-level Waste Management Program to seek improvements in existing practices, correct obvious deficiencies, and develop site closure techniques that would avoid expensive long-term maintenance and monitoring. Such technology developments provide a better understanding of the physical and technical mechanisms governing low-level waste treatment and disposal and lead to improvement in the performance of disposal sites. The primary means of disposal of low-level waste has been the accepted and regulated practice of shallow land disposal, i.e., placement of low-level waste in trenches 5 to 10 meters deep with several meters of special soil cover. Department of Energy waste is primarily disposed at six major shallow land disposal sites. Commercial waste is currently disposed of at three major sites in the nation - Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada. In the late 1970's public concern arose regarding the management practices of sites operated by the civilian sector and by the Department of Energy

  16. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  17. Treatment of groundwater contaminated with low levels of military munitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricka, R.M.; Sharp, W.

    1993-01-01

    The site of interest is a military base that was established in the late 1800s. In its early history this facility was used as a powder depot to fill projectiles with miximite (a propellant). Since World War I, this facility was used to produce artillery ammunition, bombs, high explosives, pyrotechnics and other ordinances. Weapons production at this facility has ceased, but as a result of the past activities at this facility, contaminants are migrating into the groundwater. One source of drinking water for this installation is a screened well in a stratified-drift aquifer system at a depth of 75-85 feet below land surface. In the 1980s sampling of this well revealed low level contamination of trichloroethylene (TCE), RDX and HMX. TCE levels exceeded drinking water standards and an air stripping column was installed to remove the TCE. RDX and HMX, concentrations were below drinking water standards. Health Advisory (HA) levels for RDX and HMX were published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in November 1988. The lifetime HA levels are 2 ppb and 400 ppb for RDX and HMX, respectively (McLellan et al. 1988a, and McLellan et al. 1988b). It is expected that continuous withdrawals from this well will increase RDX and HMX concentrations. In addition, it is believed that future USEPA regulations will adapt the HA as a drinking water standard. This study was initiated in an effort to have an appropriate cost effective technology ready to meet any such standard. RDX and HMX RDX and HMX are military explosives. RDX (Hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine) is a code name for Research Department Explosive. This explosive is described as a white crystalline solid with about 1.3 times the explosive power of trinitrotoluene (TNT). RDX is classified as a EPA Group C compound: Possible Human Carcinogen (McLellan et. al. 1988a). HMX (Octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7- tetranitro-l, 3, 5, 7-tetrazocine) is a code name for High Melting Explosive. This explosive is described as a

  18. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  19. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  20. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  2. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, T.R.; Kirner, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  3. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.L.; Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.; Gibson, D.D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs

  4. Low Level Waste Conceptual Design Adaption to Poor Geological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.; Drimmer, D.; Giovannini, A.; Manfroy, P.; Maquet, F.; Schittekat, J.; Van Cotthem, A.; Van Echelpoel, E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the early eighties, several studies have been carried out in Belgium with respect to a repository for the final disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1998, the Belgian Government decided to restrict future investigations to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium or sites that might show interest. So far, only two existing nuclear sites have been thoroughly investigated from a geological and hydrogeological point of view. These sites are located in the North-East (Mol-Dessel) and in the mid part (Fleurus-Farciennes) of the country. Both sites have the disadvantage of presenting poor geological and hydrogeological conditions, which are rather unfavorable to accommodate a surface disposal facility for LLW. The underground of the Mol-Dessel site consists of neogene sand layers of about 180 m thick which cover a 100 meters thick clay layer. These neogene sands contain, at 20 m depth, a thin clayey layer. The groundwater level is quite close to the surface (0-2m) and finally, the topography is almost totally flat. The upper layer of the Fleurus-Farciennes site consists of 10 m silt with poor geomechanical characteristics, overlying sands (only a few meters thick) and Westphalian shales between 15 and 20 m depth. The Westphalian shales are tectonized and strongly weathered. In the past, coal seams were mined out. This activity induced locally important surface subsidence. For both nuclear sites that were investigated, a conceptual design was made that could allow any unfavorable geological or hydrogeological conditions of the site to be overcome. In Fleurus-Farciennes, for instance, the proposed conceptual design of the repository is quite original. It is composed of a shallow, buried concrete cylinder, surrounded by an accessible concrete ring, which allows permanent inspection and control during the whole lifetime of the repository. Stability and drainage systems should be independent of potential differential settlements an d subsidences

  5. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  6. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  7. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Varga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  8. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC

  9. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  11. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  12. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  13. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  14. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  15. Concept development for saltstone and low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal

  16. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.

    1993-06-01

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered

  17. Development of a low-level radioactive waste shipper model. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    During 1982, Inter/Face Associates, Inc., conducted a low-level radioactive waste management survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in Massachusetts for the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program. In the process of conducting the survey, a model was developed, based on existing NRC license classification systems, that would identify licensees who ship low-level waste for disposal. This report presents the model and documents the procedures used in developing and testing it. After the model was tested, several modifications were developed with the goal of determining the model's ability to identify waste shippers under different parameters. The report includes a discussion of the modifications

  18. Talk about disposal for very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the current VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of four VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide, as well as disposal of VLLW in China are also briefly discussed and suggested. (authors)

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body

  20. A Climatology of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A climatology of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) is presented for the topographically flat measurement site at Cabauw, the Netherlands. LLJ characteristics are derived from a 7-yr half-hourly database of wind speed profiles, obtained from the 200-m mast and a wind profiler. Many LLJs at Cabauw