WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-income preschool-aged children

  1. A Preliminary Study of Low-Income African American Fathers' Play Interactions with Their Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    1996-01-01

    Examined play interactions of 33 low-income African American fathers with their preschool-age children in relation to the fathers' psychological characteristics, love for the child's mother, employment status, education, and coresidence with the child. The fathers' self-esteem was the best predictor of play interactions. Coresidence with the child…

  2. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  3. Feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Gromis, Judy C; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Thirty-two parents of 2- to 6-year-old children. The feeding practices and styles of low-income parents of preschoolers. Qualitative interviews analyzed iteratively following a thematic approach; quantitative data analyzed using nonparametric and chi-square tests. Qualitative analyses revealed parents used a myriad of feeding practices to accomplish child-feeding goals. Racial/ethnic differences were seen; East Asian parents used more child-focused decision-making processes, whereas black parents used more parent-focused decision-making processes. Quantitative analyses substantiated racial/ethnic differences; black parents placed significantly higher demands on children for the amounts (H = 5.89, 2 df, P = .05; Kruskal-Wallis) and types (H = 8.39, 2 df, P = .01; Kruskal-Wallis) of food eaten compared to parents of other races/ethnicities. In contrast, significantly higher proportions of East Asian parents were classified as having an indulgent feeding style compared to black parents and parents of other races/ethnicities (chi(2)[4, n = 32] = 9.29, P < .05). Findings provide support for tailoring nutrition education programs to meet the diverse needs of this target audience. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  5. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  6. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" = 147) of…

  8. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  9. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in state/territorial obesity prevalence by race/ethnicity among U.S. low-income, preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Grummer-Strawn, L M; McGuire, L C; Park, S; Blanck, H M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding state/territorial trends in obesity by race/ethnicity helps focus resources on populations at risk. This study aimed to examine trends in obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children from 2008 through 2011 in U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity. We used measured weight and height records of 11.1 million children aged 2-4 years who participated in federally funded health and nutrition programmes in 40 states, the District of Columbia and two U.S. territories. We used logistic regression to examine obesity prevalence trends, controlling for age and sex. From 2008 through 2011, the aggregated obesity prevalence declined among all racial/ethnic groups (decreased by 0.4-0.9%) except American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs); the largest decrease was among Asians/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs). Declines were significant among non-Hispanic whites in 14 states, non-Hispanic blacks in seven states/territories, Hispanics in 13 states, A/PIs in five states and AI/ANs in one state. Increases were significant among non-Hispanic whites in four states, non-Hispanic blacks in three states, Hispanics in two states and A/PIs in one state. The majority of the states/territories had no change in obesity prevalence. Our findings indicate slight reductions in obesity prevalence and variations in obesity trends, but disparities exist for some states and racial/ethnic groups. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Media Exposure in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children Is Associated with Multiple Measures of Self-Regulatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzer, Tiffany G; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred A; Contreras, Dawn; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C; Radesky, Jenny

    2018-05-01

    Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015). Screen media exposure was measured by daily screen media exposure (hr/d), television (TV) in the bedroom, frequency of background TV, and TV with meals (1 = rarely/never, 4 = frequently). Child self-regulatory behaviors were measured by the following: child ability to delay gratification, a standardized waiting paradigm; teacher-reported Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation; and parent-reported difficult temperament on the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Multivariate regression analyses modeled screen media exposure predicting each self-regulatory measure, adjusting for child age, sex, parent age, education, marital status, income-to-needs ratio, number of adults in household, parent depressive symptoms, and sensitivity. Children were aged 4.1 years (SD = 0.5), parents were aged 29.6 years (SD = 6.8), 48% had high school education or less, and 67% were married. Daily screen media exposure and background TV were associated with weaker observed self-regulation (β: -10.30 seconds for each hr/d media, -12.63 seconds for 1-point increase, respectively). Background TV and TV with meals were associated with greater parent-reported difficult temperament (β: 0.04 and 0.05 CBQ, respectively, for 1-point increase). Greater screen media exposure had small but significant associations with weaker observed and parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, self-regulatory behaviors. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the directionality of associations.

  12. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pstress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (pstress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  14. BUDESONIDE TREATMENT IN CHILDREN PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma remains disease with wide prevalence in children different age. Inhalation corticosteroids are medications of first line of therapy in children. The article describes the ways of treatment with budesonide (Pulmicort in children preschool age. The data from different studies prove the effectiveness and safety of treatment with as turbuhaler, as nebulizer form of this drug. Key words: children, bronchial asthma, inhalational corticosteroids, budesonide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:76-80

  15. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and ...

  16. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  17. Overweight among Low-Income Texas Preschoolers Aged 2 to 4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kayan L.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger; Mirchandani, Gita; Sayegh, M. Aaron; Moehlman, Clint; Van Eck, Mary; Petrilli, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine child/maternal factors associated with overweight among 2- to 4-year-olds enrolled in the Texas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Matched child and maternal data collected by self-report of the mother during WIC certification. These data were extracted from existing…

  18. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  19. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  20. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  1. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  2. Decoding and Encoding Facial Expressions in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.

    1979-01-01

    Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…

  3. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  4. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  5. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  6. Gender labelling of toys in children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Knapeková, Lívia

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with preschool children's play in the context of gender. The theoretical part is divided into three main chapters. The first one is devoted to the essence of play and its function for the child, the second one describes the main areas of child development at preschool age and the last chapter is devoted mainly to gender socialization and role of play in it. The practical part has the form of semi- structured interviews, which aimed to find out the extent of gender de...

  7. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  8. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-06-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  9. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P maternal control of child's eating routines (P maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Naps Enhance Executive Attention in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-09-01

    Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Predictors of Intrusive Sexual Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler J; Lindsey, Rebecca A; Bohora, Som; Silovsky, Jane F

    2018-04-10

    Intrusive sexual behaviors (ISBs) are a specific type of problematic sexual behavior characterized by the invasive nature of the acts (e.g., touching others' private parts, attempting intercourse; Friedrich, 1997). The limited amount of research on ISBs has focused on sexual abuse history as the primary predictor. However, Friedrich, Davies, Feher, and Wright (2003) found that ISBs in children up to age 12 were related to four broad conceptual factors: (a) exposure to sexual content, (b) exposure to violent behavior, (c) family adversity, and (d) child vulnerabilities. The current study sought to replicate Friedrich's study using a clinical sample of 217 preschool-aged children (ages two to six). Results supported variables from within the child vulnerabilities construct (externalizing behaviors, β EXT  = 0.032, p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria met (β PTSD  = 0.177, p = 0.02), and an inverse relationship with age (β AGE  = -0.206, p = 0.024). These results highlight the importance of considering childhood behavioral patterns and reactivity to traumatic events as correlates of ISBs in young children.

  12. The importance of stimulation of sensory perception by preschool-aged children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    NOHAVOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis engages in the topic "Stimulation of sense perception for sight-impaired children at preschool age". The theoretical section of the bachelor thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the sight-impaired individual, the second chapter deals with the development of a preschool-aged child, the next chapter is concerned with the preschool education of sight-impaired children and the last chapter focuses on sense perception for those children. The main ...

  13. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  14. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  15. The student`s training to creating computer games for preschool-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мардарова И.К.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the special aspects of future kindergartner training to creating computer games for children of preschool age. The scratch-projects technology and recommendation for use at kindergarten pedagogical process are described in it.

  16. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  17. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  18. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L.; Fiese, Barbara H.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2013-01-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n=30) with a preschool-age child were videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: `Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), `Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and `Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in `action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  19. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N=289) of children (mean age 70.8months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding scheme was reliably applied. Maternal feeding practices were measured by questionnaire and videotaped eating interactions. Logistic regressions were used to test the associations of participant characteristics with the presence of each theme, and bivariate analyses were used to test the associations of the presence of each theme with feeding practices. Three themes were identified: 1) mothers worry that their child does overeat, 2) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because they manage their child's eating behavior, and 3) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because of characteristics inherent to the child. Child obesity predicted the themes; mothers of obese and overweight children are more likely to be concerned about overeating. Themes were associated with lower levels of observed pressure to eat. Only Theme 2 was associated with greater restrictive feeding practices. Interventions that provide parents' practical, healthy ways to prevent child overeating may be helpful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in...

  2. "Where Is My Daddy's House?" Preschool-Age Children of Divorce and Transitional Phenomena--A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirtzinger, Ruth

    1986-01-01

    Presents study comparing preschool-age children of divorce not living in family home (N=4) with children (N=4) remaining in home. Those not in home showed specific discrete longing for it. After divorce the family home may allow the preschool-age child the necessary mental image of access to both his parents despite decreasing family structure.…

  3. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  4. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  5. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  6. Developing a medical picture book for reducing venipuncture distress in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ying; Kuo, Hui-Chen; Lee, Hsui-Chuan; Yiin, Shuenn-Jiun

    2017-10-01

    Distress associated with needle-related procedures is a major concern in preschool-aged children nursing. This study developed a medical picture book for supporting preschool-aged children facing a venipuncture and determined the effectiveness of such a book intervention in decreasing behavioural distress. The picture book was designed in 3 stages: developing stories on medical situations, penning the text, and drafting the book. We conducted a quasiexperimental study to examine the effectiveness of the book. The behavioural distress of the control and picture book groups were assessed before, during, and after the intervention by using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised (OSBD-R). We created a 12-page picture book, Sick Rui-Rui Bear, in which cartoon characters were depicted undergoing venipunctures, as a guide for vein injection and for facilitating positive venipuncture outcomes in preschool-aged children. Over time, the OSBD-R scores of the picture book group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P book be routinely read and used during venipunctures to decrease procedural distress in preschool-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Language Maintenance and Loss in Preschool-Age Children of Mexican Immigrants: Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…

  8. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  9. Relationship between Social Cognition and Temperament in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBounty, Jennifer; Bosse, Lindsey; Savicki, Stephanie; King, Jaline; Eisenstat, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament and social cognition, including theory of mind and emotion understanding, in 34 preschool-aged children (aged 3-4 years). Theory of mind was measured with a belief-desire reasoning assessment, and emotion understanding was measured with an affective…

  10. The Effect of Institutionalization on Psychomotor Development of Preschool Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kouliousi, Chrysoula; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Fahantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Development can be altered by several factors which can either facilitate or obstruct development. The aim of the current study was the examination and the detection of differences in the developmental profiles of preschool aged children living in conventional institution facilities (N = 28), in SOS villages (N = 20) and in natural family…

  11. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  12. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  14. Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low-income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-12-01

    Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P kcal) among mothers (P daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.

  15. Attachment security and obesity in US preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.

  16. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  17. Footwear suitability in Turkish preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz

    2014-06-01

    Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  18. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  19. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Emotional reactivity and regulation in preschool-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourou, Katerina; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A

    2013-09-01

    This study experimentally investigated behavioral correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation and their relation to speech (dis)fluency in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter during emotion-eliciting conditions. Participants (18 CWS, 14 boys; 18 CWNS, 14 boys) completed two experimental tasks (1) a neutral ("apples and leaves in a transparent box," ALTB) and (2) a frustrating ("attractive toy in a transparent box," ATTB) task, both of which were followed by a narrative task. Dependent measures were emotional reactivity (positive affect, negative affect), emotion regulation (self-speech, distraction) exhibited during the ALTB and the ATTB tasks, percentage of stuttered disfluencies (SDs) and percentage of non-stuttered disfluencies (NSDs) produced during the narratives. Results indicated that preschool-age CWS exhibited significantly more negative emotion and more self-speech than preschool-age CWNS. For CWS only, emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., distraction, self-speech) during the experimental tasks were predictive of stuttered disfluencies during the subsequent narrative tasks. Furthermore, for CWS there was no relation between emotional processes and non-stuttered disfluencies, but CWNS's negative affect was significantly related to nonstuttered disfluencies. In general, present findings support the notion that emotional processes are associated with childhood stuttering. Specifically, findings are consistent with the notion that preschool-age CWS are more emotionally reactive than CWNS and that their self-speech regulatory attempts may be less than effective in modulating their emotions. The reader will be able to: (a) communicate the relevance of studying the role of emotion in developmental stuttering close to the onset of stuttering and (b) describe the main findings of the present study in relation to previous studies that have used different methodologies to investigate the role of emotion in developmental

  2. Dietary habits and nutritional status of children in preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Dzidrova, Violeta; Nikolovska, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Jovevska, Svetlana; Panova, Blagica; Panov, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is the most important for the overall development of the personality. During this period, each child realizes that it is an independent entity, and it expresses certain requirements, desires, actions, proceedings and behaviour. Our research aims to display nutritional status and degree of obesity among preschool children in the Republic of Macedonia and nutritional quality of their diet. Because of the increasing incidence of obesity in childhood and it...

  3. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  4. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income children...

  5. Mental Health and Family Functioning as Determinants of A Sedentary Lifestyle among Low-Income Women with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K.; Jurkowski, Janine M.

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and LTPA (3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute LTPA per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p<.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < .05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of LTPA when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms. PMID:22860706

  6. Mental health and family functioning as correlates of a sedentary lifestyle among low-income women with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2012-01-01

    The authors in this cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and leisure-time physical activity (3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute leisure-time physical activity per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p < 0.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < 0.05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of leisure-time physical activity when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms.

  7. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  8. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  9. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  10. Emergent literacy profiles of preschool-age children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Lomax, Richard G; Justice, Laura M; Breit-Smith, Allison; Skibbe, Lori E; McGinty, Anita S

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to explore the heterogeneity of emergent literacy skills among preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) through examination of profiles of performance. Fifty-nine children with SLI were assessed on a battery of emergent literacy skills (i.e., alphabet knowledge, print concepts, emergent writing, rhyme awareness) and oral language skills (i.e., receptive/expressive vocabulary and grammar). Cluster analysis techniques identified three emergent literacy profiles: (1) Highest Emergent Literacy, Strength in Alphabet Knowledge; (2) Average Emergent Literacy, Strength in Print Concepts; and (3) Lowest Emergent Literacy across Skills. After taking into account the contribution of child age, receptive and expressive language skills made a small contribution to the prediction of profile membership. The present findings, which may be characterized as exploratory given the relatively modest sample size, suggest that preschool-age children with SLI display substantial individual differences with regard to their emergent literacy skills and that these differences cannot be fully determined by children's age or oral language performance. Replication of the present findings with a larger sample of children is needed.

  11. Estimation of physical and mental development of children of the senior pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnyk V.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work is conducted physical and mental development of children of the senior preschool age. In the experiment, 90 children took part in the fifth year of life, among which 55 boys and 35 girls. It is noted that the children surveyed rate the physical development of the index corresponds to level - above the average. It was determined that the parameters of the functional state of preschool age children meet the age norm. It is revealed that in determining physical performance among boys set a good level, and satisfactory in girls. It is established that the results of physical fitness of boys is slightly higher than in girls. It was found that the diagnosis of the level of mental development in children fifth year of life, the average productivity and stability of attention, visual and auditory memory, visual-imagery and visual-thinking, and perception of speech correspond to the average level, and cognitive processes such as switching and distribution attention, imagination - a low level.

  12. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  13. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  14. The effect of fine motor skills on handwriting legibility in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted. [Results] The results of the study showed a high level of correlation between fine motor skills and handwriting legibility. The study revealed that the accuracy of hand and in-hand manipulation skills is factors that have an effect on handwriting legibility. [Conclusion] Through the current research, occupational therapists can provide activities that aid the development of fine motor precision and in-hand manipulation skills for children during the instruction and treatment of handwriting to preschool age children, which helps to conduct better legibility in their handwriting.

  15. [Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome in Preschool Age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome in Preschool Age Research suggests that parenting stress is elevated in parents of children with intellectual disabilities. However, data are inconsistent if this holds true for parents of children with Down syndrome. As part of the Heidelberg Down syndrome study, 52 mothers of children with Down syndrome (mean age: 5 years) completed the German adaptation of the Parenting Stress Index. These results show significantly elevated stress scores in scales measuring demanding and less acceptable behavior of the children (child characteristics). Scores in scales measuring parent characteristics do not differ significantly from the norms. Global stress scores are associated with the degree of behavioral problems (SDQ) and adaptive competence (VABS-II). A regression analysis points to optimism as a dispositional trait of the mother which makes a significant contribution to the prediction of parenting stress scores. The implications for early intervention are discussed.

  16. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Kuthy, Raymond A.; Carter, Knute D.; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended…

  17. Empowering low-income black families of handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S

    1991-10-01

    A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.

  18. Shared Reading Quality and Brain Activation during Story Listening in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, John S; Phelan, Kieran; Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Dudley, Jonathan; Altaye, Mekibib; DeWitt, Tom; Holland, Scott K

    2017-12-01

    To explore the relationship between maternal shared reading quality (verbal interactivity and engagement) and brain function during story listening in at-risk, preschool-age children, in the context of behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations. In this cross-sectional study, 22 healthy, 4-year-old girls from low socioeconomic status households completed functional magnetic resonance imaging using an established story listening task, followed by videotaped observation of uncoached mother-daughter reading of the same, age-appropriate picture book. Shared reading quality was independently scored applying dialogic reading and other evidence-based criteria reflecting interactivity and engagement, and applied as a predictor of neural activation during the functional magnetic resonance imaging task, controlling for income and maternal education. Shared reading quality scores were generally low and negatively correlated with maternal distraction by smartphones (P reading quality is positively correlated with brain activation supporting complex language, executive function, and social-emotional processing in at-risk, preschool-age children. These findings represent novel neural biomarkers of how this modifiable aspect of home reading environment may influence foundational emergent literacy skills, reinforce behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations, and underscore the potential of dialogic reading interventions to promote healthy brain development, especially in at-risk households. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The curious relation between theory of mind and sharing in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Jason M; Samek, Anya; List, John; Decety, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Young children have long been known to act selfishly and gradually appear to become more generous across middle childhood. While this apparent change has been well documented, the underlying mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. The current study examined the role of early theory of mind and executive functioning in facilitating sharing in a large sample (N = 98) of preschoolers. Results reveal a curious relation between early false-belief understanding and sharing behavior. Contrary to many commonsense notions and predominant theories, competence in this ability is actually related to less sharing. Thus, the relation between developing theory of mind and sharing may not be as straightforward as it seems in preschool age children. It is precisely the children who can engage in theory of mind that decide to share less with others.

  20. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-08-29

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children.

  1. Adapting a receptive vocabulary test for preschool-aged Greek-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Syrika, Asimina; Beckman, Mary E; Edwards, Jan R

    2011-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary is an important measure for language evaluations. Therefore, norm-referenced receptive vocabulary tests are widely used in several languages. However, a receptive vocabulary test has not yet been normed for Modern Greek. To adapt an American English vocabulary test, the Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-II (ROWPVT-II), for Modern Greek for use with Greek-speaking preschool children. The list of 170 English words on ROWPVT-II was adapted by (1) developing two lists (A and B) of Greek words that would match either the target English word or another concept corresponding to one of the pictured objects in the four-picture array; and (2) determining a developmental order for the chosen Greek words for preschool-aged children. For the first task, adult word frequency measures were used to select the words for the Greek wordlist. For the second task, 427 children, 225 boys and 202 girls, ranging in age from 2;0 years to 5;11 years, were recruited from urban and suburban areas of Greece. A pilot study of the two word lists was performed with the aim of comparing an equal number of list A and list B responses for each age group and deriving a new developmental list order. The relative difficulty of each Greek word item, that is, its accuracy score, was calculated by taking the average proportion of correct responses across ages for that word. Subsequently, the word accuracy scores in the two lists were compared via regression analysis, which yielded a highly significant relationship (R(2) = 0.97; p word item from the two lists was a better fit. Finally, new starting levels (basals) were established for preschool ages. The revised word list can serve as the basis for adapting a receptive vocabulary test for Greek preschool-aged children. Further steps need to be taken when testing larger numbers of 2;0 to 5;11-year-old children on the revised word list for determination of norms. This effort will facilitate early identification and remediation

  2. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  3. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  4. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Growth measures among preschool-age Inuit children living in Canada and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Niclasen, Birgit V L; Muckle, Gina; Young, Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2012-12-01

    The present study reports findings from a study of preschool-age Inuit children living in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland. We compare stature and obesity measures using cutoffs from the Centers for Disease Control and the International Obesity Task Force references. The sample is comprised of 1121 Inuit children (554 boys and 567 girls) aged 3-5 years living in Nunavut (n=376) and Nunavik (n=87), Canada, in the capital city of Nuuk, Greenland (n=86), and in Greenland's remaining towns and villages (n=572). Greenland Inuit children were significantly taller than their Canadian counterparts, with greatest height and weight observed among children from Nuuk. Overall prevalence of stunting was low with the three cutoffs yielding similar values for height-for-age z-scores. Obesity prevalence was higher among Canadian Inuit children than their Greenland counterparts. Inuit children have stature values consistent with those of the Centers for Disease Control reference and low prevalence of stunting, though geographic variability in mean stature values between Canadian and Greenlandic samples likely reflects differences in both socioeconomic status and genetic admixture. Obesity prevalence is high among both Canadian and Greenland Inuit preschoolers, with children living in the city of Nuuk exhibiting lower obesity prevalence than children living in either Nunavut or Nunavik, Canada or Greenland's towns and villages. Varying obesity prevalence may reflect varying degrees of food security in remote locations as well as the influence of stature and sitting height which have not been well studied in young Inuit children.

  6. Caries Risk Profiles amongst Preschool Aged Children Living in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elastria Widita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the caries risk factors of preschool aged children. Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 85 preschool children and their mothers. An interview, and a clinical and microbiology assessment was included in this study. Clinical examinations were performed to measure the dental caries experience and plaque visibility of the children and mothers. The presence and levels of Mutans Streptococci (MS in the saliva was measured using a commercial kit by Dentocult SM and evaluated using the manufacturer’s chart. Results: Sixty-five children had a high risk of caries (76.5%, 12.9% had a low risk, and 10.6% had a moderate risk of caries. Active cavities were found in more than half of the mothers and children. The majority of the child subjects had a snacking habit between meals (85.9%. High risk scores of 2 and 3, indicating salivary levels of MS, was found in 41.1% of children. Fluoride exposure experienced by the study population was very limited. Conclusion: Results suggest that the majority of the population had a high caries risk. There was a high occurrence of teeth with cavities in children and active carious lesions in the mothers. There was a high frequency in snacking habits, the presence of plaque and bleeding gums, high levels of salivary MS, and low protective factors for the children. Results suggest that management of caries related factors are needed in order to prevent caries in the future. 

  7. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  9. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  10. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumbo Ogobara K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass chemotherapy with praziquantel is the main control strategy for schistosomiasis in Mali. However, in the national control programme for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, infants and preschool-aged children are overlooked in preventive chemotherapy campaigns. We therefore determined the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis in children between the ages 1-4 years in three villages across Diema health district, a rural community with endemic schistosomiasis in Mali. For Schistosoma haematobium diagnosis, a single urine sample of 10 ml obtained from each child was subjected to the standard urine filtration method. Results Of the 338 children examined 173 (51.2% were infected. Both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between communities (p Conclusion Our study showed that preschool children living closely to lakes across in Mali are at high risk to be infected by schistosomiasis and contributed largely to the transmission; therefore schistosomiasis control interventions should also target infants in addition to school children and adults in endemic areas.

  11. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  12. Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children Who Are Low Income and Linguistically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sandilos, Lia; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Lopez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to (a) provide an in-depth description of the frequency and type of language interactions that children who are low income and/or dual language learners (DLLs) experience in their classrooms and (b) examine whether differences exist in children's language experiences based on children's DLL status and level of…

  13. How children with special health care needs affect the employment decisions of low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Davidoff, Amy

    2004-09-01

    To better understand the impact of having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN), on low-income parents' employment decisions. Using data from the 1999 and 2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we estimate multivariate statistical regressions (logit and tobit models) to estimate the relationship between having a CSHCN and the likelihood of employment and hours of employment for a sample-of low-income single parents. Controlling for differences in demographic and family characteristics, we find no significant association between having a CSHCN and the probability of work or the number of hours worked among low-income single-parent families. Separate analysis of different dimensions of special health care needs shows that parents of children with activity limitations are significantly less likely to work and work fewer hours. This result does not hold true for the group of children defined based on elevated or special service use, or for the group of children with specific chronic conditions. These results indicate that only a specific subset of children with special needs present difficulties for low-income parents' work. This suggests that policies to help low-income single parents of children with disabilities move into work should target this specific subset of children with special health care needs.

  14. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  15. The "Quiet" Troubles of Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Most of the troubles poor at-risk children have are not "loud" problems like disruptive behavior or gang involvement. They are "quiet." The range of these problems is vast. Hunger, dehydration, asthma, obesity, and hearing problems can all insidiously trip children up in school. Some quiet problems are psychological--depression, anxiety, the fear…

  16. Wanting better: a qualitative study of low-income parents about their children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Linsenmayer, Kristi A; Williams, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the purpose of this study was to understand low-income parents' experiences and how these influenced their oral health-related behavior toward their children. Twenty-eight parents were recruited from 7 sites that serve low-income families. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed, were comprised of mostly open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Parents' experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families' oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is part of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played an important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wanted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children's preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental care for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families.

  17. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  18. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  19. Relationship between communication skills and gross motor function in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Andrea; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-11-01

    To explore the communication skills of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at 24 months' corrected age with reference to typically developing children, and to determine the relationship between communication ability, gross motor function, and other comorbidities associated with CP. Prospective, cross-sectional, population-based cohort study. General community. Children with CP (N=124; mean age, 24mo; functional severity on Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]: I=47, II=14, III=22, IV=19, V=22). Not applicable. Parents reported communication skills on the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist. Two independent physiotherapists classified motor type, distribution, and GMFCS. Data on comorbidities were obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Children with mild CP (GMFCS I/II) had mean CSBS-DP scores that were 0.5 to 0.6 SD below the mean for typically developing peers, while those with moderate-severe impairment (GMFCS III-V) were 1.4 to 2.6 SD below the mean. GMFCS was significantly associated with performance on the CSBS-DP (F=18.55, Pgross motor ability accounting for 38% of the variation in communication. Poorer communication was strongly associated with gross motor function and full-term birth. Preschool-aged children with CP, with more severe gross motor impairment, showed delayed communication, while children with mild motor impairment were less vulnerable. Term-born children had significantly poorer communication than those born prematurely. Because a portion of each gross motor functional severity level is at risk, this study reinforces the need for early monitoring of communication development for all children with CP. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  1. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  2. Aflatoxin exposure among young children in urban low-income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations in tropical and subtropical developing countries are exposed to largely uncontrolled levels of aflatoxins through food. These countries (especially in Africa and Asia) also present a high prevalence of stunting. Studies have reported an association between aflatoxin exposure and growth impairment in children ...

  3. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  5. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  6. Multidisciplinary Perspectives towards the Education of Young Low-Income Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Demir-Dagdas, Tuba; Cakmakci, Huzeyfe; Cava-Tadik, Yasemin; Intepe-Tingir, Seyma

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the issues surrounding low-income immigrants in the U.S. and the ways they shape the educational experiences of their young children. Using a multidisciplinary lens including sociology, family studies, education, and mental health, the authors analyse multiple perspectives towards the educational experiences of children in…

  7. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  8. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  9. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  10. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  11. Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study,…

  12. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  13. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  14. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  15. Bedtime and evening light exposure influence circadian timing in preschool-age children: A field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lameese D. Akacem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Light exposure and sleep timing are two factors that influence inter-individual variability in the timing of the human circadian clock. The aim of this study was to quantify the degree to which evening light exposure predicts variance in circadian timing over and above bedtime alone in preschool children. Participants were 21 children ages 4.5–5.0 years (4.7±0.2 years; 9 females. Children followed their typical sleep schedules for 4 days during which time they wore a wrist actigraph to assess sleep timing and a pendant light meter to measure minute-by-minute illuminance levels in lux. On the 5th day, children participated in an in-home dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO assessment. Light exposure in the 2 h before bedtime was averaged and aggregated across the 4 nights preceding the DLMO assessment. Mean DLMO and bedtime were 19:22±01:04 and 20:07±00:46, respectively. Average evening light exposure was 710.1±1418.2 lux. Children with later bedtimes (lights-off time had more delayed melatonin onset times (r=0.61, p=0.002. Evening light exposure was not independently associated with DLMO (r=0.32, p=0.08; however, a partial correlation between evening light exposure and DLMO when controlling for bedtime yielded a positive correlation (r=0.46, p=0.02. Bedtime explained 37.3% of the variance in the timing of DLMO, and evening light exposure accounted for an additional 13.3% of the variance. These findings represent an important step in understanding factors that influence circadian phase in preschool-age children and have implications for understanding a modifiable pathway that may underlie late sleep timing and the development of evening settling problems in early childhood.

  16. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  18. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity and effortful control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to each of three self-regulation tasks (bird and dragon; knock-tap; and gift wrap) would predict self-regulation performance in a sample of 101 preschool-age children (M age = 4.49, SD = .64). While controlling for baseline RSA, decreases in RSA from bird and dragon to knock-tap (but not from baseline to bird and dragon) predicted a latent variable measuring self-regulation. Furthermore, increases in RSA from the knock-tap to gift wrap-the only task involving delay of gratification-were related to concurrent task performance while controlling for the relation between RSA reactivity and the latent self-regulation variable. Results suggest that the relations between RSA reactivity and self-regulatory ability are influenced by task-specific demands and possibly by task order. Furthermore, RSA reactivity appears to relate differently to performance on motivationally salient self-regulation tasks such as delay of gratification relative to cool executive function tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala Is Disrupted in Preschool-Aged Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mark D; Li, Deana D; Keown, Christopher L; Lee, Aaron; Johnson, Ryan T; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Rogers, Sally J; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Amaral, David G; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether functional connectivity of the amygdala is altered in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to assess the clinical relevance of observed alterations in amygdala connectivity. A resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging study of the amygdala (and a parallel study of primary visual cortex) was conducted in 72 boys (mean age 3.5 years; n = 43 with ASD; n = 29 age-matched controls). The ASD group showed significantly weaker connectivity between the amygdala and several brain regions involved in social communication and repetitive behaviors, including bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes, and striatum (p amygdala and frontal and temporal lobes was significantly correlated with increased autism severity in the ASD group (p amygdala and regions of the brain important for social communication and language, which might be clinically relevant because weaker connectivity was associated with increased autism severity. Moreover, although amygdala connectivity was associated with behavioral domains that are diagnostic of ASD, altered connectivity of primary visual cortex was related to sensory hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility and validity of the structured attention module among economically disadvantaged preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Hillary H; Eisenhower, Abbey; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Carter, Alice S

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in the theory of attention put forth by Mirsky, Anthony, Duncan, Ahearn, and Kellam (1991), the Structured Attention Module (SAM) is a developmentally sensitive, computer-based performance task designed specifically to assess sustained selective attention among 3- to 6-year-old children. The current study addressed the feasibility and validity of the SAM among 64 economically disadvantaged preschool-age children (mean age = 58 months; 55% female); a population known to be at risk for attention problems and adverse math performance outcomes. Feasibility was demonstrated by high completion rates and strong associations between SAM performance and age. Principal Factor Analysis with rotation produced robust support for a three-factor model (Accuracy, Speed, and Endurance) of SAM performance, which largely corresponded with existing theorized models of selective and sustained attention. Construct validity was evidenced by positive correlations between SAM Composite scores and all three SAM factors and IQ, and between SAM Accuracy and sequential memory. Value-added predictive validity was not confirmed through main effects of SAM on math performance above and beyond age and IQ; however, significant interactions by child sex were observed: Accuracy and Endurance both interacted with child sex to predict math performance. In both cases, the SAM factors predicted math performance more strongly for girls than for boys. There were no overall sex differences in SAM performance. In sum, the current findings suggest that interindividual variation in sustained selective attention, and potentially other aspects of attention and executive function, among young, high-risk children can be captured validly with developmentally sensitive measures.

  1. Digital Inequality and Developmental Trajectories of Low-income, Immigrant, and Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S; Gonzalez, Carmen; Clark, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Children growing up in the United States today are more ethnically and racially diverse than at any time in the nation's history. Because of rising income inequality, almost half of the 72 million children in the United States are also growing up in low-income families, with immigrant and children of color disproportionately likely to be within their ranks. Children in low-income households are more likely to face a number of social challenges, including constrained access to the Internet and devices that connect to it (ie, digital inequality), which can exacerbate other, more entrenched disparities between them and their more privileged counterparts. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics' new guidelines encourage clinicians to reduce children's overexposure to technology, we argue for a more nuanced approach that also considers how digital inequality can reduce low-income children's access to a range of social opportunities. We review previous research on how digital inequality affects children's learning and development and identify areas where more research is needed on how digital inequality relates to specific aspects of children's developmental trajectories, and to identify what interventions at the family, school, and community levels can mitigate the adverse effects of digital inequality as children move through their formal schooling. On the basis of the evidence to date, we conclude with guidelines for clinicians related to supporting digital connectivity and more equitable access to social opportunity for the increasingly diverse population of children growing up in the United States. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  3. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  4. Health Care Access and Use Among Low-Income Children on Subsidized Insurance Programs in California.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Trenholm; Anna Saltzman; Shanna Shulman; Michael Cousineau; Dana Hughes

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the CaliforniaKids and Healthy Kids programs—county-based insurance programs in California for low-income children. The study examined features of both programs, use of basic health care services by the children enrolled, and typical experiences accessing inpatient and other high-cost care. Children enrolled in the two programs made substantial use of outpatient health care, despite important variation in program features. The study concludes with recommendations on ho...

  5. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  6. Children's Effects on Parenting Stress in a Low Income, Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, R. Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parenting stress and other maternal and child characteristics were investigated with 66 low income mothers and their five- to eight-year-old children at risk for educational disabilities. Child characteristics (self esteem, behavior conduct, and spelling achievement) and maternal characteristics (self esteem and crowding…

  7. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  8. Preschool Interactive Peer Play Mediates Problem Behavior and Learning for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…

  9. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  10. Occupational and Educational Goals of Low Income Children in Kentucky, 1969 and 1975. RS-49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee

    Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…

  11. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  12. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  13. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  15. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  16. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  17. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  19. Nutrition Knowledge and Behaviours of Low-Income Latino Parents of Preschoolers: Associations with Nutrition-Related Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Wendelin; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Prelip, Michael; Fischer, Heidi; Cumberland, William G.; Frankel, Fred; Neumann, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Parents are in an ideal position to promote long-term healthy dietary behaviours for their children. This study aimed to determine parent and child characteristics and to test their associations in a cross-sectional sample of urban low-income, low-education Latino immigrants with preschool-age children. Also determined were family demographic…

  20. LOW-INCOME, MINORITY FATHERS’ CONTROL STRATEGIES AND THEIR CHILDREN'S REGULATORY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith Lee

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), an...

  1. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  2. Sibling Relationships of Preschool-Aged Children in Gross Motor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaugh, Sarah J.; Clifton, Marguerite A.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviors and interactions of preschool-aged siblings in object-oriented and body-oriented conditions were observed to discover if the child's siblings significantly influenced motor skill development. This study focused on categories of sibling behaviors and interactions. (Author/DF)

  3. Health outcomes in low-income children with current asthma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T; Dell, S; Tassoudji, M; Wang, C

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 were used to measure longitudinal health outcomes among children with asthma. Over 10 000 children aged 1 to 11 years with complete data on asthma status in both years were included. Outcomes included hospitalizations and health services use (HSU). Current asthma was defined as children diagnosed with asthma by a physician and who took prescribed inhalants regularly, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Children having asthma significantly increased their odds of hospitalization (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.70) and health services use (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 2.69, 5.37). Low-income adequacy (LIA) in 1994/ 95 significantly predicts hospitalization and HSU in 1996/97 (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.29, 5.59 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99, respectively). Our results confirmed that both having current asthma and living in low-income families had a significant impact on the health status of children in Canada. Programs seeking to decrease the economic burden of pediatric hospitalizations need to focus on asthma and low-income populations.

  4. Modern knowledge about prevention and correction of functional disorders of the supporting-motor apparatus of the senior preschool age children in the process of physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuba V.A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of correction of violations of carriage is developed for the children of senior preschool age taking into account spatial organization of their body. Possibilities of application of technology are rotined in the system of physical education of child preschool age and in a medical physical culture. The flowsheet of organization of employments is offered correction-prophylactic macrocycle. Pulling in is selected in a chart, correcting and supporting sanitary the stages.

  5. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  6. Guelph Family Health Study's Home-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention Increases Fibre and Fruit Intake in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirotta, Julia A; Darlington, Gerarda A; Buchholz, Andrea C; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L; Duncan, Alison M

    2018-06-01

    The Guelph Family Health Study (GFHS) pilot was designed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based obesity prevention intervention on health behaviours and obesity risk. The objective of this analysis was to determine the effect of the 6-month intervention on preschool-aged children's dietary intakes. Families with children aged 1.5-5 years old were randomized to receive one of the following: 4 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (4HV; n = 19 children); 2 home visits with a health educator as well as tailored emails and mailed incentives (2HV; n = 14 children); or general health advice through emails (control; n = 12 children). Three-day food records were completed by parents for their children before and after the 6-month intervention and analyzed for 3-day average intakes of energy, nutrients, and MyPlate food groups. After the 6-month intervention, the 4HV group had significantly higher fibre intake and the 4HV and 2HV groups had significantly higher fruit intake, both compared with the control group. This study provides support for a home-based intervention approach to improve the diet quality of preschool-aged children.

  7. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  8. A Health Equity Problem for Low Income Children: Diet Flexibility Requires Physician Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D

    2015-09-01

    USDA programs, such as the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and/or National School Lunch Program (NSLP), enable child care centers and schools to provide free and reduced price meals, daily, to millions of low income children. Despite intention to equalize opportunity for every child to have a healthy diet, USDA program rules may be contributing to child obesity disparities and health inequity. USDA program rules require child care centers and schools to provide meals that include a specified number of servings of particular types of foods and beverages. The rules are designed for the average, healthy weight child to maintain weight and growth. They are not designed for the underweight child to gain weight, obese child to normalize weight, or pre-diabetic child to avoid incident diabetes. The rules allow for only one meal pattern and volume, as opposed to a flexible spectrum of meal patterns and portion sizes. Parents of children who participate in the CACFP, SBP, and/or NSLP do not have control over the amount or composition of the subsidized meals. Parents of overweight, obese, or diabetic children who participate in the subsidized meal programs can request dietary change, special meals or accommodations to address their child's health status, but child care providers and schools are not required to comply with the request unless a licensed physician signs a "Medical statement to request special meals and/or accommodations". Although physicians are the only group authorized to change the foods, beverages, and portion sizes served daily to low income children, they are not doing so. Over the past three years, despite an overweight and obesity prevalence of 30% in San Francisco child care centers serving low income children, zero medical statements were filed to request special meals or accommodations to alter daily meals in order to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or prevent postprandial hyperglycemia. Low income children

  9. The Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children Present Different Odds of Mortality than Adults in Southern Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Huang, Chun-Ying; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Yang, Li-Hui; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2018-04-25

    Background : This study aimed to profile the epidemiology of injury among preschool-aged and school-aged children in comparison to those in adults. Methods : According to the Trauma Registry System of a level I trauma center, the medical data were retrieved from 938 preschool-aged children (aged less than seven years), 670 school-aged children (aged 7⁻12 years), and 16,800 adults (aged 20⁻64 years) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016. Two-sided Pearson’s, chi-squared, and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare categorical data. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Games-Howell post-hoc test was used to assess the differences in continuous variables among different groups of patients. The mortality outcomes of different subgroups were assessed by a multivariable regression model under the adjustment of sex, injury mechanisms, and injury severity. Results : InFsupppjury mechanisms in preschool-aged and school-aged children were remarkably different from that in adults; in preschool-aged children, burns were the most common cause of injury requiring hospitalization (37.4%), followed by falls (35.1%) and being struck by/against objects (11.6%). In school-aged children, injuries were most commonly sustained from falls (47.8%), followed by bicycle accidents (14%) and being struck by/against objects (12.5%). Compared to adults, there was no significant difference of the adjusted mortality of the preschool-aged children (AOR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.38⁻2.12; p = 0.792) but there were lower adjusted odds of mortality of the school-aged children (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.10⁻0.85; p = 0.039). The school-aged children had lower odds of mortality than adults (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06⁻0.74; p = 0.012), but such lower odds of risk of mortality were not found in preschool-aged children (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.29⁻1.81; p = 0.646). Conclusions : This study suggests that specific types of injuries from different injury mechanisms are predominant among preschool-aged

  10. After-school programs for low-income children: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, R

    1999-01-01

    Children's out-of-school time, long a low-level source of public concern, has recently emerged as a major social issue. This, in turn, has heightened interest in the heterogeneous field of after-school programs. This article provides a profile of after-school programs for low-income children, focusing on supply and demand, program emphases, and program sponsors and support organizations. It also discusses the major challenges facing the field in the areas of facilities, staffing, and financing. Details and examples are drawn from the ongoing evaluation of a specific after-school program initiative called MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time), which seeks to strengthen after-school programs in Boston, Chicago, and Seattle. Looking ahead, the article highlights the pros and cons of options for increasing coverage to reach more low-income children, strengthening programs, expanding funding, and articulating an appropriate role for after-school programs to fill in the lives of low-income children.

  11. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela; Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-08-02

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app's WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative feedback highlighted several barriers that

  12. A Smartphone App for Families With Preschool-Aged Children in a Public Nutrition Program: Prototype Development and Beta-Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Janice S; Quirk, Meghan E; Canedo, Juan R; Jones, Jessica L; Vylegzhanina, Violetta; Schmidt, Douglas C; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Beech, Bettina M; Briley, Chiquita; Harris, Calvin; Husaini, Baqar A

    2017-01-01

    Background The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in the United States provides free supplemental food and nutrition education to low-income mothers and children under age 5 years. Childhood obesity prevalence is higher among preschool children in the WIC program compared to other children, and WIC improves dietary quality among low-income children. The Children Eating Well (CHEW) smartphone app was developed in English and Spanish for WIC-participating families with preschool-aged children as a home-based intervention to reinforce WIC nutrition education and help prevent childhood obesity. Objective This paper describes the development and beta-testing of the CHEW smartphone app. The objective of beta-testing was to test the CHEW app prototype with target users, focusing on usage, usability, and perceived barriers and benefits of the app. Methods The goals of the CHEW app were to make the WIC shopping experience easier, maximize WIC benefit redemption, and improve parent snack feeding practices. The CHEW app prototype consisted of WIC Shopping Tools, including a barcode scanner and calculator tools for the cash value voucher for purchasing fruits and vegetables, and nutrition education focused on healthy snacks and beverages, including a Yummy Snack Gallery and Healthy Snacking Tips. Mothers of 63 black and Hispanic WIC-participating children ages 2 to 4 years tested the CHEW app prototype for 3 months and completed follow-up interviews. Results Study participants testing the app for 3 months used the app on average once a week for approximately 4 and a half minutes per session, although substantial variation was observed. Usage of specific features averaged at 1 to 2 times per month for shopping-related activities and 2 to 4 times per month for the snack gallery. Mothers classified as users rated the app’s WIC Shopping Tools relatively high on usability and benefits, although variation in scores and qualitative

  13. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  14. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  15. Feasibility of Internet-based Parent Training for Low-income Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Lucy; Hvizdos, Erica; Bocknek, Erika L; Montgomery, Erica; Ondersma, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Parent training programs promote positive parenting and benefit low-income children, but are rarely used. Internet-based delivery may help expand the reach of parent training programs, although feasibility among low-income populations is still unclear. We examined the feasibility of internet-based parent training, in terms of internet access/use and engagement, through two studies. In Study 1, 160 parents recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) centers completed a brief paper survey regarding internet access and use (all parents received government aid). We found high levels of access, openness, and comfort with the internet and internet-enabled devices. In Study 2, a pilot study, we assessed use of an online parenting program in a project with a sample of 89 predominately low-income parents (75% received government aid). Parents learned about a new, online parenting program (the "5-a-Day Parenting Program") and provided ratings of level of interest and program use 2-weeks and 4-weeks later. Local website traffic was also monitored. At baseline, parents were very interested in using the web-based program, and the majority of parents (69.6%) reported visiting the website at least once. However, in-depth use was rare (only 9% of parents reported frequent use of the online program). Results support the feasibility of internet-based parent training for low-income parents, as most parent were able to use the program and were interested in doing so. However, results also suggest the need to develop strategies to promote in-depth program use.

  16. Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Low-Income Latino Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Hilda; Caughy, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children and examine differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences by immigrant generational status. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of parents/caregivers of a nationally representative sample of US children. The study sample was limited to Latino children in households with an annual income ≤200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) whose parents responded to a 9-item inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Descriptive statistics estimated the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and examined differences in prevalence by immigrant generational status. Of 22 297 children, 29% (n = 6483) were Latino (9% first generation, 57% second generation, 30% third or higher generation); 25% (n = 1692) of all Latino children were exposed to 2 or more adverse childhood experiences. Latino immigrant children had a lower prevalence (13%; n = 801) compared with nonimmigrant Latino children (40%; n = 772). The most common adverse childhood experiences were financial hardship and parent divorce/separation. The total number and mean number of adverse childhood experiences differed by child generational status, and the differences persisted after stratification by age and FPL. The prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences was highest among third- or higher-generation nonimmigrant children and lowest among second-generation immigrant children. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children is similar to the prevalence for all US children; however, the prevalence is significantly higher in nonimmigrant children. Targeted screening to address adverse childhood experiences, policy changes, and guidance regarding care practices to address adverse childhood experiences in Latino children are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  18. Inequalities in dental services utilization among Brazilian low-income children: the role of individual determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Marcia Helena; Mendes, Yasmine Bittencourt Emílio; Lawder, Juliana Aparecida de Campos; de Lara, Ana Paula Ingles; Rodrigues, Michelli Marta Azevedo da Silva; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    To assess the role of the individual determinants on the inequalities of dental services utilization among low-income children living in the working area of Brazilian's federal Primary Health Care program, which is called Family Health Program (FHP), in a big city in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed. The sample included 350 children, ages 0 to 14 years, whose parents answered a questionnaire about their socioeconomic conditions, perceived needs, oral hygiene habits, and access to dental services. The data analysis was performed according to a conceptual framework based on Andersen's behavioral model of health services use. Multivariate models of logistic regression analysis instructed the hypothesis on covariates for never having had a dental visit. Thirty one percent of the surveyed children had never had a dental visit. In the bivariate analysis, higher proportion of children who had never had a dental visit was found among the very young, those with inadequate oral hygiene habits, those without perceived need of dental care, and those whose family homes were under absent ownership. The mechanisms of social support showed to be important enabling factors: children attending schools/kindergartens and being regularly monitored by the FHP teams had higher odds of having gone to the dentist, even after adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic, and need variables. The conceptual framework has confirmed the presence of social and psychosocial inequalities on the utilization pattern of dental services for low-income children. The individual determinants seem to be important predictors of access.

  19. Setters and samoyeds: the emergence of subordinate level categories as a basis for inductive inference in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, S R; Lynch, E B; Casey, K L; Baer, L

    1997-11-01

    Basic level categories are a rich source of inductive inference for children and adults. These 3 experiments examine how preschool-age children partition their inductively rich basic level categories to form subordinate level categories and whether these have inductive potential. Children were taught a novel property about an individual member of a familiar basic level category (e.g., a collie). Then, children's extensions of that property to other objects from the same subordinate (e.g., other collies), basic (e.g., other dogs), and superordinate (e.g., other animals) level categories were examined. The results suggest (a) that contrastive information promotes the emergence of subordinate categories as a basis of inductive inference and (b) that newly established subordinate categories can retain their inductive potential in subsequent reasoning over a week's time.

  20. The impact of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Min

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of group occupational therapy using a cueing system on the executive function of preschool-aged children with brain lesions. [Subjects and Methods] Six preschool-aged children with brain lesions participated in this study. A 24-session occupational therapy program (1 session/week, 50 minutes/session) designed based on a cueing system was administered to examine the changes in the participants' executive function. The behavior rating inventory of executive function-preschool (BRIEF-P) was used to check the magnitude of improvement of executive functions after therapy. [Results] A Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed that occupational therapy significantly improved all domains, indices, and the global executive composite in the BRIEF-P. [Conclusion] The occupational therapy intervention incorporating a type of cognitive behavioral approach known as the cueing system may assist improving executive functions in preschool-aged children with brain lesions.

  1. Insurance Coverage for Rehabilitation Therapies and Association with Social Participation Outcomes among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Mansha; Kim, Yoonsang

    2016-01-01

    (1) To profile children's health insurance coverage rates for specific rehabilitation therapies; (2) to determine whether coverage for rehabilitation therapies is associated with social participation outcomes after adjusting for child and household characteristics; (3) to assess whether rehabilitation insurance differentially affects social participation of children with and without disabilities. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of secondary survey data on 756 children (ages 3-17) from 370 households living in low-income neighborhoods in a Midwestern U.S. city. Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models were estimated. Significantly higher proportions of children with disabilities had coverage for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech and language pathology, yet gaps in coverage were noted. Multivariate analysis indicated that rehabilitation insurance coverage was significantly associated with social participation (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.013-2.75). This trend was sustained in subgroup analysis. Findings support the need for comprehensive coverage of all essential services under children's health insurance programs.

  2. Phenotypes of asthma in low-income children and adolescents: cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucia Barros Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Studies characterizing asthma phenotypes have predominantly included adults or have involved children and adolescents in developed countries. Therefore, their applicability in other populations, such as those of developing countries, remains indeterminate. Our objective was to determine how low-income children and adolescents with asthma in Brazil are distributed across a cluster analysis. Methods: We included 306 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and under medical treatment for at least one year of follow-up. At enrollment, all the patients were clinically stable. For the cluster analysis, we selected 20 variables commonly measured in clinical practice and considered important in defining asthma phenotypes. Variables with high multicollinearity were excluded. A cluster analysis was applied using a twostep agglomerative test and log-likelihood distance measure. Results: Three clusters were defined for our population. Cluster 1 (n = 94 included subjects with normal pulmonary function, mild eosinophil inflammation, few exacerbations, later age at asthma onset, and mild atopy. Cluster 2 (n = 87 included those with normal pulmonary function, a moderate number of exacerbations, early age at asthma onset, more severe eosinophil inflammation, and moderate atopy. Cluster 3 (n = 108 included those with poor pulmonary function, frequent exacerbations, severe eosinophil inflammation, and severe atopy. Conclusions: Asthma was characterized by the presence of atopy, number of exacerbations, and lung function in low-income children and adolescents in Brazil. The many similarities with previous cluster analyses of phenotypes indicate that this approach shows good generalizability.

  3. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  4. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status of Healthy, Low-Income, Minority Children in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Conrad R.; Grant, Frederick K.; Tangpricha, Vin; Swaby-Ellis, E. Dawn; Smith, Joy L.; Jacques, Anne; Chen, Huiping; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goals were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among minority children in a southern US city, to examine differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children, and to determine dietary sources of vitamin D. METHODS Low-income, minority children (N = 290; mean age: 2.5 ± 1.2 years) were recruited during well-child clinic visits. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels were measured and dietary information was assessed. RESULTS The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was 26.2 ± 7.6 ng/mL, whereas 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 was not detected. Overall, 22.3% of children had deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (≤20 ng/mL), 73.6% had less-than-optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (≤30 ng/mL), and 1.4% had low serum calcium levels (≤9 mg/dL). A significantly larger proportion of non-Hispanic black children, compared with Hispanic children, had vitamin D deficiency (26% vs 18%; P<.05). Age and season of recruitment were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency and low serum calcium levels. Older children (≥3 years) were less likely to have vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 0.89 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81– 0.96]; P < .001). Study enrollment during spring and summer reduced the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency by ~20% (spring, OR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.73– 0.98]; P = .03; summer, OR: 0.82 [95% CI: 0.73– 0.92]; P < .01). Fortified milk provided most dietary vitamin D (62%), with Hispanic children reporting greater intake. CONCLUSIONS Suboptimal vitamin D status was common among apparently healthy, low-income, minority children. Age and season were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:20351012

  5. Perceptions of low-income mothers about the causes and ways to prevent overweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, C A; Schultz, C M; Rosenblum, K; Miller, A L; Lumeng, J C

    2015-11-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity remain major health conditions, affecting nearly one-third of children in the USA. Multiple factors have been identified that contribute to children becoming overweight; however, little is known regarding what low-income mothers perceive to be the causes of and the ways to prevent children from becoming overweight. Low-income mothers (n = 286) with children aged 4-8 years participated in semi-structured interviews, during which they were asked for their opinions about the causes of and ways to prevent children from becoming overweight. After themes were identified, interviews were coded for the presence or absence of each theme. The majority of mothers were non-Hispanic White (69.2%) and overweight or obese (77.3%). Additionally, many of the children (41.9%) were overweight or obese. Six causes of children becoming overweight were identified by mothers: types or quantities of food eaten (90.9%); parenting behaviours (44.9%); lack of activity (42.3%); genetics, slow metabolism or medical issues (24.5%); stress or emotion (5.2%); and limited access to resources (3.5%). Five ways to prevent children from becoming overweight identified by mothers included the following: healthy eating (84.9%), more activity (54.8%), limiting screen time (19.9%), limiting sugar-sweetened beverages (12.2%) and drinking more water (6.6%). The majority of mothers (77.1%) reported that they carried out their suggestions to prevent their children from becoming overweight. Within this cohort with a high prevalence of maternal and child overweight, most mothers identified many of the evidence-based strategies for childhood obesity prevention. Future intervention development may benefit from focusing on content areas that were less commonly identified by mothers as well as helping mothers translate knowledge to implementation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Putri Noer Fadilah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of dental caries among children has increased in the past decades. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology, including host (saliva and teeth, microbiology (plaque, substrate (diet, and time. The role of fermentable carbohydrates intake as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia. Methods: The method used was an analytical cross-sectional study with pathfinder survey based on the WHO basic methods of oral health surveys. The data were collected through intraoral examination, and nutritional status measurement was done by using food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis used was the chi-square test. Results: From the study towards 100 preschool children resulted the prevalence of dental caries in rural and urban area respectively was 96% and 92%. The average value of def-t index in urban area was as much as 8.46 (95% CI:7.00-9.91 and was as much as 7.98 (95% CI:6.50-9.45 in rural area. The average value of sucrose intake frequency in urban area was as much as 237.14 (95% CI:204.95-269.32, whilst in rural area was as much as 177.54 (95% CI:155.66-199.41. There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake in the rural and urban area (p < 0,05. Conclusion: There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in the rural and urban area of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia.

  7. Reliability and Validity of Food Frequency Questions to Assess Beverage and Food Group Intakes among Low-Income 2- to 4-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2016-06-01

    Fruits, vegetables, sweetened foods, and beverages have been found to have positive and negative associations with obesity in early childhood, yet no rapid assessment tools are available to measure intake of these foods among preschoolers. This study examines the test-retest reliability and validity of a 10-item Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire designed to assess fruits, vegetables, and sweetened foods and beverages intake among 2- to 4-year-old children. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire was developed for use in periodic phone surveys conducted with low-income families with preschool-aged children. Seventy primary caregivers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed two Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaires within a 2-week period for test-retest reliability. Participants also completed three 24-hour recalls to allow assessment of validity. Intraclass correlations were used to examine test-retest reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and linear regression analyses were used to examine validity of the Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire compared with three 24-hour recalls. Intraclass correlations between Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire administrations ranged from 0.48 for sweetened drinks to 0.87 for regular sodas. Intraclass correlations for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.56, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.15 to 0.59 for beverages, with 0.46 for sugar-sweetened beverages. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.30, 0.33, and 0.30, respectively. Although observation of the Bland-Altman plots and linear regression analyses showed a slight upward trend in mean differences, with increasing mean intake for five beverage groups, at least 90% of data plots fell within the limits of agreement for all food/beverage groups. The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire

  8. Nutritional status of pre-school children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Adriana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated growth and nutritional status of preschool children between 2 and 6 years old from low income families from 14 daycare centers. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1544 children from daycare centers of Santo Andre, Brazil. Body weight (W, height (H and body mass index (BMI were classified according to the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS. Cutoff points for nutritional disorders: -2 z scores and 2.5 and 10 percentiles for malnutrition risk, 85 to 95 percentile for overweight and above BMI 95 percentile for obesity. Stepwise Forward Regression method was used including age, gender, birth weight, breastfeeding duration, age of mother at birth and period of time they attended the daycare center. Results Children presented mean z scores of H, W and BMI above the median of the CDC/NCHS reference. Girls were taller and heavier than boys, while we observed similar BMI between both genders. The z scores tended to rise with age. A Pearson Coefficient of Correlation of 0.89 for W, 0.93 for H and 0.95 for BMI was documented indicating positive association of age with weight, height and BMI. The frequency of children below -2 z scores was lower than expected: 1.5% for W, 1.75% for H and 0% for BMI, which suggests that there were no malnourished children. The other extremity of the distribution evidenced prevalence of overweight and obesity of 16.8% and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusion Low income preschool children are in an advanced stage of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight.

  9. Low-income minority fathers' control strategies and children's regulatory skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at pre-kindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers' overwhelmingly use commands (e.g., do that) to promote compliance in their 24-month old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predict fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction, whereas children's gender predicts fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24-months predict children's sustained attention at pre-kindergarten whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24-months predicts children's emotion regulation at pre-kindergarten. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. PMID:25798496

  10. Low-income, minority fathers' control strategies and their children's regulatory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jenessa L; Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24 months, and children's regulatory skills at prekindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income, minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project (n = 71), we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24 months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), and children's sustained attention and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were three main findings. First, fathers overwhelmingly used commands (e.g., "Do that.") to promote compliance in their 24-month-old children. Second, children's vocabulary skills predicted fathers' regulatory behaviors during a father-child interaction whereas children's gender predicted fathers' regulatory language during an interaction. Third, controlling for maternal supportiveness, fathers' regulatory behaviors at 24 months predicted children's sustained attention at pre-K whereas fathers' regulatory language at 24 months predicted children's emotion regulation at pre-K. Our findings highlight the importance of examining paternal contributions to children's regulatory skills. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Modern technologies used in the process of physical education and rehabilitation for violations of posture and flat feet in children of older preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Futornyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analyze and summarize scientific information on the problem of technologies that are used in the process of physical education and rehabilitation for violations of posture and flat feet in children of older preschool age, according to special scientific and methodological literature. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of literary and documentary sources included the use of a number of the following methods: the method of reconstruction, the method of apperceptions, aspect analysis, hermeneutic analysis, problem analysis. Results: despite a significant number of scientific studies on the prevention and correction of human posture disorders, recent results and their undoubted value for science and practice, it can be stated that the proposed technologies and methods do not fully allow to effectively cope with the steadily growing number of children senior preschool age with various functional disorders of the locomotor system. Conclusion: every year the number of children of senior preschool age with functional disorders of posture increases. Inadequate efficiency of health-improving measures for violations of the posture of children of senior preschool age by many researchers is due to the insufficiently developed technology for assessing her condition. Obtained data indicate the need to develop a technology for measuring and analyzing the level of the biogeometric profile of the posture of children aged 5–6 years in the frontal and sagittal planes.

  12. Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Udayaditya; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.

  13. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Agersew; Tegegne, Yalewayker; Damte, Demekech; Melku, Mulugeta

    2016-05-23

    Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Of the total children, 141 (35.2 %) harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 %) of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 %) followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %). The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %). After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97-17.95), being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27-25.4), using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2-12.3) and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01-3.64) were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in Chuahit. This finding calls for a need of public health education

  14. Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths among preschool-aged children in Chuahit, Dembia district, Northwest Ethiopia: prevalence, intensity of infection and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agersew Alemu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are the major public health problems globally. Compared with any other age group, pre-school aged children and school-aged children are the most exposed. There are few studies showing the burden of intestinal schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pre-school aged children in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths and associated risk factors among preschool aged children of Chuahit and surrounding Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted from February 2 to March 27 2015. Four hundred one preschool-aged children were included in the study by using two stage cluster sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire was employed to collected data via face-to-face interview technique. A single stool specimen was collected, and a portion of the sample was processed by Kato Katz method. Results Of the total children, 141 (35.2 % harbored one or more intestinal helminthes. Schistosoma mansoni was found in 45 (11.2 % of preschool age children. Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate, 77 (19.2 % followed by S. mansoni, 45 (11.2 %. The least parasites isolated were Tania species, 2 (0.5 %. After adjusting for other variables, being mothers who did not have the habit of washing hands after toilet (AOR = 7.3, 95%CI: 2.97–17.95, being occupationally housewife mothers (AOR = 8.9, 95%CI: 2.27–25.4, using protected spring water as a main family source of water (AOR = 3.9, 95%CI: 1.2–12.3 and child habit of not wearing shoe (AOR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.01–3.64 were significantly associated with high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among preschool-age children in Chuahit. Conclusion The current study showed that relatively higher level of STH and S. mansoni among preschool-aged children in

  15. Maternal employment and the health of low-income young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennetian, Lisa A; Hill, Heather D; London, Andrew S; Lopoo, Leonard M

    2010-05-01

    This study examines whether maternal employment affects the health status of low-income, elementary-school-aged children using instrumental variables estimation and experimental data from a welfare-to-work program implemented in the early 1990s. Maternal report of child health status is predicted as a function of exogenous variation in maternal employment associated with random assignment to the experimental group. IV estimates show a modest adverse effect of maternal employment on children's health. Making use of data from another welfare-to-work program we propose that any adverse effect on child health may be tempered by increased family income and access to public health insurance coverage, findings with direct relevance to a number of current policy discussions. In a secondary analysis using fixed effects techniques on longitudinal survey data collected in 1998 and 2001, we find a comparable adverse effect of maternal employment on child health that supports the external validity of our primary result.

  16. Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; May, Ashleigh L.; Wethington, Holly; Dalenius, Karen; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile. RESULTS The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs. PMID:24276843

  17. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  18. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age - Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  19. Parental Attitudes, Behaviors, and Barriers to School Readiness among Parents of Low-Income Latino Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Peterson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to explore parental attitudes, behaviors, and barriers regarding school readiness in a county clinic serving low income, Latino children. Between December 2013–September 2014, we conducted a cross sectional survey of parents during 3–6 years well-child appointments about school readiness (SR across: (1 attitudes/behaviors; (2 barriers; and (3 awareness; and (4 use of local resources. Most parents (n = 210, response rate 95.6% find it very important/important for their child to know specific skills prior to school: take turns and share (98.5%, use a pencil and count (97.6%, know letters (99.1%, colors (97.1%, and shapes (96.1%. Over 80% of parents find education important and engage in positive SR behaviors: singing, practicing letters, or reading. Major barriers to SR were lack of knowledge for kindergarten readiness, language barriers, access to books at home, constraints on nightly reading, difficulty completing school forms, and limited free time with child. Awareness of local resources such as preschool programs was higher than actual utilization. These low-income, Latino parents value SR but lack knowledge to prepare their child for school and underutilize community resources such as free preschool programs. Pediatricians are uniquely positioned to address these needs, but more evidence-based interventions are needed.

  20. The Influence of Horticultural Activities on Preschool-Aged Children's Peer Interaction and Task Engagement in an Inclusive Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman-Rouse, Teri

    2012-01-01

    There is great concern by teachers, school administrators and parents regarding the increase in the number of preschool-aged students who exhibit challenging behavior in early childhood settings (Benedict, Horner & Squires 2007), need for early intervention procedures that focus on young children who may be at risk for developing patterns of…

  1. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  2. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  3. FLUIDITY SPEECH FORMATION AS A QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ORAL STATEMENT OF PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN WITH STUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Borisova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to disclose the subject matter of speech therapy work focused on fluidity speech formation of preschool age children, suffering stutter. Stutter is a difficult disorder of articulation organs suchthat the tempo-rhythmical organisation of statements is distressed that leads to defects and failures of dialogue system, negatively influences on individual development of the child; more specifically it generates the mental stratifications, specific features of emotional-volitional sphere, and causes undesirable qualities ofcharacter such as shyness, indecision, isolation, negativism. The author notes that the problem of early stutter correction among junior preschool-aged children considered as topical and immediate issue. Methods. Concerning the clinical, physiological, psychological and psychologic-pedagogical positions, the author summarizes theoretical framework; an experimentally-practical approbation of an author's method of speech fluidity and stutter abolition of preschool children is described. Stage-by-stage process of correction,spontaneous and non-convulsive speech formation: 1. restraint mode application in order to decrease incorrect verbal output; 2. training exercises to long phonatory and speech expiration; 3. development of coordination and movements rhythm helping to pronounce words and phrases; 4. formation of situational speech, at first consisted of short sentences, then passing to long ones; 5. training to coherent text statements. The research demonstrates data analyses of postexperimental diagnostic examination of stuttering preschool children, proving the efficiency of the author’s applied method. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate a specific approach to correction and stutter abolition of preschool children. Proposed author’s approach consists of complementary to each other directions of speech therapy work which are combines in the following way: coherent speech

  4. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  5. Educational and home-environment asthma interventions for children in urban, low-income, minority families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Kristen; Nabors, Laura; Lang, Myia; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2018-02-08

    This review examined the impact of environmental change and educational interventions targeting young children from minority groups living in urban environments and who were from low-income families. A scoping methodology was used to find research across six databases, including CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. 299 studies were identified. Duplicates were removed leaving 159 studies. After reviewing for inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 manuscripts were identified for this study: 11 featured home-environment change interventions and 12 emphasized education of children. Studies were reviewed to determine key interventions and outcomes for children. Both environmental interventions and educational programs had positive outcomes. Interventions did not always impact health outcomes, such as emergency department visits. Results indicated many of the environmental change and education interventions improved asthma management and some symptoms. A multipronged approach may be a good method for targeting both education and change in the home and school environment to promote the well-being of young children in urban areas. New research with careful documentation of information about study participants, dose of intervention (i.e., number and duration of sessions, booster sessions) and specific intervention components also will provide guidance for future research.

  6. Perceived parent financial burden and asthma outcomes in low-income, urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Brown, Randall W; Clark, Noreen M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics of low-income parents who perceive financial burden in managing their child's asthma and related associations with their children's asthma outcomes and clinical characteristics. We hypothesized that (1) identifiable differences between parents who do and do not report burden; (2) regardless of access to care, asthma outcomes would be worse for children whose parents perceive financial burden in obtaining care for their child's condition. Baseline data from a randomized trial evaluating the effect of a school-based asthma intervention were analyzed for this research. Eight hundred thirty-five parents were interviewed by telephone regarding their child's asthma management. Associations between demographic and clinical factors and perception of financial burden were examined using bivariate analysis. Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine associations between perceptions of financial burden and asthma outcomes, including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and missed school days. Perceived financial burden was evident in 10% (n = 79) of parents. Female heads of household (χ2 (3) = 7.41; p financial burden. In models controlling for level of asthma control, income, and having a usual source of asthma care, parents who perceived financial burden were more likely to have children who had at least one emergency department visit (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.15 to 3.29), hospitalization (OR = 3.99; 95% CI = 2.03 to 7.82), or missed school days due to asthma (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.60 to 6.67) in the previous year. Our results supported our hypotheses. Among low-income parents of children with asthma, the majority do not perceive financial burden to obtaining care. However, among parents that do perceive burden, urgent care use and missed school days due to asthma for their child were significantly higher, regardless of family income and having a

  7. Outcome of a Food Observational Study among Low-Income Preschool Children Participating in a Family-Style Meal Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Vasquez, Liset; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Mosley, Desiree; Jechow, Katherine; Piña, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, one out of every seven low-income children between the ages of 2 and 5 years is at risk for overweight and obesity. Formative research was conducted to determine if preschool children participating in family-style meals consumed the minimum food servings according to U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary…

  8. Effects of Parent Implemented Visual Schedule Routines for African American Children with ASD in Low-Income Home Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Samantha E.; Glover, Carrie A.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Barton, Erin E.; Mello, Maria P.

    2018-01-01

    Low-income, minority families are underrepresented in the literature on parent training for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although the use of visual supports, such as visual schedules, is considered to be an evidence-based practice for children with ASD in school, it is not known whether this strategy is effective for…

  9. Not Just Numeracy and Literacy: Theory of Mind Development and School Readiness among Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Frye, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy…

  10. Poverty-alleviation program participation and salivary cortisol in very low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-06-01

    Correlational studies have shown associations between social class and salivary cortisol suggestive of a causal link between childhood poverty and activity of the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the associations between a family's participation in a large-scale, conditional cash transfer program in Mexico (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) during the child's early years of life and children's salivary cortisol (baseline and responsivity). We also examined whether maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of program participation. Low-income households (income Mexico were enrolled in a large-scale poverty-alleviation program between 1998 and 1999. A comparison group of households from demographically similar communities was recruited in 2003. Following 3.5 years of participation in the Oportunidades program, three saliva samples were obtained from children aged 2-6 years from intervention and comparison households (n=1197). Maternal depressive symptoms were obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Results were that children who had been in the Oportunidades program had lower salivary cortisol levels when compared with those who had not participated in the program, while controlling for a wide range of individual-, household- and community-level variables. Reactivity patterns of salivary cortisol did not differ between intervention and comparison children. Maternal depression moderated the association between Oportunidades program participation and baseline salivary cortisol in children. Specifically, there was a large and significant Oportunidades program effect of lowering cortisol in children of mothers with high depressive symptoms but not in children of mothers with low depressive symptomatology. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that the economic circumstances of a family can influence a child's developing stress

  11. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the school and home language environments of preschool-aged children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Audet, Lisa; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to begin to characterize and compare the school and home language environments of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Naturalistic language samples were collected from each child, utilizing Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) digital voice recorder technology, at 3-month intervals over the course of one year. LENA software was used to identify 15-min segments of each sample that represented the highest number of adult words used during interactions with each child for all school and home language samples. Selected segments were transcribed and analyzed using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT). LENA data was utilized to evaluate quantitative characteristics of the school and home language environments and SALT data was utilized to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics of language environment. Results revealed many similarities in home and school language environments including the degree of semantic richness, and complexity of adult language, types of utterances, and pragmatic functions of utterances used by adults during interactions with child participants. Study implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. The reader will be able to, (1) describe how two language sampling technologies can be utilized together to collect and analyze language samples, (2) describe characteristics of the school and home language environments of young children with ASD, and (3) identify environmental factors that may lead to more positive expressive language outcomes of young children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reasons for non-immunization of children in an urban, low income group in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Joseph L; Babbar, Harsh; Yadav, Sangita

    2002-07-01

    A study was undertaken on 500 children under the age of 5 years belonging to a low income group. All were attending the paediatrics outpatient department of a large teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Only 25% were found to have received complete primary immunization as per the National Immunization Schedule (bacille Calmette-Guérin at birth, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and oral poliovirus vaccine at 6,10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine at 9 months). The major reasons for non-immunization of the children were: migration to a native village (26.4%); domestic problems (9.6%); the immunization centre was located too far from their home (9.6%); and the child was unwell when the vaccination was due (9%). Twelve per cent of mothers could not give any reason for non-immunization. In addition to the migration of children to rural areas, the other significant finding was an indirect effect of intensive OPV administration as part of polio eradication initiative. The lack of awareness and fear of side effects constituted a small minority of reasons for non-immunization.

  13. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  14. Trends in Disparities in Low-Income Children's Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care by Family Immigration Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian; Baller, Julia; Borrero, Sonya; Bennett, Wendy L

    2016-03-01

    To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parent-reported indicators for detecting feeding and swallowing difficulties and undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, Katherine A; Weir, Kelly A; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W; Arvedson, Joan; Boyd, Roslyn N; Bell, Kristie L

    2017-11-01

    To determine the most accurate parent-reported indicators for detecting (1) feeding/swallowing difficulties and (2) undernutrition in preschool-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was a longitudinal, population-based study, involving 179 children with CP, aged 18 to 60 months (mean 34.1mo [SD 11.9] at entry, 111 males, 68 females [Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, 84; II, 23; III, 28; IV, 18; V, 26], 423 data points). Feeding/swallowing difficulties were determined by the Dysphagia Disorders Survey and 16 signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment. Undernutrition was indicated by height-weight and skinfold composite z-scores less than -2. Primary parent-reported indicators included mealtime duration, mealtime stress, concern about growth, and respiratory problems. Other indicators were derived from a parent feeding questionnaire, including 'significant difficulty eating and drinking'. Data were analysed using multilevel mixed-effects regression and diagnostic statistics. Primary parent-reported indicators associated with feeding/swallowing were 'moderate-severe parent stress' (odds ratio [OR]=3.2 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.3-7.8]; ppalsy. Most accurate screening questions were 0-10 scales for 'difficulty eating' and 'difficulty drinking'. Supplementation of these scales with additional indicators would improve detection. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  18. Association of childcare arrangement with overweight and obesity in preschool-aged children: a narrative review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swyden, K; Sisson, S B; Lora, K; Castle, S; Copeland, K A

    2017-01-01

    The time children spend in childcare overlaps with daily meals and opportunities to be active. Thus these environments have the opportunity to promote-or hinder-healthy weight gain among children who attend them. The purpose of this narrative review was to compile findings from studies examining childcare type and weight outcomes among preschool-age children. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, PsychInfo and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were infant- to 5-year-old children exposed to any type of childcare with a cross-sectional or longitudinal weight outcome. Among 385 studies screened, 18 were included. For comparison across studies, type of childcare was categorized as: childcare center, Head Start, nanny/babysitter, non-relative care/family childcare home and relative care. Four studies found no association with childcare type and obesity, and 10 studies reported mixed results by type of care or subpopulation analyses. Two studies found an overall positive association, and two reported an inverse association. There were differences in direction of associations and findings by type of care arrangement. For Head Start, three of eight studies demonstrated a negative relationship with obesity; none demonstrated a positive association. No other childcare type demonstrated this inverse association. Informal types of care (relative and non-relative care in a home) were positively associated with child obesity in 3 of 10 studies. This association was less commonly reported among formal childcare centers (2 of 15 studies). The majority of studies, however, reported mixed findings or no association by childcare type. Results suggested no consistent evidence for a relationship between childcare and obesity risk, except Head Start. This review exposed the need for a consistent definition of childcare type and the exploration of unmeasured confounders, such as the nutrition and physical activity environment of childcare settings, to understand how they contribute to

  19. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infancy and Social Emotional Development in Preschool-Aged Chinese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.; Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.; Lozoff, B.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months

  1. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  2. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  3. Promoting Broad and Stable Improvements in Low-Income Children's Numerical Knowledge through Playing Number Board Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of the development of numerical representations suggest that playing linear number board games should enhance young children's numerical knowledge. Consistent with this prediction, playing such a game for roughly 1 hr increased low-income preschoolers' (mean age = 5.4 years) proficiency on 4 diverse numerical tasks: numerical…

  4. The Role of Child Temperament on Low-Income Preschool Children's Relationships with Their Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ibrahim H.; Torquati, Julia C.; Encinger, Amy; Colgrove, Amy

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between low-income preschool children's temperament (reactive and regulatory) and their relationships with parents and teachers. In particular, we focused on the moderating role of regulatory temperament on reactive temperament in the prediction of closeness and conflict with parents and teachers. Two…

  5. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  6. Low-Income Parents: How Do Working Conditions Affect Their Opportunity To Help School-Age Children at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S. Jody; Earle, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Examined the working conditions faced by parents who has at least one child in need of help for educational or behavioral problems using data for 1,878 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child Survey. Data show that low-income parents often lack the paid leave and flexibility they need to help children with…

  7. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  8. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  9. Challenging Temperament, Teacher-Child Relationships, and Behavior Problems in Urban Low-Income Children: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Barnes, Sophie P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Racial/ethnic minority low-income children with temperaments high in negative reactivity are at heightened risk for developing disruptive behavior problems. Teacher-child relationships characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict may protect against the development of disruptive behaviors in school. The…

  10. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcal serotypes in healthy pre-school aged children after 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, César; Ruiz Andrés, María Ángeles; Arana Navarro, Teresa; Moneo Hernández, Isabel; Castillo Laita, José Antonio; Macipe Costa, Rosa; Revillo Pinilla, María José

    2011-06-11

    To determine the characteristics influencing pneumococcal serotype colonization in healthy pre-school aged children, the distribution of serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (VNC-7 v). SUJETOS AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 6 years of age attending well-child examinations in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). Logistic regression was used to study different variables related to the status of the carriers. Of the 371 children studied 30.7% were found to be carriers. With a vaccine coverage rate of 66%, factors related with presence of pneumococcal carriage were found to be the number of siblings (OR 1.44; CI 95% 1.05-1.97 for each sibling), attending a school or child day care centre (OR 3.99; CI 95% 2.00-7.96) and suffering from a minor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (OR 1.72; CI 95% 1.02-2.90). Only 8.7% corresponded to VNC-7 v serotypes. The most common non VNC-7 v serotypes isolated were 19A, 6A, 15B, 11, and 15A. Significantly greater resistance was detected among VNC-7 v serotypes. Children in the setting of this study carried pneumococci more commonly when they have siblings, attend school or day care, or suffer from minor URTI. In the VNC-7 v vaccine era, VNC-7 v serotypes have become rare occurrences (8.7%) and emerging serotypes present better susceptibility to antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional status of children from low-income countries arriving in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen-García, Moncef; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Lopez-Bernus, Amparo; Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Muro, Antonio; Cordero, Miguel; Pardo-Lledias, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Nutritional problems, anaemia and infectious diseases are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents in tropical and subtropical areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status in children from low-income countries who migrated to Spain and the value of the usual biochemistry markers of nutrition in these children, as well as to evaluate the nutritional status associated with imported infectious diseases. Moreover, we evaluated the association between anaemia and nutrition problems. We prospectively evaluated immigrants younger than 18 years of age, from tropical or subtropical areas, who were referred on suspicion of or screening for imported diseases. Detailed medical records and physical and oral examinations were obtained. Blood count and biochemical measures of micronutrients and nutritional biomarkers were performed. We included microbiological methods for diagnosing imported infectious diseases according to the region of origin and clinical setting. 373 minors were evaluated, including 250 (67.0%) from sub-Saharan Africa, 67 (18.0%) from North Africa and 56 (15.0%) from Latin America. The mean BMI of the subjects was 19.8±0.2. BMI increased by 0.02 for each month of stay in Spain. Nineteen patients (6.8%) had a nutritional risk of growth problems, and 50 (17.8%) were overweight. The time since arrival was longer in patients who were overweight (pnutritional issue. A low level of ferritin is the most frequently detected nutritional problem and the main cause of anaemia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and social emotional development in preschool-aged Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Suying; Wang, Li; Wang, Yuying; Brouwer, Inge D; Kok, Frans J; Lozoff, Betsy; Chen, Chunming

    2011-04-01

    We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months (corrected IDA) (n = 70); and children who were nonanemic in infancy and at 24 months (n = 64). Mother and child dyads were invited to a local clinic room. Children's social referencing, wariness, frustration-tolerance behavior, and affect were observed during a set of situations encountered in the laboratory, including free play, stranger approach, novel toy, and delay of gratification. The whole procedure was videotaped. The children's affective and behavioral displays were coded by using a time-sampling (5-second segments) code scheme. Iron status of children was determined on the basis of hemoglobin concentration measured with the cyanomethemoglobin method in blood samples obtained by fingerstick in infancy and at the ages of 24 months and 4 years. Children who had chronic IDA in infancy displayed less positive affect, less frustration tolerance, more passive behavior, and more physical self-soothing in the stranger approach and delay of gratification. In contrast, the behavior and affect of children whose anemia was corrected before the age of 24 months were comparable to those of children who were nonanemic throughout infancy. The results point to the potential benefits of preventing iron deficiency in infancy and treating it before it becomes chronic or severe.

  13. [Relations between maternal food practices and diet of preschool age Quebec children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulude, Geneviève; Marquis, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the relationships between mothers' food practices and the diets of their preschool children. Daycare facilities on the Island of Montréal recruited 122 mothers to complete a self-administered questionnaire that addressed the impact of parents' food practices on their children's diets, particularly the frequency of intake and food preferences. Correlations were observed between three maternal food practices--restrictions, pressure to eat and food reward--and children's eating behaviour. These three practices correlated with less desirable eating behaviours in children. This study suggests that in Quebec, mothers' food practices have a direct impact on the food practices of their children. Mothers must therefore be informed about the counterproductive nature of some food practices and given tools to develop healthier food strategies by focusing on children's appetites and emphasizing the pleasure of eating.

  14. Parent-Reported Psychological and Sleep Problems in a Preschool-Aged Community Sample: Prevalence of Sleep Problems in Children with and without Emotional/Behavioural Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Salater, Julie; Røhr, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To examine (a) the prevalence of sleep problems among 4-year-olds in the general population, (b) the prevalence of sleep problems among children with emotional and/or behavioural problems, and (c) whether specific sleep problems are associated with particular emotional/behavioural problems. Method: Using The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) , data about sleep and emotional/behavioural problems was obtained from 727 parents of 4-year-olds, recruited for a large...

  15. SENSITIZATION TO STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES AT CHILDREN OF EARLY AND PRESCHOOL AGE WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS — PREDICTORS OF RHEUMATIC PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shabaldina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is the reason of rheumatism and a post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Primary colonization of mucosal with this microorganism develops in the period of early ontogenesis. It was confirmed that at a carriage of this microorganism children at them activate immunopathological reactions. Clinic and immune features of the children with recurrent respiratory infections of early and preschool age having the immune response to S. pyogenes were studied. Position of risk of formation of rheumatic diseases at these children was studied. 771 children, in an age interval of 2–6 years are examined. Immune and clinical indicators in two groups of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes (n = 306 and not having it (n = 465 were analyzed. It was shown that in group of the children with immune response to S. pyogenes were authentically higher: point of an hereditary predisposition, expressiveness of placental insufficiency and a fetal hypoxia during the real pregnancy, and in the post-natal period degree of a thymomegaly, a pharyngeal lymphoid ring hypertrophy, skin manifestations of food allergy on the first year of life, the frequency of sharp respiratory infections within one year — in comparison with control. The group of the children having the immune response to S. pyogenes had a high level in a nasal secret of TNFα, IL-4, IFNα, and in blood — ASL-O, ASG, RF, CRP and immunoglobulin E. It was shown that at the children with a sensitization to S. pyogenes were lowered in peripheral blood: the general leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes (CD3 positive, T-helpery (CD3 and CD4 positive, an immunoregulatory index (the relation of CD4 of positive lymphocytes to CD8 to positive lymphocytes, phagocytosis (in test with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride — NBT and immunoglobulin A — in comparison with control. The atopic immune response to S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, H

  16. Attachment Representations in a Sample of Neglected Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Michele; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Gosselin, Catherine; Capuano, France

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies (see Ethier, 1999) have shown that neglect has a deleterious impact on children's development. However, the effect of neglect on a child's internal representations of their family still needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment patterns observed in a subsample of neglected children as…

  17. How Effectively Do Parents Discern Their Children's Cognitive Deficits at a Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chen

    2007-10-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that parents' initial concerns about their children's multiple or speech developmental problems were relatively highly correlated with cognitive deficits. It is recommended that clinicians should guide parents to voice and organize their concerns regarding the perception of their children's developmental progress, and further precisely analyze and utilize significant information.

  18. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  19. Prevalence of behavioral inhibition among preschool aged children in Tehran, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipasha Meysamie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the identified risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescence and adulthood is inhibited behaviors in childhood. The present study sought to examine the relationship between behavioral inhibition with some of the internal (personal and external (family environment factors in a sample of preschool children in kindergartens. In a cross sectional study in 2009, data was collected trough a structured questionnaire completed by parents and teachers in day-care centers. A total of 1403 children were assessed. Analysis was performed through complex sample analysis. The results showed that 7.4% (CI95%= 6.1%-9.1% of children according to parents' and 8.1% (CI95%= 6%- 10.7% according to teachers' evaluation classified as behaviorally inhibited. The higher levels of behavioral inhibition were shown by girls, first children, single parent families and older children. Birth year before 2004, birth rank, living in a single parent family and maternal level of education were independent predictors for behavioral inhibition in logistic regression modeling. There is relatively high prevalence of inhibited behaviors among Iranian children. Further examination of diagnosed children with behavioral inhibition by experienced psychiatrists is needed. Also establishing consultation centers for behaviorally inhibited children and instructing their parents and teachers are recommended.

  20. Preschool-Aged Children Have Difficulty Constructing and Interpreting Simple Utterances Composed of Graphic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Morford, Jill; Rios, Monica; Poirier, Marie-Andree

    2010-01-01

    Children who require augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems while they are in the process of acquiring language face unique challenges because they use graphic symbols for communication. In contrast to the situation of typically developing children, they use different modalities for comprehension (auditory) and expression…

  1. Parent Perceptions of Mobile Device Use Among Preschool-Aged Children in Rural Head Start Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Morgan; Johnson, Susan L; Benz, Cristen; Thompson, Darcy A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Clark, Lauren; Bellows, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    To describe child use and parents' beliefs and comfort with young children's use of mobile devices in low-income, rural communities. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The survey, which consisted of 18 multiple-part questions, was distributed to families at 5 Head Start/preschool centers in Colorado. In total, 192 surveys were returned (28.5% response rate). Most children (92%) used a smartphone or tablet at some frequency and most parents (90%) had downloaded apps specifically for their child. Education and ethnicity were related to parents' technology beliefs. Parent comfort with technology was positively associated with greater child use of technology (P Mobile device use was relatively high in this sample. Mobile devices appear to be a feasible platform to offer nutrition and physical activity education for this audience. Ensuring parent comfort with technology and apps will be important. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE CAUSES AND THE COURSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Abaseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage  3 to 5 in children of preschool  age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool  children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months  to 8 years. Twenty four had  CKD stage  3 to 4 and  31 children with endstage  CKD  were  on  peritoneal  dialysis. Results:96% of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool children were due  to  congenital/genetic kidney abnormalities. Predictors  of renal  replacement therapy  beginning in the first 5 years of life were as follows: antenatal detection of congenital  abnormalities  of the kidney and urinary tract, oligohydroamnion, high neonatal  BUN levels.  Anemia, hyperparathyroidism, arterial hypertension were more prevalent  in children on the dialysis stage of CKD, and myocardial hypertrophy and/or of the left ventricle dilatation were found in 26% of them. Forty two percent of children had growth retardation, and 40% had delayed  speech  development. Conclusion: The course CKD in preschool  children is characterized by a combination of typical metabolic  disorders with the growth  retardation (often dramatic and delayed mental development that significantly limits the possibilities of the social adaptation of these children and social activities of their parents. Participation  of  neuropsychiatrists,  clinical psychologists, and teachers, rather than pediatricians and  nephrologists only, is desirable  in management of preschool children with CKD stage 3 to 5.

  3. The Use of Refundable Tax Credits to Increase Low-Income Children's After-School Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; Ebin, Vicki J; Efrat, Merav W; Efrat, Rafael; Lane, Christianne J; Plunkett, Scott

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which a refundable tax credit could be used to increase low-income children's after-school physical activity levels. An experimental study was conducted evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention offering a simulated refundable tax credit to parents of elementary-school-age children (n = 130) for enrollment in after-school physical activity programs. A randomized controlled design was used, with data collected at baseline, immediately following the 4-month intervention (postintervention), and 6 weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up). Evaluation measures included (1) enrollment rate, time spent, weekly participation frequency, duration of enrollment, and long-term enrollment patterns in after-school physical activity programs and (2) moderate to vigorous physical activity. The simulated tax credits did not significantly influence low-income children's rates of enrollment in after-school physical activity programs, frequency of participation, time spent in after-school physical activity programs, and overall moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity at postintervention or follow-up. The use of refundable tax credits as incentives to increase participation in after-school physical activity programs in low-income families may have limited effectiveness. Lawmakers might consider other methods of fiscal policy to promote physical activity such as direct payment to after-school physical activity program providers for enrolling and serving a low-income child in a qualified program, or improvements to programming and infrastructure.

  4. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  5. THE CAUSES AND THE COURSE OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Yu. Abaseeva; T. E. Pankratenko; A. A. Burov; Kh. M. Emirova; A. L. Muzurov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data on etiology and clinical course of CKD stage  3 to 5 in children of preschool  age could help obstetricians, pediatricians, and nephrologists with proper diagnostics and management of this condition and prediction of outcomes. Aim: To study causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 in preschool  children. Materials and methods: The causes and clinical features of CKD stage 3 to 5 were investigated in 55 preschool children aged from 7 months  to 8 years. Twenty four had...

  6. Transforming the representations of preschool-age children regarding geophysical entities and physical geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA KAMPEZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A semi-structured interview was individually administered to 76 preschoolers. The interview raised questions about the conceptual understanding of certain geophysical entities. A teaching intervention designed to attempt an understanding of the relationship between them and earth’s surface was implemented with groups of 5-9 children in order to help children construct a more “realistic” model of earth. The intervention’s effectiveness was consequently evaluated (after two weeks using an interview similar to that conducted prior to the intervention. The results of the study indicated that prior to the intervention many children faced difficulties in descriptive understanding of even familiar geographic features, such as rivers, lakes and islands. After the intervention the majority of children readily conceptualized certain aspects of most of the geophysical entities and correlated them with earth’s surface. Educational and research implications are discussed.

  7. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    OpenAIRE

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are...

  8. Developing a Treatment Program for Obesity in Preschool Age Children: Preliminary Data

    OpenAIRE

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Stark, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and tested the feasibility of a behavioral intervention that utilizes clinic and home visitations to reduce overweight in preschool children above the 95th BMI percentile. Five families of preschool children ages 2 to 5 years with a BMI above the 95th percentile and one overweight parent were enrolled in a 24-week behavioral weight management program. Phase I, Intensive Treatment included 12 weekly sessions, alternating group-based clinic sessions and home settings. Phase II, Mai...

  9. The Relationship Between Speech, Language, and Phonological Awareness in Preschool-Age Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, MaryAnn

    2018-05-03

    A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.

  10. What we can learn from naming errors of children with language impairment at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Michal; Novogrodsky, Rama; Harel-Nov, Efrat; Gil, Mali; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva

    2018-01-01

    Naming is a complex, multi-level process. It is composed of distinct semantic and phonological levels. Children with naming deficits produce different error types when failing to retrieve the target word. This study explored the error characteristics of children with language impairment compared to those with typical language development. 46 preschool children were tested on a naming test: 16 with language impairment and a naming deficit and 30 with typical language development. The analysis compared types of error in both groups. In a group level, children with language impairment produced different error patterns compared to the control group. Based on naming error analysis and performance on other language tests, two case studies of contrasting profiles suggest different sources for lexical retrieval difficulties in children. The findings reveal differences between the two groups in naming scores and naming errors, and support a qualitative impairment in early development of children with naming deficits. The differing profiles of naming deficits emphasise the importance of including error analysis in the diagnosis.

  11. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hampton Wray

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition, an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition. Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds.

  12. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton Wray, Amanda; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Isbell, Elif; Bell, Theodore; Neville, Helen

    2017-08-01

    Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task. The lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition), an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition). Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Family-Based Obesity Prevention: Perceptions of Canadian Parents of Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Carley; Wallace, Angela; Wilson, Laura; Annis, Angela; Ma, David W L; Haines, Jess

    2018-03-01

    Our objectives were to explore the perspectives of a community-based sample of Canadian parents with 2-5-year-old children on: (i) strategies to support the development of healthful weight-related behaviours and (ii) assessment approaches to measure weight-related behaviours and outcomes among children and families. We conducted 4 focus groups with 28 parents (89% mothers and 68% identified as White). Transcripts were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Regarding parent's perceptions of strategies to support healthful behaviours, we found that parents largely valued: home-based interventions, expert opinion, practical health behaviour strategies delivered in a nonjudgmental manner, and opportunities for social support. Regarding perceptions of assessment procedures, parents had mixed views on children providing blood samples, but looked upon it more favourably if it would contribute to research on child health. Our results suggest that to increase parental engagement interventions focused on improving weight-related behaviours among families with young children should be delivered within the home and include easy-to-implement behaviour change strategies communicated by experts, such as dietitians working in the clinical or public health setting. Using social media to share information and provide a platform for social support may also be an effective way to engage parents of young children.

  14. Extending Use of the NRT to Preschool-Aged Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B.; Goffman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) in a sample of four- and five-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. Method The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development (TD). Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Results Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. Conclusions The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of four- and five-year-olds. PMID:20421612

  15. Extending use of the NRT to preschool-age children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) using a sample of 4- and 5-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development. Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, the probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However, this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of 4- and 5-year-olds.

  16. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  18. Schematic drawings of facial expressions for emotion recognition and interpretation by preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, P M; Kirkpatrick, S W; Sullivan, L A

    1996-11-01

    Schematic drawings of facial expressions were evaluated as a possible assessment tool for research on emotion recognition and interpretation involving young children. A subset of Ekman and Friesen's (1976) Pictures of Facial Affect was used as the standard for comparison. Preschool children (N = 138) were shown drawing and photographs in two context conditions for six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise). The overall correlation between accuracy for the photographs and drawings was .677. A significant difference was found for the stimulus condition (photographs vs. drawings) but not for the administration condition (label-based vs. context-based). Children were significantly more accurate in interpreting drawings than photographs and tended to be more accurate in identifying facial expressions in the label-based administration condition for both photographs and drawings than in the context-based administration condition.

  19. Parenting approaches and digital technology use of preschool age children in a Chinese community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Fowler, Cathrine; Lam, Winsome Yuk Yin; Wong, Ho Ting; Wong, Charmaine Hei Man; Yuen Loke, Alice

    2014-05-07

    Young children are using digital technology (DT) devices anytime and anywhere, especially with the invention of smart phones and the replacement of desktop computers with digital tablets. Although research has shown that parents play an important role in fostering and supporting preschoolers' developing maturity and decisions about DT use, and in protecting them from potential risk due to excessive DT exposure, there have been limited studies conducted in Hong Kong focusing on parent-child DT use. This study had three objectives: 1) to explore parental use of DTs with their preschool children; 2) to identify the DT content that associated with child behavioral problems; and 3) to investigate the relationships between approaches adopted by parents to control children's DT use and related preschooler behavioral problems. This exploratory quantitative study was conducted in Hong Kong with 202 parents or guardians of preschool children between the ages of 3 and 6 attending kindergarten. The questionnaire was focused on four aspects, including 1) participants' demographics; 2) pattern of DT use; 3) parenting approach to manage the child's DT use; and 4) child behavioral and health problems related to DT use. Multiple regression analysis was adopted as the main data analysis method for identifying the DT or parental approach-related predictors of the preschooler behavioral problems. In the multiple linear regression model, the 'restrictive approach score' was the only predictor among the three parental approaches (B:1.66, 95% CI: [0.21, 3.11], p children also significantly increased the tendency of children to have behavioral problem (B:3.84, 95% CI: [1.66, 6.02], p children's cognitive and functional abilities are still in the developmental stage, parents play a crucial role in fostering appropriate and safe DT use. It is suggested that parents practice a combination of restrictive, instructive and co-using approaches, rather than a predominately restrictive

  20. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  1. Imitation by combination: preschool age children evidence summative imitation in a novel problem-solving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Krajkowski, Edward; Price, Elizabeth E; Etz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Children are exceptional, even 'super,' imitators but comparatively poor independent problem-solvers or innovators. Yet, imitation and innovation are both necessary components of cumulative cultural evolution. Here, we explored the relationship between imitation and innovation by assessing children's ability to generate a solution to a novel problem by imitating two different action sequences demonstrated by two different models, an example of imitation by combination, which we refer to as "summative imitation." Children (N = 181) from 3 to 5 years of age and across three experiments were tested in a baseline condition or in one of six demonstration conditions, varying in the number of models and opening techniques demonstrated. Across experiments, more than 75% of children evidenced summative imitation, opening both compartments of the problem box and retrieving the reward hidden in each. Generally, learning different actions from two different models was as good (and in some cases, better) than learning from 1 model, but the underlying representations appear to be the same in both demonstration conditions. These results show that summative imitation not only facilitates imitation learning but can also result in new solutions to problems, an essential feature of innovation and cumulative culture.

  2. Brain white matter structure and language ability in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Matthew; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5.6 years who underwent diffusion tensor imaging and participated in assessments of Phonological Processing and Speeded Naming. Tract-based spatial statistics and tractography revealed relationships between Phonological Processing and diffusion parameters in bilateral ventral white matter pathways and the corpus callosum. Phonological Processing was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity. The relationships observed in left ventral pathways are consistent with studies in older children, and demonstrate that structural markers for language performance are apparent as young as 3 years of age. Our findings in right hemisphere areas that are not as commonly found in adult studies suggest that young children rely on a widespread network for language processing that becomes more specialized with age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children With Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers with normal hearing (NH). All were tested on normed measures of working memory, inhibition-concentration, and organization-integration. Parents completed a normed rating scale of problem behaviors related to EF. Comparisons of EF skills of children with CIs were made to peers with NH and to published nationally representative norms. Results Preschoolers with CIs showed significantly poorer performance on inhibition-concentration and working memory compared with peers with NH and with national norms. No group differences were found in visual memory or organization-integration. When data were controlled for language, differences in performance measures of EF remained, whereas differences in parent-reported problems with EF were no longer significant. Hearing history was generally unrelated to EF. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that EF deficits found in older children with CIs begin to emerge as early as preschool years. The ability to detect these deficits early has important implications for early intervention and habilitation after cochlear implantation. PMID:24686747

  4. Validation of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale for Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilain, Christine S.; Parlade, Meaghan V.; McBee, Matthew T.; Coman, Drew C.; Owen, Taylor; Gutierrez, Anibal; Boyd, Brian; Odom, Samuel; Alessandri, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these…

  5. Biofilms for Babies: Introducing Microbes and Biofilms to Preschool-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian M. Couto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes are beneficial to life on our planet as they facilitate natural processes such as global nutrient cycling in our environment. This article details a 30-minute activity to introduce pre-school children ranging from 3 to 5 years of age to microbes and biofilms in the natural environment.

  6. School-Based Social Skills Training for Preschool-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; Hanglein, Jeanine; Arak, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder display impairments in social interactions and communication that appear at early ages and result in short- and long-term negative outcomes. As such, there is a need for effective social skills training programs for young children with autism spectrum disorder--particularly interventions capable of being…

  7. Investigation of parenting attitudes of parents whose children are at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Alabay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine parental attitudes of parents with children between 48-72 months old, depending upon different variables while they are raising their children. Out of quantitative research patterns, descriptive survey model was used in the research. As data collecting tool, Parental Attitude Scale (PAS, developed by Demir and Şendil (2008 and which consists of 46 items in total and determines democratic, authoritative, overprotective, and permissive attitudes of parents in raising children was used. The sample of the research was composed of 422 parents who were selected in accordance with random sampling method and residing in İstanbul Province, Pendik District. Within context of the research, gender of parents, educational background, average income, family structure, number of children, whether or not they joined a seminar on pediatric development, the amount of time they spend with their child and the gender of the child were determined as independent variables and it was examined, based on these independent variables, whether there is a significant difference in parental attitude points which are dependent variables. In the analysis of data obtained from the research, it was concluded that non-employed parents are relatively more protective than employed parents, the fact that parents joined a seminar on pediatric development decreased the authoritative and overprotective attitude average points and parents adopted a more authoritative manner towards boys compared to girls. Also, in line with research findings, a significant difference was detected on parental attitude scale sub-dimension points depending on the independent variables of parents’ ages, educational background, income level and number of children.

  8. Developmental risk factors in Vietnamese preschool-age children: Cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) strongly influences children's basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry and health. Although some risk factors related to childhood development are documented, further exploration is necessary considering various sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial factors. This study investigated factors affecting ECD in Vietnamese preschoolers. We used data from the representative, cross-sectional round of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey 2011. Early Childhood Development Index questionnaires were administered to mothers of all children aged 36-59 months in the household (n = 1459). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. In Vietnam, 17.2% of children did not reach their full developmental potential within the first 5 years. Children who had been breast-fed (AOR, 2.78; 95%CI: 1.28-6.02), attended preschool (AOR, 1.75; 95%CI: 1.28-2.39), were of major ethnicity (AOR, 2.41; 95%CI: 1.55-3.74), had a mother with secondary or higher education (AOR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.19-2.38) and had relatives who engaged with them in four or more activities that promote learning (AOR, 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.14) were more likely to have a normal developmental trajectory. Furthermore, children who experienced physical punishment and stunting were 0.69-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and 0.71-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.98) less likely to be on track for ECD, respectively. The risk factors associated with delayed ECD were low level of maternal education; family ethnicity; lack of preschool attendance; relatives who did not engage with them in learning; physical punishment; not being breast-fed; and stunting. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Positive Impacts of a Vegetable Cooking Skills Program among Low-Income Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Francine; Ritter, Allison; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment. Six 2-hour-weekly sessions including demonstration, food preparation, nutrition education lessons, and a meal. Parental cooking confidence and barriers, food preparation/resource management, child self-efficacy and cooking attitudes, vegetable liking, vegetable variety, and vegetable home availability. Pre-post changes analyzed with paired t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results were significant at P cooking confidence (4.0 to 4.4/5.0), healthy food preparation (3.6 to 3.9/5.0), child self-efficacy (14.8 to 12.4; lower score = greater self-efficacy), parent liking of vegetables used in the course (7.8 to 8.1/10.0), vegetable variety (30 to 32/37 for parent, 22 to 24/37 for child), and home vegetable availability (16 to 18/35) (all P cooking and nutrition program for parents and children showed improvements in psychosocial factors, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment and affects hamstrings contracture on the formation of posture defects in children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kucharczuk-Kopycińska

    2016-12-01

    Results. Executed tests shown that 47,5% from examined group of children have fault posture. Occurrence of hamstrings contracture, which was diagnosed in 40%, disrupts pelvis balance causing oblique position of pelvis. Conclusion. 1. Posture faults are major problem in our population. During examination near half of the group possessed at least one of the fault posture. 2. Hamstrings contracture disrupts pelvis balance causing oblique position of pelvis. Further it leads to increase frequency of fault posture. 3. Proper rehabilitation can prevent hamstring contracture, in advance prevents also occurrence of fault posture. 4. Rehabilitation study, in which analysis of specified anthropometric points and a few functional tests will be a component, can detect and correct diagnose fault posture among children.

  11. Study on Nutritional Problems in Preschool Aged Children of Kaski District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, J.; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Murphy, Jane; Hind, Martin

    2015-01-01

    bstract Undernutrition remains a key public health burden in Nepal. This study aimed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about nutritious food amongst mothers of 3 – 5 year olds from rural and urban areas. A cross-sectional mixed-methods approach comprised a quantitative survey and qualitative focus groups. The community-based survey included 524 mothers of children who are no longer breastfed. Open-ended and structured questions investigated knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about nu...

  12. Parent Perspectives on Pain Management in Preschool-Age Children With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelsey; Reinman, Laura; Schatz, Jeffrey; Roberts, Carla W

    Pain episodes occur for many preschoolers with sickle cell disease (SCD), but little is known about parent perceptions of managing pain episodes in young children. We surveyed parents of young children with SCD who had managed pain episodes in the past year to assess their management and satisfaction with their strategies, challenges of pain management, and interest in additional education. Parents were recruited from health maintenance visits at a SCD specialty clinic. Forty-two of 51 parents (82%) of 2- to-6-year-olds reported managing pain over the past year. Parents who had managed pain primarily reported using medications. These parents reported at least moderate satisfaction with current management strategies and resources. At least one-third of parents found each facet of pain management queried as at least somewhat challenging. Identifying when their child was in pain, encouraging functional activities, and managing irritable behavior were reported as most challenging. Parents of young children with SCD reported interest in additional pain management education, which could promote better parent and child coping skills.

  13. Does higher quality early child care promote low-income children's math and reading achievement in middle childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A

    2009-01-01

    Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.

  14. Predicting Child Protective Services (CPS) Involvement among Low-Income U.S. Families with Young Children Receiving Nutritional Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kristen S; Font, Sarah; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-10-11

    This exploratory study examines combinations of income-tested welfare benefits and earnings, as they relate to the likelihood of child maltreatment investigations among low-income families with young children participating in a nutritional assistance program in one U.S. state (Wisconsin). Using a sample of 1065 parents who received the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits in late 2010 and early 2011, we find that relying on either work in the absence of other means-tested welfare benefits, or a combination of work and welfare benefits, reduces the likelihood of CPS involvement compared to parents who rely on welfare benefits in the absence of work. Additionally, we find that housing instability increases the risk of CPS involvement in this population. The findings from this investigation may be useful to programs serving low-income families with young children, as they attempt to identify safety net resources for their clientele.

  15. Food-Related Attitudes and Behaviors at Home, School, and Restaurants: Perspectives from Racially Diverse, Urban, Low-Income 9- to 13-Year-Old Children in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study explored low-income children's food-related attitudes and behaviors, and current weight status. Design: Two researchers conducted 14 audiotaped, 60-minute focus groups. Height and weight were measured. Setting: Libraries, homeless shelters, and a community center. Participants: Ninety-two low-income children aged…

  16. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    catch-up growth for height (improvement height Z = +.61 SD). At placement, the both long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children showed a mild form of chronic malnutrition with growth failure. Growth failure was reversible after the first year of stay, which demonstrates that this delay in growth was secondary to nutritional and psychosocial factors. Placement in foster residential care was beneficial for the catch-up growth of these patients. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-age children in an endemic area of Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samwel Bushukatale Ng`weng`weta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the magnitude of Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium infection and the factors associated with exposure of preschool children in Kigogo Ward, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey of Class I pupils (preschool-age in 2015 was carried out from May to June 2016 to examine the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection and associated factors. Urine samples were examined for haematuria, S. haematobium eggs and intensity. Parents or guardians were interviewed on their awareness and level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis disease (symptoms, mode of transmission, treatment and prevention, as well as their perceived risk of infection to young children. Potential sites of transmission were identified and searched for Bulinus spp., snails and the activities that exposed young children to infection were recorded. Results: A total of 424 pupils and 408 female parents or guardians were recruited. Haematuria was detected in 51 (12.0% pupils, S. haematobium eggs were observed in 8 (1.9% pupils and all were light infection. Bulinus spp., snails were identified mostly at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (91.7% of parents or guardians were aware of urinary schistosomiasis disease, but three quarter (76% did not consider it as a health problem. More than two thirds (71.3% reported that anybody could get urinary schistosomiasis; two thirds (65.9% reported that infection was likely to be acquired at cross-points of rivers. The large majority (> 90% had the notion that young children could be exposed; and all the activities that might lead a child to come into contact with potentially infested waters were judged to be risk factors. The larger majority (83.6% had a high level of knowledge on urinary schistosomiasis (transmission, symptoms, availability of modern treatment and the preventive measures, reflecting the ongoing advocacy campaigns. Conclusions: Young children left

  19. Contribution of Beverage Selection to the Dietary Quality of the Packed Lunches Eaten by Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Palafox, Maria Jose; Ranjit, Nalini; Sweitzer, Sara J; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Briley, Margaret E; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-16

    Sweet drinks early in life could predispose to lifelong consumption, and the beverage industry does not clearly define fruit drinks as part of the sweet drink category. To ascertain the relationship between beverage selection and dietary quality of the lunches packed for preschool-aged children evaluated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Foods packed by parents (n=607) were observed at 30 early care and education centers on two nonconsecutive days. Three-level regression models were used to examine the dietary quality of lunches by beverage selection and the dietary quality of the lunch controlling for the nutrient composition of the beverage by removing it from the analysis. Fruit drinks were included in 25% of parent-packed lunches, followed by 100% fruit juice (14%), milk (14%), and flavored milk (3.7%). Lunches with plain milk had the highest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (59.3) followed by lunches with 100% fruit juice (56.9) and flavored milk (53.2). Lunches with fruit drinks had the lowest Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores at 48.6. After excluding the nutrient content of the beverage, the significant difference between lunches containing milk and flavored milk persisted (+5.5), whereas the difference between fruit drinks and 100% fruit juice did not. Dietary quality is associated with the type of beverage packed and these differences hold when the lunch is analyzed without the nutrient content of the beverage included. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The functional organization of preschool-age children's emotion expressions and actions in challenging situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A; Cole, Pamela M; Wiggins, Crystal N; Cohen, Laura H; Zalewski, Maureen

    2009-08-01

    Although functional links between emotion and action are implied in emotion regulation research, there is limited evidence that specific adaptive actions for coping with a challenge are more probable when certain negative emotions are expressed. The current study examined this question among 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 113; M age = 47.84 months, SD = 6.19). Emotion expressions and actions were observed during 2 challenging tasks: children waited for a gift while the mother worked, and children worked alone to retrieve a prize from a locked box with the wrong key. Angry and happy expressions, compared with sad expressions, were associated with more actions. These actions varied with the nature of the task, reflecting appreciation of situational appropriateness. In addition, when waiting with the mother, happiness was associated with the broadest range of actions, whereas when working alone on the locked box, anger was associated with the broadest range of actions. Results are discussed in terms of the adaptive function of negative emotions and in terms of functional and dimensional models of emotion. Findings have implications for the development of emotion regulation and social-emotional competence. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Potential immediate hypersensitivity reactions following immunization in preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C-M; Clothier, H J; Perrett, K P

    2018-04-06

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) are rare but potentially serious adverse events following immunization (AEFI). Surveillance of Adverse Events following Vaccination in the Community (SAEFVIC) is an enhanced passive surveillance system that collects, analyses and reports information about AEFI in Victoria, Australia. We describe the incidence, timing and type of potential IHR following vaccination in preschool children reported over an 8-year period. A total of 2110 AEFI were reported in 1620 children, of which 23.5% (496) were classified as potential IHR. Of these, 37.1% (184) were suspected to be IgE-mediated, (including anaphylaxis, angioedema and/or urticaria) and 83.5% (414) occurred within 15 minutes of vaccination. The incidence of potential IHR was 5.4 per 100,000 doses, with that of suspected IgE-mediated IHR being 2.0 per 100,000 doses. The incidence of anaphylaxis was extremely low (0.13 per 100,000 doses) and is consistent with other published studies. Potential IHR following immunization should be reported to appropriate local pharmacovigilance systems and patients reviewed by specialists able to evaluate, investigate and manage future vaccinations.

  2. Differences in preschool-age children's dietary intake between meals consumed at childcare and at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Sisson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children need optimal nutrition, including a variety of nutrient-dense foods, for growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in foods and nutrients consumed at childcare and home environments. Children ages 3-to-5 years (n = 90, 3.8 ± 0.7 years; 56% female from 16 childcare centers participated in this cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2014. Lunches at childcare were observed for two days; three days of dinners at home were reported by caregivers. Nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were counted and nutrient content of meals was determined using FoodWorks®. More servings of fruit (0.92 ± 0.82 vs. 0.15 ± 0.26; p ≤ 0.0001, vegetables (1.47 ± 1.43 vs. 0.62 ± 0.60; p ≤ 0.0001, and low-fat dairy (0.83 ± 0.32 vs. 0.07 ± 0.19; p ≤ 0.0001 were consumed at childcare than at home. More servings of high-fat, high-sugar foods (0.08 ± 0.18 vs. 0.43 ± 0.39, p ≤ 0.0001 and sugary drinks (0.22 ± 0.41 vs. 0.39 ± 0.35. p ≤ 0.001 were consumed at home than at childcare. There were no differences between environments in whole-grains, high-fat meats, or high-fat high-sugar condiments consumed. On average, children consumed 333.0 ± 180.3 kcal at childcare and 454.7 ± 175.3 at home (p ≤ 0.0001. There were no differences in macronutrient profiles or in iron, zinc, folate, or vitamin B6 intake. More calcium (86.2 ± 44.6 vs. 44.6 ± 22.2 mg/kcal, p ≤ 0.0001 and vitamin A/kcal (56.1 ± 36.9 vs. 26.5 ± 24.2 RAE/kcal, p ≤ 0.0001 were consumed at childcare than at home. Preschool children are consuming more nutrient-dense foods and a more servings of fruit and vegetables at childcare during lunch than at home during dinner. Childcare and parents should work together to provide early and consistent exposure to nutrient-rich foods to ensure optimal nutrition for developing children.

  3. The effect of medical clowns on performance of spirometry among preschool aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Vered; Schichter-Konfino, Vered; Kassem, Eias; Klein, Adi

    2018-04-02

    Medical clowns (MCs) are known to assist in reducing pain and alleviating anxiety. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of MCs to assist preschoolers in performing spirometry. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Children aged 3-6 years participated. After a first spirometry, children were divided into two groups: the first performed a second spirometry with an MC. The second repeated spirometry with the technician. Primary outcome was second spirometry values compared between the groups. Secondary outcome were change in spirometry values within groups, and difference between the groups. A total of 140 children participated. The groups did not differ in age, sex, mother tongue, or weight. Nor in mean FVC (MC 89.2% ± 16.7, control 89.5% ± 16.3) mean FEV1 (MC 91.3% ± 15.6, control 94.2% ± 16.8), and expiratory time (MC 1.58 ± 0.43, control 1.7 ± 0.44) in first spirometry. In second spirometry the control group had a similar FVC, FEV1, and expiratory time. The MC group had a significant improvement in all parameters: FVC: MC 95.3% ± 15.5, control 89.3% ± 19.1, FEV1: MC 98.0% ± 15.6, control 91.8% ± 19.3, and expiratory time MC 1.96 ± 0.55, control 1.84 ± 0.52. The differences between the groups between first and second attempt were significant (P-value FVC 0.000, FEV1 0.000, expiratory time 0.003). MCs improved performance of spirometry among preschoolers. It is possible that laughter and relief of stress had a physiological effect. Further studies are required to better establish the ability of MCs to improve active participation and to better understand whether the mechanism of the improvement is better cooperation or true physiological change. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Measurement Properties and Classification Accuracy of Two Spanish Parent Surveys of Language Development for Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Rodriguez, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the concurrent validity and classification accuracy of 2 Spanish parent surveys of language development, the Spanish Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ; Squires, Potter, & Bricker, 1999) and the Pilot Inventario-III (Pilot INV-III; Guiberson, 2008a). Method: Forty-eight Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children…

  5. Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Mai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4-5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period.

  6. A Talent for Tinkering: Developing Talents in Children from Low-Income Households through Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ann; Adelson, Jill L.; Kidd, Kristy A.; Cunningham, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Guided by the theoretical framework of curriculum as a platform for talent development, this quasi-experimental field study investigated an intervention focused on engineering curriculum and curriculum based on a biography of a scientist through a comparative design implemented in low-income schools. Student outcome measures included science…

  7. Effect of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming on Cardiometabolic Health Markers in Children From Low-Income Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 36-week Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) on cardiometabolic health markers in children from low-income schools. Participants were 217 school-aged children (mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 114 girls, 103 boys) recruited from 5 low-income elementary schools. Cardiometabolic health markers were collected in a fasted state at 2 time-points, before commencement of the CSPAP for classroom and school level clustering and the modifying effects of grade level and sex, there were statistically significant improvements in HDL cholesterol (Δ = 3.6 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.4 mg/dL to 5.8 mg/dL, P = .039), triglycerides (Δ = -14.1 mg/dL, 95% CI: -21.4 mg/dL to -6.8 mg/dL, P = .022), and mean arterial pressure (Δ = -4.3 mmHg, 95% CI: -8.5 mmHg to -0.1 mmHg, P = .041) following the 36-week CSPAP intervention. Sixth-grade children showed decreases in LDL cholesterol (Δ = -15.3 mg/dL, 95% CI: -30.5 mg/dL to -0.1 mg/dL, P = .033). Improvements in specific cardiometabolic health markers were found following a 36-week CSPAP in children from low-income schools.

  8. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: randomized trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-11-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist across risk factors for childhood obesity. To examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention to improve household routines known to be associated with childhood obesity among a sample of low-income, racial/ethnic minority families with young children. Randomized trial. The intervention was delivered in the families' homes. The study involved 121 families with children aged 2 to 5 years who had a television (TV) in the room where he or she slept; 111 (92%) had 6-month outcome data (55 intervention and 56 control). The mean (SD) age of the children was 4.0 (1.1) years; 45% were overweight/obese. Fifty-two percent of the children were Hispanic, 34% were black, and 14% were white/other. Nearly 60% of the families had household incomes of $20,000 or less. The 6-month intervention promoted 4 household routines, family meals, adequate sleep, limiting TV time, and removing the TV from the child's bedroom, using (1) motivational coaching at home and by phone, (2) mailed educational materials, and (3) text messages. Control subjects were mailed materials focused on child development. Change in parent report of frequency of family meals (times/wk), child sleep duration (hours/d), child weekday and weekend day TV viewing (hours/d), and the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept from baseline to 6 months. A secondary outcome was change in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants had increased sleep duration (0.75 hours/d; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.44; P = .03), greater decreases in TV viewing on weekend days (-1.06 hours/d; 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.15; P = .02), and decreased body mass index (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to 0.00; P = .05). No significant intervention effect was found for the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept or family meal frequency. Our results suggest that promoting

  9. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  10. A review of early influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Mesa, Tatiana; Salas, Carlos F

    2017-07-01

    Promoting physical activity (PA) is a key component of preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Despite well-documented benefits of PA, globally, rates of PA among young children have declined over the past decades, and most children are not accruing sufficient PA daily. Helping children develop the foundation for PA habits early in life is critical for the promotion of health in childhood and prevention of chronic diseases later in life, and will ultimately promote longer and healthier lives for individuals and the general population. The purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of current evidence on influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries. A systematic review of three databases was performed. Studies conducted in high-income countries and published from 2000 onward that addressed influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children were identified and reviewed. Additionally, reference lists of identified articles and relevant published reviews were reviewed. Studies that met the following inclusion criteria were considered: (a) sample included preschoolers (age ≤5 years); (b) PA and/or sedentary behaviors or factors associated with PA and/or sedentary behaviors was assessed; (c) published in English; (d) used either quantitative or qualitative methods; and (e) conducted in a high-income country. Data were extracted from selected studies to identify influences on PA and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children and organized using the social-ecological model according to multiple levels of influence. Results from included studies identify multiple factors that influence PA and sedentary behaviors of young children in high-income countries at the various levels of the social-ecological model including intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, organizational, and policy. Given pediatric nurses' role as primary care providers, and their frequent and continued contact with parents

  11. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  12. Styles of parent-child interactions in families with preschool-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvedovskaya A.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to cultural-historical and activity approaches, collaborative activity with an adult, including communication as a type of meta-activity, is considered to be the necessary mechanism of child development. A child is considered to be an active partner, possessing his/her own motives, and is guided by mental representations of the parent and interactions with him/her. Russian psychologists have developed a range of parenting style classifications; however, these styles primarily emphasize a parent’s position, contrary to methodological perspectives, with inadequate consideration of a child’s own agency. The aims of the current research were to investigate actual goal-oriented interactions between preschoolers and their parents and to outline certain patterns (types of interactions, considering both partners and analyzing interac- tions according to the activity model. A total of 75 parent-child dyads (children aged from 4.6 years to 6.11 years participated in “collaborative activity trials” in which the observational method was based on the activity approach. Cluster analysis (k-means clusterization revealed five different groups of parent-child dyads: conflictual, harmonious, distant and two-fold dominant (with dominant parent or dominant child. Between-group comparisons (Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences in a range of parameters of activity and emotional components of interactions. The harmonious type of interactions is not prevalent, although subgroups with different types of domination are the most common, which may be attributed to cultural peculiarities. Domination-subordination misbalance does not seem to seriously distort the normal developmental trajectory; however, in cases of conflictual and distant dyads, interactional issues might hinder the course of goal-oriented activity, which might serve as a predictor for potential difficulties in further learning.

  13. Phenotypes of asthma in low-income children and adolescents: cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Anna Lucia Barros; Sousa, Andrey Wirgues; Mendes, Felipe Augusto Rodrigues; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de

    2017-01-01

    Studies characterizing asthma phenotypes have predominantly included adults or have involved children and adolescents in developed countries. Therefore, their applicability in other populations, such as those of developing countries, remains indeterminate. Our objective was to determine how low-income children and adolescents with asthma in Brazil are distributed across a cluster analysis. We included 306 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age) with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and under medical treatment for at least one year of follow-up. At enrollment, all the patients were clinically stable. For the cluster analysis, we selected 20 variables commonly measured in clinical practice and considered important in defining asthma phenotypes. Variables with high multicollinearity were excluded. A cluster analysis was applied using a twostep agglomerative test and log-likelihood distance measure. Three clusters were defined for our population. Cluster 1 (n = 94) included subjects with normal pulmonary function, mild eosinophil inflammation, few exacerbations, later age at asthma onset, and mild atopy. Cluster 2 (n = 87) included those with normal pulmonary function, a moderate number of exacerbations, early age at asthma onset, more severe eosinophil inflammation, and moderate atopy. Cluster 3 (n = 108) included those with poor pulmonary function, frequent exacerbations, severe eosinophil inflammation, and severe atopy. Asthma was characterized by the presence of atopy, number of exacerbations, and lung function in low-income children and adolescents in Brazil. The many similarities with previous cluster analyses of phenotypes indicate that this approach shows good generalizability. Estudos que caracterizam fenótipos de asma predominantemente incluem adultos ou foram realizados em crianças e adolescentes de países desenvolvidos; portanto, sua aplicabilidade em outras populações, tais como as de países em desenvolvimento, permanece indeterminada. Nosso

  14. Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity in Preschool-Aged Children: A Prospective Study of up to 48,922 Children of the Jiaxing Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenglei; Liu, Huijuan; Wan, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Jusheng; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children. A total of 48,922 3-year old children enrolled in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, who provided sleep information and anthropometric data, were included in the present study as baseline and were followed up to 5 years of age. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 10 hours, 11-12 hours, and ≥ 13 hours. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut point criteria in China. Prevalence ratios and risk ratios were used to assess the association between sleep duration and risk of overweight/obesity. In cross-sectional analyses at baseline, the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight (with 11-12 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for children sleeping ≤ 10 h and ≥ 13 h were 1.13 (1.06-1.20) and 1.16 (1.09-1.24), respectively, whereas the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of obesity were 1.25 (1.11-1.40) and 1.25 (1.11-1.42). In longitudinal analyses, the adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight for children sleeping ≤ 10 h and ≥ 13 h were 1.48 (1.26-1.74) and 1.13 (0.96-1.34), while adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) of obesity were 1.77 (1.30-2.40) and 1.19 (0.85-1.66). Restricted cubic splines regression supported U-shaped curvilinear associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Both short and overlong sleep duration are associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children. Optimizing sleep duration may be an important modifiable intervention for overweight and obesity. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  16. Examining the feasibility of implementing behavioural economics strategies that encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Swenson, Alison; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Reicks, Marla

    2017-06-01

    To examine the feasibility of implementing nine behavioural economics-informed strategies, or 'nudges', that aimed to encourage home dinner vegetable intake among low-income children. Caregivers were assigned six of nine strategies and implemented one new strategy per week (i.e. 6 weeks) during three dinner meals. Caregivers recorded child dinner vegetable intake on the nights of strategy implementation and rated the level of difficulty for assigned strategies. Baseline data on home vegetable availability and child vegetable liking were collected to assess overall strategy feasibility. Participants' homes in a large Midwestern metropolitan area, USA. Low-income caregiver/child (aged 9-12 years) dyads (n 39). Pairwise comparisons showed that child dinner vegetable intake for the strategy 'Serve at least two vegetables with dinner meals' was greater than intake for each of two other strategies: 'Pair vegetables with other foods the child likes' and 'Eat dinner together with an adult(s) modelling vegetable consumption'. Overall, caregivers' mean rating of difficulty for implementing strategies was 2·6 (1='not difficult', 10='very difficult'). Households had a mean of ten different types of vegetables available. Children reported a rating ≥5 for seventeen types of vegetable on a labelled hedonic scale (1='hate it', 5-6='it's okay', 10='like it a lot'). Behavioural economics-informed strategies are feasible to implement during dinner meals, with some strategies differing by how much they influence vegetable intake among low-income children in the home.

  17. Efficacy and safety of praziquantel in preschool-aged children in an area co-endemic for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the recommended strategy to control schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy. Emphasis is placed on school-aged children, but in high endemicity areas, preschool-aged children are also at risk, and hence might need treatment with praziquantel. Since a pediatric formulation (e.g., syrup is not available outside of Egypt, crushed praziquantel tablets are used, but the efficacy and safety of this treatment regimen is insufficiently studied.We assessed the efficacy and safety of crushed praziquantel tablets among preschool-aged children (<6 years in the Azaguié district, south Côte d'Ivoire, where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium coexist. Using a cross-sectional design, children provided two stool and two urine samples before and 3 weeks after treatment. Crushed praziquantel tablets, mixed with water, were administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Adverse events were assessed and graded 4 and 24 hours posttreatment by interviewing mothers/guardians.Overall, 160 preschool-aged children had at least one stool and one urine sample examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette for S. mansoni, and urine filtration for S. haematobium diagnosis before and 3 weeks after praziquantel administration. According to the Kato-Katz and urine filtration results, we found high efficacy against S. mansoni (cure rate (CR, 88.6%; egg reduction rate (ERR, 96.7% and S. haematobium (CR, 88.9%; ERR, 98.0%. POC-CCA revealed considerably lower efficacy against S. mansoni (CR, 53.8%. Treatment was generally well tolerated, but moderately severe adverse events (i.e., body and face inflammation, were observed in four Schistosoma egg-negative children.Crushed praziquantel administered to preschool-aged children at a dose of 40 mg/kg is efficacious against S. mansoni and S. haematobium in a co-endemic setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Further research is required with highly sensitive

  18. Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs and practices among low-income mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE MAGIC OF PLAY: LOW-INCOME MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PLAYFULNESS AND CHILDREN'S EMOTION REGULATION AND VOCABULARY SKILLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Malin, Jenessa L; Aldoney, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of low-income families who participated in the Early Head Start Research Evaluation Project (n = 73), we explored the association between mothers' and fathers' playfulness with toddlers, toddler's affect during play, and children's language and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were two main findings. First, fathers' playfulness in toddlerhood was associated with children's vocabulary skills in prekindergarten whereas mothers' playfulness was related to children's emotion regulation. Cross-parental effects were found only for mothers. The association between mothers' playfulness and children's vocabulary and emotion regulation was strengthened when fathers engaged in more pretend play and when children were affectively positive during the play. These findings show that playfulness is an important source of variation in the vocabulary and emotion regulation of children growing up in low-income families. They also point to domain-specific ways that mothers and fathers promote children's regulatory and vocabulary skills, and highlight the importance of children's positive engagement in play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Effects of Language of Instruction on Learning of Literacy Skills among Pre-Primary School Children from Low-Income Urban Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Njagi, Joan; Wekulo, Patricia; Ngware, Moses

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the language of instruction and learning of literacy skills among pre-primary school children in a multilingual environment. The sample consists of 1867 learners from low-income urban households, attending 147 low-cost private pre-primary schools located in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. About…

  1. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  2. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  3. Results from an experimental trial at a Head Start center to evaluate two meal service approaches to increase fruit and vegetable intake of preschool aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnack Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies to increase fruit and vegetable consumption of preschool aged children are needed. Objectives Evaluate the independent effects of the following meal service strategies on intake of fruits and vegetables of preschool children: 1. Serving fruits and vegetables in advance of other menu items as part of traditional family style meal service; and 2. Serving meals portioned and plated by providers. Methods Fifty-three preschool aged children completed a randomized crossover experiment conducted at a Head Start center in Minneapolis, MN. Over a six week trial period each of the experimental meal service strategies (serving fruits and vegetable first and serving meals portioned by providers was implemented during lunch service for two one-week periods. Two one-week control periods (traditional family style meal service with all menu items served at once were also included over the six week trial period. Childrens lunch intake was observed as a measure of food and nutrient intake during each experimental condition. Results Fruit intake was significantly higher (p Conclusions Serving fruits in advance of other meal items may be a low cost easy to implement strategy for increasing fruit intake in young children. However, serving vegetables first does not appear to increase vegetable intake. Results provide support for current recommendations for traditional family style meal service in preschool settings.

  4. Out-of-pocket financial burden for low-income families with children: socioeconomic disparities and effects of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Alison A; Wong, Sabrina T; Kim, Sue E; Newacheck, Paul W

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether socioeconomic disparities exist in the financial burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for families with children, and whether health insurance coverage decreases financial burden for low-income families. The Household Component of the 2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Cross-sectional family-level analysis. We used bivariate statistics to examine whether financial burden varied by poverty level. Multivariate regression models were used to assess whether family insurance coverage was associated with level of financial burden for low-income families. The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on OOP health care expenditures, including premiums, for all family members. We aggregated annual OOP expenditures for all members of 4,531 families with a child members publicly insured all year, (2) all members privately insured all year, (3) all members uninsured all year, (4) partial coverage, or (5) mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. A regressive gradient was noted for financial burden across income groups, with families with incomes Poverty Level (FPL) spending a mean of 119.66 US dollars OOP per 1,000 US dollars of family income and families with incomes 100-199 percent FPL spending 66.30 US dollars OOP per 1,000 US dollars, compared with 37.75 US dollars for families with incomes >400 percent FPL. For low-income families (families with children. For low-income families, full-year public coverage provides significantly greater protection from financial burden than full-year private coverage.

  5. Low-income children's reported motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Lillian B; Tucker, Carolyn M; Bragg, Marie A; Estampador, Angela C

    2011-01-01

    Despite national attention to the childhood obesity epidemic, there are few US-based studies that directly ask children--especially children from low-income families and from multiple racial/ethnic groups--why they do or do not engage in healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors, as reported by black, Hispanic, and white children from low-income families. Six gender- and race/ethnicity-concordant focus groups were conducted with 37 children who were aged 9 to 12 years and from families with an annual household income of $40000 or less. Multiple strategies were used to employ a culturally sensitive approach to both data collection and data analysis (eg, a team of culturally diverse researchers utilized inductive qualitative analysis to analyze focus group transcripts). The motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors most commonly reported across the 6 focus groups included social influence, taste, issues of availability, weight concerns, and the desire to be healthy. A variety of less commonly reported motivators and barriers were also discussed. Findings were generally similar across gender and race/ethnicity. Children in this age range can indeed identify a variety of motivators and barriers that influence their engagement in healthy eating behaviors. Interventions targeting obesity and eating behaviors should include an assessment of children's own perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating.

  6. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Single versus double dose praziquantel comparison on efficacy and Schistosoma mansoni re-infection in preschool-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah Muheki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni infection is proven to be a major health problem of preschool-age children in sub-Saharan Africa, yet this age category is not part of the schistosomiasis control program. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of single and double dose praziquantel...... (PZQ) treatment on cure rates (CRs), egg reduction rates (ERRs) and re-infection rates 8 months later, in children aged 1-5 years living along Lake Victoria, Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infected children (n= 1017) were randomized to receive either a single or double dose of PZQ. Initially...... all children were treated with a single standard oral dose 40 mg/kg body weight of PZQ. Two weeks later a second dose was administered to children in the double dose treatment arm. Side effects were monitored at 30 minutes to 24 hours after each treatment. Efficacy in terms of CRs and ERRs for the two...

  8. Sentinel surveillance of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in preschool-aged and school-aged children in selected local government units in the Philippines: follow-up assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T; Lumampao, Yvonne F

    2015-03-01

    This study was a follow-up to the baseline nationwide survey of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in preschool-aged children in the Philippines and in school-aged children in selected sentinel sites to assess the Integrated Helminth Control Program of the Department of Health. The objective of the study was to describe the current prevalence and intensity of STH infections in preschool-aged and school-aged children in 6 sentinel provinces and to compare these data with baseline findings. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Parasitological assessment involved the examination of stool samples by the Kato-Katz method. Although parasitological parameters in the 2 age groups at follow-up showed significant reductions from the baseline, these parameters remained high despite 3 years of mass drug administration (MDA). Efforts toward achieving high MDA coverage rates, provision of clean water, environmental sanitation, and promotion of hygiene practices must be prioritized. © 2013 APJPH.

  9. Association of maternal obesity and depressive symptoms with television-viewing time in low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Hillary L; Whitaker, Robert C; Kahn, Robert S; Harvey-Berino, Jean

    2003-09-01

    Decreasing television (TV)-viewing time may improve child health and well-being. These viewing patterns are shaped during the preschool years. Because mothers play an important role in determining how much TV their preschool children watch, a better understanding is needed of the maternal factors that influence children's TV viewing. To examine the relationship of depressive symptoms and obesity in low-income mothers with TV-viewing time in their preschool children. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 295 low-income mothers of 3- and 4-year-old children (92% white) enrolled in the Vermont Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Mothers reported children's usual weekday and weekend-day TV-viewing time. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Maternal body mass index was calculated from self-reported height and weight measurements (weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Children watched a mean of 2.2 +/-1.2 hours of TV per day. Those in the upper quartile of TV-viewing time (high TV viewers) watched 3 or more hours of TV per day. Of the mothers, 12% had both obesity (BMI > or =30) and depressive symptoms (CES-D score > or =16), 19% were obese only, and 18% had depressive symptoms only. Children were more likely to be high TV viewers if their mothers had clinically significant depressive symptoms (35% vs 23%; P =.03) or if their mothers were obese (35% vs 22%; P =.03). Forty-two percent of children were high TV viewers if the mother had both depressive symptoms and obesity, 30% if the mother had only depressive symptoms, 29% if the mother had only obesity, and 20% if the mother had neither depressive symptoms nor obesity (P =.06 overall; P for trend =.009 using the chi2 test). Among low-income preschool children, those whose mothers had either depressive symptoms or obesity were more likely to watch 3 or more hours of TV a day. Strategies

  10. Montessori Public School Pre-K Programs and the School Readiness of Low-Income Black and Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Within the United States, there are a variety of early education models and curricula aimed at promoting young children's pre-academic, social, and behavioral skills. This study, using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP; Winsler et al., 2008, 2012), examined the school readiness gains of low-income Latino ( n = 7,045) and Black children ( n = 6,700) enrolled in two different types of Title-1 public school pre-K programs: those in programs using the Montessori curricula and those in more conventional programs using the High/Scope curricula with a literacy supplement. Parents and teachers reported on children's socio-emotional and behavioral skills with the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA), while children's pre-academic skills (cognitive, motor, and language) were assessed directly with the Learning Accomplishment Profile Diagnostic (LAP-D) at the beginning and end of their four-year-old pre-K year. All children, regardless of curricula, demonstrated gains across pre-academic, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills throughout the pre-K year; however, all children did not benefit equally from Montessori programs. Latino children in Montessori programs began the year at most risk in pre-academic and behavioral skills, yet exhibited the greatest gains across these domains and ended the year scoring above national averages. Conversely, Black children exhibited healthy gains in Montessori, but demonstrated slightly greater gains when attending more conventional pre-K programs. Findings have implications for tailoring early childhood education programs for Latino and Black children from low-income communities.

  11. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Bellettiere, John; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Nguyen, Benjamin; Berardi, Vincent; Liles, Sandy; Obayashi, Saori; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Blumberg, Elaine; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2017-01-01

    Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smok...

  12. A social marketing approach to improving the nutrition of low-income women and children: an initial focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Martin, Julia; Jorgensen, Jenel; Barker, Mary

    2009-09-01

    To identify approaches for interventions to improve the nutrition of low-income women and children. Seven focus groups were conducted with low-income women caring for young children in their households. They discussed shopping, eating at home, eating out and healthy eating. The discussions were recorded and subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. A semi-rural community in Oregon, USA. There were seventy-four women (74% White), most of whom were 18-29 years old. Four broad themes were identified, i.e. cost-consciousness, convenience, social influences and health issues. The target population would benefit from improved understanding of what constitutes a balanced diet, with a greater emphasis on a more central role for fruit and vegetables. To persuade this population to change their eating habits, it will be necessary to convince them that healthful food can be low-cost, convenient and palatable for children. Comparing findings from the present study with a similar one in the UK suggests that the US women faced many of the same barriers to healthy eating but displayed less helplessness.

  13. Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L; Fernald, Lia C H; Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere; O'Gara, Chloe; Yousafzai, Aisha; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Hidrobo, Melissa; Ulkuer, Nurper; Ertem, Ilgi; Iltus, Selim

    2011-10-08

    This report is the second in a Series on early child development in low-income and middle-income countries and assesses the effectiveness of early child development interventions, such as parenting support and preschool enrolment. The evidence reviewed suggests that early child development can be improved through these interventions, with effects greater for programmes of higher quality and for the most vulnerable children. Other promising interventions for the promotion of early child development include children's educational media, interventions with children at high risk, and combining the promotion of early child development with conditional cash transfer programmes. Effective investments in early child development have the potential to reduce inequalities perpetuated by poverty, poor nutrition, and restricted learning opportunities. A simulation model of the potential long-term economic effects of increasing preschool enrolment to 25% or 50% in every low-income and middle-income country showed a benefit-to-cost ratio ranging from 6·4 to 17·6, depending on preschool enrolment rate and discount rate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing healthy lifestyle changes: a qualitative look at low-income families engaged in treatment for overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason-Wilkerson, Rochelle; Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of program effectiveness.

  15. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Lubans, David R

    2014-04-08

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children's fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children's fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P=0.002, r=0.15) and after-school (P=0.014, r=0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (Pskill competency appears to be a better predictor of children's MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children's MVPA throughout the day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910.

  16. Neighborhood Built and Social Environments and Change in Weight Status over the Summer in Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rebecca; Wang, Yuxia; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    2018-05-31

    Neighborhoods can provide opportunities for children to maintain a healthy weight or encourage unhealthy weight gain. Which neighborhood characteristics matter most remains poorly understood. We investigated links between neighborhood characteristics and weight change over the summer in children from 12 elementary schools with a high proportion of children from low-income families, in a mid-sized city in the US South. Mixed models and objective measures of height and weight were used. Study participants were 2770 children (average age 8.3, range 5.6⁻12.6 years). Older and female children and those who were already overweight were more likely to gain weight over the summer compared to younger, male, and normal weight children. Overweight children who lived near 2 or more small grocery stores gained less weight than overweight children who lived near 0 (weight change, p = 0.0468; body mass index (BMI) change, p = 0.0209) or 1 store (weight change, p = 0.0136; BMI change, p = 0.0033). Normal weight children living in neighborhoods with more large multifamily buildings gained more weight over the summer, although this association only approached significance. Additional efforts to understand which neighborhood factors have greater significance for overweight compared to normal weight children are warranted.

  17. Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-12-01

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.

  18. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1, mental health (MHI-5, blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.

  19. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  20. Infant Signs as Intervention? Promoting Symbolic Gestures for Preverbal Children in Low-Income Families Supports Responsive Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Claire D.

    2012-01-01

    Gestures are a natural form of communication between preverbal children and parents which support children's social and language development; however, low-income parents gesture less frequently, disadvantaging their children. In addition to pointing and waving, children are capable of learning many symbolic gestures, known as "infant signs," if…

  1. Parental supervision and discomfort with children walking to school in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Abigail; Koekemoer, Karin; Niekerk, Ashley van; Govender, Rajen

    2018-05-19

    The risk of pedestrian injury is compounded for children living in low-income communities due to factors such as poor road and pedestrian infrastructure, reliance on walking as a means of transport, and compromised supervision. Parents play an important role in child pedestrian safety. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of child pedestrian variables on parental discomfort with regard to letting their child walk to and from school and on the frequency of adult supervision. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a convenience sample from 3 schools participating in a pedestrian safety school initiative. The schools are situated in low-income, high-risk communities in the City of Cape Town. A parent survey form was translated into isiXhosa and sent home with learners to those parents who had consented to participate. The response rate was 70.4%, and only parents of children who walk to and from school were included in the final sample (n = 359). Child pedestrian variables include the time taken to walk to school, parental rating of the child's ability to safely cross the road, and the frequency of adult supervision. More than half of parents reported that their child walked to and from school without adult supervision. About 56% of children took less than 20 min to walk to school. Most parents (61%) were uncomfortable with their child walking to school, although the majority of parents (55.7%) rated their child's ability to cross the road safely as better or significantly better than average (compared to peers). The parents did not perceive any differences in pedestrian risk factors between boys and girls or between younger (6-9 years) and older (10-15 years) children. The time spent by a child walking to school and parents' perceptions of their child's road-crossing ability were found to be significant predictors of parental discomfort (in letting their child walk). Younger children and children who spent less time walking were more

  2. Evaluation of a social marketing campaign to increase awareness of immunizations for urban low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Hamilton, Chelsea; Nugent, Melodee; Simpson, Pippa; Willis, Earnestine

    2015-02-01

    To assess community awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize children after a social marketing immunization campaign. We used 2 interviewer-assisted street-intercept surveys to evaluate awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize low-income children. The "Take Control! Immunize" social marketing campaign was developed using a community-based participatory research approach and used billboards, flyers, and various "walking billboard" (eg, backpacks, pens) to deliver immunization messages in the community settings. Over 85% of community members recalled the "Take Control! Immunize" message. Almost half of those who saw the immunization message indicated that the message motivated them to act, including getting their children immunized or calling their physician to inquire about their children's immunizations status. All respondents indicated that immunizations were important for children and that they were likely or very likely to immunize their children. Respondents who reported that "Take Control!" messages motivated them to act in the first intercept survey were significantly more likely than those in the second intercept to report being likely or very likely to immunize their children. Culturally appropriate social marketing immunization messages in targeted urban settings can increase parental awareness and behavioral intention to immunize children.

  3. Evaluation of a Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Awareness of Immunizations for Urban Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Emmanuel M.; Hamilton, Chelsea; Nugent, Melodee; Simpson, Pippa; Willis, Earnestine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess community awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize children after a social marketing immunization campaign. Methods We used 2 interviewer-assisted street-intercept surveys to evaluate awareness of childhood immunizations and intent to immunize low-income children. The “Take Control! Immunize” social marketing campaign was developed using a community-based participatory research approach and used billboards, flyers, and various “walking billboard” (eg, backpacks, pens) to deliver immunization messages in the community settings. Results Over 85% of community members recalled the “Take Control! Immunize” message. Almost half of those who saw the immunization message indicated that the message motivated them to act, including getting their children immunized or calling their physician to inquire about their children's immunizations status. All respondents indicated that immunizations were important for children and that they were likely or very likely to immunize their children. Respondents who reported that “Take Control!” messages motivated them to act in the first intercept survey were significantly more likely than those in the second intercept to report being likely or very likely to immunize their children. Conclusion Culturally appropriate social marketing immunization messages in targeted urban settings can increase parental awareness and behavioral intention to immunize children. PMID:25845130

  4. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  5. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity.

  6. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the effects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two fifth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher’s Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years. There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved significantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01, internalizing problems (P < .02, narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02, attention problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01, attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, oppositional defiant problems (P < .03, and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01, sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001. Participation in group drumming led to significant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These findings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool.

  7. Self-perceptions, motivation, and school functioning of low-income maltreated and comparison children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, D; Vondra, J I; Shonk, S M

    1996-05-01

    Maltreated children are at risk for disturbances and delays in their socioemotional and scholastic functioning. This study examined the impact of child maltreatment and age on perceptions of competence, and the relations among perceived competence, motivation, and school functioning. The sample included 76 school children living in poverty, approximately two-thirds of whom had been victims of child maltreatment. Results indicated that both maltreated and nonmaltreated children exhibited maladaptive motivational orientations toward scholastic tasks and poor academic performance, supporting the idea that threats to scholastic functioning reside as much within the ecology of poverty as in that of maltreatment. Over and above the general effects of poverty, maltreatment was found to disrupt the psychological processes accounting for children's scholastic performance. Results revealed that younger maltreated children (6- and 7-year-olds) reported more inflated self-perceptions of competence and social acceptance than nonmaltreated children. In contrast, older maltreated children (8- through 11-year-olds) reported lower perceived social acceptance than nonmaltreated children. Among older nonmaltreated children, perceived competence was positively related to teacher's ratings of their effort, intrinsic motivation, and grades. For older maltreated children, these relations among self-perceptions and school functioning were in the opposite direction from those of nonmaltreated children, suggesting that the determinants of academic engagement are different for maltreated and nonmaltreated children.

  8. Generational status, health insurance, and public benefit participation among low-income Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Bundy, David G

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) measure health insurance coverage and continuity across generational subgroups of Latino children, and (2) determine if participation in public benefit programs is associated with increased health insurance coverage and continuity. We analyzed data on 25,388 children income-eligible for public insurance from the 2003 to 2004 National Survey of Children's Health and stratified Latinos by generational status. First- and second-generation Latino children were more likely to be uninsured (58 and 19%, respectively) than third-generation children (9.5%). Second-generation Latino children were similarly likely to be currently insured by public insurance as third-generation children (61 and 62%, respectively), but less likely to have private insurance (19 and 29%, respectively). Second-generation Latino children were slightly more likely than third-generation children to have discontinuous insurance during the year (19 and 15%, respectively). Compared with children in families where English was the primary home language, children in families where English was not the primary home language had higher odds of being uninsured versus having continuous insurance coverage (OR: 2.19; 95% CI [1.33-3.62]). Among second-generation Latino children, participation in the Food Stamp (OR 0.26; 95% CI [0.14-0.48]) or Women, Infants, and Children (OR 0.40; 95% CI [0.25-0.66]) programs was associated with reduced odds of being uninsured. Insurance disparities are concentrated among first- and second-generation Latino children. For second-generation Latino children, connection to other public benefit programs may promote enrollment in public insurance.

  9. Accuracy of urine circulating cathodic antigen test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean T Coulibaly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, but shows low sensitivity in light-intensity infections. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA cassette test for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. METHODOLOGY: A 3-week longitudinal survey with a treatment intervention was conducted in Azaguié, south Côte d'Ivoire. Overall, 242 preschoolers (age range: 2 months to 5.5 years submitted two stool and two urine samples before praziquantel administration, and 86 individuals were followed-up posttreatment. Stool samples were examined with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for S. mansoni. Urine samples were subjected to POC-CCA cassette test for S. mansoni, and a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Before treatment, the prevalence of S. mansoni, as determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz, single CCA considering 'trace' as negative (t-, and single CCA with 'trace' as positive (t+, was 23.1%, 34.3% and 64.5%, respectively. Using the combined results (i.e., four Kato-Katz and duplicate CCA(t- as diagnostic 'gold' standard, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, a single CCA(t- or CCA(t+ was 28.3%, 69.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Three weeks posttreatment, the sensitivity of a single Kato-Katz, single CCA(t- and CCA(t+ was 4.0%, 80.0% and 84.0%, respectively. The intensity of the POC-CCA test band reaction was correlated with S. mansoni egg burden (odds ratio = 1.2, p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A single POC-CCA cassette test appears to be more sensitive than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of S. mansoni in preschool-aged children before and after praziquantel administration. The POC-CCA cassette test can be recommended for the rapid identification of S. mansoni infections before treatment. Additional studies are warranted

  10. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Eliane F; Magalhães, Lívia C; Campos, Alexandre F; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F

    2014-01-01

    to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS). preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p=0.002). In the CMMS (p=0.034), the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75) and 103.0 (± 12.25) for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p=0.001) and required more assistance from the caregiver (p=0.010) than term children. this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the extended parallel process model to conduct formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  12. [The specific features of the clinical course of acute suppurative otitis media of viral and mixed viral-bacterial etiology in the children of the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bugaichuk, O V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the spectrum of the pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute suppurative otitis media in the children of the preschool age and to reveal the specific clinical features of this disease depending on its etiological factors. The study involved 138 patients (186 ears) of either sex at the age from 1 year to 84 months who presented with acute suppurative otitis media. The following methods were employed for the purpose of the study: analysis of the patients' complaints and the past medical histories, examination of the ENT organs, microbiological (bacteriological and virological) studies of secretion from the tympanic cavity, diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, laboratory investigations. The study allowed to reveal the characteristic clinical manifestations of the pathology of interest depending on its etiology.

  13. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  14. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  15. Overcoming Medicaid Reimbursement Barriers to Funding School Nursing Services for Low-Income Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarney, Mary-Beth; Horton, Katherine; Seiler, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background: School nurses can provide direct services for children with asthma, educate, and reinforce treatment recommendations to children and their families, and coordinate the school-wide response to students' asthma emergencies. Unfortunately, school-based health services today depend on an unreliable patchwork of funding. Limited state and…

  16. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe

  17. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  18. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Matson, Pamela A; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-03-01

    Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to 4 years old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.09-1.73). Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Social Support May Buffer the Effect of Intrafamilial Stressors on Preschool Children's Television Viewing Time in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. Methods: In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Results: Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Conclusions: Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time. PMID:24168754

  20. Social support may buffer the effect of intrafamilial stressors on preschool children's television viewing time in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-12-01

    Excessive television (TV) viewing in preschool children has been linked to negative outcomes during childhood, including childhood obesity. In a sample of low-income families, this study examined associations between intrafamilial factors and preschool children's TV-viewing time and the moderating effect of social support from nonfamily members on this association. In 2010, 129 mothers/female guardians of 2- to 5-year-old children enrolled at five Head Start centers in Rensselaer County, New York, completed a self-report survey. The survey assessed child TV-viewing time (including TV, DVDs, and videos) and intrafamilial risk factors, including maternal perceived stress, depressive symptoms, TV viewing, leisure-time physical activity (inactivity), and family functioning. Social support from nonfamily members (nonfamily social support) was also measured and examined as an effect modifier. Children watched TV an average of 160 minutes per day. Moderate depressive symptoms (Personal Health Questionnaire depression scale scores ≥10), higher perceived stress, poorer family functioning, and higher maternal TV-viewing were significantly and independently associated with greater minutes of child TV viewing, controlling for covariates. In all instances, nonfamily social support moderated these associations, such that negative experiences within the family environment were linked with higher child TV-viewing time under conditions of low nonfamily social support, but not high nonfamily support. Social support from nonfamily members may buffer potentially negative effects of intrafamilial factors on preschool children's TV-viewing time.

  1. Boosting Low-Income Children's Opportunities to Succeed Through Direct Income Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Arloc; DeBot, Brandon; Huang, Chye-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Direct income supports have long been known to substantially reduce the extent and depth of poverty. Evidence suggests that they can also bolster children's opportunities to succeed and enhance long-term mobility. A growing body of research, for example, links income from 2 related tax credits for working families-the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Child Tax Credit-to benefits for children in those families, such as improved birth weight, better school outcomes, and increased rates of employment in adulthood. Similarly, the introduction of food stamps has been found to improve not only the birth weight of infants given access to the program but also their educational achievement, as well as indicators of health, well-being, and self-sufficiency decades later. These are striking research results for income support that is not typically thought of as improving children's health or education. The mechanisms through which these income supports lead to such benefits are likely varied and complex, but emerging research suggests that helping families with children afford basic necessities can reduce the added stress of financial difficulties, preventing downstream neuroendocrine and biochemical changes that affect children's longer-term outcomes. These findings have important implications for policy makers. Research suggests that potential weakening of the safety net would not only substantially increase poverty, but also have damaging long-term effects on children. Policy makers should reject funding cuts and instead strengthen the safety net, which this analysis suggests could reduce poverty further and also enhance children's opportunities to succeed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M; Geller, Alan C; Rimm, Eric B; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-07-21

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012-2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2-12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2-5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70-0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52-0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68-0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  3. Previous Gardening Experience and Gardening Enjoyment Is Related to Vegetable Preferences and Consumption Among Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L

    2016-10-01

    To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. Methods: this was a cross‐sectional study of 124 four‐year‐old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC‐2, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS. Results: preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC‐2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p = 0.002. In the CMMS (p = 0.034, the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75 and 103.0 (± 12.25 for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p = 0.001 and required more assistance from the caregiver (p = 0.010 than term children. Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Resumo: Objetivo: comparar o desenvolvimento da coordenação motora, o desenvolvimento cognitivo e o desempenho funcional de crianças nascidas pré‐termo e a termo, aos quatro anos de idade. Métodos: estudo transversal com 124 crianças de quatro anos de idade, distribuídas em dois grupos distintos, de acordo com a idade gestacional e peso ao nascimento, pareadas com relação ao sexo, idade e nível socioeconômico. Todas as crianças foram avaliadas pelos testes Movement Assessment Battery for Children – Second Edition (MABC‐2, Inventário de Avaliação Pediátrica de Incapacidade (PEDI e Escala de Maturidade Mental Colúmbia (EMMC. Resultados: as crianças pr

  5. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  6. Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on Children from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Ramanan, Janaki

    1992-01-01

    Early (during the child's first three years) and recent (during the previous three years) maternal employment were associated with less family poverty and higher scores on measures of home environment. Early maternal employment predicted second grade children's math achievement, and recent maternal employment predicted their reading achievement.…

  7. Parental Involvement, Parenting Behaviors, and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income and Minority Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mido; Park, Boyoung; Singh, Kusum; Sung, Youngji Y.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the longitudinal association of parental involvement in Head Start parent-focused programs, parenting behaviors, and the cognitive development of children by specifying two longitudinal growth models. Model 1 examined the longitudinal effects of the parental involvement in three Head Start parenting programs (parenting classes,…

  8. Performance of African American Preschool Children from Low-Income Families on Expressive Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…

  9. Identifying risk for language impairment in children from linguistically diverse low-income schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F; Thompson Miller, Suzanne

    2017-12-07

    To improve screening procedures for children in a linguistically diverse context, we combined tasks known to reveal grammatical deficits in children with language impairment (LI) with training to facilitate performance on a verb elicitation task. Sixty-four first grade children participated. The objective grammatical measures included elicitation of 12 past tense regular verbs preceded by a teaching phase (teach-test), the sentence recall (SR) subtest of the Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals (CELF-4), and a tally of all conjugated verbs from a narrative retell task. Given the widespread reliance on teacher observation for the referral of children suspected of having LI, we compared our results to the spoken language portion of the CELF-4 teacher observational rating scale (ORS). Using teacher observation as a reference for comparison, the past tense elicitation task and the SR task yielded strong discriminating power, but the verb tally was relatively weak. However, combining the three tasks yielded the highest levels of sensitivity (75%) and specificity (92%) than any single measure on its own. This study contributes to alternative assessment practices by highlighting the potential utility of adding a teaching component prior to administering informal grammatical probes.

  10. Strategies low-income parents use to overcome their children's food refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents play a key role in the development of eating habits in preschool children, as they are the food "gatekeepers". Repeated exposure to new foods can improve child food preferences and consumption. The objective of this study was to determine parent feeding strategies used to influence child acc...

  11. Social Outcomes Associated with Media Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Fussell, Jill J.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preschool children's social outcomes in the classroom (including hyperactivity, aggression, and social skills) and their media viewing habits (including the amount of television they watch and whether they watch videos/movies that are rated as inappropriate for…

  12. Characterizing dinner meals served and consumed by low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Stuff, Janice E; Hughes, Sheryl O; Liu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    A dinner meal is consumed by approximately 95% of preschool children, yet few studies have characterized the dinner meal within a broader environmental context. The primary goal of this study was to identify the average quantities of foods served and consumed at the dinner meal by preschool children. A secondary goal was to look at factors that influenced the total amounts of food and energy consumed among preschoolers at the dinner meal. Food intake at a family dinner meal was measured using digital photography in African-American and Hispanic-American preschool children (n = 231). Pictorial records were converted to gram and energy estimates of food served and consumed; grams were converted to kilocalories for each food using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional software. Foods were categorized by groups/subgroups. Comparison of means and coefficient of variation was examined overall and by food groups for food grams (and energy) served, consumed, and wasted. The relationship of mother/child characteristics to amounts served and consumed were analyzed by regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Plate waste was high; 30% of the foods served to the child at the dinner meal were not consumed. The amounts of food and beverage served and consumed varied within and among the food groups studied. The proportion of children served a major food group at the dinner meal varied considerably: 44% fruit/juice, 97% vegetables, 99% grains, 97% meats, 74% dairy, 66% sweetened beverages, 92% fat and oils, and 40% sweets and sugars. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount consumed (p dinner meal was positively associated with energy intake consumed (p < 0.0001). Plate waste and variation in amounts served and consumed was substantial. The amount of food served was positively associated with the amount of food consumed by preschool children.

  13. Adaptation of a paradigm for examining the development of fear beliefs through the verbal information pathway in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Lara S; Schofield, Casey A; Beard, Courtney; Armstrong, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Verbal threat information has been shown to induce fear beliefs in school-age children (i.e. 6-12 years; for a review see Muris & Field, 2010). The current study adapted an existing paradigm (Field & Lawson, 2003) to examine the impact of verbal threat information on self-report and behavioral measures of fear in preschool-age children. Thirty children (aged 3-5) were provided with threat, positive, or no information about three novel Australian marsupials. There was a significant increase in fear belief for the animal associated with threat information compared to the animal associated with positive or no information. Verbal threat information did not impact behavioral avoidance in the complete sample; however, findings from an exploratory subgroup analysis excluding three-year-olds indicated that children demonstrated significant behavioral avoidance for the threat condition compared to the positive condition. These findings provide additional support for Rachman's theory of fear acquisition (1977, 1991) and suggest this paradigm may be used to examine the age at which verbal threat information becomes a relevant mode of fear acquisition for young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of maternal psychosocial factors on parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M; Hall, L A

    1998-01-01

    Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms, self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variables. To investigate the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors (history of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) and parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers who have young children. Secondary analyses of data from in-home interviews with 206 low-income, single mothers from a southeastern United States urban area were conducted. A variety of scales, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), were used to measure maternal psychosocial factors. Using the AAPI, a Modified Parenting Attitudes Measure (MPAM), and subscales, a three-stage regression procedure was used to test the model. For stages 1 and 2, everyday stressors were the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Childhood sexual abuse, everyday stressors, low self-esteem, and control variables accounted for 58% of variance in depressive symptoms. In the third stage for the AAPI, only control variables were retained except in the Lack of Empathy subscale, where depressive symptoms and control variables accounted for 16% of the variance. The third stage for the MPAM yielded, by subscale: Only control variables predicted Corporal Punishment Beliefs; depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor for the total MPAM (19% of variance) and of the Inappropriate Emotional Expectations subscale (17%); and childhood physical abuse was the only predictor of Role Reversal. Depressive symptoms mediated the effects of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, and self-esteem and provided the linkage between these variables and at-risk parenting attitudes. Self-esteem decreased as everyday stressors increased but did not directly affect parenting attitudes. A relationship was not found between childhood abuse and low self-esteem. This study

  15. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children. PMID:25954057

  16. The socioeconomic gradient of secondhand smoke exposure in children: evidence from 26 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-12-01

    To provide the first analysis of socioeconomic inequalities in children's daily exposure to indoor smoking in households in 26 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used nationally representative household samples (n=369 654) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys between 2010 and 2014 to calculate daily exposure to secondhand smoke (ESHS) among children aged 0-5 years. The relative and absolute concentration (RC and AC) indices were used to quantify wealth-based inequalities in daily ESHS in each country and in urban and rural areas in each country. We decomposed total socioeconomic inequalities in ESHS into within-group and between-group (rural-urban) inequalities to identify the sources of wealth-based inequality in ESHS in LMICs. We observed substantial variation across countries in the prevalence of daily ESHS among children. Children's ESHS was higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in the majority of the countries. The RC and AC demonstrated that daily ESHS was concentrated among poorer children in almost all countries (RC, median=-0.179, IQR=0.186 and AC, median=-0.040, IQR=0.055). The concentration of ESHS among poorer children was greater in urban relative to rural areas. The decomposition of the overall socioeconomic inequality in daily ESHS revealed that wealth-based differences in ESHS within urban and rural areas were the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in most countries (median=46%, IQR=32%). Special attention should be given to reduce ESHS among children from rural and socioeconomically disadvantaged households as social inequalities in ESHS might contribute to social inequalities in health over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Astronomy for Special Needs Children (Low-income and/or Serious Medical Conditions) and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI* sponsored and one IAU OAD grant for astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill or traumatically injured children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and Chicago or for children hospitalized at the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center, (Mineola, NY). An astronomy program was also created for the five Fresh Air Fund Charity summer camps (low-income and special needs) and for a Hofstra summer camp for developmentally challenged youths.These programs are designed for children of all ages include” STSCi’s “Tonight’s Sky” (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown to the children.The staff and volunteers at the Ronald McDonald House and Children’s Medical Center are trained to use the telescope and to do astronony demonstrations. I created an Activity Book for the staff with demonstrations, participatory hands-on activities, and edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are to stimulate interest.These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.

  18. The impact of patterns of trauma exposure among low income children with and without histories of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Abigail L; Handley, Elizabeth D; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has revealed a large prevalence of trauma experienced by children, creating high risk for the development of psychopathology. Research investigating the negative impacts of child maltreatment and other traumas has typically examined these experiences individually, controlling for co-occurring traumas, or has combined these experiences into a general variable of risk, thereby obscuring the complex relationships among environmental traumas and maltreatment. The current study expands on previous research by elucidating relationships between multiple contexts of overlapping traumas and maltreatment experienced by children, and by categorizing how these experiences join together to impact internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Participants included 316 maltreated children and 269 nonmaltreated children (M age = 9.4, SD = 0.88) who attended a summer day camp research program for low-income children. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified three differential patterns of trauma exposure across children: 1) community violence and loss; 2) pervasive trauma; and 3) low trauma. Covariate analyses demonstrated that child maltreatment was significantly associated with class membership, suggesting that maltreated children were more likely to experience diverse traumas extending beyond their maltreatment experiences (pervasive trauma class). A two-way analysis of variance also demonstrated that trauma latent class membership and child maltreatment each represented unique predictors of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, with each having an independent effect on symptomatology. This investigation provides unique insight into the differential impact of patterns of trauma exposure and child maltreatment, providing support for further research and clinical practice addressing multiple levels of a child's ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of three interventions for providing preventive services to low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of loan repayment programmes, revising Medicaid fee-for-service rates, and changing dental hygienist supervision requirements on access to preventive dental care for children in Georgia. We estimated cost savings from the three interventions of preventive care for young children after netting out the intervention cost. We used a regression model to evaluate the impact of changing the Medicaid reimbursement rates. The impact of supervision was evaluated by comparing general and direct supervision in school-based dental sealant programmes. Federal loan repayments to dentists and school-based sealant programmes (SBSPs) had lower intervention costs (with higher potential cost savings) than raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate. General supervision had costs 56% lower than direct supervision of dental hygienists for implementing a SBSP. Raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate by 10 percentage points would improve utilization by Loan repayment could serve almost 13 000 children for a cost of $400 000 and a potential cost saving of $176 000. The three interventions all improved met need for preventive dental care. Raising the reimbursement rate alone would marginally affect utilization of Medicaid services but would not substantially increase acceptance of Medicaid by providers. Both loan repayment programmes and amending supervision requirements are potentially cost-saving interventions. Loan repayment programmes provide complete care to targeted areas, while amending supervision requirements of dental hygienists could provide preventive care across the state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Child Maltreatment and Allostatic Load: Consequences for Physical and Mental Health in Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Dackis, Melissa N.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and DHEA, body-mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning DHEA also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health. PMID:22018084

  1. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...

  2. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  3. B-vitamin interventions for women and children in low-income populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Sumathi; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-05-01

    This review examines the effect of B vitamins on women and child health from recent evidence available. Findings were related to functional outcomes. In terms of foetal growth, although supplementation with B12 increased B12 status of nonpregnant and pregnant women and infants, maternal plasma homocysteine, which is related to multiple deficiencies of vitamin B12, B6, riboflavin or folate, has been shown to be associated with lower birth size rather than solely plasma B12. However, an experimental study with thiamine supplementation showed improvement in status in thiamine-deficient mothers and breast milk concentration, but not in infant status. Given the multiple aetiology of anaemia, the use of multiple micronutrient fortification has expectedly shown a reduction in anaemia prevalence in women. Furthermore, these micronutrients can interact with each other: high maternal folate intakes coupled with low B12 intakes were associated with a higher risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age infant. A high maternal plasma folate was also associated with insulin resistance in children aged 9.5 and 13.5 years. Interventions with B vitamins were found to be efficacious in improving the status in women and children. In multiple micronutrient supplementation programmes, the optimum composition of the supplement needs to be determined. The deleterious effect of high folate intakes with low B12 intakes needs to be explored further.

  4. Do different parenting patterns impact the health and physical growth of 'left-behind' preschool-aged children? A cross-sectional study in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiuting; Xu, Lingzhong; Luo, Huiwen; Wang, Xinhai; Zhang, Furong; Gai Tobe, Ruoyan

    2016-02-01

    Many migrants from rural China seek work in urban areas and leave their children in their home villages to be raised by relatives. These children are often referred to as 'left-behind children'. Parental migration tends to have a profound impact on a child's growth. This study sought to assess the prevalence of illness and malnutrition among children in rural areas raised with different parenting patterns and to explore factors affecting their health and development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the physical health of children raised with different parenting patterns and to explore associated risk factors. In total, this study examined 735 children ages 3-6 years in eight rural villages in two counties of Shandong Province. Their primary caregivers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and their nutritional status was determined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. This study found a relatively high prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity among left-behind children. After potential confounders were controlled for, the parenting pattern, annual household income and health literacy of the primary caregiver significantly influenced the health and developmental indicators of children. This study highlighted the impact of the characteristics of the primary caregiver on a child's health and development and the importance of practical interventions for preschool-aged children who are left behind and raised with different parenting patterns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Using social marketing principles to guide the development of a nutrition education initiative for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer; Beckstrom, Leslie; Bellows, Laura; Johnson, Susan L

    2004-01-01

    Within the field of nutrition education, social marketing has become a promising framework to systematically approach problems related to nutrition behavior. In 1997, the Colorado Nutrition Network began developing a social marketing campaign to promote healthful food choices among low-income Coloradans. A multifaceted formative evaluation plan that included focus groups, campaign concept pretesting, and a food frequency questionnaire was used to segment and scrutinize the target audience. The resulting pilot program was a blend of educational and marketing strategies targeting preschoolers that was implemented in Head Start classrooms. The 12-week intervention contained a narrow, behavior-based "try new foods" message, multiple nutrition education activities, and repeated opportunities to taste 13 novel foods. Key strategies used and findings from the formative evaluation process are presented herein in an effort to provide insight for nutrition educators interested in developing similar interventions.

  6. Prevention Services for Externalizing and Anxiety Symptoms in Low-Income Children: the Role of Parent Preferences in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Nicholas D; Godoy, Leandra; Eisenhower, Abbey S; Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S

    2016-01-01

    Dissemination of prevention programs targeting young children is impeded by challenges with parent engagement. Matching program characteristics to parent preferences is associated with increased retention in clinical/intervention settings, but little is known about the types of prevention programs that interest parents. The objectives of this study were to better understand parents' preferences for services designed to prevent externalizing and anxiety disorders and to identify factors associated with preferences. Ethnically diverse, low-income caregivers (n = 485) of young children (11-60 months) completed surveys on child anxiety and externalizing symptoms, parental worry about their children, parent anxiety symptoms, and preferences for prevention group topics. Parents were more likely to prefer a group targeting externalizing behaviors compared to anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed four groups of children: low symptoms, moderate anxiety-low externalizing, moderate externalizing-low anxiety, and high anxiety and externalizing. Parents' preferences varied according to co-occurrence of child anxiety and externalizing symptoms; interest in a program targeting externalizing problems was associated with elevated externalizing problems (regardless of anxiety symptom level), parent anxiety symptoms, and parent worry about their child. Only parent anxiety symptoms predicted parents' interest in an anxiety-focused program, and preference for an anxiety-focused program was actually reduced if children had co-occurring anxiety and externalizing symptoms versus only anxiety symptoms. Results suggest that parents' interest in a program to prevent externalizing problems was well-aligned with the presenting problem, whereas preferences for anxiety programming suggest a more complex interplay among factors. Parent preferences for targeted programming are discussed within a broader framework of parent engagement.

  7. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Blaine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2 or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1 almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5 or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1. Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p < 0.001, keep quiet (1.0 vs. 0.5, p < 0.001, and celebrate achievements (1.7 vs. 1.0, p < 0.001 than parents of older children (6–12 years. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.70–0.99, celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99, or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98. Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts.

  8. Heightened bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the absence of heightened atopy in children with current wheezing and low income status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, J; Castro-Rodriguez, J A; Cortez, E; Aguirre, V; Aguilar, P; Barrueto, L

    2008-02-01

    Although global studies such as the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) have provided valuable data on the prevalence of asthma in children in Latin America, there is little information on the relationship between asthma symptoms, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and atopy in the region. This study examined the relationship between self-reported wheezing in the past 12 months, pulmonary function, airway responsiveness and atopy in children from a low income population in a neighbourhood of Santiago, Chile. Two random samples (100 each) of children aged 13-14 years who participated in ISAAC phase I were selected according to whether or not they reported wheezing in the past 12 months. Spirometry, the methacholine bronchial challenge test and the prick test were performed in all individuals. Children who reported current wheezing had significantly higher BHR to methacholine compared with those without wheezing (71.6% vs 52.6%; p = 0.007) and no significant difference was found in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (116.7 (12.3)% vs 120.3 (14.5%); p = 0.11). The prevalence of atopy was not significantly different between those children who reported wheezing compared with those who did not (44.2% vs 42.3%; p = 0.89). Multiple regression analysis showed that only BHR to methacholine (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.25 to 4.13; p = 0.01) and maternal asthma (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 8.3, p = 0.03) were significant risk factors for current wheezing. Our results support previous findings suggesting that in adolescents from underprivileged populations, self-reported current wheezing is related to BHR but not to atopy.

  9. Reasons Low-Income Parents Offer Snacks to Children: How Feeding Rationale Influences Snack Frequency and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Taveras, Elsie M.; Geller, Alan C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Land, Thomas; Perkins, Meghan; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Although American children snack more than ever before, the parental role in promoting snacking is not well understood. In 2012–2013 at baseline in an intervention study to prevent childhood obesity in low-income Massachusetts communities, n = 271 parents of children aged 2–12 years completed surveys regarding nutritive and non-nutritive reasons they offered children snacks, demographics, and dietary factors. An analysis of variance demonstrated that parents reported offering snacks (mean/week; standard deviation (SD)) for nutritive reasons like promoting growth (x̄ = 2.5; SD 2.2) or satisfying hunger (x̄ = 2.4; SD 2.1) almost twice as often as non-nutritive reasons like keeping a child quiet (x̄ = 0.7; SD 1.5) or celebrating events/holidays (x̄ = 0.8; SD 1.1). Parents reported giving young children (2–5 years) more snacks to reward behavior (1.9 vs. 1.1, p parents of older children (6–12 years). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios, which indicated reduced child adherence to dietary recommendations when parents offered snacks to reward behavior (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70–0.99), celebrate events/holidays (OR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.52–0.99), or achievements (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.68–0.98). Parental intentions around child snacking are likely important targets for obesity prevention efforts. PMID:26197335

  10. Factors associated with rear seating of children in motor vehicles: a study in two low-income, predominantly Hispanic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Seth, Jennifer; Hemenway, David; Gallagher, Susan S; Lissy, Karen S; Ross, Julie B

    2004-07-01

    This study examined child seating patterns in two predominantly low-income, Hispanic communities in Massachusetts. The purpose was to determine the factors associated with child rear seating in the community as a whole and for a subset of Hispanic motorists. Five hundred and five vehicles carrying child passengers and no adult other than the driver were observed in parking lots of fast food restaurants and grocery stores. Four hundred and thirty-two vehicle drivers agreed to be interviewed. A child was defined as a passenger younger than age 12 as determined by appearance and height (head below the vehicle headrest when seated). Variables under study included driver gender, age, ethnicity, and educational attainment; driver shoulder belt use; driver perception of passenger-side airbag presence; and the number and ages of children in the car. Overall, 51% of vehicles were observed with all children seated in the rear. In a bivariate analysis, child rear seating was strongly associated with female drivers ( P = 0.01), younger drivers ( P = 0.02) driver shoulder belt use ( P safety behavior (e.g. seat belt use). Messages should be culturally appropriate and should emphasize driver seat belt use in conjunction with rear seating and the importance of rear seating regardless of the presence of a passenger-side airbag.

  11. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  12. The Life Course Implications of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food for Children in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Potts, Kaitlin S; Bazzano, Lydia A; Mason, John B

    2017-04-11

    The development of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) for the treatment of uncomplicated cases of severe acute malnutrition in young children from 6 months to 5 years old has greatly improved survival through the ability to treat large numbers of malnourished children in the community setting rather than at health facilities during emergencies. This success has led to a surge in demand for RUTF in low income countries that are frequently food insecure due to environmental factors such as cyclical drought. Worldwide production capacity for the supply of RUTF has increased dramatically through the expansion and development of new manufacturing facilities in both low and high income countries, and new business ventures dedicated to ready-to-use foods have emerged not only for emergencies, but increasingly, for supplementing caloric intake of pregnant women and young children not experiencing acute undernutrition. Due to the lack of evidence on the long term health impact these products may have, in the midst of global nutrition transitions toward obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the increased use of manufactured, commercial products for treatment and prevention of undernutrition is of great concern. Using a framework built on the life course health development perspective, the current research presents several drawbacks and limitations of RUTF for nutrition of mothers and young children, especially in non-emergency situations. Recommendations follow for potential strategies to limit the use of these products to the treatment of acute undernutrition only, study the longer term health impacts of RUTF, prevent conflict of interests arising for social enterprises, and where possible, ensure that whole foods are supported for life-long health and nutrition, as well as environmental sustainability.

  13. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Time-Dependent Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants During Pregnancy on Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Development in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Wood, Mollie; Ystrom, Eivind; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Handal, Marte; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on children's behavioral, emotional, and social development by age 5 years, and over time since age 1.5 years. The prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We included women who reported depressive/anxiety disorders before and/or during pregnancy. Children born to women who used SSRIs in early (weeks 0-16), mid- (weeks 17-28), or late (> week 29) pregnancy were compared to those who were unexposed. Children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors (Child Behavior Checklist) and temperament traits (Emotionality, Activity and Shyness Temperament Questionnaire) were measured at 1.5, 3, and 5 years. Mean scores were calculated and standardized. General linear marginal structural models were fitted to account for time-varying exposure and confounders, and censoring; 3-level growth-curve models were used. A total of 8,359 mother-child dyads were included, and 4,128 children had complete outcome data at age 5 years. Children exposed to SSRIs in late pregnancy had an increased risk of anxious/depressed behaviors by age 5 years compared with unexposed children (adjusted β = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.96). Such risk was not evident for earlier timings of exposure. There was no evidence for a substantial prenatal SSRI effect on externalizing, social, and emotional problems. These findings suggest no substantial increased risk for externalizing, emotional, or social problems in preschool-aged children following prenatal SSRI exposure. Although the role of chance and potential unmeasured confounding cannot be ruled out, late-pregnancy SSRI exposure was associated with greater anxious/depressed behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  16. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEASURES OF ATTAINMENT VALUE AND ACHIEVEMENT EXPECTANCY TO THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOOD, FRANK H.

    THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSED ON THE USEFULNESS OF A PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING MEASURES OF THE MOTIVATION OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES TO ACHIEVE IN READING WHICH DID NOT REQUIRE WRITTEN OR ORAL VERBAL RESPONSES FROM THE SUBJECTS. MEASURES OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION WERE CORRELATED WITH TEACHER RATINGS OF EFFORTS TO ACHIEVE IN…

  18. The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.; Auston, Aletha C.; Murphy, Kimberlee C.; St. Peters, Michelle; Pinon, Ronda Scantlin; Kotler, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Collected time-use diaries of television viewing from two cohorts of children (ages 2-5 and 4-7) from low-income families and gave annual tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness. Found that viewing of child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted higher academic performance. Frequent viewers of…

  19. A Direct Comparison of Self-Injurious and Stereotyped Motor Behavior Between Preschool-Aged Children With and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, John; Spofford, Lisa; Dimian, Adele; Tervo, Raymond; MacLean, William E; Symons, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotyped motor behavior (STY) of preschool-aged children with developmental delays (DD group) and their peers without developmental delays (TD group) using a standardized caregiver report scale. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised was completed by caregivers of children with developmental delays and their peers without developmental delays. Frequency of occurrence and severity ratings for SIB and STY were compared between groups. SIB and STY were reported more often and at a greater level of severity in the DD group. Older chronological age was associated with more severe STY in the DD group but not the TD group. Gender was not related to STY or SIB for either group. Differences in STY and SIB were evident between preschoolers with and without DD. Findings are discussed from developmental and behavioral psychology perspectives regarding the expression of repetitive behavior in developmentally at-risk pediatric populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Engaging Parents in Preventive Interventions for Young Children: Working with Cultural Diversity Within Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Brotman, Laurie M

    2017-08-01

    A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.

  1. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-04-01

    AbstractIntestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica / dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z -scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia , children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z -scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z -score definition for wasting (prevalence ratio = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  2. Maternal BMI as a predictor of methylation of obesity-related genes in saliva samples from preschool-age Hispanic children at-risk for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Kathryn Tully; Guo, Yan; To, Sophie Bao-Chieu; Non, Amy L; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-01-09

    The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity. Genome-wide DNA methylation was conducted on 92 saliva samples collected from Hispanic preschool children using the Infinium Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA), which interrogates >484,000 CpG sites associated with ~24,000 genes. The analysis was limited to 936 genes that have been associated with obesity in a prior GWAS Study. Child DNA methylation at 17 CpG sites was found to be significantly associated with maternal BMI, with increased methylation at 12 CpG sites and decreased methylation at 5 CpG sites. Pathway analysis revealed methylation at these sites related to homocysteine and methionine degradation as well as cysteine biosynthesis and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, eight of the 17 CpG sites reside in genes (FSTL1, SORCS2, NRF1, DLC1, PPARGC1B, CHN2, NXPH1) that have prior known associations with obesity, diabetes, and the insulin pathway. Our study confirms that saliva is a practical human tissue to obtain in community settings and in pediatric populations. These salivary findings indicate potential epigenetic differences in Hispanic preschool children at risk for pediatric obesity. Identifying early biomarkers and understanding pathways that are epigenetically regulated during this critical stage of child development may present an opportunity for prevention or early intervention for addressing childhood obesity. The clinical trial protocol is available at Clinical

  3. A Developmental Examination of the Psychometric Properties and Predictive Utility of a Revised Psychological Self-Concept Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower-order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor Analysis revealed three latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., Sociability, Control, and Assurance) from the lower-order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for Sociability and Assurance, not for Control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the three latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Short Form (SCBE-SF, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in Sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in Control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in Assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. PMID:26098231

  4. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Early Childhood Stress and Child Age Predict Longitudinal Increases in Obesogenic Eating Among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Retzloff, Lauren; Sturza, Julie; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-01-31

    To identify whether psychosocial stress exposure during early childhood predicts subsequent increased eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), emotional overeating, food responsiveness, and enjoyment of food. This was an observational longitudinal study. Among 207 low-income children (54.6% non-Hispanic white, 46.9% girls), early childhood stress exposure was measured by parent report and a stress exposure index calculated, with higher scores indicating more stress exposure. Eating behaviors were measured in early (mean, 4.3; standard deviation, 0.5 years) and middle (mean, 7.9; standard deviation, 0.7 years) childhood. Observed EAH was assessed by measuring kilocalories of palatable food the child consumed after a meal. Parents reported on child eating behaviors on the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z score (BMIz) calculated. Multivariable linear regression, adjusting for child sex, race/ethnicity, and BMIz, was used to examine the association of stress exposure with rate of change per year in each child eating behavior. Early childhood stress exposure predicted yearly increases in EAH (β = 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.002, 0.27) and Emotional Overeating (β = 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.008, 0.27). Stress exposure was not associated with Food Responsiveness (trend for decreased Enjoyment of Food; β = -0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.002, -0.26). All child obesogenic eating behaviors increased with age (P Early stress exposure predicted increases in child eating behaviors known to associate with overweight/obesity. Psychosocial stress may confer overweight/obesity risk through eating behavior pathways. Targeting eating behaviors may be an important prevention strategy for children exposed to stress. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touray, Sunkaru; Bâ, Hampâté; Bâ, Ousmane; Koïta, Mohamedou; Salem, Cheikh B Ould Ahmed; Keïta, Moussa; Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2012-09-07

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While "malaria cases" are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures). Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea), new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season), assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6-59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were highly prevalent. Surveys should be repeated

  7. Validation of a simple stool diary used by caregivers to document diarrhea among young children in a low-income country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Namusoke, Hanifa; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Development and validation of a simple stool diary for caretakers collecting data on stool frequency and consistency among young children in a low-income country. METHODS: Focus group studies evaluated how diarrhea was understood by caregivers (content validity). The sensitivity......, reliability, and correlations between dehydration and diary scores (construct validity) were tested in a clinical trial. RESULTS: Caregivers recognized and understood the concept and severity of diarrhea. Stool frequency and liquid consistency decreased in children admitted with diarrhea (p 

  8. Exploring How the Home Environment Influences Eating and Physical Activity Habits of Low-Income, Latino Children of Predominantly Immigrant Families: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Lees, Faith D; Greaney, Mary L

    2018-05-14

    Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority population group in the United States, and children in low-income Latino families are at elevated risk of becoming overweight or having obesity. A child’s home is an important social environment in which he/she develops and maintains dietary and physical activity (PA) habits that ultimately impact weight status. Previous research suggests the parents are central to creating a home environment that facilitates or hinders the development of children’s early healthy eating and PA habits. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore low-income Latino parents’ beliefs, parenting styles, and parenting practices related to their children’s eating and PA behaviors while at home. Qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) with 33 low-income Latino parents of preschool children 2 to 5 years of age. FGDs were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Data analyses revealed that most parents recognize the importance of healthy eating and PA for their children and themselves. However, daily life demands including conflicting schedules, long working hours, financial constraints, and neighborhood safety concerns, etc., impact parents’ ability to create a home environment supportive of these behaviors. This study provides information about how the home environment may influence low-income Latino preschool children’s eating and PA habits, which may be useful for health promotion and disease prevention efforts targeting low-income Latino families with young children, and for developing home-based and parenting interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity among this population group. Pediatric healthcare providers can play an important role in facilitating communication, providing education, and offering guidance to low-income Latino parents that support their children’s development of early healthy eating and PA habits, while taking into account daily life barriers faced

  9. FEATURES OF MEMORY IN CHILDREN OF PRESCHOOL AGE WITH CONSEQUENCES OF PERINATAL LESIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of memory was investigated in 524 children, aged 4 to 7; with remote consequences of perinatal damage of the central nervous system (CNS. A weak memory ability was detected in 42% of children with dysfunctions of the general and fine motility and in 59% of children with impaired speech. Severe gestosis, anemia in pregnancy (stage II and a delayed intrauterine fetal development were found to have a negative influence on memory shaping process.

  10. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children: Is There a Correlation With Parenting Style and Parental Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems.Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes.Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries.Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child.

  11. Shyness, Child-Teacher Relationships, and Socio-Emotional Adjustment in a Sample of Italian Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; Schneider, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the moderating role of child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependence) in the association between children's shyness and indices of socio-emotional adjustment and maladjustment. The participants were Italian preschool children (63 boys; 66 girls) and two lead teachers…

  12. The Impact of Animated Books on the Vocabulary and Language Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Two School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broemmel, Amy D.; Moran, Mary Jane; Wooten, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of electronic media over the past two decades, young children have been found to have increased exposure to video games, computer-based activities, and electronic books (e-books). This study explores how exposure to animated ebooks impacts young children's literacy development. A stratified convenience sample (n = 24) was…

  13. Cumulative risk exposure moderates the association between parasympathetic reactivity and inhibitory control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Roos, Leslie E; Farrar, Jessica D; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC. For children with less risk, greater RSA withdrawal during IC tasks was associated with better IC. In contrast, greater risk was associated with poor IC, regardless of RSA withdrawal. Effects of risk were more pronounced for cumulative than individual measures. Results suggest that cumulative risk exposure disrupts connectivity between physiological and behavioral components of self-regulation in early childhood. Parasympathetic withdrawal to cognitive tasks may be less relevant for performance in developmental samples experiencing greater life stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  15. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bunt, G; Liakopoulos, A; Mevius, D J; Geurts, Y; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M; Mughini-Gras, L; van Pelt, W

    2017-02-01

    ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries. The parents were invited to complete an epidemiological questionnaire and to obtain and send a faecal sample from the selected child and from one parent. Samples were tested for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for ESBL/AmpC carriage in children and parents, and findings were internally validated by bootstrapping. In total, 1016 families were included and ESBL/AmpC prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-5.0%); 3.5% (95% CI 2.5%-4.8%) in children and 4.5% (95% CI 3.4%-6.0%) in parents. Attending a daycare centre (DCC) was the only significant risk factor for children (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). For parents, the only significant risk factor was having one or more children attending DCCs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). For parents of ESBL/AmpC-positive children the OR for ESBL/AmpC carriage was 19.7 (95% CI 9.2-42.4). Co-carriage of specific ESBL/AmpC genotypes in child and parent occurred more often than expected by chance (14.6% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). In this study, intestinal carriage with ESBL/AmpCs was detected in ∼4% of households with preschool children. DCC attendance was a risk factor in both children and parents and co-carriage of specific genotypes frequently occurred in child-parent pairs. These findings suggest household transmission or/and family-specific exposure to common sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  16. Amplitude by peak interaction but no evidence of auditory mismatch response deficits to frequency change in preschool age children with FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabella, Danielle M; Flynn, Lucinda; Peters, Amanda; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-24

    Prior studies indicate that the auditory mismatch response is sensitive to early alterations in brain development in multiple developmental disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to impact early auditory processing. The current study hypothesized alterations in the mismatch response in young children with FASD. Participants in this study were 9 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and 17 control children (Control) aged 3 to 6 years. Participants underwent MEG and structural MRI scans separately. We compared groups on neurophysiological Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses to auditory stimuli measured using the auditory oddball paradigm. Frequent (1000 Hz) and rare (1200Hz) tones were presented at 72 dB. There was no significant group difference in MMN response latency or amplitude represented by the peak located ~200 ms after stimulus presentation in the difference timecourse between frequent and infrequent tones. Examining the timecourses to the frequent and infrequent tones separately, RM-ANOVA with condition (frequent vs. rare), peak (N100m and N200m), and hemisphere as within-subject factors and diagnosis and sex as the between-subject factors showed a significant interaction of peak by diagnosis (p = 0.001), with a pattern of decreased amplitude from N100m to N200m in Control children and the opposite pattern in children with FASD. However, no significant difference was found with the simple effects comparisons. No group differences were found in the response latencies of the rare auditory evoked fields (AEFs). The results indicate that there was no detectable effect of alcohol exposure on the amplitude or latency of the MMNm response to simple tones modulated by frequency change in preschool-age children with FASD. However, while discrimination abilities to simple tones may be intact, early auditory sensory processing revealed by the interaction between N100m and N200m amplitude indicates that auditory sensory processing may be altered in

  17. Food Insecurity and Violence in the Home: Investigating Exposure to Violence and Victimization Among Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Lynch, Kellie R; Helton, Jesse J; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-03-01

    Children experiencing or witnessing violence in the home are at risk of a number of cognitive, social, and behavioral challenges as they age. A handful of recent studies have suggested that food insecurity may be one factor associated with violence against children in the home. The present study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to explore the link between household food insecurity during the first three waves of data collection (i.e., the first few years of life) and witnessing or being the victim of violence in the home among very young children (~ age 4). The results suggest that the predicted probability of early childhood exposure to violence and/or victimization in the home is nearly 6 times more likely in persistently food-insecure households (i.e., households that are food insecure across all three waves) relative to food secure households. Limitations and avenues for future research are noted.

  18. Incremental Net Benefit of Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L; Dickerson, John F; Saldana, Lisa; Fisher, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9-12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.

  19. The frequency of outdoor play for preschool age children cared for at home-based child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Zhou, Chuan; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Given that more than 34% of U.S. children are cared for in home-based child care settings and outdoor play is associated with physical activity and other health benefits, we sought to characterize the outdoor play frequency of preschoolers cared for at home-based child care settings and factors associated with outdoor play. Cross-sectional study of 1900 preschoolers (representing approximately 862,800 children) cared for in home-based child care settings (including relative and nonrelative care) using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Only 50% of home-based child care providers reported taking the child outside to walk or play at least once/day. More than one-third of all children did not go outside to play daily with either their parent(s) or home-based child care provider. There were increased odds of going outside daily for children cared for by nonrelatives in the child's home compared with care from a relative. Children with ≥3 regular playmates had greater odds of being taken outdoors by either the parents or child care provider. We did not find statistically significant associations between other child level (age, sex, screen-time), family level (highest education in household, mother's race, employment, exercise frequency), and child care level (hours in care, provider's educational attainment, perception of neighborhood safety) factors and frequency of outdoor play. At a national level, the frequency of outdoor play for preschoolers cared for in home-based child care settings is suboptimal. Further study and efforts to increase outdoor playtime for children in home-based child care settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  1. Correlates and outcomes associated with aggression and victimization among elementary-school children in a low-income urban context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.L.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the prevalence of aggression is high among low-income urban youth who have to cope with a number of psychological stressors. Less is known about the early development and consequences of aggression and peer victimization prior to adolescence in these contexts. This

  2. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  3. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  4. Effects of a Social Story Intervention with a Modified Perspective Sentence on Preschool-Age Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasch, Delilah Jean

    2013-01-01

    Young children with autism often experience delays in social skills and social competence. These delays result in poor relationships and decreased social interactions and engagement, and eventually, social isolation and withdrawal. Social skills deficits are also correlated to behavioral and emotional difficulties. Addressing these delays is…

  5. Functioning of very preterm born children at preschool age: Follow-up of an early intervention programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, G.J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the effects of the multicentre RCT on the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) in children born preterm, with a gestation of less than 32 weeks and/or a birth weight below 1500 grams (VLBW), at the age of school entry. Eighty-six infants were enrolled in

  6. Variables Involved in Personal, Social and School Adjustment in a Sample of Preschool-Aged Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Fernandez-Parra, Antonio; Lopez-Rubio, Sonia; Carles, Rosario; Mata, Sara; Vives, Maria del Carmen; Navarro, Elena; Marquez, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The continuing incorporation of immigrant populations into the Spanish educational system poses an important challenge in that all participants must cooperate toward creating the best possible adaptation process at the academic level as well as on the personal and social levels. A number of different factors appear to influence children's…

  7. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  8. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skröder, Helena [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hawkesworth, Sophie [Medical Research Council (MRC), International Nutrition Group, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. (United Kingdom); Kippler, Maria [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Arifeen, Shams [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Wagatsuma, Yukiko [Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. (Japan); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Unit of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  9. Factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in children of pre-school age in the city of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.

  10. Kidney function and blood pressure in preschool-aged children exposed to cadmium and arsenic - potential alleviation by selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skröder, Helena; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Kippler, Maria; El Arifeen, Shams; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Moore, Sophie E.; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to toxic compounds may cause long-lasting health effects, but few studies have investigated effects of childhood exposure to nephrotoxic metals on kidney and cardiovascular function. Objectives: To assess effects of exposure to arsenic and cadmium on kidney function and blood pressure in pre-school-aged children, and potential protection by selenium. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of the 4.5 years of age (range: 4.4–5.4 years) follow-up of the children from a supplementation trial in pregnancy (MINIMat) in rural Bangladesh, and nested studies on early-life metal exposures. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium and selenium from food and drinking water was assessed by concentrations in children's urine, measured by ICP-MS. Kidney function was assessed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, n=1106), calculated from serum cystatin C, and by kidney volume, measured by ultrasound (n=375). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured (n=1356) after five minutes rest. Results: Multivariable-adjusted regression analyzes showed that exposure to cadmium, but not arsenic, was inversely associated with eGFR, particularly in girls. A 0.5 µg/L increase in urinary cadmium among the girls (above spline knot at 0.12) was associated with a decrease in eGFR of 2.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , corresponding to 0.2SD (p=0.022). A slightly weaker inverse association with cadmium was also indicated for kidney volume, but no significant associations were found with blood pressure. Stratifying on children's urinary selenium (below or above median of 12.6 µg/L) showed a three times stronger inverse association of U-Cd with eGFR (all children) in the lower selenium stratum (B=−2.8; 95% CI: −5.5, −0.20; p=0.035), compared to those with higher selenium (B=−0.79; 95% CI: −3.0, 1.4; p=0.49). Conclusions: Childhood cadmium exposure seems to adversely affect kidney function, but not blood pressure, in this population of young

  11. Maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and body mass index in preschool-aged children: a prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton Susan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has found associations between parental feeding practices and children's eating behaviour and weight status. Prospective research is needed to elucidate these relationships. Methods One hundred and fifty-six mothers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed questionnaires including measures of maternal feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring and modelling of healthy eating, child eating behaviour (food responsiveness, food fussiness and interest in food, and mother reported child height and weight. The questionnaire was repeated 12 months later. Regression analyses were used to find longitudinal associations between maternal feeding practices, child eating behaviour and child body mass index (BMI. Results Modelling of healthy eating predicted lower child food fussiness and higher interest in food one year later, and pressure to eat predicted lower child interest in food. Restriction did not predict changes in child eating behaviour. Maternal feeding practices did not prospectively predict child food responsiveness or child BMI. Conclusion Maternal feeding practices appear to influence young children's eating behaviour but not weight status in the short term.

  12. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen L; Brann, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants ( n = 20) were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1) childcare providers perceptions of children's fruit and vegetable consumption and (2) components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider's perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  13. Tipping the balance: use of advergames to promote consumption of nutritious foods and beverages by low-income African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, Tiffany A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2009-07-01

    To examine how advergames, which are online computer games developed to market a product, affect consumption of healthier and less healthy snacks by low-income African American children. Cross-sectional, between-subjects examination of an advergame in which children were rewarded for having their computer character consume healthier or less healthy foods and beverages. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 conditions: (1) the healthier advergame condition, (2) the less healthy advergame condition, or (3) the control condition. Urban public elementary schools. Thirty low-income, African American children aged 9 to 10 years. Main Exposure Children in the treatment conditions played a less healthy or a healthier version of an advergame 2 times before choosing and eating a snack and completing the experimental measures. Children in the control group chose and ate a snack before playing the game and completing the measures. The number of healthier snack items children selected and ate and how much children liked the game. Children who played the healthier version of the advergame selected and ate significantly more healthy snacks than did those who played the less healthy version. Children reported liking the advergame. Findings suggest that concerns about online advergames that market unhealthy foods are justified. However, advergames may also be used to promote healthier foods and beverages. This kind of social marketing approach could tip the scales toward the selection of higher-quality snacks, thereby helping to curb the obesity epidemic.

  14. Maternal Health Status and Parenting Stress in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Mothers of Children with Conduct Disorder Problems: the Role of Daily Parenting Hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-12-01

    Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles mediated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. The sample included 177 low-income black, Latina, and white mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. Path analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediated the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems.

  15. Examining the Benefits and Barriers of Instructional Gardening Programs to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Preschool-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research exists on using instructional gardening programs with school age children as a means of improving dietary quality and for obesity prevention. This article examines the potential use of instructional gardens in childcare settings to improving fruit and vegetable intake in young children. A qualitative study was conducted with childcare providers. Participants (n=20 were recruited via e-mails, letters, and follow-up phone calls. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes within two areas (1 childcare providers perceptions of children’s fruit and vegetable consumption and (2 components necessary to initiate or improve instructional gardening programs. Themes associated with provider’s perceptions of child fruit and vegetable consumption included benefits of consumption, willingness to try fruits and vegetables, meeting recommendations, and influence of the home and childcare environments on child eating. Benefits, barriers, and resources needed were identified as themes related to starting or improving instructional gardening programs. Benefits to gardening with preschoolers are consistent with those found in school-age populations. While several barriers exist, resources are available to childcare providers to address these barriers. Increased knowledge and awareness of resources are necessary to improve the success of gardening programs in the childcare setting with the goal of improving child diet quality.

  16. Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Samantha C L; Harvey, Danielle J; Shields, Rebecca H; Shields, Grant S; Rashedi, Roxanne N; Tancredi, Daniel J; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hansen, Robin L; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral therapies are first-line for preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies support yoga for school-aged children with ADHD; this study evaluated yoga in preschoolers on parent- and teacher-rated attention/challenging behaviors, attentional control (Kinder Test of Attentional Performance [KiTAP]), and heart rate variability (HRV). This randomized waitlist-controlled trial tested a 6-week yoga intervention in preschoolers with ≥4 ADHD symptoms on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Preschool Version. Group 1 (n = 12) practiced yoga first; Group 2 (n = 11) practiced yoga second. We collected data at 4 time points: baseline, T1 (6 weeks), T2 (12 weeks), and follow-up (3 months after T2). At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups. At T1, Group 1 had faster reaction times on the KiTAP go/no-go task (p = 0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI], -371.1 to -59.1, d = -1.7), fewer distractibility errors of omission (p = 0.009, 95% CI, -14.2 to -2.3, d = -1.5), and more commission errors (p = 0.02, 95% CI, 1.4-14.8, d = 1.3) than Group 2. Children in Group 1 with more severe symptoms at baseline showed improvement at T1 versus control on parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire hyperactivity inattention (β = -2.1, p = 0.04, 95% CI, -4.0 to -0.1) and inattention on the ADHD Rating Scale (β = -4.4, p = 0.02, 95% CI, -7.9 to -0.9). HRV measures did not differ between groups. Yoga was associated with modest improvements on an objective measure of attention (KiTAP) and selective improvements on parent ratings.

  17. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touray Sunkaru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While “malaria cases” are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures. Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea, new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. Methods We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season, assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6–59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. Findings No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Conclusions Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory

  18. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Roslyn N; Jordan, Rachel; Pareezer, Laura; Moodie, Anne; Finn, Christine; Luther, Belinda; Arnfield, Evyn; Pym, Aaron; Craven, Alex; Beall, Paula; Weir, Kelly; Kentish, Megan; Wynter, Meredith; Ware, Robert; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; McKinlay, Lynne; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2013-06-11

    describes a large population-based study of early motor development and brain structure in a representative sample of preschool aged children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. The results of this study will be published in peer reviewed journals and presented at relevant international conferences. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN1261200169820).

  19. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  20. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P < .001) and age (Wilks' λ = .89; F = 2.29; P < .001) were observed. Facebook, e-mail, texting, and smartphone applications may be innovative modalities to engage with low-income parents and caregivers aged ≤ 45. However, some strategies may be ineffective for reaching Hispanic families as they reported less use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Factors contributing to the psychological well-being for Hong Kong Chinese children from low-income families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ka Yan; Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Lam, Katherine Ka Wai; Chan, Sophia S C; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence demonstrating the negative impact of poverty and income disparity on children's psychological well-being, there has been a lack of qualitative information which addresses its contributing factors. This study aimed to shed light on this area by comparing the experiences toward daily life between children living in low- and high-income families. A qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted from May 2012 to January 2013. A random sample of 42 children aged 10-13, with 25 from low- and 17 from high-income families were asked to voluntarily response to a demographic sheet and undergo individual semi-structured interviews which lasted about 25-30 min. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (reference UW 12-237). The findings of this study revealed that the living environment, physical health, social life and ability to function at school of children from low-income families are severely impaired. It fills a gap in the literature by showing how poverty and income disparity affect the daily lives of children from low-income families on different levels. Also, adopting a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits are possible factors mediating the effects of poverty and income disparity on the psychological well-being of children from low-income families. It is vital for healthcare professionals going beyond their normal roles to give advice on healthy lifestyles and behaviors by building multidisciplinary partnerships with schools and the community. Additionally, healthcare professionals should also target on these two possible factors to develop and implement appropriate interventions for promoting the psychological well-being among children living in poverty. Trial registration NCT02877719. 19 August 2016 retrospectively registered.

  2. The manifestation of depression in the context of urban poverty: a factor analysis of the Children's Depression Inventory in low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeremy J; Grant, Kathryn E; Amrhein, Kelly; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Farahmand, Farahnaz; Harrison, Aubrey; Thomas, Kina J; Carleton, Russell A; Lugo-Hernandez, Eduardo; Katz, Brian N

    2014-12-01

    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare the fit of 2 factor structures for the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) in an urban community sample of low-income youth. Results suggest that the 6-factor model developed by Craighead and colleagues (1998) was a strong fit to the pattern of symptoms reported by low-income urban youth and was a superior fit with these data than the original 5-factor model of the CDI (Kovacs, 1992). Additionally, results indicated that all 6 factors from the Craighead model contributed to the measurement of depression, including School Problems and Externalizing Problems especially for older adolescents. This pattern of findings may reflect distinct contextual influences of urban poverty on the manifestation and measurement of depression in youth. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Low-income minority and homeless mothers' perceptions of their 9-13 year-old children's weight status, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.

  4. Motives Underlying Food Choice for Children and Perception of Nutritional Information Among Low-Income Mothers in a Latin American Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of nutritional information on how low-income mothers select food for their children. Five focus groups, each consisting of 5-10 participants, were conducted. Women, older than 18 years, mothers of young children who were beneficiaries of one of the national food stamps programs in Uruguay. Focus group discussions were held around motives underlying food choices for children and perception of labeling systems. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive coding. Forty-two women, aged between 18 and 40 years, participated in 5 focus groups. Results showed that low-income mothers do not consider nutritional information when selecting food their children. Traditional nutritional labeling was perceived as complex, difficult to find, and difficult to understand. Participants stressed that they relied on the nutrition claims included on labels for assessing the healthfulness of food products. Semi-directive and directive front-of-pack labels were positively evaluated in terms of ease of interpretation. Participants preferred the traffic light system over other alternatives. Results suggest the need to implement simplified nutritional labeling and to regulate the use of nutrition claims on products targeted at children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk of poor development in young children in low-income and middle-income countries: an estimation and analysis at the global, regional, and country level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Black, Maureen M; Richter, Linda M

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background A 2007 study published in The Lancet estimated that approximately 219 million children aged younger than 5 years were exposed to stunting or extreme poverty in 2004. We updated the 2004 estimates with the use of improved data and methods and generated estimates for 2010. Methods We used country-level prevalence of stunting in children younger than 5 years based on the 2006 Growth Standards proposed by WHO and poverty ratios from the World Bank to estimate children who were either stunted or lived in extreme poverty for 141 low-income and middle-income countries in 2004 and 2010. To avoid counting the same children twice, we excluded children jointly exposed to stunting and extreme poverty from children living in extreme poverty. To examine the robustness of estimates, we also used moderate poverty measures. Findings The 2007 study underestimated children at risk of poor development. The estimated number of children exposed to the two risk factors in low-income and middle-income countries decreased from 279·1 million (95% CI 250·4 million–307·4 million) in 2004 to 249·4 million (209·3 million–292·6 million) in 2010; prevalence of children at risk fell from 51% (95% CI 46–56) to 43% (36–51). The decline occurred in all income groups and regions with south Asia experiencing the largest drop. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence in both years. These findings were robust to variations in poverty measures. Interpretation Progress has been made in reducing the number of children exposed to stunting or poverty between 2004 and 2010, but this is still not enough. Scaling up of effective interventions targeting the most vulnerable children is urgently needed. Funding National Institutes of Health, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Hilton Foundation, and WHO. PMID:27717632

  6. Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Balčiūnienė

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.02

  7. Adults and Children in Low-Income Households that Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Ammerman, Alice S; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-07-08

    This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2-12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 ( n = 41) and February 2016 ( n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t -tests ( p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes.

  8. Relationship-Focused Child Care Practices: Quality of Care and Child Outcomes for Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Klausli, Julia F.; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Child care delivery practices promoting continuous, primary caregiver-child relationships (relationship-focused child care) were evaluated for 223 preschool-age children (45% African American, 55% Latino) attending child care centers serving low-income children. Both relationship-focused and non-relationship-focused centers were…

  9. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  10. When learning a second language does not mean losing the first: bilingual language development in low-income, Spanish-speaking children attending bilingual preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, A; Díaz, R M; Espinosa, L; Rodríguez, J L

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses two investigations which explored the bilingual language development outcomes of comparable groups of low-income, Spanish-speaking, Mexican American children who either did or did not attended a bilingual (Spanish/English) preschool. Study 1 is a replication of a study by Rodríguez, Díaz, Duran, and Espinosa, involving a new sample of 26 children who attended bilingual preschool for one year and 20 control children who remained at home. Study 2 represents a 1-year, longitudinal follow-up of Rodríguez et al.'s, sample of children during and after the children spent another year at home or in the preschool. In both investigations, standardized, objective measures of three components of children's language proficiency (productive language, receptive language, and language complexity) in English and Spanish were obtained at the beginning and end of the academic year. Contrary to fears that have been expressed by some that early exposure to English would lead to children's native language loss, the results of both studies offered no evidence of Spanish proficiency loss for children attending bilingual preschool. Children who attended bilingual preschool, compared to those who remained at home, showed significant and parallel gains in Spanish language development as well as significant and greater increases in English language proficiency over time. Results are discussed in terms of the need for more systematic research to be conducted in this area to inform policy and practice in the early education and development of language-minority children.

  11. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Bellettiere, John; Hughes, Suzanne C; Nguyen, Benjamin; Berardi, Vincent; Liles, Sandy; Obayashi, Saori; Hofstetter, C Richard; Blumberg, Elaine; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2017-01-01

    Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193). We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.

  12. Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Children are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14 and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193. We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.

  13. Bacterial microbiome of breast milk and child saliva from low-income Mexican-American women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, Veronica; Street, Kelly; Francis, Stephen; Bradman, Asa; Riley, Lee; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2016-06-01

    The childhood salivary microbiome, which plays an important role in healthy development, may be influenced by breast milk consumption. The composition of the milk microbiome and the role it plays in the establishment of the infant microbiome are not well understood. Here, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities in breast milk and 5-year-old child saliva from 10 low-income, Mexican-American mother-child pairs with a high prevalence of obesity. Members of the genus Streptococcus dominated both milk and salivary microbial communities in most subjects. Staphylococcus was observed predominately in milk samples while Prevotella was more prevalent in child saliva. No statistically significant relationships were observed between maternal and child microbiomes or between child microbiome and BMI. However, prepregnancy BMI was correlated with both lower Streptococcus abundance (r = -0.67) and higher microbial diversity (r = 0.77) in breast milk (P milk and salivary microbiomes in mother-child pairs and may inform future studies seeking to elucidate the relationship between early-life microbial exposures and pediatric health.

  14. Características vocais acústicas de crianças pré-escolares Vocal acoustic characteristics in pre-school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Michele Cappellari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O primeiro passo em qualquer tratamento é a avaliação. Desta forma, parâmetros de normalidade são a base para uma adequada avaliação. OBJETIVO: Verificar as medidas e características vocais de 23 crianças pré-escolares, entre quatro e seis anos, de ambos os sexos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostragem contou com questionário, triagem auditiva, e avaliação perceptivo-auditiva vocal, por meio da escala R.A.S.A.T.. A análise acústica foi realizada por meio do Multidimensional Voice Program. ESTUDO: Prospectivo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS: A variação de freqüência (vf0 e a proporção harmônico-ruído (NHR foram maiores na amostra total que aos cinco e seis anos; à medida que a idade aumentou, o NHR reduziu; à medida que o quociente de perturbação de Amplitude (PPQ aumentou, a vf0, variação de amplitude (vAm, o índice de fonação suave (SPI e o NHR também aumentaram; à medida que o PPQ, quociente de perturbação de amplitude (APQ e índice de turbulência vocal (VTI aumentaram, o índice de fonação suave (SPI reduziu. CONCLUSÃO: Os parâmetros acústicos, aos quatro anos, evidenciaram a imaturidade das estruturas e a falta de controle neuromuscular nessa idade e que o início deste processo de maturação, possivelmente, ocorre próximo aos cinco e seis anos de idade.Evaluation is the first step for any treatment. Therefore, normal parameters are the bases for proper evaluation. AIM: Verify measures and vocal acoustic characteristics of 23 pre-school aged children of both genders, aged four to six years and eight months. METHODS: The sampling process comprised a questionnaire -that was sent to parents, auditory screening and vocal-perception auditory assessment, based on the R.A.S.A.T. scale. Acoustic analysis was carried out through the Multi Dimensional Voice Program. STUDY: Prospective and cross-sectional. RESULTS: The noise-harmonic ratio (NHR and frequency variation (vf0 of the total sample was higher than what

  15. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  16. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  17. Risk of poor development in young children in low-income and middle-income countries: an estimation and analysis at the global, regional, and country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Black, Maureen M; Richter, Linda M

    2016-12-01

    A 2007 study published in The Lancet estimated that approximately 219 million children aged younger than 5 years were exposed to stunting or extreme poverty in 2004. We updated the 2004 estimates with the use of improved data and methods and generated estimates for 2010. We used country-level prevalence of stunting in children younger than 5 years based on the 2006 Growth Standards proposed by WHO and poverty ratios from the World Bank to estimate children who were either stunted or lived in extreme poverty for 141 low-income and middle-income countries in 2004 and 2010. To avoid counting the same children twice, we excluded children jointly exposed to stunting and extreme poverty from children living in extreme poverty. To examine the robustness of estimates, we also used moderate poverty measures. The 2007 study underestimated children at risk of poor development. The estimated number of children exposed to the two risk factors in low-income and middle-income countries decreased from 279·1 million (95% CI 250·4 million-307·4 million) in 2004 to 249·4 million (209·3 million-292·6 million) in 2010; prevalence of children at risk fell from 51% (95% CI 46-56) to 43% (36-51). The decline occurred in all income groups and regions with south Asia experiencing the largest drop. Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest prevalence in both years. These findings were robust to variations in poverty measures. Progress has been made in reducing the number of children exposed to stunting or poverty between 2004 and 2010, but this is still not enough. Scaling up of effective interventions targeting the most vulnerable children is urgently needed. National Institutes of Health, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Hilton Foundation, and WHO. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.

  19. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    OpenAIRE

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2010-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children...

  20. Low Income Mothers coming to Primary Care: Depression and Reports of Problems with Their Children. Data Trends #109

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" indicates that children who have a parent who is depressed are at greater risk of depression themselves, as well as more frequent behavioral and school problems. Early detection…

  1. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2011-01-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of…

  2. The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Home Emotional Environment Among Low-Income Mothers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Monique; Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2018-02-14

    Objectives Household stressors, such as food insecurity, contribute to the home emotional environment and negatively affect child development. Little research on this topic has been conducted among very young children. This study aimed to examine the relationship between food insecurity and the home emotional environment, as well the extent to which the relationship may be mediated by maternal symptoms of depression. Frequency of praise, affection, and discipline of young children by mothers were examined as markers of the home emotional environment. Methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional study of mothers of children under the age of five (N = 4231). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between level of food security and frequency of praise and discipline of children. Mediation analysis using the KHB method was conducted to test whether maternal mental health mediated the relationship between food insecurity and each outcome. Results Low and very low food security were significantly associated with higher odds of disciplining children with high frequency. Controlling for all covariates, frequency of praise was not significantly associated with level of household food insecurity. Differences in praise and discipline frequency were found by language of interview, maternal education, and employment. Conclusions for Practice Parent-child interactions, specifically related to discipline, are related to food insecurity. Further research should consider cultural patterns and mechanisms behind the relationship between food insecurity and the home environment. Household stressors begin affecting children at young ages, and early intervention is essential to prevent further negative sequelae as children grow older.

  3. Effect of a novel video game on stroke knowledge of 9- to 10-year-old, low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; Hecht, Mindy F; DeSorbo, Alexandra L; Huq, Saima; Noble, James M

    2014-03-01

    Improving actionable stroke knowledge of a witness or bystander, which in some cases are children, may improve response to an acute stroke event. We used a quasiexperimental pre-test post-test design to evaluate actionable stroke knowledge of 210 children aged 9 to 10 years in response to a single, 15-minute exposure to a stroke education video game conducted in the school computer laboratory. After immediate post-test, we provided remote password-protected online video game access and encouraged children to play at their leisure from home. An unannounced delayed post-test occurred 7 weeks later. Two hundred ten children completed pretest, 205 completed immediate post-test, whereas 198 completed delayed post-test. One hundred fifty-six (74%) children had Internet access at home, and 41 (26%), mostly girls, played the video game remotely. There was significant improvement in stroke symptom composite scores, calling 911, and all individual stroke knowledge items, including a distractor across the testing sequence (PChildren who played the video game remotely demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of 1 symptom (sudden imbalance) compared with children who did not (Pgames may represent novel means for improving and sustaining actionable stroke knowledge of children.

  4. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Caregivers to Implement EMT en Español With Their Young Children With Language Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Tatiana Nogueira; Zelaya, Maria Isabel; Kaiser, Ann P

    2018-02-06

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching low-income Spanish-speaking caregivers of young children with language impairment a naturalistic language intervention, EMT en Español. A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-behaviors design replicated across 3 caregiver-child dyads was used to examine the effects of teaching core EMT en Español strategies. The training program utilized the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach strategies to support children's language development in Spanish. All sessions were at home and in Spanish. Caregivers increased their use of matched turns, target talk, expansions, and a communication elicitation procedure following training on each specific skill. Additionally, caregivers generalized increased use of matched turns and target talk to an untrained activity during the intervention period and maintained their behavior 1 month after completing intervention. Two of 3 caregivers generalized their use of expansions, and 1 caregiver generalized her use of a communication elicitation procedure. Modest effects on the child's number of different words were observed for 2 of the 3 target children over the course of the intervention sessions. All 3 children demonstrated increases in total spontaneous words. Spanish-speaking caregivers were able to implement naturalistic language teaching strategies with their young children with language impairment in a relatively short-term intervention.

  6. Dietary intake and parents' perception of mealtime behaviors in preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockner, Donna W; Crowe, Terry K; Skipper, Betty J

    2008-08-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report that their children have selective eating behaviors and refuse many foods, which could result in inadequate nutrient intake. This preliminary cross-sectional descriptive study investigated dietary intake and parents' reported perception of food behaviors of 20 3- to 5-year-old children with ASD. Twenty typically developing children matched for sex, age, and ethnicity were also studied as a case-control comparison. Nutrient intake determined from 3-day food records was adjusted for day-to-day variation to determine the estimate of usual intake distribution for the two groups. This distribution was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intake recommendations. The reported food behaviors and use of vitamin or mineral supplements were compared for matched pairs using the exact McNemar test. Nutrient intake was similar for both groups of children, with the majority of children consuming more than the recommended amounts for most nutrients. Nutrients least likely to be consumed in recommended amounts were vitamin A, vitamin E, fiber, and calcium. Children with ASD were more likely to consume vitamin/mineral supplements than typically developing children. Compared with parents of typically developing children, parents of children with ASD were more likely to report that their children were picky eaters and resisted trying new foods, and they were less likely to describe their children as healthy eaters or that they eat a variety of foods. Despite the similar and generally adequate nutrient intake for the 40 children in this study, parents of children with ASD had more negative perceptions of their children's dietary behaviors.

  7. The other Campylobacters: Not innocent bystanders in endemic diarrhea and dysentery in children in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Ruthly; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Rouhani, Saba; Siguas Salas, Mery; Paredes Olortegui, Maribel; Rengifo Trigoso, Dixner; Pisanic, Nora; Burga, Rosa; Meza, Rina; Meza Sanchez, Graciela; Gregory, Michael J; Houpt, Eric R; Platts-Mills, James A; Kosek, Margaret N

    2018-02-01

    Campylobacter is one of the main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni. Recent studies conducted in developing countries and using novel diagnostic techniques have generated evidence of the increasing burden and importance of other Campylobacter species, i.e. non-C. coli/jejuni. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the prevalence of C. coli/jejuni and other Campylobacter in children with clinical dysentery and severe diarrhea as well as without diarrhea to better understand the clinical importance of infections with Campylobacter species other than C. coli/jejuni. Our nested case-control study of 439 stool samples included dysenteric stools, stools collected during severe diarrhea episodes, and asymptomatic stools which were systematically selected to be representative of clinical phenotypes from 9,160 stools collected during a birth cohort study of 201 children followed until two years of age. Other Campylobacter accounted for 76.4% of the 216 Campylobacter detections by qPCR and were more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all clinical groups. Other Campylobacter were also more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all age groups, with older children bearing a higher burden of other Campylobacter. Biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and injury (methylene blue, fecal occult test, myeloperoxidase or MPO) showed a strong association with dysentery, but mixed results with infection. MPO levels were generally higher among children infected with C. coli/jejuni, but Shigella-infected children suffering from dysentery recorded the highest levels (26,224 ng/mL); the lowest levels (10,625 ng/mL) were among asymptomatic children infected with other Campylobacter. Adjusting for age, sex, and Shigella infection, dysentery was significantly associated with C. coli/jejuni but not with other Campylobacter, whereas severe diarrhea was

  8. The other Campylobacters: Not innocent bystanders in endemic diarrhea and dysentery in children in low-income settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthly François

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is one of the main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Most of the current knowledge about the epidemiology of this food-borne infection concerns two species, C. coli and C. jejuni. Recent studies conducted in developing countries and using novel diagnostic techniques have generated evidence of the increasing burden and importance of other Campylobacter species, i.e. non-C. coli/jejuni. We performed a nested case-control study to compare the prevalence of C. coli/jejuni and other Campylobacter in children with clinical dysentery and severe diarrhea as well as without diarrhea to better understand the clinical importance of infections with Campylobacter species other than C. coli/jejuni.Our nested case-control study of 439 stool samples included dysenteric stools, stools collected during severe diarrhea episodes, and asymptomatic stools which were systematically selected to be representative of clinical phenotypes from 9,160 stools collected during a birth cohort study of 201 children followed until two years of age. Other Campylobacter accounted for 76.4% of the 216 Campylobacter detections by qPCR and were more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all clinical groups. Other Campylobacter were also more prevalent than C. coli/jejuni across all age groups, with older children bearing a higher burden of other Campylobacter. Biomarkers of intestinal inflammation and injury (methylene blue, fecal occult test, myeloperoxidase or MPO showed a strong association with dysentery, but mixed results with infection. MPO levels were generally higher among children infected with C. coli/jejuni, but Shigella-infected children suffering from dysentery recorded the highest levels (26,224 ng/mL; the lowest levels (10,625 ng/mL were among asymptomatic children infected with other Campylobacter. Adjusting for age, sex, and Shigella infection, dysentery was significantly associated with C. coli/jejuni but not with other Campylobacter, whereas severe

  9. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  10. Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirtcliff R Mike

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. Methods As part of the evaluation of the program, children in Klamath and comparable non-program counties were examined in their 2nd year of life to begin to determine if benefits accrued to the offspring of the mothers in Klamath County. Results Eighty-five and 58.9% of the children were caries free in the Klamath and comparison county samples, respectively (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13, 1.93. The mean (SD number of teeth with any decay was .75 (2.5 in the test population and 1.6 (2.5 in the comparison population (t = 2.08, p = .04. Conclusions The assessment showed that children of mothers in the Klamath County program were about one and a half times more likely to be caries free than children in the comparison counties. Additional controlled studies are being undertaken.

  11. Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Sutherland, Marilynn; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Ludwig, Sharity; Smolen, Darlene

    2010-02-18

    A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid) in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. As part of the evaluation of the program, children in Klamath and comparable non-program counties were examined in their 2nd year of life to begin to determine if benefits accrued to the offspring of the mothers in Klamath County. Eighty-five and 58.9% of the children were caries free in the Klamath and comparison county samples, respectively (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13, 1.93). The mean (SD) number of teeth with any decay was .75 (2.5) in the test population and 1.6 (2.5) in the comparison population (t = 2.08, p = .04). The assessment showed that children of mothers in the Klamath County program were about one and a half times more likely to be caries free than children in the comparison counties. Additional controlled studies are being undertaken.

  12. Low-Income Parents' Warmth and Parent-Child Activities for Children with Disabilities, Suspected Delays and Biological Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.; Peterson, Carla A.; Wall, Shavaun; Carta, Judith J.; Luze, Gayle; Swanson, Mark; Jeon, Hyun-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Warm and responsive parenting is optimal for child development, but this style of parenting may be difficult for some parents to achieve. This study examines how parents' observed warmth and their reported frequency of parent-child activities were related to children's classifications as having biological risks or a range of disability indicators.…

  13. Risk, Conflict, Mothers' Parenting, and Children's Adjustment in Low-Income, Mexican Immigrant, and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…

  14. The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child…

  15. Aboriginal Children and Their Caregivers Living with Low Income: Outcomes from a Two-Generation Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen; Tough, Suzanne; Edwards, Nancy; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Donnelly, Carlene

    2011-06-01

    The development of preschool children of Aboriginal heritage is jeopardized by the inter-generational transmission of risk that has created, and continues to create, social disadvantage. Early intervention programs are intended to mitigate the impact of social disadvantage. Yet, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs for children of Aboriginal heritage is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program on 45 children of Aboriginal heritage and their caregivers. We used a single-group, pretest (program intake)/posttest (program exit) design with follow-up when the children were 7 years old. We used an observational measure of child receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) and caregiver-reported measures of child development (Nipissing District Developmental Screen), risk for child maltreatment (Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory; AAPI), parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale; RSE), and life skills (Community Life Skills scale; CLS). Using paired t-tests we found statistically significant increases in child receptive language scores between intake and exit, and repeated-measures ANOVA showed that these improvements were maintained up to age 7 years. For caregivers, Pearson's correlations demonstrated that risk for child maltreatment, parenting stress, self-esteem, and life skills were stable over time. Results of this study suggest that children of Aboriginal heritage can benefit from participation in a two-generation, multi-cultural preschool program. Their caregivers may have received greater benefit if issues of intergenerational transmission of the negative influences of residential schools were addressed as part of programming.

  16. Comparison of a 4.5 F semi-rigid ureteroscope with a 7.5 F rigid ureteroscope in the treatment of ureteral stones in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Murat; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Penbegul, Necmettin; Soylemez, Haluk; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Hatipoglu, Namik Kemal; Bozkurt, Yasar; Cakmakci, Suleyman

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the success and complication rates of a 4.5 F ureteroscope with a 7.5 F ureteroscope in the treatment of urolithiasis in preschool-age children. We retrospectively reviewed 69 ureteroscopy (URS) procedures in a pediatric population (40 boys, 29 girls). We divided the patients into two groups according to the type of ureteroscope used: group 1 (n = 42, Storz 7.5 F) and group 2 (n = 27, Wolf 4.5 F). We statistically compared all the procedures performed in both groups regarding patient age, complication rates, whether the procedure was therapeutic, and whether we used a guidewire. Additionally, in cases with ureteral stones, we also compared the stone clearance rate and the necessity of X-ray imaging between the two groups. The mean patient age was 56.04 months in group 1 and 47.48 months in group 2 (p = 0.057). The stone-free rate was 78.6 % in group 1 and 92.6 % in group 2 (p > 0.05). However, when we compared the stone-free rates for patients younger than 3 years, the rate was 66.7 % in group 1 and 93.8 % in group 2 (p < 0.05). The difference was not statistically significant for patients between the ages of 4 and 7 years. The success and failure rates revealed better outcomes for treatment of ureteral stones with a 4.5 F ureteroscope. We recommend the use of the mini-ureteroscope, especially in infants and preschool-age children.

  17. Effects of Exergame Play on EF in Children and Adolescents at a Summer Camp for Low Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel M; Richert, Rebekah A; Staiano, Amanda E; Wartella, Ellen; Calvert, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Past research has suggested exergame play improves adolescents' executive function (EF) skills. EF change in 70 African American and Hispanic/Latino 10- to 16-year-olds participating in an inner-city summer camp was assessed following five 30-minute exergame play sessions. Children's EF scores improved from pre- to posttest, and factors related to this change were examined. The number of exergame sessions the participants attended predicted posttest scores. In addition, level of achievement during game play was related to EF scores. Finally, the children's level of enjoyment was not related to EF; however, frustration and boredom during game play were negatively related to EF. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the relationship between exergame play and cognitive benefits for adolescent players.

  18. Internet use and eHealth literacy of low-income parents whose children have special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Madden, Vanessa; Wang, Hua; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth

    2011-09-29

    The Internet has revolutionized the way in which many Americans search for health care information. Unfortunately, being able to use the Internet for this purpose is predicated on having access to the Internet and being able to understand and comprehend online health information. This is especially important for parents of children with special health care needs who are forced to make many medical decisions throughout the lives of their children. Yet, no information is available about this vulnerable group. For parents of children with special health care needs we sought to (1) describe their Internet access and use, (2) determine which child and household factors were associated with Internet use, (3) describe eHealth literacy of Internet users, and (4) determine which child and household factors were associated with greater eHealth literacy. This was a cross-sectional telephone survey of 2371 parents whose children with special health care needs were enrolled in Florida's Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance Plan (SCHIP) programs (4072 parents were approached). To be enrolled in the program, families must have incomes that are less than or equal to 200% of the federal poverty level. The eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) was used to measure eHealth literacy. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to address the study objectives. The survey response rate was 58.2%. Participating parents were mainly female (2154/2371, 91%), white non-Hispanic (915/2371, 39%), English speaking (1827/2371, 77%), high school graduates (721/2371, 30%), married (1252/2371, 53%), and living in a two-parent household (1212/2371, 51%). Additionally, 82% of parents (1945/2371) in the sample reported that they used the Internet, and 49% of those parents used it daily (1158/2371). Almost three-quarters of Internet users had access to the Internet at home while about one-half had access at work. Parents who were African American, non-English speaking, older, and not

  19. A Little Bit of the Blues: Low-Level Symptoms of Maternal Depression and Classroom Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola Allison; Swindle, Taren; McKelvey, Lorraine; Bokony, Patti

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low-level depressive symptoms in mothers and teacher-reported child behavioral outcomes. Participants included 442 low-income mothers of preschool-age children who were screened for maternal depression by their child's preschool teacher. Teacher reports of child…

  20. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  1. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two child mental health clinics in Addis Ababa. The majority (66.7%; n = 68) had a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID); 34 children (33.3%) had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as their primary diagnosis. All caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire via a face-to-face interview, which included an adaptation of the Family Interview Schedule, closed questions about socio-demographic characteristics, explanatory models of illness, type of interventions used or desired and coping strategies, and an open ended question regarding the family's unmet needs. Most caregivers reported experience of stigma: 43.1% worried about being treated differently, 45.1% felt ashamed about their child's condition and 26.7% made an effort to keep their child's condition secret. Stigma did not depend on the type of developmental disorder, the child's age or gender, or on the age or level of education of the caregiver (all p > 0.05). Reported stigma was significantly higher in caregivers who had sought traditional help (p child's condition (p = .02) and in caregivers of Orthodox Christian faith (p = .03). Caregivers gave a mixture of biomedical explanations (e.g. head injury (30.4%) or birth complications (25.5%)) and supernatural explanations (e.g. spirit possession (40.2%) or sinful act (27.5%)) for their child's condition. The biggest reported unmet need was educational provision for their child (74.5%), followed by treatment by a health professional (47.1%), financial support (30.4%) and expert help to

  2. Child Care: States Exercise Flexibility in Setting Reimbursement Rates and Providing Access for Low-Income Children. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    In order to promote low-income parents' job preparation and work efforts, states were given greater flexibility to design programs using federal funds to subsidize child care for low-income families. At Congressional request, this report from the General Accounting Office describes how states set reimbursement rates and calculates the extent to…

  3. My child at mealtime: A visually enhanced self-assessment of feeding styles for low-income parents of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontai, Lenna L; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shilts, Mical K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2016-04-01

    The importance of caregiver feeding styles on children's dietary outcomes is well documented. However, the instruments used to assess feeding style are limited by high literacy demands, making selfassessment with low-income audiences challenging. The purpose of the current study is to report on the development of My Child at Mealtime (MCMT), a self-assessment tool with reduced literacy demands, designed to measure feeding styles with parents of preschool-aged children. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 44 Head Start parents of 2-5 year old children to develop question wording and identify appropriate visuals. The resulting tool was administered to 119 ethnically diverse, low-income parents of 2-5 year old children. Factor analysis resulted in a two-factor structure that reflects responsiveness and demandingness in a manner consistent with existing assessment tools. Results indicate the final visually enhanced MCMT self-assessment tool provides a measure of parenting style consistent with existing measures, while reducing the literacy demand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of tobacco and alcoholic beverages by children and teenagers in a low-income coastal community in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Varghese, C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Nair, M K

    1994-01-01

    To plan and implement cancer control measures, information about the baseline habit patterns of the community is needed. A coastal village near Trivandrum, Kerala, Southern India, supported mainly by the fishing industry, was identified for this study with regard to establishing measures to control oral cancer there. Oral cancer is prevalent in Kerala. Smoking and chewing tobacco and drinking alcoholic beverages are the major risk factors for this cancer. The socioeconomic status of the fishermen of Kerala is low and their literacy rate is low. The adults in coastal Kerala have been found to have a habit pattern of very high levels of tobacco and alcohol use. A survey was conducted to study the tobacco and alcohol use habits of 146 children and teenagers in this village. The percentages of study subjects with pan-tobacco-chewing, smoking, and drinking habits were 29%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. The habit pattern correlated negatively with education and positively with number of children per family. This survey provides information that can be used to plan cancer education efforts, including redesigning the school curriculum and focusing on high-risk groups.

  5. Promoting motor skills in low-income, ethnic children: The Physical Activity in Linguistically Diverse Communities (PALDC) nonrandomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Anthony D; Hardy, Louise L; Batterham, Marijka; Pearson, Phillip; McKeen, Kim; Puglisi, Lauren

    2017-11-01

    This study reports the long-term effects of a professional learning program for classroom teachers on fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency of primary school students from ethnically diverse backgrounds. A cluster non-randomized trial using a nested cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in 8 primary schools located in disadvantaged and culturally diverse areas in Sydney, Australia. The intervention used an action learning framework, with each school developing and implementing an action plan for enhancing the teaching of FMS in their school. School teams comprised 4-5 teachers and were supported by a member of the research team. The primary outcome was total proficiency score for 7 FMS (run, jump, catch, throw, kick, leap, side gallop). Outcome data were analyzed using mixed effects models. Eight-hundred and sixty-two students (82% response rate) were assessed at baseline in 2006 and 830 (82%) at follow-up in 2010. Compared with students in the control schools, there was a significantly greater increase in total motor skill proficiency among children in the intervention schools at follow-up (adjusted difference=5.2 components, 95%CI [1.65, 8.75]; p=0.01) and in four of the seven motor skills. Training classroom teachers to develop and implement units of work based around individual FMS is a promising strategy for increasing FMS among ethnically diverse children over an extended period of time. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The organizing-pedagogical conditions of students‟ training for the leadership of preschool age children‟ manual work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Boryn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of security the joint organizing-pedagogical conditions in the educationalprocess of higher educational institution, which would contribute to successful forming offuture educators’ readiness to leadership of preschool age children’ manual work through themastering of standard subjects’ content are substantiated in the article.Key words: professional training, preschool age children, organizing-pedagogicalconditions, manual work.

  7. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  8. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers'…

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment at Preschool Age: Adaptation and Validation of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities to 4 Year-old Basque-speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiarena, Ainara; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2017-10-23

    Early neuropsychological assessment provides important information for clinical practice and research. As previously no tool for neuropsychological assessment has been developed in or adapted to Basque, the aim of this study was to adapt and validate the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities for 4 years old children. The adaptation and validation of the original instrument followed the methodological steps established by the International Test Commission. We examined the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument in 273 Basque preschool children (aged between 4 years and 4 months and 4 years and 11 months; 52.2% boys). Confirmatory factor analysis showed satisfactory fit indexes except for the General Cognitive and Memory scales. Most scales presented adequate internal consistency (Reliability coefficients ranged between .55 and .81). The Basque version also showed evidence of validity based on the relationship between neuropsychological development and sex, parental education, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviours and early neurodevelopment (p < .05; effect sizes ranged between Cohen's d = .26 and .52 and r = .15 and 39). The Basque MSCA can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate cognitive and psychomotor development in preschool children.

  10. Perfil de consulta en niños alérgicos provenientes de familias de bajos ingresos Profile of consultation of allergic children from low income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Raimundo Rodríguez-Orozco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades alérgicas son una de las principales causas de atención médica en la infancia y su impacto se acentúa más en las familias de bajos ingresos. En un estudio descriptivo analítico se caracterizó el perfil de consulta del niño alérgico proveniente de familias mexicanas de bajos recursos económicos. Las enfermedades alérgicas predominaron en el sexo masculino y la edad escolar; el 71 % de los enfermos provenía de localidades urbanas. El asma fue el diagnóstico más frecuente (64 %, seguido de la rinitis alérgica (30 %, dermatitis atópica (6 % y urticaria (3 %. Las reactividades encontradas con más frecuencia en la prueba cutánea fueron Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, gato (17 %, perro (14 % y Cynodon dactylon (11 %. El alto grado de disfunción familiar y la poca adhesión a tratamientos prolongados posibilitan la perpetuidad de los síntomas y el pronóstico incierto en este grupo de niños.Allergic diseases are one of the main causes for seeing the doctor in childhood and their impact is more acute in low income families. An analytical descriptive study characterized the profile of medical consultation of the allergic child from Mexican low income families. Allergic diseases prevailed in males and at school age, and 71 % of the sick children lived in urban settings. Asthma was the most frequent diagnosis (64 % followed by allergic rhinitis (30%, atopic dermatitis (6 % and urticaria (3 %. The most commom reactivity rates in the cutaneous test were Dermatofagoides farinae (77 %, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (60 %, Phleum pratense (20 %, cat (17 %, dog (14 % and Cynodon dactylon (11 %. The high level of family dysfunction and low adhesion to long therapies make it possible the persistence of symptoms and the uncertain prognosis in this group of children.

  11. Neighborhood disparities in prevalence of childhood obesity among low-income children before and after implementation of New York City child care regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhobo, Jackson P; Edmunds, Lynn S; Dalenius, Karen; Jernigan, Jan; Davis, Christopher F; Giddings, Mark; Lesesne, Catherine; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    New York City Article 47 regulations, implemented in 2007, require licensed child care centers to improve the nutrition, physical activity, and television-viewing behaviors of enrolled children. To supplement an evaluation of the Article 47 regulations, we conducted an exploratory ecologic study to examine changes in childhood obesity prevalence among low-income preschool children enrolled in the Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in New York City neighborhoods with or without a district public health office. We conducted the study 3 years before (from 2004 through 2006) and after (from 2008 through 2010) the implementation of the regulations in 2007. We used an ecologic, time-trend analysis to compare 3-year cumulative obesity prevalence among WIC-enrolled preschool children during 2004 to 2006 and 2008 to 2010. Outcome data were obtained from the New York State component of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Early childhood obesity prevalence declined in all study neighborhoods from 2004-2006 to 2008-2010. The greatest decline occurred in Manhattan high-risk neighborhoods where obesity prevalence decreased from 18.6% in 2004-2006 to 15.3% in 2008-2010. The results showed a narrowing of the gap in obesity prevalence between high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods in Manhattan and the Bronx, but not in Brooklyn. The reductions in early childhood obesity prevalence in some high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods in New York City suggest that progress was made in reducing health disparities during the years just before and after implementation of the 2007 regulations. Future research should consider the built environment and markers of differential exposure to known interventions and policies related to childhood obesity prevention.

  12. The Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP) for low income underserved children in rural western North Carolina: a National Asthma Control Initiative Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Melinda S; Yeatts, Karin B; Russell, Donald W; Trees, Amy S; Sutherland, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of low-income children with asthma living in rural western North Carolina have suboptimal asthma management. To address the needs of these underserved children, we developed and implemented the Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP); RADMP was selected as one of 13 demonstration projects for the National Asthma Control Initiative (NACI). This observational intervention was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in 20 rural counties and the Eastern Band Cherokee Indian Reservation in western North Carolina. Community and individual intervention components included asthma education in-services and environmental assessments/remediation. The individual intervention also included clinical assessment and management. Environmental remediation was conducted in 13 childcare facilities and 50 homes; over 259 administrative staff received asthma education. Fifty children with mild to severe persistent asthma were followed for up to 2 years; 76% were enrolled in Medicaid. From 12-month pre-intervention to 12-month post-intervention, the total number of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits decreased from 158 to 4 and hospital admissions from 62 to 1 (p < 0.0001). From baseline to intervention completion, lung function FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75 increased by 7.2%, 13.2% and 21.1%, respectively (all p < 0.001), and average school absences dropped from 17 to 8.8 days. Healthcare cost avoided 12 months post-intervention were approximately $882,021. The RADMP program resulted in decreased ED visits, hospitalizations, school absences and improved lung function and eNO. This was the first NACI demonstration project to show substantial improvements in healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes among rural asthmatic children.

  13. Unique features of creative designing at the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilа Iryna Mykolayivna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to studying the specificity of creative designing at the preschool age. The author identifies the systematic approach on the design work and creative designing, knowledge adjustment, as well as the assessment criteria and performance indicators of creative designing by children at the preschool age. The article considers the psychological structure of the design activity, clarifies its characteristics and defines the role of each component of creative designing process at the preschool age. As a result of the empirical study it was proved that in the process of understanding the challenges pre-schoolers’s mind makes mental acts of comparison predominant. Their creative intention is determined by the focus on the structural and structural-functional characteristics of the subjects. The whole structure of the pre-schooler’s solution in the process of working with creative tasks on designing is integrated with the individual and regulatory aspect of creative designing that appears in the subjective mental actions, trends, and practice.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni-Associated Morbidity among Preschool-Aged Children along the Shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalugwa, Allen; Nuwaha, Fred; Tukahebwa, Edridah

    2017-01-01

    /916) of the children. Both liver and spleen were significantly more enlarged in the infected children than in the uninfected children (p ultrasonography. Physical palpation of the spleen was more often detected in the uninfected children. A significantly (p

  15. Birth order and sibship composition as predictors of overweight or obesity among low-income 4- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, R H; Miller, A L; Peterson, K E; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K; Baylin, A; Lumeng, J C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of birth order and number and sex of siblings with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. This is a cross-sectional study involving 273 low-income mother-child dyads. Questionnaires and anthropometry were completed. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of birth order, having younger siblings, having older siblings, having at least one brother and having at least one sister with odds of overweight or obesity. Analyses were repeated to additionally include non-biological siblings. Models were adjusted for potential confounders and intermediate variables. Prevalence of child overweight or obesity was 42.5%. Adjusting for covariates, only children and youngest siblings had higher odds of overweight or obesity compared with oldest siblings (odds ratio [OR]: 4.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67, 10.46 and OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 1.41, 7.33, respectively). Having one or more younger siblings and having at least one brother were associated with lower odds (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.69 and OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.81, respectively). Including non-biological siblings did not meaningfully change the associations. Birth order and sibship composition are associated with overweight or obesity among 4- to 8-year-olds. Future studies identifying the underlying behavioural mechanism can help inform family-based intervention programmes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuke; Moe, Christine L; Null, Clair; Raj, Suraja J; Baker, Kelly K; Robb, Katharine A; Yakubu, Habib; Ampofo, Joseph A; Wellington, Nii; Freeman, Matthew C; Armah, George; Reese, Heather E; Peprah, Dorothy; Teunis, Peter F M

    2017-10-01

    Lack of adequate sanitation results in fecal contamination of the environment and poses a risk of disease transmission via multiple exposure pathways. To better understand how eight different sources contribute to overall exposure to fecal contamination, we quantified exposure through multiple pathways for children under 5 years old in four high-density, low-income, urban neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. We collected more than 500 hours of structured observation of behaviors of 156 children, 800 household surveys, and 1,855 environmental samples. Data were analyzed using Bayesian models, estimating the environmental and behavioral factors associated with exposure to fecal contamination. These estimates were applied in exposure models simulating sequences of behaviors and transfers of fecal indicators. This approach allows us to identify the contribution of any sources of fecal contamination in the environment to child exposure and use dynamic fecal microbe transfer networks to track fecal indicators from the environment to oral ingestion. The contributions of different sources to exposure were categorized into four types (high/low by dose and frequency), as a basis for ranking pathways by the potential to reduce exposure. Although we observed variation in estimated exposure (10 8 -10 16 CFU/day for Escherichia coli ) between different age groups and neighborhoods, the greatest contribution was consistently from food (contributing > 99.9% to total exposure). Hands played a pivotal role in fecal microbe transfer, linking environmental sources to oral ingestion. The fecal microbe transfer network constructed here provides a systematic approach to study the complex interaction between contaminated environment and human behavior on exposure to fecal contamination.

  17. Assessing the role of appropriate primary health care on the use of dental services by Brazilian low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldani, Márcia Helena; Rocha, Juliana Schaia; Fadel, Cristina Berger; Nascimento, Antonio Carlos; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Moysés, Samuel Jorge

    2017-11-21

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between the quality of primary health care (PHC) and the use of dental services by preschoolers served by the Family Health Strategy (FHS), controlling for socio-demographic determinants and perceived need. The sample encompassed 438 children aged 3-5 years, enrolled in 19 FHS facilities in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil. Individual level variables were collected by interviewing parents or caregivers at home. They answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, oral hygiene habits and use of dental services. Parental perception of child's oral health related quality of life, as perceived need, was assessed by the Brazilian version of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Normative need was assessed by oral examinations, according to guidelines standardized by the World Health Organization. The contextual level factor was defined as the extent of implementation of PHC in the facilities. Managers responded to PCATool-Brazil, a validated questionnaire which measures the extent of PHC. Dentists answered to a version of PCATool, which was adapted and pretested for dental services. Multilevel analysis, based on Andersen's behavioral model, fitted the adjustment of "having ever consulted a dentist" to contextual and individual covariates. We observed high prevalence of dental caries. Almost half of the sample had had dental appointments in life. Social gradients were observed for the use of dental services. Although it was not able to eliminate the impact of adverse social conditions, higher levels of PHC attributes in dental services favored the effective use of such services by low-income children.

  18. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  19. Association of parental social support with energy balance-related behaviors in low-income and ethnically diverse children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents play an important role in providing their children with social support for healthy eating and physical activity. However, different types of social support (e.g., instrumental, emotional, modeling, rules might have different results on children’s actual behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the different types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors, as well as to examine whether these associations differ across racial/ethnic groups. Methods We surveyed 1169 low-income, ethnically diverse third graders and their caregivers to assess how children’s physical activity and eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were associated with instrumental social support, emotional social support, modeling, rules and availability of certain foods in the home. We used sequential linear regression to test the association of parental social support with a child’s physical activity and eating behaviors, adjusting for covariates, and then stratified to assess the differences in this association between racial/ethnic groups. Results Parental social support and covariates explained 9–13% of the variance in children’s energy balance-related behaviors. Family food culture was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, with availability of sugar-sweetened beverages in the home also associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Instrumental and emotional support for physical activity were significantly associated with the child’s physical activity. Results indicate that the association of various types of social support with children’s physical activity and eating behaviors differ across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions These results provide considerations for future interventions that aim to enhance parental support to improve children’s energy balance-related behaviors.

  20. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  1. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  2. Development of Motor-Life-Skills: Variations in Children at Risk for Motor Difficulties from the Toddler Age to Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Reikerås, Elin; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2018-01-01

    This article explores variations in development of everyday motor-life-skills in 661 children (329 girls and 332 boys) in Norwegian kindergartens of ages 2:9 (T1) and 4:9 (T2) years:months. The particular focus is on children at risk for problems in motor development (the 10% weakest children in the sample). The methodological approach chosen is…

  3. Breakfast-Skipping and Selecting Low-Nutritional-Quality Foods for Breakfast Are Common among Low-Income Urban Children, Regardless of Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Holly; Davey, Adam; Fisher, Jennifer O; Polonsky, Heather; Sherman, Sandra; Abel, Michelle L; Dale, Lauren C; Foster, Gary D; Bauer, Katherine W

    2016-03-01

    Universal access to the School Breakfast Program (SBP) is intended to help low-income and food-insecure students overcome barriers to eating breakfast. However, SBP participation is often still low despite universal access. Further information is needed with regard to these children's breakfast behaviors, and in particular breakfast behaviors among youth from food-insecure families, to inform effective breakfast interventions. The objective of this study was to examine breakfast behaviors among a large sample of urban students with universal access to the SBP and to identify differences in breakfast behaviors among children from food-secure compared with food-insecure households. A cross-sectional study of 821 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their parents from 16 schools was conducted. Students reported the foods/drinks selected and location of obtaining food/drink on the morning of data collection, parents reported household food security status using the 6-item Food Security Survey Module, and the school district provided SBP participation data during the fall semester of 2013. Multivariable linear regression models accounting for school-level clustering were used to examine differences in breakfast behaviors across 3 levels of household food security: food secure, low food secure, and very low food secure. Students participated in the SBP 31.2% of possible days, with 13% never participating in the SBP. One-fifth (19.4%) of students purchased something from a corner store for breakfast, and 16.9% skipped breakfast. Forty-six percent of students were food insecure; few differences in breakfast behaviors were observed across levels of food security. Despite universal access to the SBP, participation in the SBP is low. Breakfast skipping and selection of foods of low nutritional quality in the morning are common, regardless of household food security status. Additional novel implementation of the SBP and addressing students' breakfast preferences may be

  4. Executive functioning, emotion regulation, eating self-regulation, and weight status in low-income preschool children: How do they relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between child eating self-regulation, child non-eating self-regulation, and child BMIz in a low-income sample of Hispanic families with preschoolers. The eating in the absence of hunger task as well as parent-report of child satiety respo...

  5. Beating the Odds: A Longitudinal Investigation of Low-Income Dual-Language and Monolingual Children's English Language and Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myae; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Meacham, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the language and early literacy development of a sample of dual-language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English speakers from low-income families who received an Early Reading First intervention during their Head Start preschool year. A total of 62…

  6. The Effect of Picture Task Cards on Performance of the Test of Gross Motor Development by Preschool-Aged Children: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on the Test of Gross Motor Development (Second Edition; TGMD-2) by children with autism spectrum disorders improves when picture task cards were implemented into the assessment protocol [Breslin, C.M., & Rudisill, M.E. (2011). "The effect of visual supports on performance of the TGMD-2 for children with autism spectrum…

  7. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  8. Perfil lipídico e obesidade em escolares de baixa renda Lipid profile and obesity in low income school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Peter Grillo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil lipídico de escolares de baixa renda e sua relação com a obesidade. METODOLOGIA: A população em estudo foi composta por 257 escolares, com idade entre 3 e 14 anos, freqüentadores de instituições chamadas COMBEMI, no município de Itajaí - SC. Dados socioeconômicos foram coletados para caracterização da amostra. As concentrações lipídicas de colesterol total (CT, frações HDL-c (lipoproteína de alta densidade e LDL-c (lipoproteína de baixa densidade e triglicerídeo (TGL foram determinadas e avaliadas segundo os pontos de corte propostos pelas III Diretrizes Brasileiras sobre Dislipidemias. A condição de obesidade foi estabelecida entre os escolares, por meio do índice peso/estatura, em escore z, nas crianças, e do Índice de Massa Corporal, em percentis, nos adolescentes, sendo os pontos de corte maior que 2 e maior que o percentil 95, respectivamente. Os dados foram analisados segundo teste t de "Student", Mann-Whitney e Qui-quadrado. A associação entre dislipidemias e obesidade foi avaliada por meio da "odds ratio". RESULTADOS: A renda per capita média foi de R$ 86,65. As médias de CT, TGL, HDL-c e LDL-c foram 145, 61, 82 e 49 mg/dl, respectivamente. A hipercolesterolemia esteve presente em 3,1% da amostra, hipertrigliceridemia em 4,7%, LDL-c elevado em 6,6% e inadequados níveis de HDL-c em 17,9%. O percentual de obesidade encontrado foi de 7,4% nos escolares. Diferenças entre os sexos não foram observadas. Os níveis de HDL-c baixo associaram-se de maneira significante com a presença de obesidade (OR: 3,27 IC= 1,08-9,74. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apontam para um perfil lipídico diferenciado, com médias inferiores se comparados aos da literatura, sendo apenas a lipoproteína HDL-c associada à presença de obesidade entre os escolares de baixa renda.PURPOSE: To evaluate the lipid profile of school children from low-income families and its relation with obesity. METHODOLOGY: The study

  9. Validation of a home food inventory among low-income Spanish- and Somali-speaking families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Parke, Michelle; Martin, Lauren

    2013-07-01

    To refine and validate an existing home food inventory (HFI) for low-income Somali- and Spanish-speaking families. Formative assessment was conducted using two focus groups, followed by revisions of the HFI, translation of written materials and instrument validation in participants’ homes. Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, USA. Thirty low-income families with children of pre-school age (fifteen Spanish-speaking; fifteen Somali-speaking) completed the HFI simultaneously with, but independently of, a trained staff member. Analysis consisted of calculation of both item-specific and average food group kappa coefficients, specificity, sensitivity and Spearman’s correlation between participants’ and staff scores as a means of assessing criterion validity of individual items, food categories and the obesogenic score. The formative assessment revealed the need for few changes/additions for food items typically found in Spanish-speaking households. Somali-speaking participants requested few additions, but many deletions, including frozen processed food items, non-perishable produce and many sweets as they were not typical food items kept in the home. Generally, all validity indices were within an acceptable range, with the exception of values associated with items such as ‘whole wheat bread’ (k = 0.16). The obesogenic score (presence of high-fat, high-energy foods) had high criterion validity with k = 0.57, sensitivity = 91.8%, specificity = 70.6% and Spearman correlation = 0.78. The revised HFI is a valid assessment tool for use among Spanish and Somali households. This instrument refinement and validation process can be replicated with other population groups.

  10. An integrated microcredit, entrepreneurial training, and nutrition education intervention is associated with better growth among preschool-aged children in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Colecraft, Esi K; Sakyi-Dawson, Owuraku; Lartey, Anna; Ahunu, Ben K; Birks, Katherine A; Butler, Lorna M; Reddy, Manju B; Jensen, Helen H; Huff-Lonergan, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Poor diet quality is a determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. There is little evidence on the effectiveness of a multisector intervention to improve children's diets and nutritional status. The project tested whether participation in an entrepreneurial and nutrition education intervention with microcredit was associated with the nutritional status of children 2-5 y of age. A quasi-experimental 16-mo intervention was conducted with microcredit loans and weekly sessions of nutrition and entrepreneurship education for 179 women with children 2-5 y of age [intervention group (IG)]. Nonparticipating women and their children from the same villages (nonparticipant, n = 142) and from similar neighboring villages (comparison, n = 287) were enrolled. Repeated measures linear regression models were used first to examine children's weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) z scores at baseline and at 4 follow-up time points ∼4 mo apart. Time, intervention status, time-by-intervention interaction terms, region of residence, household wealth rank, household head occupation, number of children microcredit and education may improve nutritional outcomes of children living in poor, rural communities. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Environmental and individual determinants of core and non-core food and drink intake in preschool-aged children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L; Croker, H; Wardle, J; Cooke, L J

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to achieve healthier diets for children are likely to benefit from an understanding of the determinants. We examined environmental and individual predictors of children's intake of 'core' foods (fruit and vegetables) and 'non-core' foods (snacks and sweetened beverages). Predictors included parental intake, home availability, parental feeding styles (Encouragement and Monitoring) and children's food preferences. Based on research with older children, we expected intake of both food types to be associated with maternal intake, core foods to be more associated with children's preferences and non-core food intake more with the home environment. Primary caregivers (n=434) of children (2-5 years) from preschools and Children's Centres in London, UK, completed a self-report survey in 2008. Multiple regression analyses indicated children's fruit intake was associated with maternal fruit intake (B=0.29; P=0.000), children's liking for fruit (B=0.81; P=0.000) and a Monitoring style of parental feeding (B=0.13; P=0.021). Children's vegetable intake was similarly associated with maternal intake (B=0.39; P=0.000), children's liking for vegetables (B=0.77; P=0.000), Encouragement (B=0.19; P=0.021) and Monitoring (B=0.11; P=0.029). Non-core snack intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.25; P=0.029), Monitoring (B=-0.16; P=0.010), home availability (B=0.10; P=0.022) and television viewing (TV) (B=0.28; P=0.012). Non-core drink intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.32; P=0.000) and TV (B=0.20; P=0.019). Results indicate commonalities and differences in the predictors of core and non-core food intake, with only maternal intake being important across all types. Effective interventions to improve young children's diets may need to call on different strategies for different foods.

  12. Livestock ownership is associated with higher odds of anaemia among preschool-aged children, but not women of reproductive age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Colecraft, Esi K; Awuah, Raphael B; Boatemaa, Sandra; Lambrecht, Nathalie J; Adjorlolo, Leonard Kofi; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-04-02

    Livestock ownership may influence anaemia through complex and possibly contradictory mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of household livestock ownership with anaemia among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 6-59 months in Ghana and to examine the contribution of animal source foods (ASFs) to consumption patterns as a potential mechanism mediating this association. We analysed data on 4,441 women and 2,735 children from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and 16,772 households from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6. Haemoglobin measurements were used to define anaemia (non-pregnant women: <120 g/L; children: <110 g/L). Child- and household-level ASF consumption data were collected from 24-hour food group intake and food consumption and expenditure surveys, respectively. In multiple logistic regression models, household livestock ownership was associated with anaemia among children (OR, 95% CI: 1.5 [1.1, 2.0]), but not women (1.0 [0.83, 1.2]). Household ownership of chickens was associated with higher odds of anaemia among children (1.6 [1.2, 2.2]), but ownership of other animal species was not associated with anaemia among women or children. In path analyses, we observed no evidence of mediation of the association of household livestock ownership with child anaemia by ASF consumption. Ownership of livestock likely has limited importance for consumption of ASFs among young children in Ghana and may in fact place children at an increased risk of anaemia. Further research is needed to elucidate if and how pathogen exposure associated with livestock rearing may underlie this increased risk of anaemia. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between hearing screening-detected cases and sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jingrong; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Yan; Li, Yun; Mei, Ling; Yao, Guoyin; Wang, Yu; Shen, Xiaoming; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnosis and ages of intervention for cases of delayed-onset hearing loss identified sporadically or via a preschool hearing screening program. Retrospective study with the comparative analysis of two groups of children. Cases identified from screening were selected from 34 321 preschool children who underwent screening for delayed-onset hearing loss between October 2009 and May 2011. Sporadic cases of delayed-onset hearing loss were selected from pediatric clinical records. Cases from the first group were excluded from the latter to avoid duplication. Two groups were given the same questionnaire to record risk indicators, diagnosis, and age at intervention. The average age of 26 children at the time of diagnosis in the screening group (52.81 ± 13.23 months) was significantly earlier than in the 33 cases identified in the sporadic group (62.03 ± 12.86 months; p children with bilateral moderate to severe hearing loss in the screening group (50.40 ± 10.76 months) was also earlier than in the sporadic group (62.73 ± 13.77 months; p hearing screening for preschool children with no significant symptoms of delayed-onset hearing loss.

  15. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (pnutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The presence of serum anti-Ascaris lumbricoides IgE antibodies and of Trichuris trichiura infection are risk factors for wheezing and/or atopy in preschool-aged Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcântara-Neves Neuza M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of factors that trigger the development of transient wheezing in early childhood may be an important step toward understanding the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases later in life. Transient wheezing has been mainly attributed to viral infections, although sensitisation to aeroallergens and food allergens may occur at an early age. In developing countries, intestinal helminthic infections have also been associated with allergy or atopy-related disorders. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the association of Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infections with wheezing and atopy in early childhood. Study design A cross-sectional study using a Portuguese-language ISAAC phase I questionnaire, adapted for preschool-aged children, nested in a cohort study of childhood diarrhoea, was conducted on 682 children. Two faecal samples per child were examined for the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. IgE antibodies against three allergenic preparations (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Blomia tropicalis and common child food, as well as against A. lumbricoides antigens, were measured in a sub-sample of these children, whose parents allowed the procedure. Atopy was defined by the presence of levels of serum IgE antibodies ≥0.35 kU/L against at least one of the three tested allergenic preparations. Results Active T. trichiura infection but not A. lumbricoides infection was positively associated with wheezing in the total studied children population [adjusted OR = 2.60; CI = 1.54;4.38] and in the atopic children sub-population [adjusted OR = 3.07; CI = 1.00;9.43]. The association with atopy was also positive and statistically significant only in the brute analysis [OR = 2.13; CI = 1.03;4.40]. Anti-A. lumbricoides IgE antibodies, but not current A. lumbricoides infection, were positively associated with wheezing in atopic children [adjusted OR = 2.01; CI = 1.00;4.50] and in non

  17. CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL DESARROLLO COGNITIVO Y DEL LENGUAJE EN NIÑOS DE EDAD PREESCOLAR - CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE PRE-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIA ANGELICA CAMPO TERNERA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aimed to describe the general characteristics of cognitive development and 229 children aged 3 to 7 of socioeconomic status to attending official educational institutions of Barranquilla in the garden, grades 3 language transition first, developed under a descriptive design and was used as Inventory Development Battelle and the Questionnaire Maturity Child Neuropsychological instruments CUMANIN. The results demonstrate the need for stimulation in areas: receptive and expressive language, perceptual discrimination, reasoning and conceptual skills, memory and pace, low development in these aspects will mean for these children disadvantages compared to their peers that have a development according to their age

  18. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  19. Preschool-Age Children and Adults Flexibly Shift Their Preferences for Auditory versus Visual Modalities but Do Not Exhibit Auditory Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the claim that young children display preferences for auditory stimuli over visual stimuli. This study was motivated by concerns that the visual stimuli employed in prior studies were considerably more complex and less distinctive than the competing auditory stimuli, resulting in an illusory preference for…

  20. The Relationship of Violent Fathers, Posttraumatically Stressed Mothers and Symptomatic Children in a Preschool-Age Inner-City Pediatrics Clinic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J. Blake; Myers, Michael M.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to understand if greater severity of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), related to maternal report of interpersonal violence, mediates the effects of such violence on (a) child PTSS as well as on (b) child externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Study participants were mothers (N = 77) and children 18 to 48 months…

  1. The Effect of Social Isolation on Depressive Symptoms Varies by Neighborhood Characteristics: A Study of an Urban Sample of Women with Pre-School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; O'Campo, Patricia; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Muntaner, Carles

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how individual characteristics, social isolation, and neighborhood context affect depressive symptoms in a socio-economically diverse population of women with young children. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 261 mothers from 68 neighborhoods in Baltimore between 1998 and 2000. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  2. Simultaneous vs. Successive Bilingualism among Preschool-Aged Children: A Study of Four-Year-Old Korean-English Bilinguals in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Young; Park, Anne; Lust, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The current study compares simultaneous vs. successive bilingualism through a mixed-method research design with four four-year-old Korean-English bilingual children who were born and raised in the USA. Two simultaneous bilinguals were exposed to Korean and English from birth, whereas two successive bilinguals were exposed to Korean from birth, but…

  3. The developmental potential of art activities at the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Večanski Vera D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional approaches to the teaching of art and arts activities at the preschool age, art has been viewed mostly in terms of emotional self-expression and development. According to this view, art and arts activities foster the development of creativity, imagination and emotions, but little consideration is given to their link to cognitive processes and to their synthetic character. In general education, art and arts activities are often relegated to marginal status. This paper presents a theoretical examination of the potential of arts activities to enhance the development of a well-rounded personality in children. Through a theoretical analysis of the relevant literature, research and ideas in recent theory which emphasize the synthetic character of art, the potential of arts activities in all segments of development and creativity at the preschool age has been examined. However, in obtaining the full benefit of arts activities in practice, the manner in which arts activities with children at this age are carried out is extremely important. Of particular importance in this process is the influence and role of early childhood educators, who should act as mediators, partners and co-explorers, facilitating, supporting, enriching and participating in the process of free exploration and creativity. Giving primacy to these roles of a teacher would help bring about a change in the child's position in early childhood education and would also change and expand the child's range of activities.

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Chamoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  5. A Supermarket Double-Dollar Incentive Program Increases Purchases of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Families With Children: The Healthy Double Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; Moran, Alyssa; Thorndike, Anne N; Boulos, Rebecca; Franckle, Rebecca L; Greene, Julie C; Blue, Dan J; Block, Jason P; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-03-01

    To carry out a pilot study to determine whether a supermarket double-dollar fruit and vegetable (F&V) incentive increases F&V purchases among low-income families. Randomized controlled design. Purchases were tracked using a loyalty card that provided participants with a 5% discount on all purchases during a 3-month baseline period followed by the 4-month intervention. A supermarket in a low-income rural Maine community. A total of 401 low-income and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supermarket customers. Same-day coupon at checkout for half-off eligible fresh, frozen, or canned F&V over 4 months. Weekly spending in dollars on eligible F&V. A linear model with random intercepts accounted for repeated transactions by individuals to estimate change in F&V spending per week from baseline to intervention. Secondary analyses examined changes among SNAP-eligible participants. Coupons were redeemed among 53% of eligible baskets. Total weekly F&V spending increased in the intervention arm compared with control ($1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], $0.29 to $3.88). The largest increase was for fresh F&V ($1.97; 95% CI, $0.49 to $3.44). Secondary analyses revealed greater increases in F&V spending among SNAP-eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($5.14; 95% CI, $1.93 to $8.34) than among non-SNAP eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($3.88; 95% CI, $1.67 to $6.08). A double-dollar pricing incentive increased F&V spending in a low-income community despite the moderate uptake of the coupon redemption. Customers who were eligible for SNAP saw the greatest F&V spending increases. Financial incentives for F&V are an effective strategy for food assistance programs to increase healthy purchases and improve dietary intake in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of fluticasone propionate administered via metered-dose inhaler plus babyhaler spacer in the treatment of asthma in preschool-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Price, M J; Maden, Christian Nicolai

    2001-01-01

    a metered-dose inhaler and a Babyhaler (Glaxo Wellcome; Middlesex, UK) spacer device. MEASUREMENTS: Effectiveness in terms of asthma exacerbations, control of cough and wheeze symptoms, symptom-free days, overall direct costs of asthma management in Danish kroner at 1999 prices, and mean and incremental......STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) in children aged 12 to 47 months with asthma symptoms. DESIGN: A retrospective economic analysis conducted from the perspective of the Danish health-care system, based on clinical data from a 12-week study...... cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: FP, 200 microg/d, was significantly more effective than placebo treatment in terms of the proportion of exacerbation-free patients (73.7% vs 59.8%; p = 0.025) and patients experiencing a > or = 25% improvement in cough symptoms (57.9% vs 39.0%; p = 0.018). The costs...

  7. Story time turbocharger? Child engagement during shared reading and cerebellar activation and connectivity in preschool-age children listening to stories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Hutton

    Full Text Available Expanding behavioral and neurobiological evidence affirms benefits of shared (especially parent-child reading on cognitive development during early childhood. However, the majority of this evidence involves factors under caregiver control, the influence of those intrinsic to the child, such as interest or engagement in reading, largely indirect or unclear. The cerebellum is increasingly recognized as playing a "smoothing" role in higher-level cognitive processing and learning, via feedback loops with language, limbic and association cortices. We utilized functional MRI to explore the relationship between child engagement during a mother-child reading observation and neural activation and connectivity during a story listening task, in a sample of 4-year old girls. Children exhibiting greater interest and engagement in the narrative showed increased activation in right-sided cerebellar association areas during the task, and greater functional connectivity between this activation cluster and language and executive function areas. Our findings suggest a potential cerebellar "boost" mechanism responsive to child engagement level that may contribute to emergent literacy development during early childhood, and synergy between caregiver and child factors during story sharing.

  8. Reliability and comparative validity of a Diet Quality Index for assessing dietary patterns of preschool-aged children in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaratnam, Kanita; Halaki, Mark; Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria M

    2018-03-01

    To report on the reliability and validity of a Diet Quality Index (DQI) to assess preschoolers dietary patterns using a short food frequency questionnaire (sFFQ) and 3-day food records (3d-FR). Seventy-seven preschool carers/parents completed a telephone interview on preschoolers (2-5-year olds) dietary habits in metropolitan Sydney. Agreement in scores was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) and paired t-tests for repeated sFFQ-DQI scores and Bland-Altman methods and paired t-tests for sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores. Mean-total sFFQ-DQI ICC scores was high = 0.89, 95% CI (0.81, 0.93). There was weak agreement between sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). The 3d-FR-DQI scores were positively associated with carbohydrate, folate, ß-carotene, magnesium, calcium, protein, total fat and negatively associated with sugar, starch, niacin, vitamin C, phosphorus, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. The sFFQ-DQI demonstrated good reliability but weak validity. Associations between nutrients and 3d-FR-DQI scores indicate promising usability and warrants further investigation. Further research is needed to establish its validity in accurately scoring children's diet quality using sFFQ compared to 3d-FR before the tool can be implemented for use in population settings.

  9. Individual genetic variations related to satiety and appetite control increase risk of obesity in preschool-age children in the STRONG kids program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Wang, Anthony; Donovan, Sharon M; Teran-Garcia, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    The burden of the childhood obesity epidemic is well recognized; nevertheless, the genetic markers and gene-environment interactions associated with the development of common obesity are still unknown. In this study, candidate genes associated to satiety and appetite control pathways with obesity-related traits were tested in Caucasian preschoolers from the STRONG Kids project. Eight genetic variants in genes related to obesity (BDNF, LEPR, FTO, PCSK1, POMC, TUB, LEP, and MC4R) were genotyped in 128 children from the STRONG Kids project (mean age 39.7 months). Data were analyzed for individual associations and to test for genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric traits (Z-scores, e.g. height-for-age Z-score, HAZ). Covariates included age, sex, and breastfeeding (BF) duration. Obesity and overweight prevalence was 6.3 and 19.5%, respectively, according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles. Individual genetic associations of MC4R and LEPR markers with HAZ were strengthened when BF duration was included as a covariate. Our GPSs show that, as the number of risk alleles increased, the risk of higher BMI and HAZ also increased. Overall, the GPSs assembled were able to explain 2-3% of the variability in BMI and HAZ phenotypes. Genetic associations with common obesity-related phenotypes were found in the STRONG Kids project. GPSs assembled for specific candidate genes were associated with BMI and HAZ phenotypes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: a novel method for the multi-dimensional assessment of neurodevelopment in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Fernandes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. METHODS: An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. RESULTS: The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests; cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm; and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment in 35-45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD. Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts.

  11. "But Perhaps they could Reduce the Suffering?" Parents' Ambivalence toward Participating in Forced Peripheral Vein Cannulation Performed on their Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Moen, Anne; Pedersen, Reidar; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of how parents experience the use of restraint during the performance of peripheral vein cannulation (PVC) on their child. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed with seven parents and one close relative who had accompanied their 3-5-year-old child while the child resisted the medical procedure of PVC. The analysis was guided by symbolic interactionism and resulted in two themes. The first theme that emerged, "Negotiating What Quality of Performance Should be Expected", was based on 1) Parents expected child-friendly encounters, 2) Performance of PVC caused unexpected and unnecessary suffering for the child, and 3) Parents explained and excused the performance of PVC. The second theme: "Negotiating One's Own Role and Participation in a Child's Suffering During the Procedure", was based on 1) Parents desired to be acknowledged and approached for suggestions regarding ways to ease the trauma surrounding the procedure, 2) Parents expressed uncertainty regarding the consequences that the procedure would have for the children, and 3) Parents desired to play a protective role, and they tended to engage in self-criticism. When the PVC was less child-friendly, poorly planned and chaotic or performed with lacking skills, the parents became unwilling partners in the unnecessary suffering of the child. A practical implication is that if pediatric health care providers are aiming for the reduction of restraint, they must better understand parents' expectations and experiences and ensure that the use of restraint is used as the last resort. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  13. Developmental Stability in Gender-Typed Preferences between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Ilksoy, Sibel D.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2018-01-01

    Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal…

  14. Good Camping for Children and Youth of Low Income Families; Some Suggestions for Camps Concerned About Providing Equal Opportunities for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Catharine V.

    Guidelines are offered for positive camping experiences for poverty children and youth. There are sections on community organizations which can offer services for camp placement, recruitment of campers from among disadvantaged groups, and the orientation of new campers to camp (including such practical suggestions as the types of food and snacks…

  15. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, Kanistha C.; Chew, Ginger L.; Schaffer, Christopher; Ryan, Patrick H.; Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Chillrud, Steve; Hedman, Curtis; Colton, Meryl; Ross, Jamie; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n = 28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n = 14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM_2_._5, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m"3 in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m"3 in pre-renovation home visits (p = 0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p = 0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status itself. To

  16. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, Kanistha C. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Chew, Ginger L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Environmental Health, Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch, 4770 Buford Hwy., N.E., MS-F60, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schaffer, Christopher [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ryan, Patrick H. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard University, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA (United States); Chillrud, Steve [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Geochemistry Division, P.O. Box 8000, Palisades, New York (United States); Hedman, Curtis [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 465 Henry Mall, Madison, WI (United States); Colton, Meryl [Harvard University, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA (United States); Ross, Jamie [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Geochemistry Division, P.O. Box 8000, Palisades, New York (United States); Reponen, Tiina [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n = 28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n = 14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM{sub 2.5}, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m{sup 3} in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m{sup 3} in pre-renovation home visits (p = 0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p = 0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status

  17. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  18. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha C; Chew, Ginger L; Schaffer, Christopher; Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Chillrud, Steve; Hedman, Curtis; Colton, Meryl; Ross, Jamie; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-06-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n=28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n=14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m(3) in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m(3) in pre-renovation home visits (p=0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p=0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status itself. To reduce IAQ

  19. Teenage outcomes after speech and language impairment at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Ulla; Norrelgen, Fritjof; Westerlund, Joakim; Dahlman, Andrea; Hultby, Elizabeth; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, we published developmental data on a representative group of children (n = 25) with moderate or severe speech and language impairment, who were attending special preschools for children. The aim of this study was to perform a follow-up of these children as teenagers. Parents of 23 teenagers participated in a clinical interview that requested information on the child's current academic achievement, type of school, previous clinical assessments, and developmental diagnoses. Fifteen children participated in a speech and language evaluation, and 13 participated in a psychological evaluation. Seven of the 23 teenagers had a mild intellectual disability, and another three had borderline intellectual functioning. Nine had symptoms of disorders on the autism spectrum; five of these had an autism spectrum disorder, and four had clear autistic traits. Six met criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/subthreshold ADHD. Thirteen of 15 teenagers had a moderate or severe language impairment, and 13 of 15 had a moderate or severe reading impairment. Overlapping disorders were frequent. None of the individuals who underwent the clinical evaluation were free from developmental problems. A large number of children with speech and language impairment at preschool age had persistent language problems and/or met the criteria for developmental diagnoses other than speech and language impairment at their follow-up as teenagers. Language impairment in young children is a marker for several developmental disorders, particularly intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Developmental Trends in Self-Regulation among Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, H. Abigail; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Raikes, Helen H.; Ayoub, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The attainment of self-regulatory skills during the toddler years is an understudied issue, especially among low-income children. The present study used growth modeling to examine the change over time and the final status in children's abilities to self-regulate, in a sample of 2,441 low-income children aged 14 to 36 months. Positive growth in…