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Sample records for low-income mothers mothers

  1. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

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    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  2. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers.

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    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D

    1992-06-01

    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  3. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

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    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  4. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  5. Low-Income Mothers' Nighttime and Weekend Work: Daily Associations with Child Behavior, Mother-Child Interactions, and Mood

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    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated low-income mothers' daily nighttime and weekend work and family outcomes. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children reported daily on work hours, mood, mother-child interaction, and child behavior for two weeks (N = 724 person-days). Although nighttime and weekend work are both nonstandard schedules, results showed…

  6. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

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    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  7. African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: comparison of parenting practices.

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    Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A

    1997-01-01

    The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.

  8. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

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    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  9. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

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    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  10. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  11. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  12. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  13. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

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    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  14. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

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    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  15. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

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    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  16. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

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    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  17. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

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    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  18. Prenatal Care Utilization for Mothers from Low-Income Areas of New Mexico, 1989–1999

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    Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Carson, E. Ann; Romain, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999. Methodology/Principal Findings Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20862298

  19. Prenatal care utilization for mothers from low-income areas of New Mexico, 1989-1999.

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    Michael A Schillaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999.Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings.These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes.

  20. Perceptions of low-income mothers about the causes and ways to prevent overweight in children.

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    Danford, C A; Schultz, C M; Rosenblum, K; Miller, A L; Lumeng, J C

    2015-11-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity remain major health conditions, affecting nearly one-third of children in the USA. Multiple factors have been identified that contribute to children becoming overweight; however, little is known regarding what low-income mothers perceive to be the causes of and the ways to prevent children from becoming overweight. Low-income mothers (n = 286) with children aged 4-8 years participated in semi-structured interviews, during which they were asked for their opinions about the causes of and ways to prevent children from becoming overweight. After themes were identified, interviews were coded for the presence or absence of each theme. The majority of mothers were non-Hispanic White (69.2%) and overweight or obese (77.3%). Additionally, many of the children (41.9%) were overweight or obese. Six causes of children becoming overweight were identified by mothers: types or quantities of food eaten (90.9%); parenting behaviours (44.9%); lack of activity (42.3%); genetics, slow metabolism or medical issues (24.5%); stress or emotion (5.2%); and limited access to resources (3.5%). Five ways to prevent children from becoming overweight identified by mothers included the following: healthy eating (84.9%), more activity (54.8%), limiting screen time (19.9%), limiting sugar-sweetened beverages (12.2%) and drinking more water (6.6%). The majority of mothers (77.1%) reported that they carried out their suggestions to prevent their children from becoming overweight. Within this cohort with a high prevalence of maternal and child overweight, most mothers identified many of the evidence-based strategies for childhood obesity prevention. Future intervention development may benefit from focusing on content areas that were less commonly identified by mothers as well as helping mothers translate knowledge to implementation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Postpartum Health Information Seeking Using Mobile Phones: Experiences of Low-Income Mothers.

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    Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and

  2. Low-income Euro-American mothers' perceptions of health and self-care practices.

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    Mendias, Elnora P; Clark, Michele C; Guevara, Edilma B; Svrcek, Claire Y

    2011-01-01

    Health promotion activities may decrease preventable diseases and health system overuse. This study examined how low-income Euro-American mothers described their health/wellness, self-care practices (SCP), and SCP benefits, barriers, and interpersonal influences (norms, modeling, and social support) affecting their SCP. This descriptive qualitative study used a convenience sample of 10 low-income, English-speaking mothers, 25-43 years old, seeking women's/children's health services at a large urban Texas health clinic. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, using a standardized semistructured interview guide; data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman's qualitative research methods. All participants primarily described themselves positively and as mothers and workers. Most viewed health and wellness as distinct but typically included physical and emotional well-being. Mothers valued health and SCP for personal and family reasons. All identified SCP benefits. Most identified SCP barriers. Women viewed themselves as vital to family function and well-being, learned SCP primarily from parents during childhood, and described limited support for SCP. The results provide a better understanding of participants' self-care decision making and are useful in designing appropriate clinical health promotions. Reducing health inequities in low-income women requires further study of the underlying causes and development of effective policies and measures to address them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Empowerment in the process of health messaging for rural low-income mothers: an exploratory message design project.

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    Aldoory, Linda; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost; Duggal, Mili; Briones, Rowena Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Rural, low-income mothers face challenges to their health equal to or greater than those of low-income mothers from urban areas. This study put health message design into the hands of low-income rural mothers. The current study filled a research gap by analyzing a participatory process used to design health messages tailored to the everyday lives of rural low-income mothers. A total of forty-three mothers participated in nine focus groups, which were held from 2012 to 2013, in eight states. The mothers were from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Participants discussed food security, physical activity, and oral health information. They created messages by considering several elements: visuals, length of message, voice/perspective, self-efficacy and personal control, emotional appeals, positive and negative reinforcements, and steps to health behavior change. This study was innovative in its focus on empowerment as a key process to health message design.

  4. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  5. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

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    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in depression among low-income mothers in the United States, 2005-2015.

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    Oh, Sehun; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G

    2018-08-01

    Prior research has examined the association between low-income status and maternal depression; however, important questions remain in terms of trends in the prevalence of major depressive episodes (MDE) and treatment seeking among mothers in the United States. The objective of the present study is to examine trends in MDE among low-income mothers and explore perceived barriers to mental health treatment seeking. Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH; 2005-2015), we examined the prevalence of past-year MDE among mothers living in poverty (0-99% federal poverty line [FPL]; n = 23,264) and near-poverty (100-200% FPL; n = 21,655). Consistent with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, we conducted survey-adjusted logistic regression analyses to examine the significance of survey year in relation to MDE while controlling for key social demographic correlates. The overall decreasing MDE trend was found only among mothers in near-poverty, not mothers in poverty. Only for mothers in poverty, financial (AOR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.52-0.95) and information barriers (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.73) were associated with mental health service use. Self-reports of depressive symptoms and service receipt may have led to over or underreporting due to recall or social desirability bias. Additionally, NSDUH data are cross-sectional and thereby limit our ability to make causal inferences. Greater attention should be paid to the prevention/treatment of depression among mothers in poverty. Efforts may include expanding financial assistance for mental health service use and educational campaigns to increase awareness of services available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression improvement and parenting in low-income mothers in home visiting.

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    Ammerman, Robert T; Altaye, Mekibib; Putnam, Frank W; Teeters, Angelique R; Zou, Yuanshu; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2015-06-01

    Research on older children and high-resource families demonstrates that maternal improvement in depression often leads to parallel changes in parenting and child adjustment. It is unclear if this association extends to younger children and low-income mothers. This study examined if In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT), a treatment for depressed mothers participating in home visiting programs, contributes to improvements in parenting and child adjustment. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and subsequent diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Measures of depression, parenting stress, nurturing parenting, and child adjustment were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3 months follow-up. Results indicated that there were no differences between IH-CBT and controls on parenting and child adjustment. Low levels of depression were associated with decreased parenting stress and increased nurturing parenting. Improvement in depression was related to changes in parenting in low-income mothers participating in home visiting programs. IH-CBT was not independently associated with these improvements, although to the extent that treatment facilitated improvement; there were corresponding benefits to parenting. Child adjustment was not associated with maternal depression, a finding possibly attributed to the benefits of concurrent home visiting or measurement limitations. Future research should focus on longer-term follow-up, implications of relapse, and child adjustment in later years.

  8. Low-Income Urban Mothers' Experiences with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

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    Robbins, Sarah; Ettinger, Anna K; Keefe, Carolyn; Riley, Anne; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Food insecurity remains a public health concern in the United States, particularly among low-income urban ethnically diverse families, even with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Limited phenomenologic data exist to capture how programmatic changes to SNAP address the needs of users and why a gap in SNAP use may exist. The primary aim of this study was to examine the experiences of low-income, Baltimore, MD, mothers in applying for and maintaining access to SNAP. Secondary aims included understanding participants' perspectives on the influence of changes in SNAP over a 3-year period and how SNAP fits into the overall system of social services for families. In this qualitative, phenomenologic study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mothers and three focus groups with 20 mothers, for a total sample of 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits. Ten mothers participated in the first round of data collection (January to May 2010), and 23 in the second round (February to May 2013). Participants were 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore SNAP users' experiences with applying for and maintaining access to SNAP, as well as with program changes to the SNAP program. Data were analyzed using an iterative emergent design and phenomenologic approach. A constructivist perspective was implemented throughout the coding process. SNAP functioned as a valuable support system within the broader social safety net for mothers living in poverty, yet participants expressed frustration about the processes of applying for and maintaining benefits due to communication problems and poor integration of services. In applying for and accessing SNAP, positive interactions with caseworkers and previous knowledge of the SNAP program were important for maintaining benefits. Interviews and focus group discussions revealed the need for additional outreach and education about the implemented program changes to build trust and improve access to SNAP

  9. Social benefit payments and acute injury among low-income mothers.

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    Redelmeier, Donald A; Chan, William K; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Shafir, Eldar

    2012-01-01

    Human error due to risky behaviour is a common and important contributor to acute injury related to poverty. We studied whether social benefit payments mitigate or exacerbate risky behaviours that lead to emergency visits for acute injury among low-income mothers with dependent children. We analyzed total emergency department visits throughout Ontario to identify women between 15 and 55 years of age who were mothers of children younger than 18 years, who were living in the lowest socio-economic quintile and who presented with acute injury. We used universal health care databases to evaluate emergency department visits during specific days on which social benefit payments were made (child benefit distribution) relative to visits on control days over a 7-year interval (1 April 2003 to 31 March 2010). A total of 153 377 emergency department visits met the inclusion criteria. We observed fewer emergencies per day on child benefit payment days than on control days (56.4 v. 60.1, p = 0.008). The difference was primarily explained by lower values among mothers age 35 years or younger (relative reduction 7.29%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69% to 12.88%), those living in urban areas (relative reduction 7.07%, 95% CI 3.05% to 11.10%) and those treated at community hospitals (relative reduction 6.83%, 95% CI 2.46% to 11.19%). No significant differences were observed for the 7 days immediately before or the 7 days immediately after the child benefit payment. Contrary to political commentary, we found that small reductions in relative poverty mitigated, rather than exacerbated, risky behaviours that contribute to acute injury among low-income mothers with dependent children.

  10. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

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    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  11. Shaping Core Health Messages: Rural, Low-Income Mothers Speak Through Participatory Action Research.

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    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost

    2018-04-23

    Rural, low-income families are disproportionately impacted by health problems owing to structural barriers (e.g., transportation, health insurance coverage) and personal barriers (e.g., health literacy). This paper presents a Participatory Action Research (PAR) model of co-created Core Health Messages (CHMs) in the areas of dental health, food security, health insurance, and physical activity. The research project engaged a multi-disciplinary team of experts to design initial health messages; rural, low-income mothers to respond to, and co-create, health messages; and stakeholders who work with families to share their insights. Findings reveal the perceptions of mothers and community stakeholders regarding messages and channels of message dissemination. By using PAR, a learner engagement approach, the researchers intend to increase the likelihood that the CHMs are culturally appropriate and relevant to specific populations. The CHM-PAR model visually illustrates an interactive, iterative process of health message generation and testing. The paper concludes with implications for future research and outreach in a technological landscape where dissemination channels are dynamic. This paper provides a model for researchers and health educators to co-create messages in a desired format (e.g., length, voice, level of empathy, tone) preferred by their audiences and to examine dissemination methods that will best reach those audiences.

  12. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

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    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  13. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  14. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Moran, Allisyn C; Ali, Mohammed; Ryder, David; Fisher, Colleen; Koblinsky, Marge

    2011-06-09

    In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8%) of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9%) with healthy babies (p = death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  15. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  16. Low-income mothers' patterns of partnership instability and adolescents' socioemotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated the association of family structure and maternal partnership instability patterns with adolescents' behavioral and emotional well-being among urban low-income families. Analyses employed data from the Three-City Study to track maternal partnerships over the youth's life span, linking longitudinal family structure and transition patterns to adolescent well-being (N = 2305). Families were classified into nine mutually exclusive longitudinal partnership groups based on current status at wave 3 (single, married, or cohabiting) and the longevity of that status: always (since adolescent's birth with no transitions), stable (lasting two years or more, preceded by transitions), or new (transpiring in the past 2 years). Adolescents in the always married group displayed less delinquency and externalizing problems, according to both youth and mother reports, than peers in always single-parent or newly married households. In contrast, youth in always cohabiting households had higher maternal ratings of internalizing problems and youth with newly cohabiting mothers reported higher psychological distress than peers in similar stability groups with single or married mothers. Overall, several potential explanatory processes for the family structure and stability patterns surfaced: married parent families reported less economic hardship, more family routines and father involvement, and less maternal psychological distress and parenting stress than their single and cohabiting counterparts. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Using qualitative methods to design a culturally appropriate child feeding questionnaire for low-income, Latina mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katrina Mucha; Greaney, Mary; Wang, Monica L; Davis, Rachel; Peterson, Karen E

    2012-05-01

    Obesity rates remain high among children in the United States (US), but children of low-income, minority families are at particularly high risk. Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing US population group. Effective strategies will require attention to a wide array of culturally mediated variables that influence child feeding practices through the social contexts in which behaviors take place. This paper presents the design and implementation of a qualitative study examining low-income, Latina mothers' perceptions of child weight status and feeding practices, and their associations with the development of overweight in children. Guided by the social ecologic model and social contextual model on the role of the family in mediating health behavior, the Latina Mother Child Feeding Practices (LMCFP) study provided a systematic exploration of the influence of social class, culture, and environmental factors associated with mothers' perceptions of child overweight on feeding practices and behaviors. The design for this qualitative study consisted of three sequential phases: focus groups, in-depth interviews and cognitive interviews with Latina mothers conducted by Spanish-speaking researchers. Results showed the important role of socio-cultural factors in influencing Latina mothers' child feeding practices. In the short-term, this research yielded information to develop a child-feeding questionnaire appropriate for low-income, Latina mothers. Findings have important implications in developing nutrition education strategies for child health promotion that account for the social and cultural context of minority, low-income caregivers.

  18. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  19. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  20. Pre-Hurricane Perceived Social Support Protects against Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Analysis of Low-Income Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…

  1. Longitudinal network structure of depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P; Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Schwartz, Todd A; Beeber, Linda; Fried, Eiko I

    2018-01-01

    Maternal depression was recently conceptualized as a network of interacting symptoms. Prior studies have shown that low self-efficacy, as an index of maternal functioning, is one important source of stress that worsens depression. We have limited information, however, on the specific relationships between depression symptoms and self-efficacy. In this study, we used regularized partial correlation networks to explore the multivariate relationships between maternal depression symptoms and self-efficacy over time. Depressed mothers (n = 306) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale at four time points, between four and eight weeks apart. We estimated (a) the network structure of the 20 CES-D depression symptoms and self-efficacy for each time point, (b) determined the centrality or structural importance of all variables, and (c) tested whether the network structure changed over time. In the resulting networks, self-efficacy was mostly negatively connected with depression symptoms. The strongest relationships among depression symptoms were 'lonely-sleep difficulties' and 'inability to get going-crying'. 'Feeling disliked' and 'concentration difficulty' were the two most central symptoms. In comparing the network structures, we found that the network structures were moderately stable over time. This is the first study to investigate the network structure and their temporal stability of maternal depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income depressed mothers. We discuss how these findings might help future research to identify clinically relevant symptom-to-symptom relationships that could drive maternal depression processes, and potentially inform tailored interventions. We share data and analytical code, making our results fully reproducible.

  2. Eating practices among low-income overweight /obese Brazilian mothers: a Bourdieusian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Sato, Priscila; Dimitrov Ulian, Mariana; Fernandez Unsain, Ramiro; Baeza Scagliusi, Fernanda

    2018-05-16

    We investigated the eating practices of socially vulnerable overweight and obese Brazilian mothers, exploring the relationships between eating practices, capitals, fields and excess-weight. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews of 21 women living in three vulnerable urban regions. Content analyses were performed and codes were used to locate actors in relation to each other in terms of 'capitals' and 'fields', forming a typology based on Bourdieu's theory with five groups. Socioeconomic conditions during childhood and liking to cook were the main characteristics related to each group's distinct eating practices. While socioeconomic conditions during childhood were related to region of origin and food tastes, liking to cook worked as a type of cultural capital, called culinary capital, which produced pleasure and status. For each pattern of eating practices, different factors seemed to contribute to participants' excess weight, including liked foods, enjoying cooking, and financial constraints. One group combined a highly vulnerable economic situation and health problems, shedding light onto a habitus that demands special attention from public health studies and interventions. This study illustrates the complexity of practices within a seemingly homogeneous group and reinforces that health studies should not assume homogeneity within a group of overweight/obese low-income women. © 2018 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  3. "And You're Telling Me Not to Stress?" A Grounded Theory Study of Postpartum Depression Symptoms among Low-Income Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Low-income mothers in the U.S. are more likely to experience postpartum depression (PPD) and less likely to seek treatment than their middle-class counterparts. Despite this knowledge, prior research has not provided an in-depth understanding of PPD symptoms as they are experienced by low-income mothers. Through in-depth interviews, this study…

  4. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity.

  5. Psychometric assessment of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory in a sample of low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M

    2001-01-01

    The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) is a 32-item inventory widely used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors. It includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Although it has been used in a variety of samples, the psychometric properties of the AAPI have not been examined in low-income single mothers. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the reliability and validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) in a sample of 206 low-income single mothers; (b) assess the mother's risk for inadequate parenting by comparing their AAPI subscale scores with normative subscale scores on the AAPI; (c) assess the construct validity of the AAPI by testing the hypothesis that mothers with lower AAPI scores have a higher level of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in comparison to mothers with higher AAPI scores; and (d) determine whether the 4-factor structure proposed by Bavolek (1984) could be replicated. AAPI scores indicated these mothers were at high risk for child abuse when compared with normative data for parents with no known history of abuse. Higher risk for abusive parenting was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, less education, and unemployment. The subscales, Inappropriate Expectations and Parental Value of Corporal Punishment demonstrated poor internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .40 and .54, respectively. Hypothesis testing supported the construct validity of the AAPI. Bavolek's 4-factor structure was not supported. A 19-item modified version of the AAPI with three dimensions was identified. This modified version of the AAPI may provide a more efficacious tool for use with low-income single mothers.

  6. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.

  7. THE MAGIC OF PLAY: LOW-INCOME MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PLAYFULNESS AND CHILDREN'S EMOTION REGULATION AND VOCABULARY SKILLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Karberg, Elizabeth; Malin, Jenessa L; Aldoney, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of low-income families who participated in the Early Head Start Research Evaluation Project (n = 73), we explored the association between mothers' and fathers' playfulness with toddlers, toddler's affect during play, and children's language and emotion regulation at prekindergarten. There were two main findings. First, fathers' playfulness in toddlerhood was associated with children's vocabulary skills in prekindergarten whereas mothers' playfulness was related to children's emotion regulation. Cross-parental effects were found only for mothers. The association between mothers' playfulness and children's vocabulary and emotion regulation was strengthened when fathers engaged in more pretend play and when children were affectively positive during the play. These findings show that playfulness is an important source of variation in the vocabulary and emotion regulation of children growing up in low-income families. They also point to domain-specific ways that mothers and fathers promote children's regulatory and vocabulary skills, and highlight the importance of children's positive engagement in play. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Maternal Beliefs and Parenting Practices Regarding Their Preschool Child's Television Viewing: An Exploration in a Sample of Low-Income Mexican-Origin Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S L; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Susan L; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-08-01

    To explore maternal beliefs about television (TV) viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of TV content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: can technology play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers.

  10. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  11. Life Satisfaction Moderates the Effectiveness of a Play-Based Parenting Intervention in Low-Income Mothers and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna; O'Hara, Michael W; Grekin, Rebecca S

    2015-10-01

    This multi-method multi-trait study examined moderators and mediators of change in the context of a parenting intervention. Low-income, diverse mothers of toddlers (average age 30 months; N = 186, 90 girls) participated in a play-based intervention (Child-Oriented Play versus Play-as-Usual) aimed at increasing children's committed compliance and reducing opposition toward their mothers, observed in prohibition contexts, and at reducing mother-rated children's behavior problems 6 months after the intervention. Mothers' subjective sense of life satisfaction and fulfillment during the intervention and objective ratings of psychosocial functioning by clinicians, obtained in a clinical interview were posed as moderators, and mothers' observed power-assertive discipline immediately following the intervention was modeled as a mediator of its impact. We tested moderated mediation using structural equation modeling, with all baseline scores (prior to randomization) controlled. Mothers' subjective sense of life satisfaction moderated the impact of the intervention, but clinicians' ratings did not. For mothers highly satisfied with their lives, participating in Child-Oriented Play group, compared to Play-as-Usual group, led to a reduction in power-assertive discipline which, in turn, led to children's increased compliance and decreased opposition and externalizing problems. There were no effects for mothers who reported low life satisfaction. The study elucidates the causal sequence set in motion by the intervention, demonstrates the moderating role of mothers' subjective life satisfaction, highlights limitations of clinicians' ratings, and informs future prevention and intervention efforts to promote adaptive parenting.

  12. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers: The HEALTH-KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323

  13. Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs and practices among low-income mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depressive symptoms and compromised parenting in low-income mothers of infants and toddlers: distal and proximal risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S

    2014-08-01

    Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Life Satisfaction Moderates the Effectiveness of a Play-Based Parenting Intervention in Low-Income Mothers and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Kochanska, Grazyna; O'Hara, Michael W.; Grekin, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-method multi-trait study examined moderators and mediators of change in the context of a parenting intervention. Low-income, diverse mothers of toddlers (average age 30 months; N=186, 90 girls) participated in a play-based intervention (Child-Oriented Play versus Play-as-Usual) aimed at increasing children's committed compliance and reducing opposition toward their mothers, observed in prohibition contexts, and at reducing mother-rated children's behavior problems 6 months after the intervention. Mothers’ subjective sense of life satisfaction and fulfillment during the intervention and objective ratings of psychosocial functioning by clinicians, obtained in a clinical interview were posed as moderators, and mothers’ observed power-assertive discipline immediately following the intervention was modeled as a mediator of its impact. We tested moderated mediation using structural equation modeling, with all baseline scores (prior to randomization) controlled. Mothers’ subjective sense of life satisfaction moderated the impact of the intervention, but clinicians’ ratings did not. For mothers highly satisfied with their lives, participating in Child-Oriented Play group, compared to Play-as-Usual group, led to a reduction in power-assertive discipline which, in turn, led to children's increased compliance and decreased opposition and externalizing problems. There were no effects for mothers who reported low life satisfaction. The study elucidates the causal sequence set in motion by the intervention, demonstrates the moderating role of mothers’ subjective life satisfaction, highlights limitations of clinicians’ ratings, and informs future prevention and intervention efforts to promote adaptive parenting. PMID:25860810

  16. Infant feeding practices of low-income, African-American, adolescent mothers: an ecological, multigenerational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M; Gavin, L; Black, M M; Teti, L

    1999-10-01

    The early introduction of non-milk foods among African-American infants has been well documented. Several studies report the addition of semi-solids as early as 1-2 weeks of age. This study investigated, through ethnographic, repeat indepth interviews with teen mothers and grandmothers of infants, the determinants of such feeding practices and the inter-generational factors involved in infant feeding decision-making. Nineteen adolescent mothers were recruited from Baltimore City WIC programs. The teen mothers were interviewed in their homes during four separate visits and the grandmothers at least twice. Ethnographic field guides focused on questions about what, why and how infants were fed and on the 'ethnotheories' of parenting and infant care in this population. All interviews were taped and transcripts were analyzed using text retrieval software. Results confirmed that it is the cultural norm to feed cereal in the bottle and to feed other semi-solid foods within the first month of life. Most grandmothers played the dominant role in deciding what the infant should eat and the timing of the introduction of solids. This pattern occurred both because grandmothers had extensive physical access to their grandchildren and because teen mothers were dependent upon grandmothers. The use of qualitative research methods, with an ecological, multi-generational focus, provides a rich description of the context within which infant feeding decisions are made.

  17. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-02-07

    Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated with negative mental health amongst

  18. Pre-hurricane perceived social support protects against psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis of low-income mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, SR; Chan, CS; Rhodes, JE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8) was African American; 10.4 identified as Caucasian, 3.2 identified as Hispanic, and 1.8 identified as other. Participants were enrolled in an educational intervention study in 2004 and ...

  19. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Matson, Pamela A; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2015-03-01

    Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to 4 years old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.09-1.73). Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mothers' Attention-Getting Utterances during Shared Book Reading: Links to Low-Income Preschoolers' Verbal Engagement, Visual Attention, and Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hee Claire; Tineo, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations among low-income mothers' use of attention-getting utterances during shared book reading, preschoolers' verbal engagement and visual attention to reading, and their early literacy skills (N = 51). Mother-child shared book reading sessions were videotaped and coded for each utterance, including attention talk,…

  1. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low-income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-12-01

    Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P kcal) among mothers (P daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.

  3. Consumption of key food groups during the postpartum period in low-income, non-Hispanic black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Wasser, Heather; Adair, Linda S; Thompson, Amanda L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Bentley, Margaret E

    2017-10-01

    The postpartum period can impact diet quality and subsequently place women at greater risk for overweight or obesity. This study examined consumption of key food groups during the first 2 years postpartum among low income, non-Hispanic black, first-time mothers. Data were from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort of 217 mother-infant dyads, followed from 3 to 18 months postpartum, collected from 2003 to 2007. At each study visit (3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months) 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Consumption levels were compared to those recommended from the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) for each of the following food groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, whole grains, protein foods and dairy, as well as an estimated upper limit for sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. At each time point, mothers met recommended intake levels for grains and protein foods only. In random-intercept logistic regression models, no demographic or household characteristics were associated with a likelihood of consuming recommended levels for any of the food groups according to the DGAs. Given the low intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein foods and high intake of SSBs and refined grains, interventions targeting women's diet during the postpartum period are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A qualitative study of motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy for low-income, overweight, African-American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Naomi R; Klotz, Alicia A; Herring, Sharon J

    2013-09-01

    Poor diet quality is common among low-income, overweight, African-American mothers, placing them at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to better understand the contextual factors that may influence low-income African-American mothers' diet quality during pregnancy. In 2011, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 overweight/obese, pregnant African Americans in Philadelphia, PA, all of whom received Medicaid and were eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Two readers independently coded the interview transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 10 themes around motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy. Mothers believed that consuming healthy foods, like fruits and vegetables, would lead to healthy babies and limit the physical discomforts of pregnancy. However, more often than not, mothers chose foods that were high in fats and sugars because of taste, cost, and convenience. In addition, mothers had several misconceptions about the definition of healthy (eg, "juice is good for baby"), which led to overconsumption. Many mothers feared they might "starve" their babies if they did not get enough to eat, promoting persistent snacking and larger portions. Living in multigenerational households and sharing resources also limited the mothers' control over food choices and made consuming healthy foods especially difficult. Despite the good intentions of low-income African-American mothers to improve diet quality during pregnancy, multiple factors worked together as barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that emphasize tasty and affordable healthy food substitutes, address misconceptions, and counsel mothers about true energy needs in pregnancy may improve low-income, African-American, overweight/obese mothers' diet quality. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Promoting mother-infant interaction and infant mental health in low-income Korean families: attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Breitmayer, Bonnie; Kim, Mi Ja; Yang, Soo

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the attachment-based cognitive behavioral approach (ACBA) to enhance mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-posttest control group design. Participants were 40 low-income, mother-infant (infant ages 12-36 months) dyads, 20 dyads per group. The ACBA group received 10 weekly 90-min sessions. Dependent variables were changes in mother-infant interaction and infant mental health. Additionally, we explored changes in mothers' attachment security. The groups differed significantly in changes in mother-infant interaction, infant mental health problems, and mothers' attachment security. ACBA may enhance mother-infant interaction and infants' mental health. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social Support and Low-Income, Urban Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Roche, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of engaged parenting in explaining longitudinal associations between maternal perceptions of social network support and whether youth engage in delinquent behaviors during the transition into adolescence. The sample included 432 low-income, African American and Latino youth (49% female) and their mothers…

  7. The effects of maternal psychosocial factors on parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M; Hall, L A

    1998-01-01

    Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms, self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variables. To investigate the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors (history of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) and parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers who have young children. Secondary analyses of data from in-home interviews with 206 low-income, single mothers from a southeastern United States urban area were conducted. A variety of scales, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), were used to measure maternal psychosocial factors. Using the AAPI, a Modified Parenting Attitudes Measure (MPAM), and subscales, a three-stage regression procedure was used to test the model. For stages 1 and 2, everyday stressors were the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Childhood sexual abuse, everyday stressors, low self-esteem, and control variables accounted for 58% of variance in depressive symptoms. In the third stage for the AAPI, only control variables were retained except in the Lack of Empathy subscale, where depressive symptoms and control variables accounted for 16% of the variance. The third stage for the MPAM yielded, by subscale: Only control variables predicted Corporal Punishment Beliefs; depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor for the total MPAM (19% of variance) and of the Inappropriate Emotional Expectations subscale (17%); and childhood physical abuse was the only predictor of Role Reversal. Depressive symptoms mediated the effects of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, and self-esteem and provided the linkage between these variables and at-risk parenting attitudes. Self-esteem decreased as everyday stressors increased but did not directly affect parenting attitudes. A relationship was not found between childhood abuse and low self-esteem. This study

  8. Results and lessons learned from a prevention of weight gain program for low-income overweight and obese young mothers: Mothers In Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Wei Chang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers In Motion (MIM, a community-based lifestyle behavioral intervention, was designed and conducted to help low-income overweight and obese young mothers prevent further weight gain via promotion of stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper presents intervention effect on body weight (primary outcome and summarizes lessons learned. Methods Participants (N = 612 were recruited from 7 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC offices in Michigan and were individually randomized to an intervention n= 410 or a comparison (n =202 group (2: 1 ratio. During the 16-week intervention, intervention participants watched theory-based culturally sensitive videos (in DVD format featuring peers from the target audience to learn skills for managing stress, eating healthier, and being more physically active. They also dialed into peer support group teleconferences to enhance skills learned in the videos and increase motivation for lifestyle behavioral changes. Body weight, the primary outcome, was measured at baseline, immediately after the 16-week intervention, and 3 months after the 16-week intervention. Intervention effect was tested via general linear mixed model for repeated measures, using baseline measures as adjusting covariates. Results At baseline, the mean age of the participants was 28.5 ± 5.0 years (intervention: 28.4 ± 5.0, comparison: 28.9 ± 5.0; the mean body weight was 190.2 ± 1.4 lbs (intervention: 191.8 ± 30.0, comparison: 188.5 ± 29.1; and the mean body mass index (BMI was 32.2 ± 4.4 (intervention: 32.2 ± 4.4, comparison: 31.7 ± 4.2. Of sample, 64.7% were obese. At 3 months after the 16-week intervention, no significant weight differences were found between the intervention (188.3 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.6 ± 1.8 and comparison groups (187.7 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.53 ± 1.8 when controlling

  9. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Mothers' Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in a Low-Income, Urban Mexican American Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongdo, Jennifer A.; Garcia, Jorge I. Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    The relation between adolescent-reported parenting behaviors and mother-reported youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors was examined among 91 Mexican American mother-adolescent (ages 13-17) dyads recruited from an immigrant enclave in a large midwestern metropolitan area. Two major dimensions of mothers' parenting emerged: supportive…

  11. [Effects of an infant/toddler health program on parenting knowledge, behavior, confidence, and home environment in low-income mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; Yang, Soo; Jang, Mi Heui; Yeom, Mijung

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a mother/infant-toddler health program developed to enhance parenting knowledge, behavior and confidence in low income mothers and home environment. A one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used. Sixty-nine dyads of mothers and infant-toddlers (aged 0-36 months) were provided with weekly intervention for seven session. Each session consisted of three parts; first, educating to increase integrated knowledge related to the development of the infant/toddler including nutrition, first aid and home environment; second, counseling to share parenting experience among the mothers and to increase their nurturing confidence; third, playing with the infant/toddler to facilitate attachment-based parenting behavior for the mothers. Following the programs, there were significant increases in parenting knowledge on nutrition and first aid. A significant improvement was found in attachment-based parenting behavior, but not in home safety practice. Nurturing confidence was not significantly increased. The program led to more positive home environment for infant/toddler's health and development. The findings provide evidence for mother-infant/toddler health program to improve parenting knowledge, attachment-based parenting behavior and better home environment in low income mothers. Study of the long term effectiveness of this program is recommended for future research.

  12. Low-income minority and homeless mothers' perceptions of their 9-13 year-old children's weight status, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.

  13. Maternal Health Status and Parenting Stress in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Mothers of Children with Conduct Disorder Problems: the Role of Daily Parenting Hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-12-01

    Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles mediated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. The sample included 177 low-income black, Latina, and white mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. Path analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediated the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems.

  14. Risk, Conflict, Mothers' Parenting, and Children's Adjustment in Low-Income, Mexican Immigrant, and Mexican American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…

  15. Social and Linguistic Input in Low-Income African American Mother-Child Dyads from 1 Month through 2 Years: Relations to Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Fedewa, Alicia; Hans, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    The relation of social and linguistic input measures to early vocabulary development was examined in 30 low-income African American mother-infant pairs. Observations were conducted when the child was 0 years, 1 month (0;1), 0;4, 0;8, 1;0, 1;6, and 2;0. Maternal input was coded for word types and tokens, contingent responsiveness, and…

  16. Cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for low-income depressed mothers participating in early childhood prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Mallow, Peter J; Rizzo, John A; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2017-01-15

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) for low-income mothers enrolled in a home visiting program. A cost-utility analysis was conducted using results from a clinical trial of IH-CBT and standard of care for depression derived from the literature. A probabilistic, patient-level Markov model was developed to determine Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Costs were determined using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. A three-year time horizon and payer perspective were used. Sensitivity analyses were employed to determine robustness of the model. IH-CBT was cost-effective relative to standard of care. IH-CBT was expected to be cost-effective at a three-year time horizon 99.5%, 99.7%, and 99.9% of the time for willingness-to-pay thresholds of US$25,000, US$50,000, and US$100,000, respectively. Patterns were upheld at one-year and five-year time horizons. Over the three-year time horizon, mothers receiving IH-CBT were expected to have 345.6 fewer days of depression relative to those receiving standard home visiting and treatment in the community. IH-CBT is a more cost-effective treatment for low-income, depressed mothers than current standards of practice. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of CBT for depression, and expand it to cover new mothers. From a payer perspective, IH-CBT is a sound option for treatment of depressed, low-income mothers. Limitations include a restricted time horizon and estimating of standard of care costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Perceptions of Child Difficulty Are Associated with Less Responsive Feeding Behaviors in an Observational Study of Low-Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Cindy V; Power, Thomas G; Beck, Ashley E; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Papaioannou, Maria A; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-12-01

    Maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty are associated with negative effects on general development and cognitive functioning in children. The study examined associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and maternal feeding behaviors in a population at elevated risk for childhood obesity. Participants were 138 low-income black and Hispanic mothers and their children (ages 3-5) participating in an observational study of mealtimes among Head Start families. Three dinnertime observations were conducted over 2 weeks on each family and audio/videotaped for coding. Coding included eating influence attempts and other food- and nonfood-related interactions exhibited by the mother during dinner. Mothers completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and perceptions of child difficulty. Linear regressions were conducted, examining associations between maternal depressive symptoms, perceptions of child difficulty, and coded parent feeding behaviors. Mothers reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms used more verbal pressure to get their child to eat during meals, were more likely to discourage child independence, and less likely to enforce table manners. Mothers reporting higher perceptions of child difficulty were less likely to have nonfood-related discussions during meals and to try to get the child to eat a different food. This study is one of the first to investigate associations between maternal depression, perceptions of child difficulty, and mother's feeding behaviors during meals using observational methodology. These results may help researchers identify specific parental characteristics and feeding practices on which to intervene when developing tailored intervention programs for reducing childhood obesity.

  19. Modeling parenting stress trajectories among low-income young mothers across the child's second and third years: Factors accounting for stability and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated parenting stress trajectories among low-income young mothers and the factors that are associated with change and stability of parenting stress as children aged from 14 to 36 months old. With a sample of 580 young mothers who applied to the Early Head Start Program, growth mixture modeling identified 3 trajectory classes of parenting stress: a chronically high group (7% of the sample), an increasing group (10% of the sample), and a decreasing group (83% of the sample). Maternal personal resources distinguished between the increasing and decreasing classes, whereas maternal personal resources, child characteristics, and contextual influences explained differences between the chronically high and decreasing trajectory classes. Findings suggest that for interventions to be effective, programs need to assess maternal, child, and contextual factors to better address the particular unique needs of young mothers.

  20. What Is Being Measured? A Comparison of Two Depressive Symptom Severity Instruments with a Depression Diagnosis in Low-Income High-Risk Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenny; Martinez, Maria; Schwartz, Todd A; Beeber, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Adequate assessment of depressive symptomatology is a necessary step toward decreasing income-related mental health treatment inequity. No studies have focused on comparing instruments used to detect depression in women from low-income backgrounds who are mothers of young children-a period of increased risk for depressive symptoms. To address this gap, two commonly used instruments (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [Hamilton]) were compared with a depression diagnosis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition [DSM-V]) in a sample (n = 251) of mothers from low-income backgrounds with children ranging from 1 to 54 months old. Diagnostic utility was examined in light of contextual factors associated with maternal depressive symptoms. In this sample, CES-D had better screening sensitivity and specificity than Hamilton. Our results suggest that Hamilton may underdiagnose cases of major depressive episodes (MDE) as defined by DSM-V among black and low-income mothers compared with CES-D. In addition, we identify items in CES-D, which do not contribute to alignment with DSM-V and are appropriate targets for future improvements. Our analysis identifies interpersonal relationships and mother's age as the primary risk factors, which differentiate between CES-D and Hamilton determinations versus MDE diagnosis. In addition, we find regional differences in CES-D and Hamilton. It is important to tailor the measure to the context, and a calibration sample should be considered for studies of sufficient size.

  1. Motives Underlying Food Choice for Children and Perception of Nutritional Information Among Low-Income Mothers in a Latin American Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Giménez, Ana; Curutchet, María Rosa; Martínez, Joseline; Ares, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of nutritional information on how low-income mothers select food for their children. Five focus groups, each consisting of 5-10 participants, were conducted. Women, older than 18 years, mothers of young children who were beneficiaries of one of the national food stamps programs in Uruguay. Focus group discussions were held around motives underlying food choices for children and perception of labeling systems. Transcripts of the focus group discussions were analyzed using inductive coding. Forty-two women, aged between 18 and 40 years, participated in 5 focus groups. Results showed that low-income mothers do not consider nutritional information when selecting food their children. Traditional nutritional labeling was perceived as complex, difficult to find, and difficult to understand. Participants stressed that they relied on the nutrition claims included on labels for assessing the healthfulness of food products. Semi-directive and directive front-of-pack labels were positively evaluated in terms of ease of interpretation. Participants preferred the traffic light system over other alternatives. Results suggest the need to implement simplified nutritional labeling and to regulate the use of nutrition claims on products targeted at children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bending the private-public gender norms : Negotiating schooling for young mothers from low-income households in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Wekesa (Alice Nelima)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDespite gender equity concerns in education emerging as a key area of interventions and debates within the global justice arena, the educational needs of pregnant schoolgirls and student-mothers have received minimal attention. This research is an attempt to make visible the experiences

  3. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  4. Maternal mental quality of life mediates the associations between intimate partner abuse against mothers and their children's behaviours and quality of life in low-income Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Vivian Yawei; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wong, Rosa Sze Man; Ip, Patrick; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Wilfred Hing Sang; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-12-01

    To explore the association between maternal intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioural problem, and to establish a mediation model and investigate the mediating role of mothers' HRQOL on this association. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 197 mothers of 227 children (112 boys and 115 girls) from low-income Chinese families. The mothers were asked to complete the 5-item abuse assessment screen questionnaire for the presence of IPA, the Chinese (Hong Kong) version of 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) for their HRQOL and a structured socio-demographics questionnaire. One of the parents completed the Child Health Questionnaire-Parent Form-50 (CHQ-PF50) and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to report on their children's HRQOL and behavioural problems, respectively. The mediating effect of the maternal HRQOL on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and HRQOL was tested using Baron and Kenney's multistage regression approach and bootstrapping method. Thirty-five of the 197 mothers reported IPA (17.8%). Children whose mothers had experienced IPA had lower scores in the CHQ-PF50 mental health, parental impact-emotional, family activities and family cohesion subscales, and the psychosocial summary score compared to children of mothers who reported no IPA; they also had more emotional, conduct and hyperactivity/inattention problems and higher total difficulties scores measured by the SDQ. Maternal mental HRQOL was a mediator on the relationship between maternal IPA status and their children's behavioural problems and psychosocial HRQOL. IPA experienced by mothers had significant negative impacts on their children's HRQOL and behaviours, which was mediated by maternal mental HRQOL.

  5. "Doing our best to keep a routine:" How low-income mothers manage child feeding with unpredictable work and family schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tara; Farrell, Tracy Jean; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol M

    2018-01-01

    Significant changes in work and family conditions over the last three decades have important implications for understanding how young children are fed. The new conditions of work and family have placed pressures on families. The aim of this study was to explore the work and family pressures shaping the ways parents feed their young children on a day-to-day basis. Twenty-two purposively recruited low-income employed mothers of 3-4 year old children from a rural county Head Start program in Upstate New York reported details about the context of their children's eating episodes in a 24-h qualitative dietary recall. Participating mothers were employed and/or in school at least 20 h a week and varied in partner and household characteristics. Interview transcripts were open coded using the constant comparative method for usual ways of feeding children. A typology of three emergent child feeding routines was identified based on mothers' accounts of the recurring ways they fed their child. Mothers' feeding routines were distinguished by a combination of four recurring key strategies - planning ahead, delegating, making trade-offs, and coordinating. Work schedule predictability and other adults helped mothers maintain feeding routines. Unexpected daily events, such as working overtime or waking up late, disrupted child feeding routines and required modifications. These findings suggest that understanding how young children are fed requires recognizing the socio-ecological environments that involve working mothers' daily schedules and household conditions and the multiple ways that mothers manage food and feeding to fit environmental constraints. There is a need to look at more than just family meals to understand parents' daily strategies for feeding young children and their implications for child nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. "So Many Books They Don't Even All Fit on the Bookshelf": An Examination of Low-Income Mothers' Home Literacy Practices, Beliefs and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Sandilos, Lia E.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Given the need to enhance the academic language and early literacy skills of young children from low-income homes and the importance of the home literacy environment in supporting children's development, the purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the home literacy environment of low-income African-American and Latino mothers of…

  7. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  8. Spilt milk: an inter-sectoral partnership that failed to advance milk security for low-income lone mothers in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N Theresa; Hilchie-Pye, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Canadian agricultural policy supports higher milk prices. Consequently, poor families lack sufficient funds to purchase adequate quantities of milk. Low-income lone mothers in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia suggested their preferred strategies for improved access to milk. We then built inter-sectoral support for a policy intervention to address their recommendations. Our research-to-action process led to a policy dialogue focusing on an electronic smart card that would permit the delivery of lower-priced milk to poor households. While all agreed that milk insecurity was an important issue, the project ultimately failed because of the entrenched positions of influential stakeholder groups.

  9. Mom-net: Evaluation of an internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for low-income depressed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeber, Lisa B; Feil, Edward G; Seeley, John R; Leve, Craig; Gau, Jeff M; Davis, Betsy; Sorensen, Erik; Allan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention for depression, tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of young children. Economically disadvantaged mothers (N = 266) of preschool aged children, who reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms, were randomized to either the 8-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to Motivational Interviewing and Referral to Services (MIRS). Outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9; Spitzer et al., 1999), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I Disorders (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 2002), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS; Hamilton, 1960). Relative to participants in the MIRS condition, participants in Mom-Net demonstrated significantly greater reduction in depression as indexed by self-report questionnaire (primary outcome), interviewer-rated symptoms, and diagnostic outcomes. Results suggest that the Mom-Net intervention is effective as a remotely delivered intervention for economically disadvantaged mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Home Emotional Environment Among Low-Income Mothers of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Monique; Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E

    2018-02-14

    Objectives Household stressors, such as food insecurity, contribute to the home emotional environment and negatively affect child development. Little research on this topic has been conducted among very young children. This study aimed to examine the relationship between food insecurity and the home emotional environment, as well the extent to which the relationship may be mediated by maternal symptoms of depression. Frequency of praise, affection, and discipline of young children by mothers were examined as markers of the home emotional environment. Methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional study of mothers of children under the age of five (N = 4231). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between level of food security and frequency of praise and discipline of children. Mediation analysis using the KHB method was conducted to test whether maternal mental health mediated the relationship between food insecurity and each outcome. Results Low and very low food security were significantly associated with higher odds of disciplining children with high frequency. Controlling for all covariates, frequency of praise was not significantly associated with level of household food insecurity. Differences in praise and discipline frequency were found by language of interview, maternal education, and employment. Conclusions for Practice Parent-child interactions, specifically related to discipline, are related to food insecurity. Further research should consider cultural patterns and mechanisms behind the relationship between food insecurity and the home environment. Household stressors begin affecting children at young ages, and early intervention is essential to prevent further negative sequelae as children grow older.

  11. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  12. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  13. Five Years Later: Recovery from Post Traumatic Stress and Psychological Distress Among Low-Income Mothers Affected by Hurricane Katrina

    OpenAIRE

    Paxson, Christina; Fussell, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Jean; Waters, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina, which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States in August 2005, exposed area residents to trauma and extensive property loss. However, little is known about the long-run effects of the hurricane on the mental health of those who were exposed. This study documents long-run changes in mental health among a particularly vulnerable group—low income mothers—from before to after the hurricane, and identifies factors that are associated with different recovery trajectories. Longi...

  14. Depressive Symptoms and Length of U.S. Residency Are Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Latina Mothers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A; Hunt, Anne T

    2017-08-02

    Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S.), and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15-44). Participants ( n = 147) were low-income, predominantly immigrant Latina mothers enrolled in the Latina Mothers' Child Feeding Practices and Style Study. Women were eligible to participate if they self-identified as Latina; were enrolled in or eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children program; had a child between ages two and five years; and were living in the U.S. for at least one year, and residing in Rhode Island. Enrolled participants completed a survey in their language of preference (English or Spanish) administered by bilingual interviewers. About one-third (34%) of participants were classified as having obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²), 28.3% had elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), and 70.1% were immigrants. Women with elevated depressive symptoms had increased odds of having obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-6.33). Additionally, among immigrants, length of U.S. residency was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09). Findings underscore the need for screening and culturally relevant interventions designed to address both depressive symptoms and obesity among low-income Latina women of childbearing age. Furthermore, findings highlight the importance of taking into account the length of residency in the U.S. when

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Length of U.S. Residency Are Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Latina Mothers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lindsay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S., and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15–44. Participants (n = 147 were low-income, predominantly immigrant Latina mothers enrolled in the Latina Mothers′ Child Feeding Practices and Style Study. Women were eligible to participate if they self-identified as Latina; were enrolled in or eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children program; had a child between ages two and five years; and were living in the U.S. for at least one year, and residing in Rhode Island. Enrolled participants completed a survey in their language of preference (English or Spanish administered by bilingual interviewers. About one-third (34% of participants were classified as having obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, 28.3% had elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16, and 70.1% were immigrants. Women with elevated depressive symptoms had increased odds of having obesity (odds ratio (OR = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.24–6.33. Additionally, among immigrants, length of U.S. residency was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09. Findings underscore the need for screening and culturally relevant interventions designed to address both depressive symptoms and obesity among low-income Latina women of childbearing age. Furthermore, findings highlight the importance of taking into account the length of residency in

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  17. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers: the healthy eating and active lifestyles from school to home for kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers. Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago during fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, as well as logistic regression models. Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal-weight mothers than in mothers with overweight or obesity. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (P<0.05). Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association.

  18. Utilization of HIV testing services among pregnant mothers in low income primary care settings in northern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Ambaw, Fentie; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-06-24

    HIV testing of women in child bearing age is an entry point for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). This study aims to identify the proportion of women tested for HIV and to determine factors associated with utilization of HIV testing services among pregnant mothers in primary care settings in northern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted in 416 pregnant women from four primary care centers between October 2, 2012 and May 31, 2013 in East Gojjam, Ethiopia. The proportion of mothers who tested for HIV was 277(67%). Among mothers who were not tested for HIV, lack of HIV risk perception (n = 68, 49%) was a major self-reported barrier for HIV testing. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that those pregnant women who had comprehensive knowledge about MTCT had an Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) of 3.73 (95% CI: 1.56, 8.94), having comprehensive knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV an AOR of 2.56 (95% CI: 1.26, 5.19), and a favorable attitude towards persons living with HIV an AOR of 2.42 (95%CI, 1.20, 4.86) were more likely to be tested for HIV. One third of pregnant women had never been tested for HIV until the time of the study. Efforts should be made to improve mother's knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT to increase uptake of HIV testing. Enhancing mother's HIV risk perception to scale up HIV testing in resource limited setting is highly recommended.

  19. Predicting preschool children's eating in the absence of hunger from maternal pressure to eat: A longitudinal study of low-income, Latina mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work by Klesges and colleagues (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues...

  20. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N.; Koenig, Harold F.; Brown, Nicole A.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100%) with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement. PMID:27649233

  1. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Tobey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2 and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082 were conducted in intervention counties (IC and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100% with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators. Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12% and interpretation of intended messages (60% vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively. Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  2. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  3. Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study "Baby Smiles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Philip; Milgrom, Peter; Riedy, Christine A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn; Nykamp, Ann

    2014-02-24

    Fidelity assessments are integral to intervention research but few published trials report these processes in detail. We included plans for fidelity monitoring in the design of a community-based intervention trial. The study design was a randomized clinical trial of an intervention provided to low-income women to increase utilization of dental care during pregnancy (mother) or the postpartum (child) period. Group assignment followed a 2 × 2 factorial design in which participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Health Education (HE) during pregnancy (prenatal) and then randomly reassigned to one of these groups for the postpartum intervention. The study setting was four county health departments in rural Oregon State, USA. Counseling was standardized using a step-by-step manual. Counselors were trained to criteria prior to delivering the intervention and fidelity monitoring continued throughout the implementation period based on audio recordings of counselor-participant sessions. The Yale Adherence and Competence Scale (YACS), modified for this study, was used to code the audio recordings of the counselors' delivery of both the MI and HE interventions. Using Interclass Correlation Coefficients totaling the occurrences of specific MI counseling behaviors, ICC for prenatal was .93, for postpartum the ICC was .75. Participants provided a second source of fidelity data. As a second source of fidelity data, the participants completed the Feedback Questionnaire that included ratings of their satisfaction with the counselors at the completion of the prenatal and post-partum interventions. Coding indicated counselor adherence to MI protocol and variation among counselors in the use of MI skills in the MI condition. Almost no MI behaviors were found in the HE condition. Differences in the length of time to deliver intervention were found; as expected, the HE intervention took less time. There were no differences between the

  4. Mother Trouble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto.  Supplementing the  then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic,  defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis.  The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of  subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the  feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other.  Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics.  Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In

  5. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  6. Mothers: The Unacknowledged Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    Used coercion theory to investigate aversive mother- child interactions. Literature indicated younger children produced higher rates of aversive interactions with their mothers. Mothers' role satisfaction varied as a function of such rates. Observation data showed mothers of aggressive children encountered higher rates of aversive interactions…

  7. "I Fell off [the Mothering] Track": Barriers to "Effective Mothering" among Prostituted Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle

    2004-01-01

    Ecological theory and basic assumptions for the promotion of effective mothering among low-income and working-poor women are applied in relation to a particularly vulnerable population: street-level prostitution-involved women. Qualitative data from 38 street-level prostituted women shows barriers to effective mothering at the individual,…

  8. Amygdala Response to Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  9. Children of imprisoned mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, M P; Arachchi, J K; Wickremasinghe, V P

    2001-06-01

    To describe the problems faced by children during separation from their imprisoned mothers, and evaluate the health of children who accompanied their mothers into prison. A prospective observational study. Welikada Prison, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 200 randomly selected mothers who had left their children at home were interviewed using a questionnaire. During a period of 8 months 30 children living with their mothers in prison underwent physical and developmental examination and tuberculin testing. The living conditions within the prison were evaluated. During 18 months from January 1999, 4089 women were imprisoned. 88% were remanded, 20% awaited trial for more than one year in prison. 2416 were mothers. 1411 had at least one child under 12 years of age. The 200 mothers interviewed had 262 children under 12 years at home. Their care arrangements were: a relative (69%), father (16%), older sibling (4%), religious organisation (2.7%), neighbour (1.3%). None had received social services support. 70 children accompanied mothers into prison. In the 30 children followed up regularly 23% had scabies, 10% pediculosis, and 7% impetigo. No severe malnutrition was found and screening for tuberculosis was negative. 70% were breastfed. The child-friendly dormitory was inadequate to accommodate all children. Care arrangements and schooling were affected and no counselling services were provided during the imprisoned mothers' absence. The children within the prison enjoyed close bonds with the mothers and their physical needs were met. The child's best interest had not always been considered by court when deciding on custody during the mothers' imprisonment.

  10. Mother/child bond in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children: depression and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Spada

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the presence of depression, age, level of schooling, occupation, marital status, number of children and nutritional status (maternal and of the child in mothers of overweight and eutrophic children and relate the data to mother/child bonding. Methods: A total of 120 mothers of children aged up to 10 years participated; 30 of them were overweight and 30 were eutrophic (low-income bracket; 30 were overweight and 30 eutrophic (high-income bracket. The control group was composed of eutrophic children paired according to sex, age, level of schooling, and social condition. Data collection was made through interviews. The assessment instruments were: Mother/Child Bonding Assessment Protocol and Beck Depression Inventory. The nutritional classification was defined by calculation of the body mass index, as per the curves of the World Health Organization. For statistics, McNemar, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used. A 5% level of rejection of the null hypothesis was set. Results: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, or between the presence of depression and level of schooling, marital status, occupation, and maternal nutritional status. Nevertheless, mothers of eutrophic children (high-income bracket showed less depression than mothers of eutrophic children (low-income bracket. Mothers with three or more children displayed more depression than mothers with less than three children. Mothers under 30 years of age showed more depression than mothers aged 30 years or older. Conclusion: There was no significant result between mother/child bonding and the variables studied, but the bond was compromised in all mothers of the sample. There was a significant result regarding the presence of depression.

  11. Mother-Child Communication Quality during Language Brokering: Validation of Four Measures of Brokering Interaction Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntzviller, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred dyads of low-income, Spanish-speaking mothers and their bilingual children (age = 12-18; M = 14.12, SD = 1.89) who have language brokered for the mother (i.e., culturally or linguistically mediated between the mother and English speakers) were surveyed. Multiple goals theory posits that mothers and children who do not recognize and…

  12. Understanding How Participation in Education Changes Mothers' Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…

  13. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  14. Reintegration of young mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Worthen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  15. Teaching and Mother Love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J. Theodore

    1989-01-01

    The teaching context is analogous to the context of maternal practice, reflecting the nature of the relationship between adult and child; and as such, the appropriate practice of mother love is seen as an ideal for teaching. (IAH)

  16. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  17. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  18. Our Mother Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  19. Mothers in Honors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  20. Mothers, Learners and Countermemory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how issues of learning and mothering emerged in research with women students. First it develops the notion of 'a motherhood standpoint'. It then considers how Foucault's concept of 'counter-memory', and, in particular, its reworking in feminist cultural theory as 'countermemory', can be used to explain why students…

  1. WHO ARE THE WORKING MOTHERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF WORKING MOTHERS AND ON THE FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE THEM TO SEEK PAID EMPLOYMENT IS PROVIDED THROUGH 20 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS. AMONG THE NEARLY 27 MILLION WOMEN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES IN MARCH 1966 WERE 9.9 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE. THESE WORKING MOTHERS CONSTITUTED 36 PERCENT OF ALL…

  2. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  4. English- and Spanish-speaking Latina mothers' beliefs about food, health, and mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela

    2007-10-01

    Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate.

  5. Single Mothers, Social Capital, and Work--Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattari, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine work-family conflict among low-income, unmarried mothers. Analyzing the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national sample of nonmarital births, I examine how social capital affects work-family conflict and how both social capital and work-family conflict affect employment. Results show that…

  6. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  7. Mother\\'s Experiences of Having Mental Retarded Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mohammadkhan-Kermanshahi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Giving birth and training to a child with Mental Retardation (MR can be stressful for mothers. Therefore mothers need role models and adequate preparation to effectively teach the child to function at optimum level within the environment. Nurses are in a strategic position to assume a vital role in a assisting these mothers. With observation, problem solving, and decision making. There is a lack of studies about mothers' experiences of having a child with MR. This study was preformed to investigate mother's experiences of having a child with MR and how explore and describe the experienced mothers with mental retarded child. Materials & Methods: A phenomenographic approach was used. The study was preformed at an exceptional school in Tehran. Twelve mothers were interviewed using guided interviews. Results: From 336 thematic sentences, Six categories emerged, the first having three subcategories and the second having twenty subcategories., the third having three, the fourth category having six, the fifth having two, and the sixth having two subcategories. Mother's experiences of having a child with MR, describes informants a variety of feelings, often ambivalent (acceptance and UN acceptance. In such a situation, attention to God and prayer are the most important coping strategies for positive adaptation in mothers' experiences of having a child with MR, but this perception can not effect to accept him alone. They emphasis on educational and psychological needs for better life. Conclusions: The findings of this study could be used in mothers education to promote understanding of mothers’ experiences and how best to help them. They could also be used in the general media to improve public understanding.

  8. Heart Rate Correlates of Attachment Status in Young Mothers and Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenko, Marina; Kraemer, Helena; Huffman, Lynne; Gschwendt, Miriam; Pageler, Natalie; Steiner, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore heart rate (HR) correlates of attachment behavior in young mothers and their infants to generate specific hypotheses and to provide pilot data on which studies to test those hypotheses might be based. Method: Using the strange situation procedure, patterns of attachment were assessed in 41 low-income adolescent mothers and…

  9. Mothers' Perception and Practice in Their Childs' Out of School [Summer] Time: A Socioeconomic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhomme, Marcy B.

    2014-01-01

    I set out to explore the question: How do middle-class, working-class and low-income mothers experience their children's out of school summer time? Using qualitative basic interpretive approach, study findings draw from interview data, journal entries and participant observations from a study completed with 22 mothers of varying socioeconomic…

  10. The effect of mother's age, parity and antenatal clinic attendance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 1 Incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and mean birth weight of babies from different age groups of mothers. Mother's. Number of Number of ..... Schneck ME, Sideras KS, Fox RA, Dupuis L. Low-income pregnant adolescents and their ...

  11. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Mother-Child Interactions, and Children's Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Camerota, Marie; Willoughby, Michael T.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported…

  12. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Toddler Engagement of Mother in Predicting Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, Jean M.; Su-Russell, Chang; Palermo, Francisco; Carlo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a cross-lag mediation model was tested to examine longitudinal relations among low-income mothers' sensitivity; toddlers' engagement of their mothers; and toddler's self-regulation at ages 1, 2, and 3 years (N = 2,958). Age 1 maternal sensitivity predicted self-regulation at…

  13. School Trouble: A Mother's Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley-Marling, Curt

    2001-01-01

    Used interviews with a diverse group of parents of children who struggled academically in school to examine the effects of school troubles on mothers. Overall, the material and emotional burden for children's schoolwork fell to the mothers, many of whom felt overwhelmed and believed that the demands of schooling had diminished their quality of…

  14. Mothers' Retrospections of Premature Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Magda; And Others

    This study examined Hungarian mothers' recollections, 8 years after the birth of their premature baby, of their stress at the time of the baby's birth. Interviews were conducted with 30 mothers whose babies had been born between 30 and 37 weeks gestational age. At the time of the follow-up, all children had normal IQs and were attending normal…

  15. Literacy and the Mother Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Reviewing the situation of literacy in the mother tongue, the article reports on projects in: (1) Africa--Mali and Nigeria, (2) the Amazonian jungle of Peru in Latin America, and (3) Papua, New Guinea. Psychological, sociological, and educational advantages of the mother tongue are discussed. (MW)

  16. Where's the Feminism in Mothering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Catherine; Turner, Colleen; Crockett, Belinda; Gridley, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reflective narrative bringing together personal, collective, and action learning reflections from three women: all mothers, feminists, and community psychology practitioners. Its focus on mothering highlights the interconnectedness and tensions across these roles, as well as the shared learnings arising from this collaboration.…

  17. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  18. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  19. Mothers' Mobility after Separation : Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Marjolijn; de Valk, Helga; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  20. Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Merz, E.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit

  1. From mothers to daughters: transgenerational food and diet communication in an underserved group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane Baer; Musham, Catherine; McLellan, Mary S

    2004-01-01

    Studies show that young girls are highly influenced by their mothers' attitudes toward food and body image. To investigate the nature of the information about food that mothers transfer to their daughters, the researchers used focus groups comprising African American women. Results suggest that when educators work with low-income African American women, they should be cognizant of overeating from the perspectives of early food scarcity, reverence for the mother's authoritative role in the family and respect for cultural differences in body size norms. In addition, nutrition educators should counsel young mothers to understand the impact of their eating habits on their daughters.

  2. "Good mothering" or "good citizenship"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.

  3. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  4. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L

    1998-03-01

    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings.

  5. A organização familiar para o cuidado dos filhos: percepção das mães em uma comunidade de baixa renda La organización familiar para el cuidado de los hijos: percepción de las madres en una comunidad de baja renta Family organization regarding children care: mothers perception in a low income community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Barrére Martin

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos compreender a percepção que mães de uma comunidade de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo, têm sobre o significado do seu papel na estrutura familiar, em relação ao cuidado dos filhos e as estratégias utilizadas para desempenhar esse cuidado. A análise etnográfica nos possibilitou reconhecer 6 domínios culturais e resultados reveladores de que a mãe ocupa lugar central na família e é responsável pela educação, criação e socialização dos filhos. A adaptação do seu papel caracteriza-se pelo atendimento às necessidades de sobrevivência dos filhos, entretanto com o crescimento das crianças, demonstra insegurança frente à isso.El estudio tuvo como objetivos comprender la percepción que madres de una comunidad de baja renta de la ciudad de São Paulo tienen sobre el significado de su papel en la estructura familiar, con relación al cuidado de los hijos y las estrategias que utilizan para desempeñar ese cuidado. El análisis etnográfico posibilitó reconocer 6 dominios culturales y resultados reveladores de que la madre ocupa lugar central en la familia, es responsable por la educación, crianza y socialización de los hijos. La adaptación de su papel se caracteriza por el cubrimiento de las necesidades de supervivencia de los hijos, pero con el crecimiento de los hijos la madre demuestra inseguridad en su desempeño.The purposes of this study are to understand the perception that the mothers from a low income community in São Paulo city have about the meaning of their role in the family structure, concerning children care and the strategies used in family organization to carry out this care. The ethnographic analysis allowed us to identify 6 cultural domains and results showed that the mother have a main role in the family. They are the great responsible for the education, raising and socialization of the children. The adaptation of their role is characterized by their attention

  6. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  7. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  8. Neither father nor biological mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti

    2015-01-01

    . Results: Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, whilelesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biologicalmother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what...

  9. African American mothers' self-described discipline strategies with young children in 1992 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Christensen, Julie J; Kreher, Donna; Kearney, Margaret H; Kitzman, Harriet J

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative descriptive study, 30 young, unmarried, low-income African American mothers in Memphis, TN, were interviewed in 2011-2012 about their discipline strategies with their 12- to 19-month-old children. Using content analyses, their strategies were described and compared with those from a similar sample in 1992. Findings suggest both continuity and change during that 20-year period. More mothers in 2011-2012 described the use of distraction and time out, suggesting a wider variety of strategies than were used in 1992. These findings may help clinicians to better understand disciplinary methods in young low-income African American mothers such as these in Memphis. Approaching mothers in a respectful and culturally sensitive manner will help them focus on effective, developmentally appropriate strategies consistent with their own parenting goals. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular malformations in infants of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.

  11. PAM: A Program for Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, Faye B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Program for Adolescent Mothers (PAM) established to provide opportunities for teen mothers in Louisiana to increase their self-esteem, become productive citizens, and become aware of the physical and emotional development of children. (JOW)

  12. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvement with Their Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, Vicky; Fields, Sherecce; Kamboukos, Dimitra

    2009-01-01

    We explored mothers' and fathers' time spent with their adolescents and found that mothers reported spending more time with their adolescents than did fathers. Developmental patterns were found for some aspects of time involvement, with both mothers and fathers reporting higher involvement with younger adolescents. Ratings of time-spent were not…

  13. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  14. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  15. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  16. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)

  17. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  18. Sole Mothers in Australia: Supporting Mothers to Seek Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marilyn McHugh; Jane Millar

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increase in the numbers of sole parents in Australia - and their high risk of poverty - has meant that these families have become a focus of increasing concern. This paper explores the issue of sole motherhood and employment, with a particular emphasis on examining the relationship between social security policies and current discourses on the role of women in Australian society, including the perspectives of sole mothers themselves. The paper is part of an edited collection (Duncan...

  19. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  20. Competing infant feeding information in mothers' networks: advice that supports v. undermines clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Lynn, Freda B; Williams, Natalie A; Schafer, Ellen J

    2016-05-01

    To identify the social contextual factors, specifically the presence of information that supports v. undermines clinical recommendations, associated with infant feeding behaviours among mothers in low-income areas. Cross-sectional survey evaluating social support networks and social relationships involved in providing care to the infant along with feeding beliefs and practices. Out-patient paediatric and government-funded (Women, Infants, and Children) clinics in an urban, low-income area of the south-eastern USA. Eighty-one low-income mothers of infants between 0 and 12 months old. Most mothers reported receiving both supportive and undermining advice. The presence of breast-feeding advice that supports clinical recommendations was associated with two infant feeding practices that are considered beneficial to infant health: ever breast-feeding (OR=6·7; 95% CI 1·2, 38·1) and not adding cereal in the infant's bottle (OR=15·9; 95% CI 1·1, 227·4). Advice that undermines clinical recommendations to breast-feed and advice about solid foods were not associated with these behaviours. Efforts to facilitate optimal infant feeding practices may focus on increasing information supportive of clinical recommendations while concentrating less on reducing the presence of undermining information within mothers' networks. Cultural norms around breast-feeding may be stronger than the cultural norms around the introduction of solid foods in mothers' social environments; thus, additional efforts to increase information regarding introduction of solid foods earlier in mothers' infant care career may be beneficial.

  1. Surrogate mothering: exploitation or empowerment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Laura M

    1989-01-01

    The morality of surrogate mothering is analyzed from a "consequentialist" framework which attempts to separate those consequences that invariably accompany a given act from those that accompany it only in particular circumstances. Critics of surrogacy argue that it transfers the burden and risk of pregnancy onto another woman, separates sex and reproduction, and separates reproduction and childrearing; none of these acts is necessarily wrong, either morally or for women's or society's basic interests. While surrogate mothering can be rendered immoral if women are coerced into the practice or become victims of subordinating or penalizing contracts, it has the potential to empower women and increase their status in society by providing a job that is less risky and more enjoyable than other jobs women are forced to take and by achieving greater social recognition for reproductive labor.

  2. ECONOMIC EXPERIENCES OF SINGLE MOTHERS IN BHAMBAYI, KWAZULU-NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniga, Tanusha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Women living in low-income communities often initiate livelihood activities as a means to support themselves and their families. Even though these small-scale livelihood activities supplement the household income, they are insufficient to lift single mothers out of poverty. This study explores the economic experiences of 25 single mothers who embarked on individual livelihood activities. Using feminist theory, the paper presents their biographical profile and discusses two key themes, namely institutional barriers leading to economic insecurities, and the strengths and limitations of social networks. The paper concludes with some considerations for harnessing the valuable contributions made by single mothers.

  3. Mothers' part-time employment: associations with mother and family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-12-01

    The associations between mothers' part-time employment and mother well-being, parenting, and family functioning were examined using seven waves of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data (N = 1,364), infancy through middle childhood. Concurrent comparisons were made between families in which mothers were employed part time and both those in which mothers were not employed and those in which mothers were employed full time. Using multivariate analysis of covariance with extensive controls, results indicated that mothers employed part time had fewer depressive symptoms during the infancy and preschool years and better self-reported health at most time points than did nonemployed mothers. Across the time span studied, mothers working part time tended to report less conflict between work and family than those working full time. During their children's preschool years, mothers employed part time exhibited more sensitive parenting than did other mothers, and at school age were more involved in school and provided more learning opportunities than mothers employed full time. Mothers employed part time reported doing a higher proportion of child care and housework than mothers employed full time. Part-time employment appears to have some benefits for mothers and families throughout the child rearing years.

  4. State Medicaid Expansions for Parents Led to Increased Coverage and Prenatal Care Utilization among Pregnant Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate impacts of state Medicaid expansions for low-income parents on the health insurance coverage, pregnancy intention, and use of prenatal care among mothers who became pregnant. Person-level data for women with a live birth from the 1997-2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The sample was restricted to women who were already parents using information on previous live births and combined with information on state Medicaid policies for low-income parents. I used a measure of expanded generosity of state Medicaid eligibility for low-income parents to estimate changes in health insurance, pregnancy intention, and prenatal care for pregnant mothers associated with Medicaid expansion. I found an increase in prepregnancy health insurance coverage and coverage during pregnancy among pregnant mothers, as well as earlier initiation of prenatal care, associated with the expansions. Among pregnant mothers with less education, I found an increase in the adequacy of prenatal care utilization. Expanded Medicaid coverage for low-income adults has the potential to increase a woman's health insurance coverage prior to pregnancy, as well as her insurance coverage and medical care receipt during pregnancy. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Utility of kangaroo mother care in preterm and low birthweight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers who practise KMC exhibit less maternal stress and fewer symptoms of depression, and have a better sense of the parenting role and more confidence in meeting their babies' needs than those who don't. Despite the apparent feasibility of KMC, currently, only a few preterm babies in low-income countries have

  6. Do Child Care Subsidies Influence Single Mothers' Decision to Invest in Human Capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    A child care subsidy is one of the most effective policy instruments to facilitate low-income individuals' transition from welfare to work. Although previous studies consistently find that subsidy receipt is associated with increased employment among single mothers, there is currently no evidence on the influence of these benefits on the decision…

  7. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  8. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  9. Mother-Child Interactions of Preterm Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Akman, İpek; Kuşçu Orhan, Şebnem; Kuşçu, Kemal; Altuncu, Emel; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Yüce, Murat

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the mother-toddler relationship in preterm toddlers. The sample consisted of 18 mothers and their preterm toddlers (group 1) and 20 mothers and their fullterm toddlers (group 2). Anxiety and depressive symptom levels, attachment pattern, and parental attitudes of mothers and social-emotional problems and developmental level of the toddlers were explored to assess possible confounding factors in the mother-toddler relationship. Two researchers rated the Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scales (PIRGAS). Both the mothers in group 1 and group 2 had similar Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores. However, the mothers who gave birth before 32 weeks of gestation had higher trait anxiety scores than others (46±2.4 vs. 42.3±5.4, p=0.01). The groups had similar Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment Scale (BITSEA) problem and competency scores. The parenting style of group 1 revealed that they had higher scores on the Parenting Attitude Research Instrument (PARI) subscale 5 (excessive discipline) (39.6 vs. 32.1; p=0.02). Mother-toddler interaction and attachment security were found to be similar in fullterm and moderately preterm healthy toddlers. Our findings suggest that not the preterm birth itself but the medical, developmental, and/or neurological consequences of prematurity may affect the mother-toddler interaction. To explore the independent effect of prematurity in mother-toddler dyadic relationship, longitudinally designed studies are warranted.

  10. The offspring of epileptic mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, S K; Misra, S; Jaiswal, S

    1996-01-01

    The offspring of an epileptic mother is an issue-currently getting attention because of its several implications. A complex interaction between epilepsy during pregnancy and its adverse impact on foetus, labor, neonate, congenital malformation, psychosocial and medico-social concern and treatment challenges of such cases is increasingly being realised. Some of the significant observations has been reviewed extensively in this article. Maternal epilepsy is likely to adversely affect the off-spring at its various stages of development amounting to increased morbidity and mortality. Increased seizure frequency during pregnancy with resultant increased risk is well documented but its mechanism is poorly understood. Low apgar score, increased still birth rates (1.3 to 14%) in offspring of epileptic mother (OEM) is reported. So also, the neonatal and perinatal deaths are twice more common in OEMS than normal control. Small for dates, and prematurity in OEM is reported to be 7 to 10% and 4-11% respectively. Adverse impact on labor and delivery like preclampsia, abruptio placentae, polyhydramnios, assisted delivery, cesarean section and IUGR poses particular challenges to the obstetrician. Pediatrician's alertness is needed to anticipate and deal with the bleeding manifestation due to deficiency of Vit-K dependent clotting factors and various anticonvulsant drug (AED) withdrawal symptoms. Significant risk of developing congenital malformation is the result of epilepsy perse and the AED used during pregnancy. AED exposure leads to other distinct clinical syndromes, the orofacial clefts and cardiac anomalies being the commonest manifestation. Epilepsy in mother but not in father has significant adverse impact. Management strategies in the context of available observation has been discussed.

  11. [Nutritional and sociodemographic characteristics of nursing mothers: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Larissa Bueno; Nea, Ingrid Tatiana Oliveira de; Sousa, Taciana Maia de; Santos, Luana Caroline Dos

    2018-02-01

    A systematic review of nutritional and sociodemographic characteristics of nursing mothers, using the published literature from 2004 to 2014 in the Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde and Medline databases. Using the following key words, 561 articles were identified: "Human Milk" and "Milk Banks"; keywords: "Profile," "Nutritional," "Milk Donor," "Nursing Mother" and "Nursing Mothers"; available abstracts; date and language. From these, 84.1% were excluded for not dealing with the established subject, 1.8% for being a review and 7.5% for the unavailability of abstracts for study. Thirty-seven articles were selected, of which 18.9% analyzed the profile of the HM donor. Of the total, 89.2% reported age, the majority between 20 and 30 years of age. The level of schooling was mentioned in 32.4% ranging from elementary school and higher education. With respect to income, a higher prevalence of low socioeconomic status was observed. About the nutritional status, 45.9% of the studies measured the body mass index and 29.4% reported the predominance of excess weight. There were deficiencies, particularly of vitamin A, with frequencies between 9% and 26%. A majority of young adult mothers, varied schooling, low income and nutritional deficiencies were noted, demanding interventions to improve health and increase HM donations.

  12. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and ...

  13. Signal Analysis by New Mother Wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Jinbo; Qi Kaiguo; Fan Hongyi

    2009-01-01

    Based on the general formula for finding qualified mother wavelets [Opt. Lett. 31 (2006) 407] we make wavelet transforms computed with the newly found mother wavelets (characteristic of the power 2n) for some optical Gaussian pulses, which exhibit the ability to measure frequency of the pulse more precisely and clearly. We also work with complex mother wavelets composed of new real mother wavelets, which offer the ability of obtaining phase information of the pulse as well as amplitude information. The analogy between the behavior of Hermite-Gauss beams and that of new wavelet transforms is noticed. (general)

  14. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  15. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  16. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  17. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  19. Mothers' Experiences with a Mother-Child Education Programme in Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Sevda; Koçak, Aylin Atmaca

    2013-01-01

    Although previous quantitative studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of the mother-child education programme (MOCEP) that originated in Turkey in 1993, the study reported here uses a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of mothers' views of the outcomes of the programme. The study was conducted with 100 mothers from five…

  20. Mother-infant attachment and the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Egeland, Byron; Carlson, Elizabeth; Blood, Emily; Wright, Rosalind J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence for the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is documented in the literature, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Attachment theory provides a framework for elucidating the ways in which maternal PTSD may increase offspring PTSD vulnerability. The current study utilized two independent prospective data sets to test the hypotheses that (a) maternal PTSD increases the probability of developing an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship and (b) an insecure mother-infant attachment relationship increases the risk of developing PTSD following trauma exposure in later life. In the first study of urban, primarily low-income ethnic/racial minority mothers and infants (N = 45 dyads), elevated maternal PTSD symptoms at 6 months were associated with increased risk for an insecure, particularly disorganized, mother-infant attachment relationship at 13 months. In the second birth cohort of urban, low-income mothers and children (N = 96 dyads), insecure (avoidant or resistant) attachment in infancy was associated in a dose-response manner with increased lifetime risk for a diagnosis of PTSD by adolescence. A history of disorganized attachment in infancy predicted severity of PTSD symptoms, including reexperiencing, avoidance, hyperarousal, and total symptoms, at 17.5 years. In both studies, associations between attachment and PTSD were not attributable to numerous co-occurring risk factors. The findings suggest that promoting positive mother-child relationships in early development, particularly in populations at high risk for trauma exposure, may reduce the incidence of PTSD.

  1. Development of a tool to assess past food insecurity of immigrant latino mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Edith M; Espinosa-Hall, Gloria; Lamp, Catherine L; Martin, Anna C; Metz, Diane L; Smith, Dorothy; Townsend, Marilyn S; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the development and validation of a tool to measure the degree of past food insecurity in an immigrant US population. Focus group discussions and a structured interview. As a first step, focus group discussions were conducted among immigrant Latino mothers. Based on these discussions, an 8-item tool was developed and pilot-tested in a convenience sample of mothers. California. Twenty-two low-income Latino mothers with children, ages 4 to 5 years, in the focus groups and 85 low-income Latino and white mothers of young children in the structured interviews. Constant comparative analysis, Cronbach alpha, Spearman correlations, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Internal consistency of the remaining 7 items was good (Cronbach alpha = 0.84). Evidence of convergent validity included significant correlations between past food insecurity and maternal education (r = -0.45, p Latino mothers reported significantly greater levels of past food insecurity than US-born mothers, demonstrating discriminant validity (p Latino immigrants.

  2. "Whatever average is:" understanding African-American mothers' perceptions of infant weight, growth, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Biomedical researchers have raised concerns that mothers' inability to recognize infant and toddler overweight poses a barrier to stemming increasing rates of overweight and obesity, particularly among low-income or minority mothers. Little anthropological research has examined the sociocultural, economic or structural factors shaping maternal perceptions of infant and toddler size or addressed biomedical depictions of maternal misperception as a "socio-cultural problem." We use qualitative and quantitative data from 237 low-income, African-American mothers to explore how they define 'normal' infant growth and infant overweight. Our quantitative results document that mothers' perceptions of infant size change with infant age, are sensitive to the size of other infants in the community, and are associated with concerns over health and appetite. Qualitative analysis documents that mothers are concerned with their children's weight status and assess size in relation to their infants' cues, local and societal norms of appropriate size, interactions with biomedicine, and concerns about infant health and sufficiency. These findings suggest that mothers use multiple models to interpret and respond to child weight. An anthropological focus on the complex social and structural factors shaping what is considered 'normal' and 'abnormal' infant weight is critical for shaping appropriate and successful interventions.

  3. Mothers' knowledge of foetal movements monitoring during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge pregnant mothers have on the ... A quantitative research survey design was used to obtain information from pregnant mothers. Simple random probability sampling was used. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  4. Adolescent mothers' knowledge and perceptions of contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive quantitative survey attempted to identify reasons why adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies) failed to utilise contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and / or termination of pregnancy (TOP) services. The research population comprised all adolescent mothers in the region, the ...

  5. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária

    2016-01-01

    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  6. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  7. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Lucille

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  8. 75 FR 26875 - Mother's Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... their careers, or as single parents working to provide for their families. They have carried the torch... daughters and granddaughters. On Mother's Day, we pay tribute to these women who have given so much of.... Nurturing families come in many forms, and children may be raised by two parents, a single mother, two...

  9. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  10. Academic Mothers Finding Rhyme and Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Venitha

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the "balancing two lives" approach to motherhood and work has particular limitations for academic mothers. I interrogate the perceived oppositionalities in being mother, traditionally associated with nurturing, love and emotion, and being academic, traditionally associated with reason and logic. My purpose is to show…

  11. 76 FR 27601 - Mother's Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... and elder care, and education. My budget strengthens the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit to help..., so have the challenges facing women raising families. Many American women are raising children at... extraordinary importance of mothers in our lives. The bond of love and dedication a mother shares with her...

  12. Stigma in mothers of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail

    2015-03-01

    A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child's treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child's deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother's level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation programs and standard services for the children themselves.

  13. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Wu, C; Schendel, D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 838 331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced...

  14. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2004-01-01

    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  15. Mothers' perceptions of community health professional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunders, Helena; Giles, David; Douglas, Hazel

    2007-04-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' experiences of the support they received from community health professionals. Every third mother was selected from an NHS Trust's database of women whose health visitors had used the Solihull Approach. Forty-two women were sent information packs and consent forms. Nine mothers who returned consent forms were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results expand on previous research and contribute additional ideas to the existing evidence base. The findings explore the concepts of trust, expertise and understanding within the working partnership. In addition, the results address mothers' need for reliability, and a preference for professionals who understood women's beliefs about what it means to be a 'good mother'. The results and recommendations are pertinent to those community health professionals who work in the area of early childhood intervention, including practitioners who use the Solihull Approach.

  16. Parenting from prison: helping children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P J; Harm, N J

    2000-01-01

    Incarceration of a mother disrupts the mother-child relationship and the child's emotional development. The researchers evaluated a 15-week parenting program in a women's prison that was designed to enhance mother-child interactions during imprisonment. Pre- and postmeasures for the 104 women were Hudson's (1982) Index of Self-Esteem, Bavolek's (1984) Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory, and semistructured questionnaires. Self-esteem and attitudes about expectations of children, corporal punishment, and family roles improved significantly. Empathy and mother-child interactions through visits and letters improved. Participants identified the most helpful components of the program. Those who had been physically, sexually, and emotionally abused and those who had used drugs and alcohol had positive results. Findings support the value of parent education for self-development of incarcerated mothers and for the welfare of their children.

  17. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Mother Infant Attachment among Mothers of Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Margaret

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.

  18. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  20. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E

    2015-12-01

    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Young Mothers, First Time Parenthood and Exclusive Breastfeeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This paper specifically examines duration of exclusive breastfeeding among young mothers below ... Results show that Eldoret mothers are aware of benefits of breastfeeding; nevertheless, the ... More research on mothering should examine.

  2. Effects of low income on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2003-06-10

    Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not

  3. Knowledge and beliefs concerning early childhood caries from mothers of children ages zero to 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Romano, Ana Regina; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess mothers' knowledge and beliefs about early childhood caries (ECC) etiology and prevention. This cross-sectional study targeted mothers (N=277) of zero- to 12-month-olds visiting 12 public health care centers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information on causes of and recommendations to prevent ECC, as well as socioeconomic and demographic variables, was collected. Chi-square, univariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (Pinfluence caries in their children. None reported the role of micro-organisms and lack of fluoride in the caries etiology. These findings highlight the importance of providing preventive orientation to the mothers regarding early childhood caries. Information on age of first dental visit should be emphasized, especially among mothers with more than one child and low-income families.

  4. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  5. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-10-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  6. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  7. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L

    1986-04-01

    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  8. The Plight of Transnational Latina Mothers: Mothering from a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Sternberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization, trade agreements, and revolutionary changes in transportation and communication have fueled a steady increase in international migration. Foreign-born Latinas, driven by a strong desire to escape poverty and to improve life for their children, face difficult decisions as transnational mothers. These women emigrate from their countries of origin, leaving their children behind with relatives. After overcoming the hardships and dangers involved in a clandestine crossing of the U.S.-Mexico border, they continue to suffer the pain of separation from their children and to hope for eventual family reunification. This study focuses on the experiences of eight Latina transnational mothers and calls for reflection and solidarity by nurses and other health care professionals in order to influence the dynamics of social, economic, and political actions to relieve social suffering.La mondialisation, les accords commerciaux et les évolutions révolutionnaires que connaissent les secteurs des transports et des communications ont favorisé l'augmentation régulière de l’immigration internationale. Motivées par la volonté d’échapper à la pauvreté et d’offrir une vie meilleure à leurs enfants, les mères latino-américaines sont confrontées à des décisions difficiles en tant que mères transnationales. Ces femmes émigrent de leur pays d’origine, laissant leurs enfants à leur famille. Après avoir surmonté les épreuves et les dangers inhérents au passage clandestin de la frontière américano-mexicaine, elles continuent à souffrir du fait de la séparation d’avec leurs enfants et vivent dans l’espoir de se retrouver à nouveau en famille. Cette étude s’intéresse à l’expérience de huit mères latino-américaines vivant aux Etats-Unis et appelle les infirmières et autres professionnels de la santé à réfléchir et à faire preuve de solidarité afin d’influencer une dynamique d’actions sociales,

  9. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  10. [Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.

  11. Mothering and acculturation: experiences during pregnancy and childrearing of Filipina mothers married to Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uayan, Maria Luisa Tumandao; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina mothers married to Japanese during pregnancy and childrearing. Eight focus group interviews (FGI) were conducted among 39 Filipino mothers who are currently residing in Japan to obtain significant information with regard to their pregnancy and childrearing experiences. Content analysis was used to extract relevant themes that will describe the experiences of this group of migrant mothers. The findings revealed three major themes: 1) cultural barriers during pregnancy and childrearing; 2) mothering at the different stages of childrearing; and 3) positive adjustments to a new role in a new environment. The establishment of means of communication with migrant mothers effectively enabling them to understand important information for promoting healthy pregnancy and childrearing is strongly recommended. Provision of school information in the English language and enhancing the resilient character of the Filipina are important strategies in promoting positive pregnancy and childrearing experiences among Filipina migrant mothers.

  12. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  13. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Transfer of elements into mother's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wappelhorst, O.; Kuehn, I.; Heidenreich, H.; Markert, B.

    2000-01-01

    This research project aimed to determine the factors for the transfer of the elements silver (Ag), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chrome (Cr), gallium (Ga), lanthanum (La), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), radium (Ra), ruthenium (Ru), antimony (sb), thorium (Th), titanium (Ti) and uranium (U) from food into the mother's milk. This factors will be used as a basic to check and derive activity values for the contamination of food and for radiation protection at working places of suckling women. For this purpose 19 mothers collected samples daily (2-8 weeks), using the duplicate method, of all the food they consumed as well as of their milk. After microwave-assisted digestion the element contents were analysed by mass-spectroscopy with inductive coupled plasma (ICP-MS). The results of the mothers who participate for more than 5 weeks were used to make a time lapse between the intake and transfer of the elements in the mothers milk visible. (orig.) [de

  15. Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mothers traveling to malarious areas should ensure the antimalarial included is compatible with breastfeeding before beginning travel. ... submit" value="Submit" /> Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & ...

  16. Clinics in Mother and Child Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health is a bilingual journal and publishes (in ... Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria: The Need for Middle Level Health Manpower ... Le syndrome des ovaires micropolykystiques chez les femmes infertiles à ...

  17. factors influencing vitamin a supplementation among mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-04

    Apr 4, 2012 ... and awareness among both health workers and mothers. ... remains the lack of recognition of the need for. VAS. ..... of India where only 12.5% had received VAS (11). .... weekly vitamin A supplementation among women.

  18. Mothers' beliefs about emotions, mother-child emotion discourse, and children's emotion understanding in Latino families

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rivera, Marie Belle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand associations between acculturation, parental beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in Latino preschool-aged children. Research on Latino families may prove to be important given the little research that has focused on emotion understanding strictly in Latino cultures. Forty Latino mother-child dyads were observed throughout a series of naturalistic observations. Mothers self-reported their acculturation and their belie...

  19. The relationship between mother?s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother?s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  20. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...

  2. Pregnancy outcomes in mothers with advanced human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2%, p=0.308) and to have low Apgar scores (28% vs. 12%, Apgar score < 4 at 5 minutes p=0.02). Perinatal sepsis and perinatal deaths were more common in infants born to mothers with advanced HIV disease compared to infants born to HIV negative mothers (8 vs. 3, p=0.003 and 14 vs. 5, p=0.025 respectively). External ...

  3. Children of Working Mothers, March 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Almost 27 million children in the U.S.--or 42 percent of those under age 18--had mothers working or seeking work in March 1974. About one in four of these children (6.1 million) were below regular school age. Since 1970, the number of children whose mothers were in the labor force has risen sharply by 1.2 million, while the total number of…

  4. Attitudes toward working mothers: accommodating the needs of mothers in the work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, A

    1992-10-01

    More women, including mothers, are part of the work force than ever before. In the workplace, barriers often exist that restrict promotion and advancement of mothers. Mothers often are penalized in attempting to meet the demands of parent and worker roles. Parenting practices have been considered primarily the domain of mothers. However, nurturing may be done effectively by fathers or other motivated adults. Policies of employers must change to accommodate needs of families. Examples of supportive practices may include flexible working hours, parental leave, and on-site child care.

  5. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-05-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  6. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  7. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Murray, Clare; Lycett, Emma; MacCallum, Fiona; Golombok, Susan

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. Thirty-four women who had given birth to a surrogate child approximately 1 year previously were interviewed by trained researchers, and the data rated using standardized coding criteria. Information was obtained on: (i) reasons for the woman's decision to become a surrogate mother; (ii) her retrospective view of the relationship with the commissioning couple before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and after the birth; (iii) her experiences during and after relinquishing the child; and (iv) how others reacted to her decision to become a surrogate mother. It was found that surrogate mothers do not generally experience major problems in their relationship with the commissioning couple, in handing over the baby, or from the reactions of those around them. The emotional problems experienced by some surrogate mothers in the weeks following the birth appeared to lessen over time. Surrogate mothers do not appear to experience psychological problems as a result of the surrogacy arrangement.

  8. Mother's perceptions of postpartum stress and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J A; Damato, E G

    1999-01-01

    To examine mothers' postpartum perceptions of stress and satisfaction. Methodologic triangulation with quantitative and qualitative data in a nonexperimental design. A convenience sample of 95 women was obtained during normally scheduled postpartum appointments at a health maintenance organization. The self-administered questionnaire included the Mothers' Information Tool (MIT), What Being the Parent of a Baby Is Like (WPL-R), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Open-ended MIT items revealed mothers' perceptions of stress and satisfaction. The WPL-R provided maternal satisfaction scores, and the BSI yielded Global Stress Index scores. Content analysis identified the following categories: Roles, Tasks, Resources, and Relationships. Subcategories identified as areas of stress were Work/School, Sleep/Rest, Adjustment/Own Needs, Health/Body Image, Organization of Life, Child Care, Day Care, Housework, Future Challenges, Finances, Housing, Time, Partner, and Family. Subcategories identified as areas of satisfaction were Participating in Relationships, Sharing the Future, Being Proud to Be a Mother, Enjoying a Healthy Baby, and Caring for a Child. Levels of stress and satisfaction of mothers who scored high and low on quantitative measures were compared. The outcomes contribute to the knowledge concerning postpartum women's perceptions of the mothering experience and suggest approaches to nursing assessment and intervention to prevent postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  9. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Vitamin A Status of Lactating Mothers in Manyara and ... E.L Ndau, D. Walters, D. Wu, N. Saleh, T.C.E. Mosha, S. Horton, H.S. Laswai ... for young mothers, 84.6% for middle age mothers and 86.3% for elderly mothers.

  10. Personalization in Mother-Child Emotion Talk across Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia; Tompkins, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    An unexplored aspect of contextual variation in emotion talk is the extent to which the emotions mothers and children discuss relate to the child, mother, or another self. To establish the extent to which mothers and children personalize the emotions they discuss, we examined the emotion talk of 40 American mother-child dyads in three…

  11. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More mothers of preterm neonates(27.3%) had GHQ-30 scores which categorised them as having significant emotional distress than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). Similarly more mothers of preterm neonates(15.1%) were more depressed than mothers of full term normal infants(3.7%). These differences were ...

  12. Study of Mothers' Anxieties Related to Their Children's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgar, Sengul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study anxieties of mothers related to their children's future. Qualitative method was used in order to study anxieties of mothers from different socio-economic levels. Sample of the study participants are 129 mothers living in Istanbul. 32 of those mothers are from upper socio-economic level, 57, from middle…

  13. The Impact of Depression on Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; Diehl, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Depression in pregnant women and mothers of very young children is a pressing public health issue. Maternal depression is linked to a number of serious difficulties for mothers, their young children, and mother-child relationships. Unrecognized and untreated, it can lead to long-lasting impairment for both mothers and their children. However,…

  14. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  15. Surrogate mother ? praiseworthy or stigmatized: a qualitative study on perceptions of surrogacy in Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Anna; Vauquline, Polly; Johnsdotter, Sara; Ess?n, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Surrogacy is a reproductive practice that has been strongly marketed in India as a solution for childless couples. As a result, the number of surrogacy clinics is increasing. Meanwhile, a global discourse on surrogacy, originating from a Western perspective, has characterized surrogacy as being exploitative of women in low-income settings, where poverty drives them to become surrogate mothers. Objective: This study explored perspectives on surrogacy from men and women in ...

  16. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  17. Longitudinal network structure of depression symptoms and self-efficacy in low-income mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, H.P.; Kossakowski, J.J.; Schwartz, T.A.; Beeber, L.; Fried, E.I.

    2018-01-01

    Maternal depression was recently conceptualized as a network of interacting symptoms. Prior studies have shown that low self-efficacy, as an index of maternal functioning, is one important source of stress that worsens depression. We have limited information, however, on the specific relationships

  18. Locating Mothers: How Cultural Debates about Stay-at-Home versus Working Mothers Define Women and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Heather; Pare, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Most women must decide whether to work for pay while mothering or make mothering their sole social role. Often this decision is portrayed in terms of whether they will be "stay-at-home" and presumably "full-time" mothers, or "working mothers" and therefore ones who prioritize paid work over caregiving. Inferred within this construction is women's…

  19. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  20. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  1. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  2. Mothering from Prison: Using Narratives in a Mother-Child Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Betty Chamness

    2009-01-01

    Incarcerated and formerly incarcerated women who participated in the Storybook Project of Iowa told passionate stories of how their understanding of mothering had changed. They spoke of how the Storybook Project strengthened their mothering practices and relationships with their children and families. This study was an opportunity for reflection…

  3. Mother-Child Interactional Patterns in High- and Low-Risk Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Laura; Cerezo, M. Angeles; Milner, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 10 high-risk (of child physical abuse) and 10 demographically similar low-risk Spanish mother-child dyads investigated interactional patterns in the home. High-risk mothers made fewer neutral approaches to their children, displayed more negative behaviors toward their children, and made more indiscriminate responses to their children's…

  4. Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiorespiratory disorders of infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrabovski Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the characteristics of modern era is the explosion of diabetes in the world. Today more than 400,000,000 people suffer from diabetes in the entire world. During the last decade the number of women with the disorder of glucose homeostasis is six to seven times greater than in the previous period. Therefore, the re-evaluation of the impact of glucose intolerance on the course and outcome of pregnancy is very current. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the data on the influence of mothers’ glucose homeostasis disturbances on the occurrence of cardiorespiratory disorders in newborns, as well as their influence on the perinatal outcome. Methods. Prospective examination included 102 newborns in total - 31 infants of mothers with glucose homeostasis disorder (Group I and 71 infants of healthy mothers (Group II. Average age, body height, body weight, body mass index, parity and illness duration of the pregnant women had been determined, as well as the delivery method. Every newborn was provided with physical examination, Apgar score was calculated, body weight and body length were measured. Also, electrocardiography and brain ultrasound, as well as the basic hematology biochemical and microbiological analysis, were performed within the examinations of the infants. Results. The average weight and obesity incidence with diabetic women was higher than in the control group and their infants were heavier and with lower gestational age. Heart failures were diagnosed in five (16.1% infants of diabetic mothers and in one (1.4% infant of a healthy woman (p<0.01. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 48.4% infants of diabetic mothers and in 12.6% of healthy mothers (p<0.01. Forty-two percent of infants of diabetic mothers and 19.7% infants of healthy mothers needed additional oxygen. Conclusion. Congenital anomalies of the cardiovascular system and respiratory disorders in the infants of diabetic mothers were six to eight

  6. Conduct of breastfeeding among young Tunisian Mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaoui, Rim; Zediri, Manel; Mankai, Amani; Aouidet, Abdallah; Hamoudia, Faouzia

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Breastfeeding is a natural phenomenon that reflects reality and occupies an important space in the life of all human beings. It is the reference for infant feeding since it is the food better tailored to his needs as its capabilities. The decision to make this practice is the responsibility of each parent. However, it is found that although mothers in particular young age properly begin the practice of breastfeeding, they end, for various reasons by early introduction of other foods or even stop breastfeeding few weeks after the delivery. Objectives: We aim from this study to examine the behavior of young mothers in breastfeeding, determine the impact of attitudes of mothers on the nutritional status of infants and encourage policymakers health to establish a line of action to initiate future and young mothers to breastfeed. Methods: This is a prospective study of 50 young mothers coming to consult or to vaccinate their children aged 2 to 23 months at the center of maternal and child of El Zouhour. Results: The analysis of our results showed that 76% of surveyed mothers have a high level of education, half primiparous and 64% are housewives. Concerning the practice of breastfeeding, we found that 42% of surveyed mothers have weaned their children and only 26% of them believe breastfeeding or breast-feed their infants exclusively for the first six months. Moreover, we noted That among children suffering from obesity 2nd degree be 16% of the total population , 87.5% of them were not (or are not) exclusively breastfed for the first six month of life. However, this relationship is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The evolution of knowledge of young mothers has not influenced their practices in breastfeeding. This requires the establishment of a line of action to promote breastfeeding based on the evaluation of implemented national programs in recent years, the update of their content and the improvement of training of personnel of

  7. [Care of mothers of newborns in intensive care units: experiences, feelings and expectations of the mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences, feelings and expectation of mothers of high risk newborns. The population was a group of 20 mothers of high risk newborns of three hospitals in the City of São Paulo. Interview with the mothers was the method of data collection containing opened and structured questions. It was verified that most of the mothers had none or only a little interaction with the newborn after delivery; the eye contact was the most referred during the staying of the newborn in the Intensive Care Unity; all of them demonstrated interest in participating in the care of the newborn and expressed the need of information concerning to the health status of the newborn, the Intensive Care Unity environment and the hospital team. Several were the feelings expressed and the motives that indicated the needs of the mothers.

  8. Mothers understand and can do it (MUAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackwell, Nikki; Myatt, Mark; Allafort-Duverger, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children for malnut......BACKGROUND: Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was recently endorsed and recommended for screening for acute malnutrition in the community. The objective of this study was to determine whether a colour-banded MUAC strap would allow minimally trained mothers to screen their own children...... for malnutrition, without locating the mid-point of the left upper arm by measurement, as currently recommended. METHODS: A non-randomised non-blinded evaluation of mothers' performance when measuring MUAC after minimal training, compared with trained Community Health Workers (CHW) following current MUAC protocols....... The study was conducted in 2 villages in Mirriah, Zinder region, Niger where mothers classified one of their children (n = 103) aged 6-59 months (the current age range for admission into community malnutrition programs) using the MUAC tape. RESULTS: Mothers' had a sensitivity and specificity...

  9. New mothers' views of weight and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; David, Tamala

    2008-01-01

    To describe the attitudes and preferences of ethnically diverse new mothers on weight and exercise. Exploratory, qualitative study. Forty-nine ethnically diverse women were interviewed during the first year following childbirth regarding beliefs about weight, choices of exercise, walking for exercise, perceived benefits, barriers, and facilitators of exercise. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data. Weight was a significant concern for women, although the importance varied by race. New mothers reported that they would like to weigh less, and they endorsed walking for exercise. Common barriers to exercise were children and time constraints; health problems were also seen as a barrier to walking as a form of exercise. Scheduling the walk and having a walking partner were factors that women said would facilitate walking for physical activity during the first year after childbirth. Because new mothers perceive walking as a good form of exercise, nurses can use this information to help them plan a daily walking schedule to aid in weight loss and control postpartum. Nurses should also encourage new mothers to look for a walking partner, especially another new mother or a friend, to help them continue their physical activity during the first year after childbirth.

  10. Increasing Confidence and Ability in Implementing Kangaroo Mother Care Method Among Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenanga Purbasary, Eleni; Rustina, Yeni; Budiarti, Tri

    Mothers giving birth to low birth weight babies (LBWBs) have low confidence in caring for their babies because they are often still young and may lack the knowledge, experience, and ability to care for the baby. This research aims to determine the effect of education about kangaroo mother care (KMC) on the confidence and ability of young mothers to implement KMC. The research methodology used was a controlled-random experimental approach with pre- and post-test equivalent groups of 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the intervention group and 13 mothers and their LBWBs in the control group. Data were collected via an instrument measuring young mothers' confidence, the validity and reliability of which have been tested with a resulting r value of .941, and an observation sheet on KMC implementation. After conducting the education, the confidence score of young mothers and their ability to perform KMC increased meaningfully. The score of confidence of young mothers before education was 37 (p = .1555: and the ability score for KMC Implementation before education was 9 (p = .1555). The median score of confidence of young mothers after education in the intervention group was 87 and in the control group was 50 (p = .001, 95% CI 60.36-75.56), and ability median score for KMC implementation after education in the intervention group was 16 and in the control group was 12 (p = .001, 95% CI 1.50-1.88). KMC education should be conducted gradually, and it is necessary to involve the family, in order for KMC implementation to continue at home. A family visit can be done for LBWBs to evaluate the ability of the young mothers to implement KMC.

  11. A Problem-Solving Therapy Intervention for Low-Income, Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, McClain; Villarreal, Yolanda; Rubin, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs at higher rates among impoverished mothers than the general population. Depression during pregnancy is one of the strongest predictors of developing PPD. Research indicates that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing depressive symptoms but engaging and retaining low-income mothers remains a…

  12. Using baby books to increase new mothers' safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers' safety practices during their child's first 18 months. Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational book group, a noneducational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their children were 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (- 20% risk reduction; effect size = -.30). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (eg, putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book group (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or noneducational book group (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money, or hassle (eg, installing latches on cabinets). Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low-cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, or hassle. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Independent Contributions of Early Positive Parenting and Mother-Son Coercion on Emerging Social Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcinar, Berna; Shaw, Daniel S

    2018-06-01

    In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood. The results were largely confirmed, such that mother-son coercive interaction at 18 months was related to decreases in positive parenting at 24 months. Additionally, mother-son coercive interaction and positive parenting at 24 months were linked to child conduct problems at age 5, which in turn predicted child social skills and peer rejection during middle childhood. In addition to indirect effects through child conduct problems, mother-son coercion continued to be independently related to school-age peer rejection. The findings are discussed with respect to the importance of early coercive interactions in the growth of child social-behavioral development from early to middle childhood.

  14. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  15. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... in its benefit. It unfolds within the room for action as experienced by the individual due to action obstacles and action potentials. Methods: In a case-control study, mothers of 111 overweight children (MOC) were compared with mothers of 149 nonoverweight children (MNC). They underwent a semistructured...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p

  16. MOTHERHOOD EXPERIENCE: ADOPTIVE AND BIOLOGICAL MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia F. Lakhvich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To become a mother … To be a mother … What does it mean for a woman? And what else changes her life so irreversibly, allows to see the world in a different way and discovers new, earlier unknown features? Probably, nothing does. However, there is also a question how a woman bearing a child and carrying out motherhood responsibilities and a woman who has not given life to a child, but carrying out the same responsibilities, goes through the process of motherhood. It is one of the questions that was studied in a comparative research of the adaptation process in the Belarusian adoptive and biological families in case of a child appearing in the family. The study involved 64 adoptive and 62 biological mothers.

  17. Transport of compounds from mother to foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Garnett, E.S.; Perrier, D.G.; Prestwich, W.

    1992-06-01

    This study reviews the literature and investigates the transport of selected radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus and the distribution of these radiopharmaceuticals in both animals and man. This search emphasizes the placental transport of the drugs from the mother to the foetus and the development of pharmacokinetic models that could describe this transport. An outline of the distribution and/or transport of several radio-pharmaceuticals is presented followed by a description of the factors that regulate the transport of the radiopharmaceuticals from the mother to the foetus. Pharmacokinetic models were designed on the available information in the open literature. The limitation of the literature is discussed and suggestions for future experimental investigation are made

  18. Minor psychiatric disorders in mothers and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto do Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Neves Santos, Darci; Alves Ferreira Amorim, Leila Denise; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Souza da Cunha, Sergio; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America). A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens. The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.

  19. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  20. Help for breastfeeding mothers. Support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Many people including some health workers and physicians believe bottle feeding is just as good as breast feeding, even though bottle feeding poses some dangers to infants. Further, health workers in hospital often are too busy to counsel new mothers in breast feeding or are simply not trained to do so. Moreover, young women often live in areas away from their family and friends thus not living close to women with whom they are familiar and who could guide them in mastering breast feeding skills. So new mothers who want to breast feed have no support, lack confidence, and/or feel they cannot do so because they work or have other responsibilities. Support groups for new breast feeding mothers can provide them with the needed confidence to breast feed by allowing them to discuss concerns with other new mothers and an experienced leader and to learn the advantages of breast feeding, e.g., a breast fed infant is never constipated. A confident experienced woman in breast feeding is best suited to start a support group in a community. She needs to promote the group by talking to health workers and physicians and advertising at maternity hospitals, women's organizations, and health centers. Once the support group has become successful, several mothers can undergo training to start and lead new support groups. If no national breast feeding promotion organization exists to offer advice on starting a support group, the article provides addresses of international organizations. At support group meetings, mothers learn how to breast feed, how to express and store breast milk, breast feed inconspicuously in public, how their bodies work, and about child growth and development. Support group members from the Philippines, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia, and singapore share their experiences.

  1. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-03-01

     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  2. MOTHERS PRACTICING PROSTITUTION AND CHILDREN'S RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria MANDIUC

    2014-01-01

    A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case st...

  3. Mothers as informal science class teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  4. Surrogate mother - praiseworthy or stigmatized: a qualitative study on perceptions of surrogacy in Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Anna; Vauquline, Polly; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Surrogacy is a reproductive practice that has been strongly marketed in India as a solution for childless couples. As a result, the number of surrogacy clinics is increasing. Meanwhile, a global discourse on surrogacy, originating from a Western perspective, has characterized surrogacy as being exploitative of women in low-income settings, where poverty drives them to become surrogate mothers. This study explored perspectives on surrogacy from men and women in Assam, an Indian state known to be a low-income setting. Surrogacy arrangements in Assam are still uncommon. It can be expected that the dominant global discourses on surrogacy will be unfamiliar to the general population, and the objective was also to position the results within the divergent global discourses of surrogacy.  In order to explore local views on surrogacy, we conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions with people from various socioeconomic groups in Assam. Our findings reveal that people in Assam perceive surrogacy as a good option for a childless couple, as it would result in a child who is a 'blood' relation - something highly desirable for sociocultural reasons. However, the part played by the surrogate mother complicates local views on surrogacy. Most people consider payment to the surrogate mother contrary to societal norms. A surrogate mother is also often judged in a moral light, either as a 'bad mother' for selling her child, or as a 'noble woman' who has helped a childless couple and deserves payment for her services. In order to decrease the stigmatization of women, a regulatory policy is needed that will take into account the complex understandings of surrogacy and perceptions of surrogate mothers in Indian society. In policy, the possible effect of the dominant exploitation discourse needs to be modulated by local understandings of this reproduction method.

  5. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2018-01-01

    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis, Llena

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided.

  7. Gender bias in mothers' expectations about infant crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondschein, E R; Adolph, K E; Tamis-LeMonda, C S

    2000-12-01

    Although boys outshine girls in a range of motor skills, there are no reported gender differences in motor performance during infancy. This study examined gender bias in mothers' expectations about their infants' motor development. Mothers of 11-month-old infants estimated their babies' crawling ability, crawling attempts, and motor decisions in a novel locomotor task-crawling down steep and shallow slopes. Mothers of girls underestimated their performance and mothers of boys overestimated their performance. Mothers' gender bias had no basis in fact. When we tested the infants in the same slope task moments after mothers' provided their ratings, girls and boys showed identical levels of motor performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Mother-child language style matching predicts children's and mothers' emotion reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hannah F; Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Cohen, Chloe; Cheung, Ryan Cheuk Ming; Fox, Schuyler; Marvin, Matthew; Blackard, Betsy

    2017-05-15

    Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents. In this study we examine a recently-developed metric of behavioral matching, language style matching (LSM), a composite measure of the similarity of function word use in spoken or written language between two or more people. We test whether LSM between mothers and their school-aged children is associated with children's and mothers' physiological and subjective emotion reactivity. Children completed a standardized stressor task while their mothers observed; children's and mother's cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed, as were their subjective reports of emotion reactivity. Following the stressor, children and mothers completed independent interviews about the experience, later assessed for LSM. Higher mother-child LSM was associated with lower emotion reactivity (lower cortisol reactivity, lower reports of negative emotion) for children, and with higher maternal cardiovascular but not cortisol or subjective reactivity. Further, higher LSM was more strongly associated with lower child cortisol reactivity when mothers were more reactive themselves. We conclude that mother-child LSM, thought to reflect a history of co-regulated interaction, confers protective benefits for children, but heightened reactivity for mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Association between mothers' quality of life and infants' nutritional status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Carraro, Deborah Filippini; Cuervo, Maria Rita Macedo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Spiandorello, Wilson Paloschi; Pizzato, Alessandra Campani

    2011-12-01

    Determine associations between the quality of life of mothers and the nutritional status of children. case-control study involving 152 mothers of children aged zero to five years, living in the coverage area of a basic health unit in the city of Porto Alegre. The calculation of sample size was estimated as 152 mothers - 76 mothers with children at nutritional risk/malnutrition (cases) and 76 mothers with eutrophic children (controls). Information was collected regarding the quality of life of mothers, measured by the instrument of the World Health Organization, and the association between maternal quality of life and nutritional status of children was examined. In relation to the psychiatric realm, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 5.4 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. In the environmental field, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 2.9 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. Regarding educational level, for each eutrophic child whose mother has lower quality of life there is a chance of 4.2 children at nutritional risk/malnutrition with mothers in the same condition. Mothers' low quality of life was associated with an infant in nutritional risk/malnutrition and may be a risk factor for the nutritional status of children.

  11. Mothers after Gestational Diabetes in Australia (MAGDA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Reilly, Sharleen L.; Dunbar, James A.; Versace, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly prevalent risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based lifestyle modification program in mothers with prior GDM within their first postnatal year. Methods and Findings: In this study, 573 women...

  12. The Digital Biliteracies of Arab Immigrant Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salmi, Laila Z.; Smith, Patrick H.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored how the literacies of immigrant parents are influenced by participation in their children's emerging biliteracy. This study addressed this lacuna using a qualitative case study design to investigate the biliteracy development of Arab immigrant mothers in the U.S. Southwest. We used the framework of digital biliteracy to…

  13. The Reparative Motive in Surrogate Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefield, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…

  14. When Mothers Are No Longer Respected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carole

    1997-01-01

    A former childcare worker addresses the connection between social problems plaguing modern life and society's attitudes toward the role of women and mothering. She describes the detrimental effects on children who are placed in day care at an early age and urges that families abandon materialism and work toward improving the quality of their own…

  15. Are the Mothers of Hospitalized Socially Disadvantaged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and number of doses of scheduled immunizations received by 207 socially disadvantaged ... poor socio-economic status, poor housing, one parent ... percent of the total children surveyed. ... female ratio of 1.421. ... This information was not available in respect of 30 fathers and 1 1 mothers. ... S percent) out of 228 fathers of.

  16. Lacanian Reading of Marsha Norman's Night, Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Taherifard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a Lacanian/feminist reading of Night, Mother by the American playwright Marsha Norman. The play Night, Mother will be read according to Lacan’s point of view and the concepts of identity and identity formation are studied in this paper. The play will be analyzed based on the Lacanian concepts of the contrast between the Imaginary Order and the Symbolic Order, and the notion of Death Drive, suggesting that in the play Jessie represents the Symbolic Order and her mother, Thelma, represents the Imaginary Order. The notion of Death Drive and its omnipresence in Jessie’s psyche is discussed and emphasized. Thelma functions as the Other for Jessie, while her father functions as the Mother, a reversal of gender roles in the Lacanian reading. Moreover, the relationship between some of the concepts are explained. It will be explicated how the play can be brought in line with a feminist reading of Lacan by reversing the stereotypical gender roles and subsequently getting close to post-feminist authors.

  17. Mother Goose in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Karen

    Mother Goose is well suited to use in the elementary ESL classroom for several reasons. The stories appeal to children's imagination, adhering to the principle that a good story should have surprise value, interesting characters, meaningful conflict, action, and realism. The natural rhythms help develop English intonation, and the stories…

  18. Mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efforts have focused on the health worker, health system and logistics with little attention being paid to maternal factors like knowledge, perception, beliefs and practice. Objectives: To assess mothers' knowledge, perception and practice of routine and campaign immunization in Enugu. Methods: A structured questionnaire ...

  19. Health and Social Needs of Young Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, S Amanda; Terrell, Ivy W; Gustafson, Maggie

    Teen parenting rates are disproportionately high among minority youth in the Southern United States. We explored barriers and unmet needs relating to medical and social support as perceived by these teen mothers, and elicited suggestions for improving their healthcare through the medical home. We conducted four focus groups of 18- to 24-year-old mothers in New Orleans with questions designed to prompt discussions on young motherhood and healthcare. All 18 participants identified as African American, became mothers when <20, and their children were <5 at the time of the study. Two researchers independently analyzed focus group transcripts and coded them thematically, revealing various unmet social and health needs. Seven main themes emerged, which revealed a concerning lack of mental healthcare, few with consistent medical homes, inadequate contraceptive knowledge and access, and a desire for parenting education and support groups. Suggestions for improving care largely centered around logistical and material support, such as extended clinic hours, transportation, and baby supplies. Findings suggest a need for improved medical knowledge, healthcare access, and social support for teen mothers. This may be provided through a multidisciplinary medical home model, such as a Teen-Tot clinic, where the unique challenges of adolescent parenting are continuously considered.

  20. Choice within Constraints: Mothers and Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam; Davies, Jackie; Edwards, Rosalind; Reay, Diane; Standing, Kay

    1997-01-01

    Explores, from a feminist perspective, the discourses of choice regarding how women make their choices as consumers in the education marketplace. It argues that mothers as parents are not free to choose but act within a range of constraints, i.e., their choices are limited by structural and moral possibilities in a patriarchal and racist society.…

  1. Dyslexia: A Mother's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K.

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents with dyslexia are at greater risk for academic failure and socioemotional problems than their non-dyslexic peers. However, researchers have suggested that individuals with dyslexia can benefit from a strong support system. Further, researchers have noted that mothers are integral to their child's support system. However,…

  2. Respiratory function in children of asthmatic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Valadares

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: The frequency of spirometry alterations in children of asthmatic mothers was high; the restrictive pattern was more often observed that the obstructive. There was a higher incidence of obstructive test results in those who presented clinical symptoms of asthma, with a higher frequency of clinical diagnosis of asthma than that found in the literature.

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to determine maternal characteristics and the determinants of full immunization ... posters and symposia, while community leaders and doctors were found to be a ... 10,5% and 5.5%) respectively Only 10% of the mothers failed to report a ...

  4. White piedra in a mother and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B

    2009-07-01

    White Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair caused by Trichosporon asahii. It is also known as trichomycosis nodosa or trichomycosis nodularis. We report two cases of White Piedra in a mother and her daughter for the rarity of such occurrence.

  5. Mothering: The View from Psychological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Summarizes research on various aspects of mothering, including the decision to have children, child rearing in the early years and maternal employment, and late parenting with adult children. Urges an ecological perspective toward parenting and various publicly and privately-supported child care facilities and arrangements. (CJM)

  6. Promotive Parenting Practices among African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication/reasoning, behavioral control, and trust as predictors of resourcefulness among African American children during middle childhood (6-12 years of age). Mothers who practice promotive socialization strategies are more likely to rear children who are socially competent and well adjusted. Multiple…

  7. Mothers' Perception of Fever Management in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    range 19 years to 54 years with mean of 31.4±5.7SD. .... unemployed, 41 (27.2%) were traders, 7 (4.6%) were fashion designers and 7 (4.6%) were undergraduates. Fifty eight. (38.4%) mothers had one child each, 38 (25.2%) had two children ...

  8. Mother Love: Diabetes is Not Your Destiny

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-08

    This podcast featuring Mother Love, co-host of dLifeTV, motivational speaker, and humorist, promotes healthy ways to control diabetes.  Created: 11/8/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 3/11/2008.

  9. Mothers and the process of social stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korupp, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The question posed is how the mother's education and occupation influence children's educational and occupational status. The chapter follows the chronological sequence of the classical model of status attainment (Blau & Duncan 1967). The specific questions are: (a) how large is the influence

  10. How Much Do Mothers Love Their Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul

    A total of 225 mothers, ages 19 to 64, were asked how they felt about their children (N=309): (1) upon knowledge of pregnancy, (2) at the quickening, (3) at birth, and (4) at the time of the interview. Results contradict some of the rationale behind the current liberalized abortion arguments by showing that initially unwanted children are loved as…

  11. Peruvian mothers' knowledge and recognition of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Gálvez

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess Peruvian mothers' knowledge and recognition of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age, the mothers' attitude toward seeking medical help if they had a child with signs of pneumonia, and their perception of a Government of Peru pneumonia campaign. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 501 mothers were selected randomly from 20 low-income communities of the metropolitan area of Lima, Peru, and were interviewed between June and August 2000. Using SPSS software, descriptive statistics were applied to summarize the demographic data and the data regarding the mothers' knowledge of pneumonia and recognition of signs of the disease. Cross-tabulations and chi-squares were done to assess relationships between variables and to make comparisons. Results. About 84% of the mothers said that they knew what pneumonia is. Most believed that pneumonia is dangerous. A majority (58.7% indicated that pneumonia is caused by lack of parental care. Only 28.9% believed that a virus causes the disease. More than 80% correctly picked rapid breathing and/or chest retraction from a list of possible signs and symptoms of pneumonia, and 94.6% said they were ready to take their child to the closest health center if they thought their child had pneumonia. Although 57.1% said they had heard about the Government of Peru pneumonia campaign, 69.3% of these mothers said they could not recall the motto of the campaign. Mothers who reported having heard of the campaign through TV were more likely than other mothers to correctly recognize the two major signs of pneumonia presented in the campaign. Conclusions. Although the percentage of mothers believing they can recognize pneumonia through rapid breathing and chest retraction seems to have increased in recent years, there is still a sizable percentage of mothers who remain uninformed about pneumonia and its possible fatal consequences. Efforts need to continue to educate Peruvian mothers about the causes

  12. Empowering low-income black families of handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S

    1991-10-01

    A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.

  13. Attachment behaviors in mothers of premature infants: a descriptive study in Thai mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilokskulchai, Fongcum; Phatthanasiriwethin, Sopida; Vichitsukon, Kannikar; Serisathien, Yaowalak

    2002-12-01

    Prematurity and the associated maternal-infant separation after birth can affect the attachment process. The role of nurses in facilitating the process of attachment should be based on an understanding of these behaviors. This descriptive study explored the attachment behaviors demonstrated by mothers during their first visit with their premature infant in the neonatal care unit. The results revealed that all mothers demonstrated most attachment behaviors (ie, inspection, facial expression, touching, verbal expression, and eye-to-eye contact) except holding during their first visit. However, some mothers spent little time with their infant. The findings suggest that nurses should encourage mothers to interact with their infants in order to enhance maternal-infant attachment.

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation in 1-year-old infants of mothers with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Hetzel, Susan; Rogosch, Fred A; Handley, Elizabeth D; Toth, Sheree L

    2016-11-01

    A genome-wide methylation study was conducted among a sample of 114 infants (M age = 13.2 months, SD = 1.08) of low-income urban women with (n = 73) and without (n = 41) major depressive disorder. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array with a GenomeStudio Methylation Module and Illumina Custom model were used to conduct differential methylation analyses. Using the 5.0 × 10-7 p value, 2,119 loci were found to be significantly different between infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. Infants of depressed mothers had greater methylation at low methylation sites (0%-29%) compared to infants of nondepressed mothers. At high levels of methylation (70%-100%), the infants of depressed mothers were predominantly hypomethylated. The mean difference in methylation between the infants of depressed and infants of nondepressed mothers was 5.23%. Disease by biomarker analyses were also conducted using GeneGo MetaCore Software. The results indicated significant cancer-related differences in biomarker networks such as prostatic neoplasms, ovarian and breast neoplasms, and colonic neoplasms. The results of a process networks analysis indicated significant differences in process networks associated with neuronal development and central nervous system functioning, as well as cardiac development between infants of depressed and nondepressed mothers. These findings indicate that early in development, infants of mothers with major depressive disorder evince epigenetic differences relative to infants of well mothers that suggest risk for later adverse health outcomes.

  15. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment at one year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard

    Findings on effects of Postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been contradictory. This may be due to not considering maternal interpersonal difficulties, for example co-morbid personality disorder (PD). We examined the role of PD in the association between postpartum...... depression and infant-mother attachment. Mothers were recruited either during pregnancy (non-clinical group, n=56) or eight weeks postpartum (PPD-group, n=29). Infants of mothers with PPD only or in combination with PD were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were...... assessed with questionnaires and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers with PPD were more likely to have co-morbid PD compared with non-clinical mothers. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only...

  16. Wee Care: Reaching Teenage Mothers and Changing Their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwald, Priscilla R.; Porter, Gwen

    1989-01-01

    Describes an intervention program for pregnant teenagers and teen mothers. Topics include program development and implementation, staffing, and content. Also discussed are adjustments that a mother must make in order to break the chain of poverty and welfare. (RJC)

  17. Labor and Population Program. Job Continuity Among New Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... By protecting the right of new mothers to return to their previous jobs, maternity-leave statutes seek to help women benefit more from on-the-job training and to reduce the wage gap between mothers...

  18. Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in a rural population in south eastern Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Medical Research ... Despite its numerous advantages, most lactating mothers are not practicing it.

  19. Determinants of breastfeeding patterns among mothers in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is still rare among nursing mothers. ... A prospective cohort study was conducted in three comprehensive health centres ... valuable benefits to the infants as well as to mothers and the nation.

  20. The mother-daughter love affair across the generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, L; Sirola, R

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between mother and daughter is the basis for all love relationships throughout life. Through the eyes and hands of the mother, the intimate and caring nature of love is transmitted from generation to generation. Mother-daughter love is also the beginning of heterosexual love and of sensual pleasure. However, sexuality separates and alienates mother and daughter. As a consequence, the daughter's identification with the mother becomes the most important transmitter of love. We review psychoanalytic studies of the development and fate of the mother-daughter love relationship, with particular attention to the change of the daughter's early love for the mother to identification with the mother and falling in love with a man, and to the significance of sexuality in this developmental process.

  1. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  2. Analysis of Motherly Love in Edgar Allan Poe's “to My Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdi, Putra

    2017-01-01

    Project analisisMotherly Love in Edgar Allan Poe's “To My Mother” mengkaji unsur intrinsik dan konsep motherly love dalam puisi To My Motherkarya Edgar Allan Poe. Penulis menggunakan studi pustaka sebagai metode pengumpulan data dan informasi tentang objek penelitian melalui buku dan internet. Penulis menggunakan pendekatan psikologi sastra dengan teori cinta karya Erich Fromm untuk mengetahui cinta yang diberikan ibu kepada anak. Dari hasil analisis, penulis menemukan konsep cinta yang dibe...

  3. An early contact with the baby: Benefit for the mother

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar; Đorđević Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous studies on the early contact between mother and the baby and the time they spend together-common stay stress the fact that these are invaluable for the mothers, infants, family and society in general. The objective of the research. The objective of the research was to establish whether mother benefits from the early contact with her baby and the importance of the time period they spend and share together. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 216 mothers tha...

  4. a Comparison Between Chemically Dependent Mothers and Drug-Free Mothers: Lifestyle during the Perinatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskokovic, Lila Milica

    This study compared maternal lifestyle variables pertinent to the perinatal period in groups of chemically dependent mothers and drug-free mothers. Twenty-nine cocaine -abusing mothers were compared to 29 drug-free mothers carefully matched on age, race, education, and primipara versus multipara status. The drug history of each chemically dependent woman was explicitly documented. The chemically dependent group was subdivided into two groups, mothers who abused cocaine and those who abused cocaine with concomitant opiate use. Each of these two subgroups was compared to its respective matched drug-free control group. Finally, a comparison was made between the two drug subgroups. All subjects were interviewed within 48 hours after delivery using the following measures: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State), Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, The Self-Esteem Scale, Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitude Questionnaire, The Neonatal Perception Inventory, The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, Maternal Social Support Index, and Short Marital Adjustment Test. A t-test analysis revealed significant differences (p abused opiates with cocaine did not differ from their controls on depression and maternal adjustment and attitudes. No significant differences were obtained in the drug subgroup comparisons. These results identify increased life events and specific negative affect states that clinical intervention programs should address to assure the best possible outcome for chemically dependent mothers and their infants.

  5. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in families with incarcerated mothers: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jason; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Using new methods designed to assess coparenting between incarcerated mothers of preschool-aged children and the maternal grandmothers caring for the children during their absence, we examined relationships between coparenting quality during the mother's jail stay and both concurrent child behavior problems and later coparenting interactions following mothers' release and community reentry. Forty mother-grandmother dyads participated in joint coparenting discussions during the incarceration, with a smaller subset completing a parallel activity at home 1 month postrelease. Both women also participated in individual coparenting interviews during the incarceration, and reported on child behavior problems. Mother-grandmother coparenting interactions exhibited an overall structure similar to that documented in nuclear families, with population-specific dynamics also evident. The observational system demonstrated good interrater and internal reliability, and showed associations with maternal (but not grandmother) reports and descriptions of the coparenting relationship via interview. Greater coparenting relationship quality during incarceration was associated with fewer concurrent child externalizing behavior problems, and predicted more positive coparenting interactions postrelease. Findings suggest that the coparenting assessments were useful for understanding mother-grandmother coparenting relationships in these families and that importantly, these relationships were tied to children's functioning. Avenues for future research and considerations for intervention efforts are discussed.

  7. THE TRANSITION FROM MOTHER-OF-ONE TO MOTHER-OF-TWO: MOTHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF THEMSELVES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR FIRSTBORN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jennifer K; Hart, Sybil L

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of the transition to second-time motherhood, and advance methodology for supporting mothers during this transition. Fifty-seven pregnant mothers and their firstborn children (M age = 30.3 months) participated in a laboratory procedure in which the mother exposed her child to a brief episode of differential treatment. The episode was designed to simulate an expected experience of caregiving that would occur after the birth of a second child. During a postnatal visit (M=5.72 weeks following childbirth), mothers provided written feedback on their perceptions of the transition and the contribution of the laboratory experience to that transition. Qualitative content analysis revealed that mothers approached the birth of a second child with apprehension. Intrapersonal themes revealed that participation in the procedure shaped mothers' understanding of their expanded maternal roles by enhancing their sense of preparedness and confidence in their abilities to support their children. Interpersonal themes revealed that participation helped mothers appreciate the magnitude of the challenge that their children would face and gave mothers reason to believe that their children would adjust successfully. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution toward developing methodology for helping mothers prepare for the addition of a second child. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Infant-Mother Attachment among the Dogon of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Mary McMahan; Pisani, Lelia; Oumar, Fadimata

    2001-01-01

    Examined infant-mother attachment in Mali's Dogon ethnic group. Found that distribution of Strange Situation classifications was 67 percent secure, 0 percent avoidant, 8 percent resistant, and 25 percent disorganized. Infant attachment security related to quality of mother-infant communication. Mothers of disorganized infants had significantly…

  9. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  10. Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of the Mother-Tongue/Language Component of the National Policy on Education In Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... the implementation of the mother-tongue/language policy; curriculum materials were not supplied in schools for mother-tongue instruction; specialized teachers were ...

  11. Factors influencing a mother's choice of feeding after discharge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess feeding methods chosen by mothers of babies who spent time in a neonatal unit. Factors influencing this decision were investigated. Design. Descriptive study. Methods. Mothers were interviewed on the day they took their babies home. Basic demographic data on mother and baby were collected from ...

  12. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  13. Do Mothers Accept Grandmothers' Advice When Disciplining Their Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Richard H.; Tomlin, Angela M.

    Research has not investigated ways in which grandparents indirectly influence grandchildren through interactions with the parents. This study was conducted to investigate factors affecting mothers' willingness to accept suggestions from their own mothers about disciplining their child. The study also examined whether mothers' disciplinary actions…

  14. Single Mothers' Religious Participation and Early Childhood Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…

  15. Interactions between Turkish Mothers and Preschool Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ozlem; Mahoney, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Turkish mothers' style of interaction and the engagement of their preschool-aged children with autism. Data were collected from fifty mother-child dyads in which all children had diagnoses of autism. Video recordings of mother-child interaction were analyzed using the Turkish versions of the Maternal…

  16. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  17. The Maternal Gift: Mothers' Investment in Their Daughters' Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the degree to which mothers participate in decisions surrounding their daughters' university choices in the English higher education sector, based on a gendered PhD study involving mother and adult daughter pairings in southern England. Examples are given of how extended middle-class mothering practices are enabling their…

  18. Mother, Father, and Infant as an Interactive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    This study investigates three types of reciprocal interactions among members of the family unit (father, mother and infant): father-infant interaction affecting child's development, father-infant interaction affecting mother's behavior, and husband-wife interaction affecting mother's behavior. Data from a sample of 39 healthy first-born infants…

  19. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Challenges, Strategies, and Resources in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Bingham, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' parenting challenges and strategies/resources used when parenting toddlers. Through a qualitative interview protocol, implemented with mothers and fathers separately at a university laboratory, this study found that both fathers and mothers appeared to be transitioning from traditional gender roles towards…

  20. Feeding infants whose mothers are HIV-positive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    The way a HIV+ mother feeds her baby affects the child's risk of: • Becoming ... mothers with HIV is exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. .... Thaczuk D. & Safreed-Harmon K. ART use in mothers with low CD4 cell counts reduces breastfeeding transmission ... This article is based on information in chapters. 6 and 7 of ...

  1. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Reeuwijk, van M.A.J.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda

  2. Mothers' and Clinicians' Priorities for Obesity Prevention Among Black, High-Risk Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Gruver, Rachel S; Gerdes, Marsha; Power, Thomas J; Magge, Sheela N; Shults, Justine; Faerber, Jennifer A; Kalra, Gurpreet K; Bishop-Gilyard, Chanelle T; Suh, Andrew W; Berkowitz, Robert I; Fiks, Alexander G

    2016-07-01

    Despite many recommended strategies for obesity prevention during infancy, effectively delivering recommendations to parents in clinical settings is challenging, especially among high-risk populations. This study describes and compares mothers' and clinicians' priorities for obesity prevention during infancy, to facilitate more-effective obesity prevention messaging. A discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling was administered in 2013 and analyzed in 2013-2014. Twenty-nine low-income, obese mothers of infants and 30 pediatric clinicians from three urban primary care practices rated the relative importance of 16 items relevant to obesity prevention during infancy, in response to this question: Which topic would be most helpful [for new mothers] to learn about to prevent your [their] child from becoming overweight? Response options encompassed the domains of feeding, sleep, parenting (including physical activity and screen time), and maternal self-care. Mothers (all Medicaid-enrolled and black; mean age, 27 years; mean BMI, 35 kg/m(2)) and clinicians (97% female, 87% pediatricians, 13% nurse practitioners) both highly prioritized recognizing infant satiety and hunger cues, and appropriate feeding volume. Mothers rated infant physical activity and maintaining regular routines as 3.5 times more important than clinicians did (presponsive to these priorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feeding Practices of Mothers from Varied Income and Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S

    2013-11-01

    Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behavior of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviors (i.e., restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs. Hispanic), and if they were associated with the BMI of their 4-year-old offspring. Responses to the "restriction" and "pressure to eat" variables of the Child Feeding Questionnaire were compared between 51 white middle-income mothers and 49 Hispanic low-income mothers. Mothers from both groups gave predominantly "neutral" ratings in their self-reports of feeding practices. However, relative to the Hispanic mothers, white mothers indicated significantly less restriction and pressure to eat. Higher child BMI was predicted by male gender and being Hispanic. The utility of maternal feeding practices in predicting child overweight is discussed, and the significant association between the conceptually different constructs of restriction and pressure to eat is examined.

  4. Minority mothers' healthcare beliefs, commonly used alternative healthcare practices, and potential complications for infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Jean

    2015-06-01

    Complementary and alternative healthcare practices have increased substantially in the United States especially with low-income ethnic minority mothers. These mothers often have provider mistrust, language barriers, differing health belief systems, and as a result are less likely to seek preventive health screening, access healthcare services, and use alternative remedies for their infants and children that are potentially harmful or lethal. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine healthcare beliefs, commonly used alternative healthcare practices, and their potential complications for infants and children. A search of CINAHL and PubMed (1980-2012) was conducted using the following terms: alternative healthcare practice, mothers' health beliefs, cultural health beliefs, folk remedies, and infant health practices. Given the changing U.S. population and an increasing immigrant population, examining alternative healthcare practices mothers use for their infants and children is especially important for providers in addressing healthcare for this group. The use of alternative healthcare practices is rarely discussed by parents with healthcare providers for fear of disapproval. When interviewing ethnic minority mothers and caregivers questions should include the use of alternative healthcare practices for infants and children and information regarding the potential dangers should be provided to them. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Surrogate mother – praiseworthy or stigmatized: a qualitative study on perceptions of surrogacy in Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Anna; Vauquline, Polly; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Surrogacy is a reproductive practice that has been strongly marketed in India as a solution for childless couples. As a result, the number of surrogacy clinics is increasing. Meanwhile, a global discourse on surrogacy, originating from a Western perspective, has characterized surrogacy as being exploitative of women in low-income settings, where poverty drives them to become surrogate mothers. Objective: This study explored perspectives on surrogacy from men and women in Assam, an Indian state known to be a low-income setting. Surrogacy arrangements in Assam are still uncommon. It can be expected that the dominant global discourses on surrogacy will be unfamiliar to the general population, and the objective was also to position the results within the divergent global discourses of surrogacy. Methods: In order to explore local views on surrogacy, we conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions with people from various socioeconomic groups in Assam. Results: Our findings reveal that people in Assam perceive surrogacy as a good option for a childless couple, as it would result in a child who is a ‘blood’ relation – something highly desirable for sociocultural reasons. However, the part played by the surrogate mother complicates local views on surrogacy. Most people consider payment to the surrogate mother contrary to societal norms. A surrogate mother is also often judged in a moral light, either as a ‘bad mother’ for selling her child, or as a ‘noble woman’ who has helped a childless couple and deserves payment for her services. Conclusions: In order to decrease the stigmatization of women, a regulatory policy is needed that will take into account the complex understandings of surrogacy and perceptions of surrogate mothers in Indian society. In policy, the possible effect of the dominant exploitation discourse needs to be modulated by local understandings of this reproduction method. PMID:28604252

  6. Affect recognition and the quality of mother-infant interaction: understanding parenting difficulties in mothers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.

  7. Mothers' Acculturation and Beliefs about Emotions, Mother-Child Emotion Discourse, and Children's Emotion Understanding in Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Rivera, Marie Belle; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: We examined associations among Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, maternal beliefs, mother-child emotion talk, and emotion understanding in 40 Latino preschool-age children and their mothers. Mothers self-reported Anglo acculturation, Latino enculturation, and beliefs about the value/danger of children's emotions and…

  8. Outcomes of a Randomized Trial of a Cognitive Behavioral Enhancement to Address Maternal Distress in Home Visited Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Elizabeth; Burrell, Lori; Duggan, Anne; Tandon, Darius

    2017-03-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a 6-week, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group-based enhancement to home visiting to address stress and prevent depression as compared with home visiting as usual in low income mothers of young children. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 95 low-income mothers of young children to assess the effectiveness of a 6-week, cognitive behavioral group-based enhancement to Healthy Families America and Parents as Teachers home visiting (HV/CBT = 49) to address stress and prevent depression as compared with home visiting as usual (HV = 46). Booster sessions for the HV/CBT group were offered at 3 and 6 months. Participants completed measures of coping, stress and depression at three points: baseline prior to randomization, post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. Parent child interaction was also measured at 6 months. Results Intent-to-treat analyses found improved coping and reduced stress and depression post-intervention. While impacts on these outcomes were attenuated at 6 months, positive impacts were observed for selected aspects of mothers' interactions with their children. Maternal characteristics at baseline were associated with participation in the intervention and with post-intervention and 6-month outcomes. Mothers with lower levels of stress and those with fewer children were more likely to attend intervention sessions. Mothers with lower levels of stress had more favorable post intervention outcomes. Conclusions CBT group-based enhancement to home visiting improved maternal coping, reduced stress and depression immediately post intervention but not at 6 months, suggesting more work is needed to sustain positive gains in low-income mothers of young children.

  9. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  10. MOTHERS PRACTICING PROSTITUTION AND CHILDREN'S RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MANDIUC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A large number of women who practice prostitution get pregnant and have the child. When a mother continues practicing prostitution, while at the same time trying to fulfill parental responsibilities, the child’s rights could end up being violated because of the characteristics of the two roles the woman adopts. The present paper presents the case study of a child of schooling age and whose mother practiced prostitution. The child was put in foster care after the mother’s death and the case study follows his evolution from birth until the research started, the focus of the study revolving around the four fundamental rights of the child: the right to be raised by the parents, the right to education, the right to health and the right to protection against abuses.

  11. nternational protection of mother and child rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CREANGĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of the 20th century, the protection of mother and child’s rights has evolved from some national regulations to international regulations – a delayed remedy for flagrant and persistent abuse on the child and woman. In this sense, international law starts from recognizing the child and the woman as subjects of law, and as such, their ability to enjoy all civil, political, cultural, economic, social rights, etc. At the same time, the particularities of child – becoming a person (i.e. the lack of discernment and intellectual maturity, which limits his / her legal competence, – and women-mothers (with specific psycho-physiological are underlined. This requires the establishment and regulation of certain assistance, protection and care measures, as well as of some institutions through which they would be able to harness their rights without being in any way harmed or injured.

  12. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Mustika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  13. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alorainy, Ibrahim A; Barlas, Nauman B; Al-Boukai, Amer A

    2010-01-01

    About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  14. Pictorial Essay: Infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alorainy Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 3 to 10% of pregnancies are complicated by glycemic control abnormalities. Maternal diabetes results in significantly greater risk for antenatal, perinatal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality, as well as congenital malformations. The number of diabetic mothers is expected to rise, as more and more of the obese pediatric female population in developed and some developing countries progresses to childbearing age. Radiologists, being part of the teams managing such pregnancies, should be well aware of the findings that may be encountered in infants of diabetic mothers. Timely, accurate, and proper radiological evaluation can reduce morbidity and mortality in these infants. The purpose of this essay is to illustrate the imaging findings in the various pathological conditions involving the major body systems in the offspring of women with diabetes

  15. Cocaine use and the breastfeeding mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug. Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding may have severe consequences for the baby due to its pharmacokinetic properties. Midwives need to be aware of the prolonged action of cocaine and be alert to the possibility of cocaine toxicity if a baby is excessively irritable and tachycardic. Euphoric highs are brief but breast milk and urine remain positive for long periods. Infant urine following exposure to cocaine via breast milk may remain positive for up to 60 hours. Mothers who snort cocaine should pump and dump breast milk for 24-48 hours. Passive inhalation of crack cocaine smoke may also result in infants with positive toxicology screens. Cocaine powder should never be applied to the nipples of breastfeeding mothers.

  16. [Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Wang, J; Liang, C; Qi, R; Yang, M

    2001-09-01

    The terramycin crystallizing mother solution contained high organics and high nitrogen. There were many kinds of bioinhibition in it but not enough electronic donor. Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution was completed with up anarobic sludge bed in order to improve the biodegradability of wastewater and electronic donor in it. The variations of pH, COD, NH4+, and SO4(2-) were monitored. The COD removal was in a narrow range between 10% and 16.4% even when the HRT of the reactor was changed from 1.5 h to 6 h. pH increased because of formation of NH3 and reduction of SO4(2-). Most of SO4(2-) was reduced to S2- when the HRT was longer than 2 h. Batch experiments on hydrolyzed wastewater demonstrated that reaction rates of nitrification and denitrification increased by 90.9% and 45.2%, respectively.

  17. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A.V.; Caire Juvera, G.; Roman Perez, R.; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M.E.; Casanueva, E.; Sanesteban, V.

    2000-01-01

    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p 0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  18. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  19. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898, we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers. Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  20. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  1. Reframing the risks and losses of teen mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Teen mothers often face a stigmatizing gaze based on the belief that early childbearing jeopardizes their life chances and the health and development of their children. Growing evidence suggests that the poor maternal-child outcomes associated with early childbearing have been overstated and may be explained by teen mothers' childhood disadvantage and adversities. After reviewing what is currently known about the relationships between early childbearing and maternal-child outcomes, as well as teen mothers' perspectives on mothering, clinical practices are suggested that address teen mothers' concerns, strengths, aspirations, and the long-term inequities that contribute to poor outcomes.

  2. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    -child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according...... to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves...

  3. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Casanueva, E.; Bolanos, A.V.; Caire Juvera, G.; Valencia, M.E.; Roman Perez, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D 2 O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D 2 O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D 2 O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D 2 O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D 2 O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author)

  4. Difficulties facing physician mothers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji

    2011-11-01

    Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press

  5. Promoting Multivitamins to Hispanic Adolescents and Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mackert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs can be reduced by 50% to 70% with sufficient periconceptional intake of folic acid. Hispanic women are up to 3 times more likely than non-Hispanics to have a child affected by NTDs. This disparity is complicated by health literacy, as women impacted by this disparity are also at-risk for low health literacy. The purpose of this project was to pilot advertisements to promote multivitamins, increasing folic acid consumption, among Hispanic adolescents. The advertisements for Hispanic adolescents and their mothers focused on broad benefits of a multivitamin, downplaying folic acid’s role in prenatal health. Participants were Hispanic mothers (n = 25 and adolescents (n = 25 at a clinic in the Southwestern United States. Likert-type survey items and an open-ended question were used to assess attitudes toward multivitamins and advertisements. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS was used to assess participants’ health literacy. Participants’ impressions of the ads were positive. Both groups expressed the intent to start taking a daily multivitamin after viewing the ads—adolescents for themselves and mothers to start their daughters on a daily multivitamin. There was no relationship between participants’ health literacy and perceptions of the advertisements or intentions to begin a multivitamin habit. This research illustrates the potential of messages that rely on peripheral health benefits to overcome communication barriers posed by health literacy and address serious health problems such as NTDs.

  6. Postpartum Depression Among Asian Indian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika; Park, Van Ta; McNiesh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    To explore Asian Indian mothers' perspectives of postpartum depression (PPD) and mental health help-seeking behavior. Qualitative exploratory design. Using convenience sampling, postpartum mothers were recruited through flyers posted in public places and on social media sites. Postpartum depression risk was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) prior to qualitative interviews. Content analysis methods were used to extract themes from participant narratives. Twelve self-identified, married, Asian Indian mothers, aged between 29 and 40 years, living in Northern California, who gave birth to a healthy infant within the last 12 months, took part in this study. Scores on the EPDS indicated two participants were at an increased risk for developing PPD. Content analysis revealed two emerging themes: (1) Culture-specific postpartum practices and ceremonies and their role in maternal-infant postpartum recovery; and (2) Maternal mental health help-seeking behavior. Nurses taking care of women during the extended prenatal and postpartum period have the unique opportunity to build rapport with their patients which can offer a window of opportunity to educate and help dispel myths about PPD symptoms and treatment. To promote successful maternal-infant outcomes, PPD education should be initiated at the first prenatal appointment, continue during the pregnancy, and be incorporated into well-baby visits through the first postpartum year. Education should include signs and symptoms of PPD as well as importance of timely mental-health help-seeking.

  7. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  8. Mothers' pupillary responses to infant facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrttiaho, Santeri; Niehaus, Dana; Thomas, Eileen; Leppänen, Jukka M

    2017-02-06

    Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs. strong). Pupil dilation was highly sensitive to the valence of facial expressions, being larger for negative vs. positive facial expressions. A separate control experiment with luminance-matched non-face stimuli indicated that the valence effect was specific to facial expressions and cannot be explained by luminance confounds. Pupil response was not sensitive to the arousal level of facial expressions. The results show the feasibility of using pupil diameter as a marker of mothers' affective responses to ecologically valid infant stimuli and point to a particularly prompt maternal response to infant distress cues.

  9. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  10. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  11. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-04-26

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child's health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships - characterized by the prototypes - between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child's weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  12. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  13. [Burden of mothers and fathers of persons with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Fabian; Gross, Rainer; Wrobel, Margit; Klug, Günter; Unger, Annemarie; Fellinger, Matthäus; Süßenbacher, Stefanie; Freidl, Marion; Saumer, Gertraud; Wancata, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Most studies about the burden of schizophrenia carers included only one care-giving relative, usually the patients' mothers. The present study intended to analyse differences of the level of burden between mothers and fathers of the same patients. 101 mothers and 101 fathers of the same patients suffering from schizophrenia were included into this study. They were assessed by means of the "Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire" and the "Carers' Needs Assessment for Schizophrenia". Mothers showed significantly higher scores than fathers regarding the subscores "Tensions" and "Urging". Multiple linear regression analyses showed positive associations between the frequency of mothers' as well as fathers' unmet needs and dimensions of caregiver involvement. Unmet needs among mothers and fathers have negative effects on their burden. The differences between mothers and fathers indicate the importance of considering the carer's gender in clinical work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Benefits to Down's syndrome children through training their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidder, R T; Bryant, G; Gray, O P

    1975-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that training of mothers with Down's syndrome children would be beneficial both to the child and parents. The mothers were taught behaviour modification techniques based on learning theory and were given group discussions on dealing with their family or personal problems. The subjects were 16 mothers with a Down's syndrome child, divided into two groups on the basis of their child's sex and chronological and mental ages. The Griffiths Scale was used for assessment. The mothers in the treatment group received 12 sessions of training and group counseling over a 6-month period, whereas the control mothers received no additional attention except the usual routine from the general practitioner and health visitor. The result show clear gains to both the child and mother in the treatment group. The child improved, especially in language development as well as in the other areas, and the mother-gained more confidence and competence in her daily management of the child.

  15. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  16. Mothering disrupted by illness: a narrative synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallido, Tamara; Wilkes, Lesley; Carter, Bernie; Jackson, Debra

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review of qualitative empirical research investigating women's experiences of mothering disrupted by illness. As a primary identity, motherhood is endangered by illness. Illness can interfere with a woman's ability to mother her child/children. Healthcare professionals regularly fail to acknowledge a woman's dual identities of mother and patient. CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, Scopus and Sociological abstracts were searched 1980-2009. A narrative synthesis was used, with quality appraisal guided by the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme method. Concepts were analysed thematically, explicating common experiences of women disrupted in their mothering by illness. This allowed for both descriptive and narrative synthesis to occur. Thirteen papers were included in the final review. Themes identified were: mechanism of disruption; reframing the mother role; protecting the children; experiencing guilt or shame; problems with healthcare professionals; and living to mother, mothering to live. Women disrupted in their mothering by illness view themselves as a mother first and a patient second. Women found themselves unsupported in their mothering role by healthcare professionals, and this may have left them reluctant to broach difficulties they had relinquishing mothering duties when ill. Nurses are well-positioned to support women in illness by acknowledging the importance of their identity as mothers, offering them opportunities to discuss how illness is disrupting their ability to mother, providing support to help them negotiate the social/emotional distress experienced when mothering is disrupted and, where necessary, referring them to other members of the healthcare team, such as social workers.

  17. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Township Mothers in South Africa Over 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily C; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weichle, Thomas W; Rezai, Roxana; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In South Africa, alcohol abuse is hypothesized to correlate with women's HIV status, mental health, and partner relationships over time. All pregnant women in 12 urban, low-income, Cape Town neighborhoods were interviewed at baseline, post-birth, and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months following delivery with retention rates from 82.5 to 94%. Women were assessed for any alcohol use, problematic drinking, depression, intimate partner violence, and HIV status. Prior to pregnancy discovery and 5 years after giving birth, alcohol use was 25.8 and 24.7%, respectively. Most women decreased their alcohol use during pregnancy. Twenty-one percent reported alcohol use on two or more assessments, and only 15% of the mothers drinking alcohol at 5 years were also drinking at baseline. Mothers with depression had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to mothers who were not depressed only at baseline and 6 months post-birth. Mothers who experienced IPV had more than twice the likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to non-IPV mothers at all assessments. HIV positive mothers were more likely to drink alcohol compared to mothers without HIV prior to pregnancy discovery and at 5 years post-birth. These longitudinal trends in alcohol use among young women in South Africa represent a large economic, social, and health burden and must be addressed in a comprehensive manner.

  18. Social support and education groups for single mothers: a randomized controlled trial of a community-based program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Boyle, Michael H

    2005-12-06

    Members of families headed by single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage and mental health problems. We assessed the effect of a community-based program of social support and education groups for single mothers of young children on maternal well-being and parenting. We recruited 116 single mothers of children 3 to 9 years old through community advertisements. Eligible mothers were randomly assigned either to participate in a 10-week program of group sessions (1.5 hours per week) offering social support and education, with a parallel children's activity group, or to receive a standard list of community resources and the option to participate in group sessions at the end of the follow-up period. Interviewers blinded to the randomization collected assessment data from all mothers at baseline and at 3 follow-up visits (immediately after the intervention and at 3 and 6 months after the intervention). Outcome measures were self-reported mood, self-esteem, social support and parenting. Between February 2000 and April 2003, the program was offered to 9 groups of single mothers. Most of the mothers in the trial reported high levels of financial and mental health problems. In the short term (after the intervention), mothers in the intervention group had improved scores for mood (p effect = 0.55) and self-esteem (p effect = 0.29) compared with mothers in the control group; scores for the other 2 measures did not differ between the groups. Growth curve analysis of program effects over the follow-up period showed improvement in all 4 outcomes, with no significant difference between the intervention and control groups. This community-based program of group sessions offering social support and education to low-income single mothers had positive short-term effects on mood and self-esteem but not on social support and parenting. Longer follow-up showed attenuation of these effects.

  19. Relations between mothers' daily work, home, and relationship stress with characteristics of mother-child conflict interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Boyer, Brittany P; Villarreal, Deyaun L; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-06-01

    This study examined whether daily variations in levels of mothers' work, home, and relationship stress were related to collaborative and oppositional qualities of mother-child conflict interactions across 1 week. Mothers reported on 1 specific conflict interaction with their 5- to 8-year-old child and their work, home, and relationship stress through online surveys each day for 7 consecutive days. Diary data from 142 mothers were analyzed in 6 multilevel models, each including within- and between-family levels of a stressor predicting collaborative or oppositional conflict qualities. Results suggested that families in the sample differed from each other, and also varied during the week, in collaborative and oppositional conflict qualities as well as stress in all 3 domains. Mothers reported a greater degree of oppositional conflict qualities on days characterized by higher perceptions of home chaos. Additionally, mothers who reported higher average levels of negativity in romantic relationships endorsed oppositional conflict qualities to a greater extent than mothers with lower relationship negativity. Two multilevel models including all 3 stressors in relation to collaborative and oppositional conflict revealed that for mothers managing multiple roles, average romantic relationship stress was the most important unique contributor to mother-child conflict qualities and daily relationship stress was particularly influential among mothers with sons compared to those with daughters. Results support the spillover hypothesis of stress within the family system and are discussed in terms of mothers' coping mechanisms and emotional engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on the MotherـChild Relationship in Mothers of Children with Hearing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    خلیل کاکاوندی

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of life skills training on the mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems. The study’s procedure was experimental with pretest-posttest design employing a control group. The participants include 36 mothers of children with hearing problems in Shiraz who were selected by an available sampling method and assigned into experimental and control group, randomly; hence, each group included 18 mothers. Both groups had undergone a pre-test. The experimental group received life skills training in 12 sessions while the control group did not. After the intervention period the post-test was administered for both groups. The Roth mother-child relationship strategies scale (1961 was employed to assess the mother-child relationship strategies. The data analyses by ANCOVA showed that there was a significant effect in the mean score of mother-child relationship in mothers of children with hearing problems in the experimental group (p<0/0001 and increased the acceptance of child and reduced the overprotection, the overindulgence and the child rejection among the mothers of experimental group. Therefore, life skills training program construction and employment are highly recommendable to improve mother-child relationship strategies among mothers of children with hearing problems.

  1. Mothers' alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürümez, Esra; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Uğur, Çağatay; Uslu, Runa Idil; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mothers and their developmentally normal infants in terms of maternal alexithymia, depression and anxiety, and marital satisfaction. Fifty children between 18 and 48 months of age, and their mothers, were referred consecutively to the Infant Mental Health Unit of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The sociodemographic features of the families and the depressive symptoms, anxiety, marital satisfaction and alexithymia levels of the mothers were assessed. The relationships between children in normal developmental stages and their mothers were evaluated and rated using a structured clinical procedure. There was a negative correlation between the mothers' alexithymia scores and the quality of the mother-infant relationship (p Mothers with high alexithymia showed higher depression and lower relationship qualities than mothers with low alexithymia, according to the correlation analysis. When depression and anxiety were controlled, high alexithymia levels were predictive of a low, impaired mother-infant relationship. Since alexithymia is a trait-like variable which has a negative correlation with impairment in a mother-infant relationship, it must be investigated in the assessment of mothers' interactions with their babies.

  2. Work/non-workday differences in mother, child, and mother-child morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Trumbell, Jill M; Mercado, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Mothers have been shown to have higher morning cortisol on days they go to work compared to non-workdays; however, it is unknown how maternal workday associates with child morning cortisol or the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol. This study examined the presence and stability of morning cortisol levels and slopes (i.e., cortisol awakening response or CAR) in a sample of 2-4year old children in out-of-home child care with working mothers. In addition, we examined the differential contributions of maternal workday on mother-child attunement in morning cortisol. Mother and child morning cortisol was sampled twice a day (awakening and 30min later) across four consecutive days (2 non-workdays; 2 workdays) among 47 working mothers and their young children. Mothers also reported on compliance with sampling procedures and provided demographic information. While children exhibited stability in cortisol levels, children's CARs were variable, with children's non-work CARs not predictive of work CARs. Similarly, a significant morning rise in cortisol was only found on workdays, not non-workdays. Overall, mothers had higher cortisol levels and steeper CARs than their children. Further, maternal workday moderated the attunement of mother-child morning cortisol, such that mothers and children had concordant cortisol levels on non-workdays, but discordant cortisol levels on workdays. Morning cortisol may be more variable in pre-school aged children than adults but may be similarly responsive to the social environment. Further, workday mornings may be a time of reduced mother-child cortisol attunement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Care demands on mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome: Malaysian (Sarawak) mothers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Geok; Lim, Khatijah Abdullah; Ling, How Kee

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the experiences of mothers caring for a child with Down syndrome in the Malaysian (Sarawak) context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 26 biological mothers of children with Down syndrome aged 18 years and below. They were accessed through selected child health clinics, community-based rehabilitation centres and schools using purposive sampling within two regions in Sarawak, one of the two Borneo States of Malaysia. Major themes emerging within the context of care demands were children's health, developmental delays, daily needs and behaviour issues. The insights obtained into the care demands experienced by mothers of children with Down syndrome have several implications for practice by care professionals. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Mothering at a Distance: what incarcerated mothers value about a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Chris; Power, Tamara; Fowler, Cathrine; Jackson, Debra; Hyslop, Deirdre; Dawson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Children with incarcerated mothers experience adverse health, social and emotional circumstances, and are a particularly vulnerable group. Mothers in custody face significant challenges in parenting their children. The study aimed to identify participants' views on impact of a parenting support programme for incarcerated mothers in NSW Australia. The mixed-methods study examined 134 responses to open and closed questions on a questionnaire for programme participants. Participants found the programme worthwhile, engaging and relevant. It enhanced their parenting knowledge and confidence. Open-ended responses highlighted program elements which participants valued, specifically support for their parenting role in complicated circumstances, greater understanding of child development and perspectives, and practical strategies for facilitating connections with their children during their incarceration. The study informs nurses working with women who have experienced incarceration and their children, both in custodial and community settings.

  5. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W

    2016-12-01

    Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

  6. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. Methods A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Results Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. Conclusions The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  7. Understanding how education/support groups help lone mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Kenny, Meghan; Jack, Susan; Cameron, Ruth; Secord, Margaret; Byrne, Carolyn

    2010-01-04

    Lone-mother led families are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and mental health morbidity. Community-based programs are more accessible for families seeking assistance. We examine the experiences of eight lone mothers participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a community-based education/support group program using mixed methods. A purposeful sample of eight mothers participating in the intervention arm of an RCT of community-based support/education groups was selected for the qualitative study. Individual interviews asked mothers about themselves and their relationships with their children before and after the group. Interviews were taped, transcribed and content analysis was used to code and interpret the data. Quantitative data collected in the RCT were used to describe these mothers. Mothers participating in the RCT and qualitative study experienced multiple difficulties, including financial and mood problems. These mothers reported that before participating in the group, they had shared experiences of social isolation, stigma, a sense of failure, poor relationships with their children and difficulties with financial management. After the group, mothers identified improved self-esteem, support from other mothers, improved parenting skills and improved communication with their children as outcomes of group participation. The qualitative data revealed mothers' perceptions of specific areas that improved by participating in the group. The utility of complementary information provided by qualitative and quantitative methods in understanding program impact, as well as the need for broader assistance is noted.

  8. Mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

    2009-07-01

    To study mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth, namely factors (socio-demographics, previous life events, type of delivery, pain at childbirth, support from partner, infant characteristics, early experiences with the newborn, and mother's mood) that interfere with the mother's positive, negative and not clear emotions toward the newborn. The Bonding Scale (an extended Portuguese version of the 'New Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale') and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were administrated during the first after delivery days to 315 mothers recruited at Júlio Dinis Maternity Hospital (MJD, Porto, Portugal). A worse emotional involvement with the newborn was observed when the mother was unemployed, unmarried, had less than grade 9, previous obstetrical/psychological problems or was depressed, as well as when the infant was female, had neonatal problems or was admitted in the intensive care unit. Lower total bonding results were significantly predicted when the mother was depressed and had a lower educational level; being depressed, unemployed and single predicted more negative emotions toward the infant as well. No significant differences in the mother-to-infant emotional involvement were obtained for events related to childbirth, such as type of delivery, pain and partner support, or early experiences with the newborn; these events do not predict mother's bonding results either. The study results support the need for screening and supporting depressed, unemployed and single mothers, in order to prevent bonding difficulties with the newborn at birth.

  9. Children's Effects on Parenting Stress in a Low Income, Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, R. Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parenting stress and other maternal and child characteristics were investigated with 66 low income mothers and their five- to eight-year-old children at risk for educational disabilities. Child characteristics (self esteem, behavior conduct, and spelling achievement) and maternal characteristics (self esteem and crowding…

  10. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  11. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  12. Social Competence among Low-Income Preschoolers: Emotion Socialization Practices and Social Cognitive Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between emotion socialization variables, social cognitive knowledge, and children's social competence in preschoolers from low-income families. Found that mothers' self-reported emotion socialization practices were related to children's emotional knowledge and sibling caregiving behavior. (MDM)

  13. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  14. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  15. Importance of Education for Expectant Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ma’ruf Ch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Not many people talk about the role of a mother. But they acknowledgethat we are in world to the mother because. Actually, children are a source ofgreat joy and delight, they make life sweet, bring more rizq into a family’s lifeand give hope. A father sees his children as a future source of help and support,as well as representing an increase in numbers and perpetuation of the family.A mother sees her children as a source of hope, consolation and joy in life, andas hope for the future. All of these hopes rest on the good upbringing of thechildren and giving them a sound preparation for life, so that they will becomeactive and constructive elements in society, a source of goodness for their parents,community and society as a whole. Then they will be as Allah Subhanahu wata’ala described them: “ Wealth and sons are allurements of the life of thisworld . . .” (Qur’an 18:46.If their education and upbringing are neglected, they will become badcharacters, a burden on their family, community and society as a whole. Onlywaiting the Muslim woman’s sincerity, how to manage the great responsibilityfor forming their resource, especially in character building1. And how is theMuslim women have understanding the great responsibility and use the bestmethods in bringing them up, and do they able to demonstrate their love andaffection, also treat their sons and daughters equally, even they do not discriminatebetween sons and daughters of their affection, in other time the Muslim womenalert to everything, that may have an influence on their children they instill goodbehavior and attitudes in them.

  16. Mothers perception of sexuality education for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Akani, N A

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy. It develops young people's skills so that they make informed choices about their behaviour, and feel confident and competent about acting on these choices. It also equips children to face developmental challenges and empowers them against the ills of abuse, exploitation, unwanted pregnancies amongst others. Mothers who are the primary caregivers should be well informed about sexuality issues. The objective of the study is to determine mothers' perception of sexuality education in children, in Port Harcourt. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of women attending a Christian women's convention in Port Harcourt. One hundred and fifty eight women participated in the study. Most of them were married (80.4%), and belonged to the 30-49 years age bracket. Seventy one (44.9%) of the respondents had tertiary education. Over 80% agreed that children needed sexuality education but only 15 women (9.5%) had a good knowledge of the concept of sexuality education. One hundred and eleven (70.2%) believed it was the responsibility of both parents to educate their children and over 70% acknowledged that the home was the best place for such education. 64 (40.5%) believed that 6-10 years was the ideal age for starting sex education while 49% thought that the ideal age was 11-15 years. 65% of respondents discussed sexuality issues with their children at least occasionally, the content mostly involved description of body parts and reproductive organs. The average age of menarche amongst respondents was 14.0. One hundred (63%) of the women had prior knowledge of menstruation before menarche. About half of them had received information from their mothers. The study highlights the need for enlightenment of women on sexuality education

  17. Perception of Mothers on Adequate Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshini Valoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition in children less than 5 years old persists around the world. In West Java and one of the districts of West Java (Sumedang, the prevalence of malnutrition is about 18.5% and 15.8% respectively. Numerous factors can lead to child malnutrition. Difficulties in availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of food can be contributing factors. A good perception of mother on adequate nutrition can improve children’s nutritional status. This study was conducted to study the perception of mothers with children 2 to 5 years old on adequate nutrition. Methods: Most of the respondents had good perception on the aspect of adequate nutrition. Results showed perception on availability was 83.8%, physical accessibility was 97.1%, economical accessibility was 98.6%, information accessibility was 84.8% and acceptability was 81.0%. However, perception of respondents on good quality nutrition for the main meal and additional food was still poor. Moreover, there are taboos for eating shrimp and watermelon. Additionally, children were given snacks in large amount. Results: There was a strong correlation between mid-upper arm muscle area/size and muscular strength (correlation cooefficient 0.746. Moreover, the higher the Body Mass Index, the stronger the muscle strength was to some point. If the BMI was more than 25 kg/m2, this findings did not occurred. Conclusions: This study reveals that the perception of mothers on good quality food is poor regardless the good results on availibility, accesibility and acceptability.

  18. Maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child interactions, and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueron-Sela, Noa; Camerota, Marie; Willoughby, Michael T; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha J

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the independent and mediated associations between maternal depression symptoms (MDS), mother-child interaction, and child executive function (EF) in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,037 children (50% boys) from predominantly low-income and rural communities. When children were 6, 15 and 24 months of age, mothers reported their level of depressive symptomatology. At 24 and 36 months of age, mother-child interactions during play were rated for warmth-sensitivity and harsh-intrusiveness, and dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were assessed from a book sharing activity. Children's EF (i.e., inhibitory control, working memory, and set shifting) were assessed at ages 36 and 48 months using a battery of six tasks. Results indicated that MDS at ages 15 and 24 months were negatively associated with children's EF at age 48 months. Additionally, harsh-intrusive mother-child interactions partially mediated this link. Although warmth-sensitivity, dyadic joint attention and maternal language complexity were all longitudinally related to EF, they did not serve as mediating mechanisms between MDS and EF. These results were obtained while controlling for multiple demographic factors, children's earlier cognitive abilities, maternal general distress and childcare experiences. Findings from this study identify 1 mechanism through which early exposure to MDS could be related to children's EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Using baby books to change new mothers' attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J; Auger, Anamarie

    2012-02-01

    Research has found corporal punishment to have limited effectiveness in altering child behavior and the potential to produce psychological and cognitive damage. Pediatric professionals have advocated reducing, if not eliminating its use. Despite this, it remains a common parenting practice in the US. Using a three-group randomized design, this study explored whether embedding educational information about typical child development and effective parenting in baby books could alter new mothers' attitudes about their use of corporal punishment. Low-income, ethnically diverse women (n=167) were recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed until their child was 18 months old. Findings from home-based data collection throughout this period suggest that educational baby books compared with non-educational baby books or no books can reduce new mothers' support for the use of corporal punishment (respective effect sizes=.67 and .25) and that these effects are greater for African-American mothers (effect sizes=.75 and .57) and those with low levels of educational attainment (high school diploma, GED, or less) (effect sizes=.78 and .49). Given their low cost and ease of implementation, baby books offer a promising way to change new mothers' attitudes and potentially reduce the use of corporal punishment with infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emmy Noether the mother of modern algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Tent, M B W

    2008-01-01

    This book, written primarily for the young adult reader, tells the life story of Emmy Noether, the most important female mathematician of our time. Because no one expected her to grow into an important scientist, the records of her early life are sketchy. After all, it was assumed that she would grow up to be a wife and mother. Instead, she was a genius who chose a distinctive path. The author has woven this charming story of Emmy Noether's life around the events that appear in the oral and written records, fleshing out the story with details about life in Germany at the time and what we know

  1. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The data analysed in this empirical paper stems from ethnographic fieldwork among new school parents at three Danish primary schools. I draw on empirically grounded theories on the cultural and subjective dimensions of class, inspired by the “English School” of poststructuralist informed, feminist...... scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  2. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Casanueva, E; Bolanos, A V [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Sonora (Mexico); Caire Juvera, G; Valencia, M E; Roman Perez, R [Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-09-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) has been introduced in Mexico in order to increase breast feeding. The Mexican health care system may be contributing negatively to the nutritional status of adolescent mothers and their infants due to the reduction of baby formulas which were previously supplied as a benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast-milk production, the quantity and quality of protein and changes in body composition in adolescent and adult mothers in order to design the right ways to help mother and infants fulfill their requirements or obtain support to apply to the BFHI program. We propose to measure breast-milk intake and total body water by deuterium kinetics using infrared spectroscopy. Protein concentration and composition will be measured by electrophoresis. Adolescent and adult mothers who are breast-feeding exclusively and living in two different urban regions, northwest and central Mexico, will be dosed with deuterium oxide; saliva and breast milk samples will be taken. Currently, both of the working groups are standardized. A sublimation system for separation of water and D{sub 2}O of the saliva samples under reduced pressure was designed and it has a 100% of D{sub 2}O recovery. The setting up of conditions for D{sub 2}O determination using infrared spectroscopy was achieved and calibration curves of absorbance of sequentially diluted D{sub 2}O were obtained with an r=0.9948. Total body water was measured in 12 women after 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days of the D{sub 2}O dose. Zero-time values obtained by extrapolation were similar to those directly obtained after 4 h equilibrium. In addition, 50 women (under inclusion criteria) have signed consent letters to participate and part of the study is currently underway. For 1998, we intend to have 40 women and their infants with both dosing periods analyzed, as well as the analysis of breast milk composition. (author) 10 refs, 2 figs

  3. Why do mothers of young infants choose to formula feed in China? Perceptions of mothers and hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Li; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2015-04-24

    In China the exclusive breastfeeding rate remains low and infant formula is widely used. This study aimed to elicit and compare mothers' and hospital staff perceptions of the reasons that shaped mothers' decision to formula feed. In-depth interviews with 50 mothers, and four focus group discussions with 33 hospital staff, were conducted in Hangzhou and Shenzhen in November 2014. Responses given by the mothers and hospital staff showed a number of commonalities. The perception of "insufficient breast milk" was cited by the majority of women (n = 37, 74%) as the reason for formula feeding. Mothers' confidence in breastfeeding appears to be further reduced by maternal mothers or mothers-in-law's and "confinement ladies" misconceptions about infant feeding. Inadequate breastfeeding facilities and limited flexibility at their workplace was another common reason given for switching to formula feeding. A substantial proportion of mothers (n = 27, 54%) lacked an understanding of the health benefits of breastfeeding. Antenatal education on breastfeeding benefits for expectant mothers and their families is recommended. Moreover, mothers should be provided with breastfeeding support while in hospital and be encouraged to seek professional assistance to deal with breastfeeding problems after discharge. Employers should also make work environments more breastfeeding-friendly.

  4. Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-12-01

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.

  5. Child involvement and stress in Greek mothers of deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulou, V; Konstantareas, M M

    1998-10-01

    Forty-two mothers of Greek deaf children reported their level of stress, availability of support, duration and frequency of involvement with their children, and affective tone of involvement, using an adaptation of Hill's ABCX model of stress and support (1949). Data on the interaction among six caregiving categories were collected over a 2-day period. Mothers of younger children and of boys, as well as mothers reporting greater stress, had longer and more frequent involvement. Mothers with greater stress were also more likely to rate the affective tone of their involvement as more neutral or as chorelike. Support availability was unrelated to involvement, with the exception of supporting neighbors. Compared to Canadian mothers of children both with and without disabilities, exposed to the same study protocol, the mothers in the present study were not more stressed. However, they were more likely to report a negative affective tone in their caregiving.

  6. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampay, Liane Peña; Jocson, Rosanne M

    2011-07-29

    OBJECTIVE.: This paper investigates the mean level and within-family similarities and differences in Filipino mothers' and fathers' attributions about success and failure in caregiving situations, and their progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes. DESIGN.: Both mothers and fathers in 95 families in metropolitan Manila completed interviews. RESULTS.: Controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias, there was a significant gender difference in modernity of attitudes, with mothers exhibiting higher levels of modernity than fathers. There was a strong correlation in mothers' and fathers' authoritarian attitudes and moderate correlations in modernity of attitudes. There were neither parent gender effects nor concordance in the attributions of mothers and fathers. CONCLUSIONS.: Cultural explanations are presented to account for the findings, specifically the sociocultural values that foster traditional attitudes favoring parental authority and child obedience, and the differences in gender and family roles of Filipino mothers and fathers.

  7. Aging mothers' and their adult daughters' perceptions of conflict behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, K L

    1995-12-01

    Aging parents tend to perceive greater compatibility between themselves and offspring than do off-spring, but there is little research examining differences in perceptions of conflicts. Ninety-six older mothers (M age = 76) and their daughters (M age = 44) together selected a conflictual incident, then individually rated the degree to which they and the other person had engaged in destructive, constructive, or avoidant conflict behaviors. Mothers and daughters reported using constructive approaches more than other approaches. Mothers claimed to engage in constructive behaviors more than daughters recognized. Daughters reported engaging in destructive and avoidant behaviors more than mothers realized. Mothers also thought daughters felt better about the incident than daughters reported feeling about it. Findings suggest older mothers' underestimate daughters' negative behaviors and feelings in conflict situations.

  8. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  9. Why Are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? "My Child Is My Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (M[subscript age] = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African…

  10. Mothers as Educational Workers: Mothers' Emotional Work at Their Children's Transfer to Second-Level Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Maeve

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of mothers' emotional labour in relation to children's transfer from first- to second-level schooling: a time that has been shown to pose significant challenges for students and their families. It seeks to break the silence that surrounds the recognition and production of emotional labour in general, and…

  11. Educational Leaders Who Are Mothers: The Negotiation of Their Roles as School Leader and Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldur, Stephanie E.

    2009-01-01

    Women who work outside the home have two jobs: their workplace responsibilities and their home duties. Like working mothers in other fields, school administrators have the challenge of negotiating their rigorous jobs, often while running a household. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female school administrators who are…

  12. Effects of Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Competence: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Theories of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei

    2006-01-01

    There is much evidence that parents' perceptions of children's competence affect the development of children's academic functioning. In the current research, the possibility that this is moderated by parents' theories about the stability of competence was examined. In a 2-wave, 1-year study of 126 children (9 to 12 years old) and their mothers,…

  13. Political Mothering: Latina and African American Mothers in the Struggle for Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the process and impact of women organizing for educational justice in Northern California by documenting the efforts of a committed group of mothers who sought to address the disproportionate underachievement of Latino and African American students within their city's high school. Using a combined methodology of ethnography…

  14. Parenting style of mothers and fathers of adolescent eyes

    OpenAIRE

    KŘÍŽOVÁ, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled "Parenting style of mothers and fathers eyes adolescents' explores the differences of perception and evaluation of educational access of mothers and fathers to daughters and sons. The theoretical part contains basic information about the family, types of families, developmental characteristics during adolescence, types of educational styles. Part of this work is to present the research results of the educational style of mothers and fathers in terms of girls and boys. Data w...

  15. Authoritative Parenting Among Immigrant Chinese Mothers of Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Leung, Christy Y. Y.; Tahseen, Madiha; Schultz, David

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were: (a) to examine authoritative parenting style among Chinese immigrant mothers of young children, (b) to test the mediational mechanism between authoritative parenting style and children’s outcomes; and (c) to evaluate 3 predictors of authoritative parenting style (psychological well-being, perceived support in the parenting role, parenting stress). Participants included 85 Chinese immigrant mothers and their preschool children. Mothers reported on their parenting ...

  16. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Zaki, Amirah Mohd; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety – median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress – median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5)control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis(p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety.

  17. Communication between mother and her visually imapired child

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Communication between mother and child has a significant impact on the development of children's language skills. Blindness or visual impairment limits access to information from the environment, which may have a negative impact on the development of communication between mother and child. In my master's thesis I focused on how the communication between mother and child alters due to visual impairment. In the theoretical part I introduced the importance of visual input in communication and...

  18. Brief Psychotherapy for Maternal Depression: Impact on Mothers and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Holly A; Cyranowski, Jill M; Cheng, Yu; Zuckoff, Allan; Brent, David A; Markowitz, John C; Martin, Stacy; Amole, Marlissa C; Ritchey, Fiona; Frank, Ellen

    2016-06-01

    Two-generation studies demonstrate that treating maternal depression benefits school-age children. Although mothers prefer psychotherapy to medication, little is known about how psychotherapy for maternal depression affects offspring, especially in very high-risk families in which both mothers and children concurrently meet syndromal criteria for psychiatric disorders. This trial evaluated the effects of 2 brief psychotherapies for maternal depression on very high-risk families. Mothers with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to 9 sessions of either brief interpersonal psychotherapy for mothers (IPT-MOMS; n = 85) or brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP; n = 83). Independent assessors evaluated mothers and their children, ages 7 to 18 years, diagnosed with at least 1 internalizing disorder, every 3 months over the course of 1 year. Symptoms and functioning of mothers and children improved significantly over time, with no between-group differences. However, children of mothers assigned to BSP had more outpatient mental health visits and were more likely to receive antidepressant medication. Mothers reported greater satisfaction with IPT-MOMS than BSP. Improvement in mothers' depressive symptoms was associated with improvement in child functioning in time-lagged fashion, with children improving 3 to 6 months after mothers improved. Antidepressant medication use and number of mental health visits received by children did not affect outcomes. IPT-MOMS and BSP demonstrated comparable beneficial effects on maternal depression. Children's functioning improved following maternal improvement, independent of youths' treatment. Children of mothers randomized to IPT-MOMS, compared with BSP, achieved comparable outcomes despite less follow-up treatment. Observation of lagged association between maternal improvement and change in child functioning should influence treatment planning for families. Clinical trial registration information-Psychotherapy for Depressed

  19. Anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Gar-Yen; Patel, Nisha; Umasunthar, Thisanayagam; Gore, Claudia; Warner, John O; Hanna, Heather; Phillips, Katherine; Mohd Zaki, Amirah; Hodes, Matthew; Boyle, Robert J

    2014-02-07

    Previous reports suggest that parents especially mothers of food-allergic children may have increased anxiety. Studies with an appropriate control group have not been undertaken, and the determinants of such anxiety are not known. We compared measures of anxiety and stress in mothers of food-allergic children and atopic non-food-allergic children, with anxiety and stress in mothers of children with no chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of mothers attending a hospital appointment for their 8- to 16-year-old child. Mothers of children with food allergy, asthma but no food allergy or no chronic illness completed questionnaires including State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and measures of anxiety and psychologic adjustment in their child. Forty mothers of food-allergic children, 18 mothers of asthmatic children without food allergy and 38 mothers of children with no chronic illness (controls) were recruited. Mothers of food-allergic children showed increased state anxiety - median anxiety score 38.0 (IQR 30.0, 44.0) food allergy, 27.0 (22.0, 40.0) control p = 0.012; and increased stress - median stress score 18.5 (12.0, 22.0) food allergy, 14.0 (7.5, 19.5) control p = 0.035. No significant differences were seen between mothers in the asthmatic group and controls. In multivariate analysis, previous food anaphylaxis (p = 0.008) and poorly controlled asthma (p = 0.004) were associated with increased maternal anxiety. Child anxiety and adjustment did not differ between food-allergic and control groups. Mothers of food-allergic children have increased anxiety and stress compared with mothers of children with no chronic illness. Anaphylaxis and poorly controlled asthma are associated with maternal anxiety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Mother Love and Mental Illness: An Emotional History

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This essay aims to illuminate the historical origins of psychiatric concern with mother love – and especially mother love gone wrong. It looks particularly at ways in which a combination of wartime research, postwar social concerns and new tensions between psychoanalysis and hospital psychiatry worked together to create a range of theories and practices predicated on the idea that specific forms of pathological mother love could lead to specific forms of mental disorder, including (and perhap...

  1. The Effects of Massage by Mothers on Mother-Infant Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sohrabi, Soroor; Rasouli, Mahboobe

    2017-11-04

    Context • Transferring a newborn to the intensive care unit due to a premature birth is a major obstacle in the establishment of emotional attachment between a mother and her child. Researchers believe that the formation and continuation of such an attachment have a profound effect on the child's mental development and behavior in the coming years of life. Not all studies have agreed, however, that skin contact alone, such as massage provides, can improve attachment. Objective • The aim of this study was to determine the effects on maternal attachment behaviors of infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of massage provided by mothers for their premature neonates. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place at the Hazrat Ali Asghar Hospital of the Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran). Participants • Participants were 40 mothers and 40 newborns admitted to the NICU at the hospital. Intervention • The study divided participants randomly into a massage (intervention) group and a control group receiving no massages. Mothers in the intervention group trained by watching educational videos and practicing the massage on infant manikins. Subsequently, the intervention group massaged its infants according to a 5-d program, in which each neonate received a 15-min massage session per day. Outcome Measures • Mother-infant attachment behaviors were assessed in both groups 4 times. The maternal attachment scale was used for data collection. Results • According to the statistical analyses, the between-groups difference was not significant at baseline (P > .05). The study showed a statistically significant difference between baseline and postintervention in the mean frequencies of maternal attachment behaviors for both groups (P attachment between the intervention and control groups (P = .000). Conclusion • Massage given to premature neonates by their mothers on a daily

  2. Nutritional profile of selected expectant mothers and the cost of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, V; Kupputhai, U; Meenakshi, N D

    1988-08-01

    The nutritional profile during pregnancy, pregnancy-related expenditures, and pregnancy wastage were analyzed in 316 women attending a maternity or general hospital in Coimbatore, India. The sample included 195 low-income women (under Rs 600/month), 76 middle-income women (Rs 601-1500/month), and 45 high-income women (above Rs 1500/month). 51% of study participants had 3 fewer children; 71% were literate. The pregnancy diet of low-income women was starchy and inadequate in terms of all nutrients except vitamin C. Middle- and high-income women reported a satisfactory intake of all essential nutrients. The mean weight gain during pregnancy for low-, middle-, and high-income women was 6.41 kg, 7.37 kg, and 8.33 kg, respectively, while the mean hemoglobin level was 10.52, 10.74, and 10.96 gm/100 ml, respectively. No study participant was found to be anemic. The rate of pregnancy wastage was 11.8% among low-income women, 7.9% in the middle-income group, and 4.4% among high-income women; mean birthweight was 2.9 kg for low-income mothers and 3.1 kg for the offspring of both middle- and upper-income women. Regardless of income group, all pregnant women spent a substantial amount of extra money during pregnancy on food, clothing, medical examinations, transportation, ceremonies, servants, and delivery charges. These extra expenditures totalled Rs 1295.20 for low-income women, Rs 2913.68 for middle-income women, and Rs 4595.01 for high-income women. Given the fact that Indian women are investing substantial amounts in their pregnancies, increased attention must be given to prenatal care to prevent pregnancy wastage and the waste of scarce financial resources.

  3. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N=289) of children (mean age 70.8months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding scheme was reliably applied. Maternal feeding practices were measured by questionnaire and videotaped eating interactions. Logistic regressions were used to test the associations of participant characteristics with the presence of each theme, and bivariate analyses were used to test the associations of the presence of each theme with feeding practices. Three themes were identified: 1) mothers worry that their child does overeat, 2) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because they manage their child's eating behavior, and 3) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because of characteristics inherent to the child. Child obesity predicted the themes; mothers of obese and overweight children are more likely to be concerned about overeating. Themes were associated with lower levels of observed pressure to eat. Only Theme 2 was associated with greater restrictive feeding practices. Interventions that provide parents' practical, healthy ways to prevent child overeating may be helpful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Selwan B.; Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  5. Fetal MRI: incidental findings in the mother

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Selwan B. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); University of Minnesota, Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Dietz, Kelly R.; Holm, Tara L. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation. The maternal findings were categorized into neurologic, gynecologic, urinary, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal. Hydronephrosis consistent with the stage of pregnancy was recorded but was not included as an abnormal finding. Abnormal findings were classified into three groups, depending on their clinical significance: level I (low), level II (medium) and level III (high). We evaluated 332 pregnant patients with a mean age of 29.3 years and a mean gestational age of 29 weeks. Of these, 55.4% had at least 1 incidental finding, for a total of 262 incidental maternal findings. Of the 262 abnormalities, 113 (43.1%) were neurologic, 69 were gynecologic (26.3%), 36 (13.7%) urinary, 24 (9.2%) gastrointestinal and 20 (7.6%) musculoskeletal. Of the 262 incidental findings, 237 (90.5%) were level I, 24 (9.2%) were level II and 1 (0.4%) was level III. Our results suggest that although the vast majority of incidental maternal findings are benign, more significant findings are still encountered and should be expected. (orig.)

  6. Mother-teen communication about weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, René M; Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey Kluever

    2014-01-01

    Although research shows family members can influence each other's diet and exercise behaviors, the specific strategies that most effectively motivate individuals to enact healthy behaviors have not been revealed. Toward this goal, this study employed confirmation theory to assess how the quality of weight management (WM) communication between 107 mother-teen dyads was related to their diet and exercise behaviors as well as their subjective perceptions of the productivity of WM conversations. Confirmation theory proposes two components of confirmation: acceptance and challenge. Analyses revealed that accepting and challenging communication were both positively related to the perceived productivity of WM conversations. However, more complex associations emerged for diet and exercise. Acceptance was more helpful in motivating better eating habits for mothers with low health motivation and teens with high health motivation. For exercise, challenge was helpful in motivating teens with higher sensitivity about communicating about weight issues; however, counter to predictions, challenge was negatively related to exercise for teens with low health motivation and low sensitivity. These interactions, however, explained less variance than analyses for perceived effectiveness and satisfaction.

  7. So not mothers: responsibility for surrogate orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jennifer A; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-04-12

    The law ordinarily recognises the woman who gives birth as the mother of a child, but in certain jurisdictions, it will recognise the commissioning couple as the legal parents of a child born to a commercial surrogate. Some commissioning parents have, however, effectively abandoned the children they commission, and in such cases, commercial surrogates may find themselves facing unexpected maternal responsibility for children they had fully intended to give up. Any assumption that commercial surrogates ought to assume maternal responsibility for abandoned children runs contrary to the moral suppositions that typically govern contract surrogacy, in particular, assumptions that gestational carriers are not 'mothers' in any morally significant sense. In general, commercial gestational surrogates are almost entirely conceptualised as 'vessels'. In a moral sense, it is deeply inconsistent to expect commercial surrogates to assume maternal responsibility simply because commissioning parents abandon children for one reason or another. We identify several instances of child abandonment and discuss their implications with regard to the moral conceptualisation of commercial gestational surrogates. We conclude that if gestational surrogates are to remain conceptualised as mere vessels, they should not be expected to assume responsibility for children abandoned by commissioning parents, not even the limited responsibility of giving them up for adoption or surrendering them to the state. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Perceived support among Iranian mothers of children with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanshahi, Sima Mohammad Khan; Vanaki, Zohreh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Azadfalah, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explores the lived experiences of perceived support by Iranian mothers who have children with learning disability. Twelve open interviews with six mothers of learning-disabled children (7-12 years of age) were audiotape-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were transcribed and data were analyzed using Van Manen methodology. Two major themes emerged from 138 thematic sentences. The mothers'experiences could be interpreted as a sense of being in the light or being in the shade of support, with variations for different participants. The results indicate a need for more specialized and individually adjusted support for mothers in Iran.

  9. Determinants of Authoritative Parenting Style in Iranian Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Bahrami

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: This study enhances our understanding of the primary determinants of authoritative parenting style in Iranian mothers. The authoritative parenting style is a function of interactional mother and child characteristic and contextual components. These parents had a low score on neuroticism. Therefore, they had emotional stability and could manage their impulse and negative emotions about child maltreatment. Also, their children had low scores in excitability and a high score in sociability. Additionally, the authoritative mothers had weak social support. One explanation for this result is that  mothers are the autonomy people and stand on their own rules and had little need to others.

  10. Women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystedt, Astrid; Högberg, Ulf; Lundman, Berit

    2008-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore women's experiences of becoming a mother after prolonged labour. The negativity associated with a complicated labour such as prolonged labour can lead to a struggle to become a healthy mother and could restrict the process of becoming a mother. Interviews were conducted in 2004 with 10 mothers who had been through a prolonged labour with assisted vaginal or caesarean delivery 1-3 months previously. Thematic content analysis was used. Three themes were formulated, describing women's experiences as fumbling in the dark, struggling for motherhood and achieving confidence in being a mother. The difficulties and suffering involved in becoming a mother after a prolonged labour were interpreted to be like 'fumbling in the dark'. Women experienced bodily fatigue, accompanied by feelings of illness and detachment from the child. Having the child when in this condition entailed a struggle to become a mother. In spite of these experiences and the desire to achieve confidence in being a mother, the reassurance of these women regarding their capacity for motherhood was crucial: it was central to their happiness as mothers, encouraged interaction and relationship with the child, and contributed to their adaptation to motherhood. Women experiencing prolonged labour may be comparable with the experience of and recovery from illness, which could contribute to difficulties transitioning to motherhood and limit a woman's ability to be emotionally available for the child.

  11. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Risk factors associated with mother negligence in child care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Early father's and mother's involvement and child's later educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2004-06-01

    Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether gender and family structure moderate the relationship between father's and mother's involvement and child's educational attainment, and (3) to explore whether the impact of father's involvement depends on the level of mother's involvement. The study used longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study. The initial sample were those 7,259 cohort members with valid data on mother involvement at age 7, father involvement at age 7, and school-leaving qualification by age 20. Of those, 3,303 were included in the final analysis. The measures were control variables, structural factors (family structure, sibship size and residential mobility), child factors (emotional/behavioural problems, cognitive ability and academic motivation), and father's and mother's involvement. Father involvement and mother involvement at age 7 independently predicted educational attainment by age 20. The association between parents' involvement and educational attainment was not stronger for sons than for daughters. Father involvement was not more important for educational attainment when mother involvement was low rather than high. Not growing up in intact two-parent family did not weaken the association between father's or mother's involvement and educational outcomes. Early father involvement can be another protective factor in counteracting risk conditions that might lead to later low attainment levels.

  14. [The mother's role in breasfeeding her primiparous daughter: "the togetherness"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Rita Marinho; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó; de Almeida, Ana Maria; Mamede, Marli Villela

    2004-01-01

    The authors' disquietudes are related to the structure for supporting women to breastfeed within their family environment. It is a qualitative study aiming at understanding the significance of breastfeeding among mothers and primiparous daughters, as well as identifying how the mother perceive herself as a means of support for her primiparous daughter and vice versa. The historic social construction of women for maternity has been used as a theoretical referential. The sample was made up of 10 women--five primiparous daughters and their mothers. The participation of the mother in her daughter's maternity was "to be along with her", sharing knowledge and life experiences.

  15. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  16. The Mother's Perspective: Factors Considered When Choosing to Enter a Stay-at-Home Father and Working Mother Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Cassie; Sparks, Misti

    2017-07-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine the decision-making factors of entering a stay-at-home father and working mother relationship based on the mother's perspective. A total of 20 married, heterosexual, working mothers with biological children aged 1 to 4 years were asked questions regarding how they decided to enter a stay-at-home father and working mother relationship as well as contributing factors to this decision. The findings presented in this article were part of a larger study that examined mothers' overall perspectives of the working mother stay-at-home father dynamics. The themes that emerged regarding how the decision was made to enter this kind of relationship were creating a work-family life balance, utilizing the cost-benefit ratio, and applying personality/trait strengths.

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari Town, Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, N.; Mirza, M.; Qadri, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi in February 2007. All mothers having less than one year old child were interviewed through a semi structured questionnaire regarding immunization knowledge attitude and practices. The data collected through a questionnaire entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 15. Majority of the mothers were illiterate, belonging to low-income group and not aware about the name of diseases in EPI Program. Majority (70%) of women started routine immunization of the child. The reasons for missing vaccination schedule were lack of understanding of next appointment, non availability of health staff, mild flu and others reasons like household work. About thirty one percent mothers quit immunization after missing one dose. Health care staff was the main source of information. A positive attitude was reflected from both the parents towards immunization. A significant number stated that vaccination is contraindicated in mild illness of child. The knowledge of our mothers about vaccination was found inadequate with strong positive attitude and limited practices. (author)

  18. Pediatric symptom checklist ratings by mothers with a recent history of intimate partner violence: a primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Brian J; Porcerelli, John H; Sklar, Elyse R; Markova, Tsveti

    2013-12-01

    Screening for psychosocial problems is an effective way to identify children who need further evaluation, and many brief, psychometrically strong measures exist for this purpose. More research is needed, however, about the performance of these measures in special populations who are familiar to primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare maternal ratings on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) between low-income, urban mothers who had suffered intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year (n = 23) and a demographically-matched comparison group of mothers (n = 23). Victims of violence rated their children as having significantly more problems in a number of categories (Total PSC Score, Externalizing, and Internalizing) than did mothers in the comparison group. The PSC shows promise as an adequate screening tool for psychosocial problems in the children of women who have suffered IPV, but more research is needed.

  19. Qualitative evaluation of the Teenage Mothers Project in Uganda: a community-based empowerment intervention for unmarried teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; van Reeuwijk, Miranda A J; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-09-08

    A large proportion of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda face physical, psychological, and social problems after pregnancy and childbirth, such as obstetric complications, lack of education, and stigmatisation in their communities. The Teenage Mothers Project (TMP) in Eastern Uganda empowers unmarried teenage mothers to cope with the consequences of early pregnancy and motherhood. Since 2000, 1036 unmarried teenage mothers, their parents, and community leaders participated in economic and social empowerment interventions. The present study explored the changes resulting from the TMP as well as factors that either enabled or inhibited these changes. Semi-structured interviews (N = 23) were conducted with former teenage mothers , community leaders, and project implementers, and lifeline histories were obtained from former teenage mothers (N = 9). Quantitative monitoring data regarding demographic and social characteristics of teenage mother participants (N = 1036) were analysed. The findings suggest that, overall, the TMP seems to have contributed to the well-being of unmarried teenage mothers and to a supportive social environment. It appears that the project contributed to supportive community norms towards teenage mothers' position and future opportunities, increased agency, improved coping with early motherhood and stigma, continued education, and increased income generation by teenage mothers. The study findings also suggest limited change in disapproving community norms regarding out-of-wedlock sex and pregnancy, late active enrolment of teenage mothers in the project (i.e., ten months after delivery of the child), and differences in the extent to which parents provided support. It is concluded that strengths of the community-based TMP seem to be its socio-ecological approach, the participatory planning with community leaders and other stakeholders, counselling of parents and unmarried teenage mothers, and the emphasis on education and income

  20. Delaying second births among adolescent mothers: a randomized, controlled trial of a home-based mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Bentley, Margaret E; Papas, Mia A; Oberlander, Sarah; Teti, Laureen O; McNary, Scot; Le, Katherine; O'Connell, Melissa

    2006-10-01

    Rates of rapid second births among low-income black adolescent mothers range from 20% to 50%. Most efforts to prevent rapid second births have been unsuccessful. There were 4 objectives: (1) to examine whether a home-based mentoring intervention was effective in preventing second births within 2 years of the adolescent mother's first delivery; (2) to examine whether greater intervention participation increased the likelihood of preventing a second birth; (3) to examine whether second births were better predicted from a risk practice perspective or a family formation perspective, based on information collected at delivery; and (4) to examine how risk practices or family formation over the first 2 years of parenthood were related to a second birth. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of a home-based intervention curriculum, based on social cognitive theory, and focused on interpersonal negotiation skills, adolescent development, and parenting. The curriculum was delivered biweekly until the infant's first birthday by college-educated, black, single mothers who served as mentors, presenting themselves as "big sisters." The control group received usual care. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in the homes 6, 13, and 24 months after recruitment. Participants were recruited from urban hospitals at delivery and were 181 first time, black adolescent mothers ( or = 2 intervention visits increased the odds of not having a second infant more than threefold. Only 1 mother who completed > or = 6 visits had a second infant. At delivery of their first infant, mothers who had a second infant were slightly older (16.7 vs 16.2 years) and were more likely to have been arrested (30% vs 14%). There were no differences in baseline contraceptive use or other measures of risk or family formation. At 24 months, mothers who had a second infant reported high self-esteem, positive life events, and romantic involvement and residence with the first infant's father. At 24 months, there

  1. WIC mothers' depressive symptoms are associated with greater use of feeding to soothe, regardless of perceived child negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2017-04-01

    Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers. There is a cross-sectional sample of 60 mothers and their formula fed infants/toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Woman, Infants and Children Program. Measures included the Infant Behaviors Questionnaire, Baby's Basic Needs Questionnaire, the feeding problem assessment form and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms exceeded the clinical screening cut-off for 38% of women. Mothers with depressive symptoms perceived their child to be more negative and were more likely to use food to soothe, add cereal to the bottle and put baby to bed with bottle than mothers without depressive symptoms. Generalized linear models revealed that child negativity was associated with greater use of food to soothe but that this effect was moderated by maternal depression: negativity was positively associated with food to soothe among non-depressed but not depressed mothers. A high proportion of low-income mothers reported elevated depressive symptoms; depressive symptomatology was positively associated with perceived child negativity and greater reported use of controlling feeding practices. Screening for maternal depressive symptoms may help in providing more individually tailored counselling on responsive feeding. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. [Perception manner of mother of obese persons in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoszewska, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    There are specific relation properties of mother to the obese child. The mother representation in child is understand as a experience manner of herself. Representation (mental image) include perceptions, knowledge about characteristics and behaviors of a person and evaluation and experiences that provoke in others. The aim of this article is a trial of an answer what is a mental representation of mother experienced by obese girls and boys in adolescence. 21 obese persons (12 girls and 9 boys) and 23 persons of normal body mass (15 girls and 8 boys) have been investigated. The mean age of the investigated obese persons were 14.53, and for a person of normal body mass was 15.31. All persons were investigated by a clinical interview with 6 questions concerning mental mother representation. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to mental mother representation contents: cognitive, emotional, social, sexual, certificate, behavioral and somatic. Obese persons more often than the person of the normal body mass identify to mental mother representation somatic contents, more rarely social, sexual and behavioral contents. Obese girls more rarely than girls of the normal body mass identify to social contents, more often to somatic. Obese girls more rarely than obese boys identify to mental mother representation emotional contents, more often to somatic contents. The specific relation properties of mother to obese person in adolescence could be manifested in difficulties in turn on contents of mental mother representation, in external, somatic point of concern for mental mother representation, difficulties in contact with mental contents of mother representation.

  3. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brødsgaard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.

  4. The Experience of Young Children and Their Incarcerated Mothers: A Call for Humanly-Responsive Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Describes the IMCIPE Project (Incarcerated Mothers and Children: Impact of Prison Environments) which investigates the experiences of incarcerated mothers whose children live with them in Mother and Baby Units and incarcerated mothers who are separated from their children; the impact of the prison environment on mother-child relationships; and…

  5. Parental Nurturance and the Mental Health and Parenting of Urban African American Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…

  6. Socialization of Emotion and Offspring Internalizing Symptoms in Mothers with Childhood-Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…

  7. Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship--A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jarno; de Weerth, Carolina; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2008-01-01

    A positive effect of breastfeeding on the mother-infant relationship is often assumed in the scientific literature, but this has not been systematically reviewed. This review aims to clarify the role of breastfeeding in the mother-infant relationship, which is conceptualized as the maternal bond toward the infant and infant attachment toward the…

  8. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  9. Breastfeeding, Bonding, and the Mother-Infant Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Clark, Roseanne

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs to test the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis as they relate to breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Found that breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher-quality relationships at 12 months than did bottle-feeding dyads.…

  10. Verbal Modeling Behavior in Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses an alternate method of examining the verbal interaction of mothers and their children in dyadic communication. The behavior of both mothers and children differed significantly according to the ages of the children involved. Acta Symbolica, 807 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38105. Subscription Rates: annually, $12.00 individuals,…

  11. Lesbian Mothers' Bids for Normalcy in Their Children's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Laura A.; Klecka, Cari L.

    2009-01-01

    Albeit growing in number, lesbian mothers and their children remain a statistical minority in schools. Lesbian mothers in this study described their families as "normal" or "just like any other family." From the perspective of queer theory, normal is a socially constructed and insidious concept. This study analyzes both the strategies participants…

  12. Energy Consumption of Lactating Mothers: Current Situation and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on the adequacy of nutrient intake indicate that lactating mothers have higher nutritional needs than do pregnant mothers. High nutrient intake is necessary to help mothers recover after childbirth, produce milk, and maintain the quantity and quality of breast milk. It also prevents maternal malnutrition. Research has shown, however, that the dietary energy consumption of mothers during lactation was significantly lower than that during pregnancy. The current study explored the factors associated with decreased nutritional intake during maternal lactation. The study was conducted in March–April 2013, and the subjects were mothers with infants aged >6 months. Results revealed that the factors causing low dietary energy consumption among breastfeeding mothers were poor nutritional knowledge and attitude toward high energy intake requirements during lactation, lack of time to cook and eat because of infant care, reduced consumption of milk and supplements, dietary restrictions and prohibitions, and suboptimal advice from midwives/health personnel. Beginning from the antenatal care visit, health personnel should conduct effective counseling on the importance of nutrient intake during lactation. Advice should be provided not only to mothers, but also to their families to enable them to thoroughly support the mothers as they breastfeed their infants.

  13. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height-for-age (stunting), weight-for-height (wasting) and weightfor-age ... Up to 74.4% of mothers with children 0-6 months of age exclusively breastfed their infants. Few mothers (7.5%) gave breast milk to their babies immediately after birth, ...

  14. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the…

  15. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  16. Early Father's and Mother's Involvement and Child's Later Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E.; Buchanan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the individual long-term contributions that mothers and fathers make to their children's schooling. Aims: (1) To explore the role of early father involvement in children's later educational attainment independently of the role of early mother involvement and other confounds, (2) to investigate whether…

  17. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  18. Breastfeeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined breast feeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba Akoko in Ondo State. A total number of 150 mothers randomly selected from different unit of the University were used as research subjects. The subjects were exposed to Maternal Employment ...

  19. Health Care Factors Influencing Teen Mothers' Use Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. Methods: The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 ...

  20. [PERIOPERATIVE ANALGESIA INFLUENCE ON MOTHER REHABILITATION PERIOD AFTER CESAREAN SECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, S V

    2015-01-01

    Early breast-feeding is a standard of perinatal care currently. After cesarean section it can be possible in case of early mother activation (verticalization). Assessment of perioperative analgesia influence on activation timing was the aim of our research. We included 120 parturient women. It was proved, that local analgesia using in postoperative period promotes early mother verticaliration, and optimal breast-feeding starting.

  1. Complex Pathways for Young Mothers outside Employment, Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article explores young mothers' experiences of turbulent pathways in and out of education and work in Northern England. Data are drawn from an ethnography conducted between 2010 and 2013 that incorporated participant observation, life-story maps, photographs and interviews carried out in young mothers' homes, parenting classes and…

  2. Mother-infant attachment styles as a predictor of aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Aggression is a phenomenon that causes irreversible damage to a community. Psychodynamic theory suggests that aggression is rooted in early relationships with family members, especially mother. According to this theory, infant-mother relationship is a major predictor of an individual’s behavior from childhood to adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between mother-infant attachment styles and aggression. Methods:This study was conducted on 150 university students (75 female, 75 male randomly selected from Bu-Ali Sina University in Hamadan, Iran. Data were collected via demographic questionnaires, Persian version of Adult Attachment Inventory (AAS (Hazen and Shaver and Ahvaz Aggression Inventory (AAI. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: According to our findings, secure mother-infantattachment had a significant negative correlation with aggression. In addition, ambivalent mother-infantattachment had a significant positive correlation with aggression, while avoidant attachment style had no significant correlation with aggression. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, secure attachment of mother with infant could reduce aggression during adulthood. On the other hand, ambivalent attachment between mother and infant could clearly increase the risk of aggression. Therefore, it is recommended to train different attachment styles to pregnant women  through related workshops during pregnancy in order to prevent ambivalent mother-infant attachment.

  3. Heritability of menopausal age in mothers and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Kristel M.; Kok, Helen S.; Pearson, Peter L.; Dubas, Judith S.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; te Velde, Egbert R.; van Noord, Paulus A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the heritability of age at natural menopause from mother-daughter pairs. Design: Two-generation families were selected to study heritability of menopausal age. Setting: Subjects were drawn from a population-based study. Patient(s): One hundred sixty-four mother-daughter pairs

  4. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  5. Learners' Motivation for Literacy in the Mother Tongue 1: Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the desirability of and motivational needs for basic literacy in the mother tongue and library use in lbadan metropolis. Data were collected through indepth interviews with 25 adult basic learners. The study reveals a strong desire for literacy in the mother tongue by the respondents. The learners' ...

  6. Knowledge and belief of nursing mothers on nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing mothers with respect to food restriction during acute diarrhoea in Ibadan, South West Nigeria. This single round cross-sectional study adopted a purposive sampling procedure to select 250 nursing mothers aged between 17 and 45 ...

  7. Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…

  8. Kangaroo Mother Care Management of a 750 Ggrammes Baby: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the successful management of 750 grammes low birth weight baby using kangaroo mother care in the hospital and at home. The baby had suffered a variety of morbidities associated with prematurity in the early neonatal period. Key words: Kangaroo mother care, low birth weight babies ...

  9. Adolescent girls' communication with "mothers" about topical microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder, Punita K; Ramos, Stephanie; Short, Mary B; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2006-12-01

    Topical microbicides, a female-initiated method to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy, will only be effective if found acceptable. Mothers may have an influence on acceptability and use among adolescent girls. The current study examined the communication between girls and mothers to understand the potential predictors and nature of conversations regarding surrogate microbicide products. Sexually experienced girls, 14 to 21 years, were recruited for a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. During face-to-face interviews, qualitative data were collected regarding communication between girls and mothers. Two independent raters coded the responses, which were organized into themes. Themes were interpreted according to the conceptual understanding of mother-daughter communication. Fifty percent of the 171 girls with codable responses had a conversation with their mother. Higher levels of indirect parental monitoring were related to being more likely to have a conversation. Concrete events related to the study (i.e. receiving phone call from the researcher, having an appointment, or seeing the product) or inquiries by mothers appeared to promote conversation. Barriers to conversation included the private nature of the information and relationship issues between the mother and daughter. Conversations often addressed issues related to girls' participation in the study, although some conversations included global issues related to sexuality. Girls may talk to their mothers about new products for STI prevention, and such conversations may provide opportunities to promote use.

  10. Breastfeeding knowledge and practice of mothers with infants less ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is the ideal for infants in the first six months, however the practice is low. The role of mothers' knowledge of breastfeeding on practise is not clear.This study was designed to assess knowledge and practice of nursing mothers concerning breastfeeding in the selected Local Government ...

  11. Awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding among mothers and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breastfeeding is an effective intervention to reduce child morbidity and mortality. The third of ten steps to successful breastfeeding is to inform all pregnant mothers about the benefits of breastfeeding. This awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding bybreastfeeding/Nursing mothers may serve as a motivation for ...

  12. Single Mothers in Russia : Household Strategies for Coping with Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshin, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Popkin, Barry

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe trends in single parenthood in Russia, examining factors that affect living arrangements in single-mother families. Before economic reform, single mothers and their children were somewhat protected form poverty by government assistance (income support, subsidized child care, and full employment guarantees). Economic reform in Russia has reduced government transfers, el...

  13. Attitude of Nursing Mothers In Edo State Towards Exclusive | Alutu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, practice of exclusive breast-feeding adversely affected by the nursing mothers\\' nature of work. The nurses and teachers were more favourably disposed to exclusive breast-feeding than the bankers. There is therefore need to provide an enabling environment for working mothers to cope with infant feeding and ...

  14. Attitudes of mothers and staff towards treatment and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects. Mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies and children with multiple disabilities; paediatricians (including registrars) and nurses working in these units. Outcome measures. The preferences for developmental outcomes were compared between four groups: nurses, paediatricians, mothers of VLBW infants, ...

  15. Midlife mothers favor `being with' children over work and careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patricia Ann; Merrell, Joy A; Rentschler, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The majority of American women juggle careers and the demands of mothering. The experiences of midlife mothers on the issues of work and motherhood are important to explore because birth rates for older women continue to rise in the United States and in other countries including the U.K. and Canada. To present a unique viewpoint on work and mothering from the perspectives and experiences of older first-time mothers. A purposive sample of thirteen women aged 45-56 years old participated in two in-depth interviews. Findings emerged in the context of a larger hermeneutic phenomenological study that aimed to understand older first-time mothers' perceptions of health and mothering during the transition to menopause. A paradox emerged in which the realities of motherhood did not meet the women's expectations. They were surprised by the centrality of commitment they felt towards the child and voiced strong ideals about how to do mothering right that included making changes to work schedules to be more available to their children. Health care professionals should be aware of specific issues that exist for older first-time mothers including adjustments to work. This knowledge will inform the support, education and care provided for these women.

  16. Underemployment among Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo; Pu, Cheng-yun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Mothers with lifelong care responsibilities might involuntarily be non-employed or work part-time, both of which are defined as "underemployment." This study aimed to investigate who these underemployed mothers are and what are the factors associated with such employment hardship when having a child with intellectual…

  17. Mothers' Emotional Care Work in Education and Its Moral Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Maeve

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to build on feminist and egalitarian critiques of the traditional allocation of care work to mothers, particularly in relation to understandings of educational care work. It seeks to locate the emotional support work carried out by mothers in the educational field within their daily routines of care, and to make visible the…

  18. The orchestration of occupation: the dance of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E A

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the relationship of mothers' orchestration of daily occupations, the specialized maternal work of parenting a child with a disability, and the mother's subjective well-being. Mothers' daily occupations and subjective well-being were studied using multiple in-depth interviews, participant observation of a day's round of occupations, and scales of well-being. Data were treated to a recursive analysis, which included theoretical notes generated during transcriptions that identified important themes and additional points of inquiry, line-by-line coding of transcripts, and theoretical sorting of codes and regrouping, recoding. To account for patterns in the data, a relational analysis was conducted that included the generation of metaphors. Emergent findings of this analysis identified the mothers' guiding occupational motif and eight processes of orchestration in their daily routines. The occupational motif, the embrace of paradox, directed the mother's orchestration of daily occupations. The orchestration processes included planning, organizing, balancing, anticipating, interpreting, forecasting, perspective shifting, and meaning making. Examples illustrate the maternally driven and child-sensitive nature of these processes. In their daily rounds, the mothers studied were attentive to the manner and method with which they interacted with their children to produce child-contingent occupations commensurate with their values of being a good mother. Using these orchestration processes, mothers made sense of their past, designed their present, and planned for their future within their daily occupational rounds for themselves and family members.

  19. Children with Incarcerated Mothers: Developmental Outcomes, Special Challenges and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2007-01-01

    Incarcerated mothers represent a rapidly growing sector of the prison population. This review of the literature presents research examining the psychological and socio-emotional well-being of children with an incarcerated mother, highlighting risk and protective factors at different stages of children's development. Child outcomes are reviewed…

  20. Representations of Attachment Relationships in Children of Incarcerated Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Representations of attachment relationships were assessed in 54 children ages 2.5 to 7.5 years whose mothers were currently incarcerated. Consistent with their high-risk status, most (63%) children were classified as having insecure relationships with mothers and caregivers. Secure relationships were more likely when children lived in a stable…

  1. Determinants of cord care practices among mothers in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Background: Mothers care for their infants' umbilical cord stump in various ways. Different cord care practices have been documented; some are beneficial while others are harmful. Who and what influence the cord care practiced by mothers have, however, not been fully explored particularly in the study ...

  2. WORKING MOTHERS AND THE NEED FOR CHILD CARE SERVICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    DATA AND CHARTS DOCUMENT THE RISING NUMBER OF WORKING MOTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY AND THE INCREASING NEED FOR CHILD CARE SERVICES. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM U.S. DEPARTMENTS OF LABOR, COMMERCE, AND HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. NEARLY 10 MILLION MOTHERS WITH CHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WERE WORKERS IN MARCH 1966. MORE THAN ONE OF THREE…

  3. Children of Working Mothers. Special Labor Force Report. Bulletin 2158.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Part of a Special Labor Force Report series, this bulletin on children of working mothers discusses the increase in the number of children with working mothers as of March 1981, and describes major reasons for this growth. The bulletin consists of an article first published February 1982 in the "Monthly Labor Review," additional tables providing…

  4. how acceptable are the prevention of mother to child transmission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or mother continue to use ARV.9 The baby's chance of survival is increased ... and acceptability of the infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers. Pretesting of the questionnaire was conducted among pregnant women attending ANC at the University College ... when any cell had a value less than five. Student's t test.

  5. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie

    1993-01-01

    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  6. 9592 THE EXPERIENCES OF HIV-POSITIVE MOTHERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and unemployed, participated during two visits to the study site. Responses to semi- ... Five major themes emerged: (i) benefits of breast milk to the mother and the baby ...

  7. Breastfeeding practices of mothers of young children in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-06-23

    Jun 23, 2013 ... Breastfeeding has many benefits both to mother and the child. It confers ... ies have shown that infants who are exclusively breast- fed for 6 months ... This study therefore, examines breast-feeding practices among mothers in ...

  8. Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Mothers/Caretakers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception and ... about 84.2% of mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 4-6 months, ... proportions of mothers have good knowledge on the benefits that breast milk ...

  9. Mother/Daughter Relationship: Psychological Implication of Love in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper re-examines Toni Morrison's Beloved to identify an example of the types of mother/daughter relationship that existed between black mothers and their daughters and the implications of such relationship on the Black American society. The paper is a psychoanalytic reading, utilizing Melanie Klein's Object ...

  10. "Nearly Everybody Gets Twitterpated": The Disney Version of Mothering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraustino, Lisa Rowe

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes the case that during the American cold-war era, Disney's animated film classics worked in tandem with their True-Life Adventure series of nature documentaries to reproduce traditional mothering ideology under patriarchy. The animated films do this not by animating the realities of marriage, childbirth, and mothering work for girls…

  11. Nigerian mothers opinion of reminder/recall for immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-06-23

    Jun 23, 2013 ... Abstract Introduction: Reminder/recall interventions have been shown to improve im- munization coverage. The percep- tion of mothers/caregivers may influence the outcome of such interventions. The attitude of. Nigerian mothers to reminders/ recalls using cell phones was evaluated. Methods: This was a ...

  12. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Health, HPV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Parent-child communication about sexual health is considered an effective ... This study used a brief survey to examine mother-child communication ... percent of mothers who reported being comfortable discussing HIV/sexual ... media should be considered as methods to reduce .... Examining attitudes and knowledge.

  13. Mother tongue education: a panacea to effective teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The controversy as to whether the English Language or the child's mother tongue facilitates teaching and learning at primary school level has not been resolved. The advocates of mother-tongue medium claim that it makes for meaningful teaching and learning and better pupils' participation in the learning process while ...

  14. Mothers' Self- Evaluation, Attribution in Parenting and Coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mother's self- evaluation, attribution in parenting and coping strategies on children's (age 2-6 years) externalizing behaviour. Two hundred (200) nursing mothers with a mean age of 30.25, (SD 10.67) years were randomly selected for the study. Data was collected using ...

  15. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  16. Mothers' perinatal and infant mental health knowledge in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. ... the denial of negative maternal affect post-birth to elevated levels of post-natal depression found amongst South African mothers parenting in adverse circumstances.

  17. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  18. 76 FR 60355 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... grief their families carry we can never fully know. Gold Star mothers and families know the immeasurable... inspired by their strength and determination. Through heartbreaking loss, our Gold Star families continue...

  19. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  20. Mothers' perception of excessive crying in infancy in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of excessive crying in our area of practice and also determine associated factors. Method: This was a cross sectional, questionnaire based descriptive study on mothers' perception of their infants' crying. Subjects were mother/ infant pairs attending the well baby clinics at ...

  1. Mothers of Pre-Term Infants in Neonate Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, eight mothers of pre-term infants under the care of nursing staff and neonatologists in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, were observed and interviewed about their birth experience and their images of themselves as mothers during their stay. Patterns and themes in the…

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of mothers and the knowledge of health workers regarding care of the newborn umbilical cord. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Subjects: Mothers with infants less than three months of age attending well child clinics and health workers (HW) in the clinics, ...

  3. Kathy Attends a Mother-to-Mother Support Group Meeting. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Asiste a una Reunion de Grupo de Apoyo de Madre a Madre. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimerez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains what a mothers' support group is, and that mothers share experiences and information about breastfeeding, invite friends and relatives to attend, and is…

  4. Cortisol, hedonics, and maternal responsiveness in human mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A S; Steiner, M; Corter, C

    1997-10-01

    New mothers are more attracted to the body odor of newborn infants than are nonmothers. In this study we investigated the relation of postpartum hormones and of prior experience with infants to this enhanced maternal attraction to infant odors. New mothers were asked to complete a hedonics task, using a pleasantness scale to provide an attraction score to different odorants presented on a cotton substrate in a 1-pt Baskin-Robbins container. Mothers were "blind" to the contents of the container. Participants also completed an extensive set of 100-item likert scales concerning their attitudes toward infants, care taking, own maternal adequacy, and other interpersonal relations. Mothers were videotaped interacting with their infants and provided salivary samples prior to the interaction. Salivary samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) for salivary concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone. Results show that first-time mothers with higher cortisol concentrations were more attracted to their own infant's body odor. Mothers with higher cortisol levels were also better able to recognize their own infants' odors. While cortisol was not related to attitudinal measures of maternal responsiveness, mothers with more prior experience interacting with infants exhibited both more attraction to infant odors and more positive maternal attitudes. Together, prior maternal experience and postpartum cortisol explain a significant proportion of the variance in mothers' attraction to newborn infant odors. These relations are discussed in terms of the variety of "meanings" cortisol could have during the postpartum period. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  5. Post partum emotional distress in mothers of preterm infants: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate whether mothers of preterm infants experience more psychological distress than mothers of normal full term infants in the immediate postpartum period. Design: Cross sectional prospective study of postpartal women using the Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and the GHQ-30. Setting: Neonatal ...

  6. 38 CFR 10.31 - Dependency of mother or father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependency of mother or... ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Adjusted Compensation; General § 10.31 Dependency of mother or father. Claims of a... Compensation Act, as amended, shall be supported by a statement of fact of dependency made under oath by the...

  7. Determinants of breastfeeding patterns among mothers in Anambra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is still rare among nursing mothers. ... valuable benefits to the infants as well as to mothers and the nation as a whole.2,3 It has also resulted in an overall decrease in infant morbidity and ...

  8. 75 FR 60283 - Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Gold Star Mother's and Families' Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... Star Mothers and Families. For those in our Armed Forces who gave their last full measure of devotion..., it echoes in the enduring love of their spouses-- the backbone of our military families--who...

  9. 78 FR 60179 - Gold Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Star Mother's and Family's Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In... is home to an unbroken line of patriots willing to lay down their lives for the land they love. As we... behind. Most of us can only imagine the pain of a mother who loses a daughter, the husband who loses his...

  10. Labor of Love: Foster Mothers, Caregiving, and Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Filomena M.

    2008-01-01

    Using a telephone survey, this study examined the experiences of 100 foster mothers who receive aid through Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Foster mothers reported numerous difficulties with TANF, including frequent sanctions and case closings, limited work and training opportunities, and pervasive material hardships. Foster…

  11. Intensive mothering ideology in France: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyal, D; Sutter Dallay, A-L; Rascle, N

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to adapt the intensive mothering ideology concept in a French sample and to get an assessment tool. First, the Intensive Parenting Attitudes Questionnaire (IPAQ), a U.S. scale comprising 25 items, was translated and submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=250). Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analysis with poor results. Secondly, to increase the cultural validity of a new tool, new items were derived from French women speech. French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=22) were asked about their views regarding motherhood and childcare (semi-structured interviews). A thematic content analysis was performed with good inter-judge agreement (0.53-0.86) and 27 items were created. Finally, the total set of 52 items was submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=474). The structure was tested through exploratory factor analysis. A new tool called the Measure of Intensive Mothering Ideology (MIMI) was obtained. This 21 items scale with 6 dimensions (Essentialism, Consuming Fulfillment, Child-centrism, Challenge, Sacrifice and Stimulation) explains 59.75% of variance. Internal consistencies were satisfactory (0.61-0.83) and most dimensions were positively and moderately correlated (0.17-0.38). The MIMI is the first French-language scale assessing IMI and offers interesting research avenues notably regarding perinatal parental adaptation. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazina Sharmin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

  13. [Breastfeeding: health benefits for child and mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the

  14. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  15. Children born to SLE and APS mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, C; Iodice, A; Andreoli, L; Lojacono, A; Motta, M; Fazzi, E; Tincani, A

    2014-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) are autoimmune diseases that affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancies in these patients carry several complications such as prematurity. Maternal IgG antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cross the placenta but they don't generally cause any neonatal thrombotic event. Because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier, aPL could theoretically reach the fetal brain. Whether this can have an effect on brain development is still under investigation. Some studies performed in children of patients with SLE and/or APS showed an increased number of learning disabilities without impairment in intelligence level. The objectives of this article are to evaluate the neurodevelopment outcome in 30 children (median age 9 years) born to mothers with SLE and/or APS with IgG anti-beta2-glycoprotein I during the third trimester of pregnancy and found positive for the same antibodies at birth. A neurological physical exam was performed in all children. We submitted some questionnaires to the mothers: the Child Behavior CheckList (CBCL) and a homemade set of questions obtained by a team composed of rheumatologists and pediatric neurologists. Intellectual functioning was determined by the Wechsler scale for corrected age. In all children neurological physical exam and intelligence levels were found to be normal but mild behavior disorders and history of neurological manifestations were shown in three children. Offspring of patients with SLE and/or APS are generally healthy. We and others observed the occurrence of minor neurological disorders that might be related to maternal disease or to prematurity. The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Safeguarding nutritional status of adolescent mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon de la Barca, A.M.; Bolanos, A V; Caire Juvera, G; Roman Perez, R; Regil, L.M. de; Valencia, M E [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, A.C. Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Casanueva, E; Sanesteban, V [Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Milk intake of breast-fed infants and body composition of 47 lactating mothers from Northwest and Central Mexico were monitored at 1 and 3 mo postpartum by the deuterium dilution technique and infrared detection. Milk quality was evaluated directly as milk composition and indirectly by infant growth. Maternal body fat tended to be lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico and was significant at 1 mo postpartum (p<0.001). BMI correlated positively with percentage body fat at 1 mo (r = 0.79, p<0.0001) and 3 mo (r = 0.76, p<0.0001). In Central Mexico, mean maternal energy intake was 19.4 and 23% below the RDA at 1 and 3 mo postpartum respectively. There were no differences in TBW, percentage body fat, BMI energy intake and estimated energy expenditure by activity diary between adolescent and adult women. Milk production rates averaged 573 vs 865 g/d at 1 and 3 mo postpartum in Northwest Mexico and 680 vs 857 g/d in Central Mexico and were not different between areas. Infants' energy intakes in Northwest Mexico at 1 and 3 mo postpartum were not significantly different. Fat intake at 3 mo was significantly lower in Central than in Northwest Mexico (p<0.05). Weight for age and weight for length Z scores were above +0.5 for infants from Northwest region, while for those in Central Area was between 0 and + 0. 5 at 2 and 3 mo. There were no differences (p>0.05) in Z score values for weight/length for infants in the two regions at 3 mo. Neither adolescent or adult mothers from Northwest or Central Mexican regions were undernourished and they produced adequate milk volume and composition to feed their infants and maintain their growth pattern until 3 months postpartum. (author)

  17. Attachment, Mothering and Mental Illness: Mother-Infant Therapy in an Institutional Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Sonia; Hemer, Susan R; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an ethnographic exploration of how attachment theory underpins therapeutic practices in an Australian institutional context where mothers of infants have been diagnosed and are undergoing treatment for mental illness. We argue that attachment theory in this particular context rests on a series of principles or assumptions: that attachment theory is universally applicable; that attachment is dyadic and gendered; that there is an attachment template formed which can be transferred across generations and shapes future social interactions; that there is understood to be a mental health risk to the infant when attachment is characterised as problematic; and that this risk can be mitigated through the therapeutic practices advocated by the institution. Through an in-depth case study, this paper demonstrates how these assumptions cohere in practice and are used to assess mothering as deficient, to choose therapeutic options, to shape women's behaviour, and to formulate decisions about child placement.

  18. Annual Research Review: All Mothers Are Not Created Equal--Neural and Psychobiological Perspectives on Mothering and the Importance of Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jennifer; Fleming, Alison S.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of mothering relies on the integrity of multiple physiological and behavioral systems and on two maternal factors, one proximal and one distal, that have a great impact on how a mother mothers: postpartum depression and early experiences. To mother appropriately requires the action of systems that regulate sensation, perception, affect,…

  19. Linguistic adaptation between mothers and children in ASD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Weed, Ethan; Fein, Deborah

    We investigate mother-child linguistic adaptation in 33 ASD and 33 matched TD children at two time-scales: conversational match and longitudinal development. We employ a longitudinal corpus (6 visits over 2 years) consisting of controlled playful activities between mothers and their children...... (Goodwin et al. 2012). We quantified amount (number of words and utterances) and complexity (lexical repertoire and utterance length) of linguistic behavior in both mother and child. We used mixed-effects growth curve models to quantify i)match within-conversation and ii)longitudinal impact between visits....... Child and mother are strongly correlated in their linguistic behaviors (R2 between .07 and .62, pMother-child pairs in the ASD group, however, show a shallower increase in match. Amount and complexity...

  20. Maternal responsivity in mothers of young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra; Warren, Steven F

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal responsivity and directive behaviors in mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS). Participants included 22 mothers with a young child with DS compared to 22 mothers of chronologically age-matched typically developing (TD) children using a cross-sectional design. The dyads participated in videotaped structured activities that were coded for responsive and directive behaviors. RESULTS indicated that the mothers of children with DS used a more facilitative style with the older children while these behaviors decreased with older children with TD; one directive behavior, request for behavioral comply, increased with the older children with DS. The mothers of children with DS adapted their parenting style to be facilitative of their children's linguistic development.