WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-income first-generation students

  1. Are College Faculty and First-Generation, Low-Income Students Ready for Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.; Thompson, Maris R.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing current research on college readiness as well as the role of cultural agents as a conceptual framework, this qualitative study investigates student and faculty beliefs about readiness and the pedagogical practices that allow instructors to effectively serve as cultural agents for first-generation, low-income students. Three major…

  2. Getting Out, Missing Out, and Surviving: The Social Class Experiences of White, Low-Income, First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Georgianna LaNelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how White students from low socioeconomic status backgrounds (operationalized as students who are both low income and of the first generation in their family to attend college) experience and navigate social class during college. This was a qualitative research study employing a phenomenological research…

  3. Leadership's Role in Recruitment and Retention of First Generation, Low-Income Latino Students into STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eliseo A.

    Fostering resiliency and educational success in students that are faced with adversity is not a simple task. The gap in educational success and achievement among low-income, first generation, traditionally marginalized students continues to be significant. California's educational system needs to stop the hemorrhaging from its educational pipeline, also known as the P-20 pipeline, of all students, especially those groups of students with larger gaps in educational attainment. One potential path towards fixing California's educational pipeline for all students is to form and keep partnerships with programs such as Upward Bound, AVID, and Math Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). In 2010-11, the California Department of Education (CDE) reported that over 51% of students enrolled in California's school system and 51% of all California high school seniors were Latino were Latino. Of the 231,231 Latino high school seniors, 79%, graduated. However, of those that graduated, only 26%, met University of California/California State University (UC/CSU) college entrance requirements. Even though 79% of Latinos graduated, 74% did not qualify to apply to a UC or CSU. If the majority of Latino students continue to fall through holes in the educational pipeline, companies will continue to look abroad to fill STEM jobs that remain unfilled by American workers (California Department of Education [CDE], 2012). Alongside the U.S.'s current economic woes, the lack of college preparedness and knowledge by parents and students has led to a decrease in first generation, low-income Latino students' higher education enrollment (Camacho & Lord, 2011). With strong and positive leadership from family, supplemented by the MESA program, these youths can exert their resiliency, face adversity, and overcome extraordinary barriers. Leaders in education such as teachers, coordinators, advisers, administrators, and parents are in the best position to teach students about resilience (Ginsburg, 2007

  4. To Work or Not to Work: Student Employment, Resiliency, and Institutional Engagement of Low-Income, First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edward F.; Bilges, Dolores C.; Shabazz, Sherrille T.; Miller, Rhoda; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the difference between two college persistence factors--resiliency and institutional engagement--for low-income, working, first-generation college students. Participants in the study consisted of 52 respondents to the Family History Knowledge and College Persistence Survey. Among respondents, 50 students reported…

  5. Finding My Way: Perceptions of Institutional Support and Belonging in Low-Income, First-Generation, First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.

    2017-01-01

    For this qualitative case study we explored students' perceptions of institutional support and sense of belonging within the college environment. Following 10 low-income, first-generation college students out of a college access program and through their first year of college, we examined institutional support structures that have been reported to…

  6. Roadblocks to a 4-Year University: Understanding College Undermatch and College Choice Process of First-Generation, Low-Income High School Latina/o Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Research on college access and enrollment indicates that a college education is one of the most effective avenues to increase social mobility. Each year, low-income students of color face a number of barriers to college access and success at every stage of their educational trajectory (Gandara, 2000; Gandara, 2002; Gandara & Contreras, 2009;…

  7. Camouflage: The Experiences of Low-Income Business College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…

  8. Institutional Variation in Enrollment of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2018-01-01

    Socioeconomic diversity in tertiary education has come under heightened scrutiny in the past few years. This paper estimates the relationship between prices (both sticker price and net price), financial aid policies, and selectivity on the variation of low-income students across postsecondary institutions. All three factors are significant in…

  9. Low-Income Urban High School Students' Use of the Internet to Access Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Kristan M.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the Web-based resources available to low-income students as they build their perceptions, make their decisions, and engage in financial aid activities. Data are gathered from the results of six focus groups with low-income high school students attending urban high schools. Findings suggest that low-income students do have…

  10. Perceived Academic Preparedness of First-Generation Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Karen

    2011-01-01

    First-generation Latino college students may be characterized as underprepared for college. Research points to low performance on placement tests. However, students may not perceive themselves as academically underprepared for college. This study explored first-generation Latino students' perceptions of their academic preparedness. Seven students…

  11. Dual Enrollment for Low-Income Students: Exploring Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Theresa B.

    2017-01-01

    Most educators are keenly aware that a high socioeconomic status (SES) equates to better academic preparation than a low SES and high SES students are more likely to attain a college degree. One strategy for closing the higher education equity gap is to provide college-level courses to students while in high school through dual enrollment…

  12. The Experience of Low-Income College Students at a Selective University: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paula Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Low-income students at selective institutions report feeling a sense of isolation, alienation, and marginalization. However, it is essential that the voices of low-income students that have successfully navigated the college experience be part of the conversation. Rather than approach the study from a deficit perspective, this Interpretative…

  13. Health and academic success: A look at the challenges of first-generation community college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Deanna L H

    2016-04-01

    Community colleges in the United States serve more than six million students and are the gateway to postsecondary education for individuals from typically underserved populations such as low-income, ethnic minorities, and first-generation college students. First-generation college students are defined as students whose adoptive or natural parents' highest level of education was a high school diploma or less. Postsecondary education has the potential to reduce both health and socioeconomic disparities. First-generation community college students face significant economic, social, and cultural barriers to academic success and are the most at risk for "dropping-out." The purpose of this brief report was to explore what is known about social, psychological, and physical factors that impede first-generation community college students' academic success. Little is known about potential health and psychological barriers experienced by first-generation community college students that impact academic achievement. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) on community college campuses are in the ideal position to identify and treat health issues, and conduct much-needed research into these areas. College health centers are an important practice setting for APNs to provide direct care to students as well as influence college policies that improve student health, well-being, and promote academic success. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  15. Critical Components of a Summer Enrichment Program for Urban Low-Income Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Corina R.; Johnsen, Susan K.; Witte, Mary M.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2015-01-01

    Effective program models are needed for low-income youth. This article describes one successful summer enrichment program, University for Young People's Project Promise, and outlines three key components of a Partnership for Promoting Potential in Low-Income Gifted Students (Partnership Model), which is based on Lee, Olszewski-Kubilius, and…

  16. Student Success for All: Support for Low-Income Students at an Urban Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Although federal financial aid has increased in recent years, the costs of college tuition and living expenses have increased even more, leaving larger numbers of students with unmet need. Restructuring of financial aid, however, is insufficient to address the problem of diverging attainment gaps between low-income students and their more…

  17. First Generation Students and Post-Undergraduate Aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Teressa Carlton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Equal access to education is a growing concern throughout the nation. With an increasing amount of programs aimed to support the underrepresented populations on college campuses, first generation college students have grown to be a target population of particular interest. This study examined the relationships between first generation college seniors and applications to graduate or professional programs. The goal of this study was to determine if first generation students are pursuing advanced degrees at lower rates than non-first generation students and if so, attempt to uncover factors contributing to that evidence. Data were gathered from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman data set, and variables were analyzed using a binary logistic regression. The results of the study indicate that first generation students are significantly less likely to pursue an advanced degree, even when controlling for race, gender, family income, and cumulative grade point average, suggesting a distinctive impact of first generation status on post-undergraduate aspirations. However, after controlling for the impact of self-reported undergraduate loans, the effect of first generation status was no longer significant. The findings in this study provide an important new perspective in the field of sociology.

  18. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of…

  19. Parent-Student Communication about College and Freshman Grades in First-Generation and Non-First-Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palbusa, Julienne A.; Gauvain, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has found that students whose parents attended college begin college with more understanding of higher education than do first-generation students (Engle, 2007). Parents pass on knowledge along with advice and emotional support that help their children when they encounter new challenges, such as the transition to college. This study…

  20. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student

  1. A Mixed Methods Study on Developing Low-Income Kindergarten Students' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kara J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine how the effects of kindergarten teachers' evidence-based literacy instructional practices impact the development of low-income kindergarten students' intrinsic reading motivation. The research questions are: (a) What are kindergarten teachers' perceptions of students' intrinsic reading…

  2. Educator Perceptions of Low-Income Elementary Students and Their Effects on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…

  3. Influence of a Supervised Mentoring Program on the Achievement of Low-Income South Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sumi; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supervised mentoring program designed to improve the academic achievement of 834 low-income elementary and secondary school students in Seoul, South Korea. When compared to the control group, both elementary and middle school students exposed to the mentoring program improved in mathematic and reading…

  4. ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRESSMAN, HARVEY

    A PROPOSAL FOR AN ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN CERTAIN AREAS OF BOSTON IS PRESENTED. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THERE IS AND OBVIOUS AND PRESSING NEED TO GIVE EXTRA HELP TO THE ABLE STUDENT FROM A DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUND, AND THAT A RELATIVELY BRIEF ENRICHMENT EXPERIENCE FOR…

  5. Parental Mathematics Homework Involvement of Low-Income Families with Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Robyn Hackford; Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between methods of parental assistance (i.e., provision of structure, direct assistance, and autonomy support) with mathematics homework for high-achieving and low-achieving students and children's achievement in mathematics in low-income families and examines the impact of parental efficacy on these…

  6. The Impact of GEAR UP on College Readiness for Students in Low Income Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; France, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) on college readiness outcomes using a quasi-experimental design. GEAR UP is designed to increase the number of low-income students who are prepared to enter and succeed in postsecondary education by providing 6-year…

  7. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  8. Millennial Learners and Net-Savvy Teens? Examining Internet Use among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Kim, Seongdok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses access and use of information and communication technologies among urban high school students from low-income families, a topic of great interest to teacher educators, educational policymakers, and others concerned with digital literacy instruction. Recent reports from national digital learning initiatives have portrayed…

  9. First Generation College Students in STEM: Counter Stories of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Carol D.

    First-generation community college Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students have unique challenges in transferring to a four-year college. This is especially true for Latin and African American students who may experience multiple challenges, including discrimination, immigration issues and language issues, and sometimes poor academic preparation in their K-12 education. This project used a grounded theory approach to explore through an equity lens the educational journey of seven Los Medanos College students who have successfully transferred to a four-year institution were interviewed. All of these students that participated in this project were former Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement Program (MESA) students at Los Medanos College. The MESA Program is a learning community that provides academic support for "educationally and economically disadvantaged" students so they can excel in math and science, transfer to four-year institutions as majors in math-based fields, and graduate with baccalaureate degrees in STEM majors. Several intervention strategies are embedded into the program, including: counseling, mentors, a learning center, tutors, financial aid and transfer workshops, and internship and scholarship opportunities. The students were interviewed and asked several questions regarding their high school life, MESA, and community college and transfer experiences. The main theoretical framework utilized to analyze the interviews was Border Lands theory because these students created a safe space that allowed them to straddle their life at home and their life at school. Interviews with these students reveal seven successful, happy, and engaged students. Several themes emerged with respect to the importance of students' finding a major that they love, finding community, and the importance of teachers, family, and engagement in their success. The results of this project also emphasize the importance of hiring passionate teachers

  10. Does high-stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Hong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether high-stakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several studies indicate that these policies seemed to have had deleterious effects on curriculum, instruction, the percentage of students excluded from the tests, and student dropout rates. As a result, the policies seemed to have had mixed effects on students' opportunities to acquire embodied and institutionalized cultural capital. These findings are consistent with the work of Shepard (2000, Darling-Hammond (2004a, and others who have written of the likely negative repercussions of high-stakes testing and accountability policies.

  11. Construction of Meaning of the Undergraduate Course in Business Administration by High and Low Income Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical study undertaken with a sample of 368 undergraduate business administration students from five private universities in a large Brazilian city. The objective was to analyze the differences in perceptions of the course by students from high and low income backgrounds regarding the following issues: the cultural and symbolic elements involving higher education; the relevance of higher education in consumer priorities and the influence on consumption behavior of students; the appropriateness of the course to their reality; and the expected benefits of obtaining a degree. The data were analyzed using the Grade of Membership (GoM and t-test statistical techniques. The results, which were compared with the theoretical framework on consumption in a cultural and symbolic perspective, signaled there is a difference in meaning between the two groups of students.

  12. Evaluation of a School-Based Sex Education Program for Low Income Male High School Students in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…

  13. First-Generation Undergraduate Students' Social Support, Depression, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Belanger, Aimee; Connally, Melissa Londono; Boals, Adriel; Duron, Kelly M.

    2013-01-01

    First-generation undergraduate students face challenging cross-socioeconomic cultural transitions into college life. The authors compared first- and non-first-generation undergraduate students' social support, posttraumatic stress, depression symptoms, and life satisfaction. First-generation participants reported less social support from family…

  14. First-Generation College Student Dissertation Abstracts: Research Strategies, Topical Analysis, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, James H.

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college students are students whose parents or guardians did not obtain a four year college degree (Davis, 2012). As a group these students make up a large part of the college student population and are often reported to encounter difficulties in their campus experience. While the topic of first-generation student has received…

  15. Benefits Access for College Completion: Lessons Learned from a Community College Initiative to Help Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke-Benfield, Amy Ellen; Saunders, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This report analyzes how students were served by Benefits Access for College Completion (BACC), a 2.5-year initiative designed to increase access to public benefits (such as SNAP or Medicaid) for eligible low-income students. These crucial supports reduce students' unmet financial needs and help them finish school. Launched in 2011, BACC funded…

  16. An Investigation of the Perceptions of Low-Income Students of Color Concerning College Costs and Financial Aid Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    As college enrollments continue to increase, the disparity between middle-income white students and low-income students of color enrolling in private higher educational institutions continues to widen. Previous research has identified barriers such as access and equity in education, the high cost of education, and limited knowledge regarding…

  17. Career Aspirations and the First Generation Student: Unraveling the Layers with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students who are the first in their immediate family to go to college represent a unique population on campus deserving special attention to their educational and career development needs. We explored career development characteristics of first-generation college students and compared them to those who are not first-generation, using…

  18. Benefits Access for College Completion: Innovative Approaches to Meet the Financial Needs of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Benefits Access for College Completion (BACC) was designed to help colleges develop new policies that increase low-income students' access to public benefits, easing their financial burden to allow them to finish school and earn postsecondary credentials. Colleges participating in BACC have developed and institutionalized scalable, sustainable…

  19. Do Single-Sex Schools Improve the Education of Low-Income and Minority Students? An Investigation of California's Public Single-Gender Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Single-sex public schools are seen as a vehicle for improving the educational experiences of low-income and minority students. Our two-year ethnographic study of low-income and minority students who attended experimental single-sex academies in California indicates that improving achievement involves more than separating students by gender. Using…

  20. Affirming independence: Exploring mechanisms underlying a values affirmation intervention for first-generation students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Canning, Elizabeth A; Boston, Jilana S; Priniski, Stacy J; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-05-01

    First-generation college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year college degree) earn lower grades and worry more about whether they belong in college, compared with continuing-generation students (who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year college degree). We conducted a longitudinal follow-up of participants from a study in which a values-affirmation intervention improved performance in a biology course for first-generation college students, and found that the treatment effect on grades persisted 3 years later. First-generation students in the treatment condition obtained a GPA that was, on average, .18 points higher than first-generation students in the control condition, 3 years after values affirmation was implemented (Study 1A). We explored mechanisms by testing whether the values-affirmation effects were predicated on first-generation students reflecting on interdependent values (thus affirming their values that are consistent with working-class culture) or independent values (thus affirming their values that are consistent with the culture of higher education). We found that when first-generation students wrote about their independence, they obtained higher grades (both in the semester in which values affirmation was implemented and in subsequent semesters) and felt less concerned about their background. In a separate laboratory experiment (Study 2) we manipulated the extent to which participants wrote about independence and found that encouraging first-generation students to write more about their independence improved their performance on a math test. These studies highlight the potential of having FG students focus on their own independence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Parental Involvement in Middle School Predicting College Attendance for First-Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Khanh; Rush, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this report examined the relationship between parental involvement in eighth grade and college attendance by eight years after high school for students whose parents have no college education (i.e., first-generation students; n = 1,358) in comparison to students whose parents have some…

  2. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…

  3. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  4. Success of First-Generation College Students in a Selective Doctor of Optometry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Sharon T.

    2017-01-01

    What happens when former first-generation college (FGC) students successfully graduate from college and then aim for post-undergraduate education? The purpose of this dissertation is to compare differences between FGC students and non-FGC admissions profiles regarding end-of-first-year performance at UC Berkeley's School of Optometry. The aims of…

  5. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Lived Experiences of Successful First Generation Hispanic College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Christina C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study investigated the lived experiences of five successful first generation Hispanic college students. Participants' interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2007) six steps for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study affirm the factors for student success in college regarding…

  6. First-Generation College Students and Their Pursuit of the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks-Santilli, Linda

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college students, students whose parents have not earned a four-year degree, are not new to higher education, but their increasing presence at private, four-year institutions requires careful attention from administration and faculty. The rising costs of higher education combined with the nation's recent economic decline have made…

  7. First-Generation Undergraduate Students and the Impacts of the First Year of College: Additional Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Johnson, Megan P.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, our findings suggest that first-generation students are at a significant disadvantage across cognitive and psychosocial outcomes compared to students whose parents have at least some postsecondary education. Furthermore, we tested for the conditional effects of good…

  8. First-Generation Female College Students' Financial Literacy: Real and Perceived Barriers to Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…

  9. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  10. Upwardly Mobile: Attitudes toward the Class Transition among First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    First-generation, working-class college students are on the path to upward mobility and may have social and psychological problems related to cultural differences between the working class and the middle class. In her study, Hurst (2007, 2010) reports that students of working-class origin often choose loyalty to one class. However, I revise…

  11. How Am I Going to Pay for That?!: First-Generation University Students and Their Financial Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Judith J. Andrews

    2013-01-01

    This study examines first-generation research-university students in relation to their financial considerations. It is driven by the question, What is the relationship between first-generation college-student status and financial considerations among research-university students? It explores the impact of such variables as first-generation student…

  12. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-06-03

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action.

  13. Vectors of Identity Development during the First Year: Black First-Generation Students' Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversage, Lindi; Naudé, Luzelle; Botha, Anja

    2018-01-01

    In this study, black South African first-generation students' experiences related to identity development during their first year at a higher education institution were explored. Chickering and Reisser's [1993. "Education and Identity." 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass] seven-vector identity development theory served as overarching…

  14. First-Generation College Students: Personal Best Leadership Experiences and Intramural Sports Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of interest in this exploratory case study was the self-reported leadership skills of first-generation college students who were actively participating in intramural sports. Specifically, the purpose was to describe participants' reports of engaging in behaviors or actions, during intramural sports, that are aligned with the…

  15. How First-Generation Students Learn to Navigate Education Systems: A Case Study of First Graduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben; Saldivar, Manuel Gerardo; Tracy, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Students from underrepresented groups who seek to become the first in their family to attend college confront economically and racially stratified education systems. This article reports findings from an evaluation of First Graduate, an organization that offers college advising, mentoring, tutoring, and case management to first-generation students…

  16. The Activities, Roles, and Relationships of Successful First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Cynthia; Meece, Judith; Eaker-Rich, Deborah; Powell, Candice

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experiences of 16 successful first-generation college students (FGCS) utilizing a theoretical lens, informed significantly by bioecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), which guided our qualitative analyses of interview transcripts to examine the activities, roles, and relationships of these students…

  17. The concept of 'first-generation student' in the literature: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the United States first-generation students (FGSs), those who are the first in their families to attend university, are recognised as disadvantaged and receive government support. Amidst affirmative action debates in higher education in South Africa, an increased awareness has emerged about challenges that FGSs in this ...

  18. Who Gets the Job? First-Generation College Students' Perceptions of Employer Screening Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks-Yancy, Rochelle; Cooley, Delonia

    2018-01-01

    What are first-generation college students' (FGCS) perspectives of employment screening methods? The authors investigate which methods FGCS believe are likely to cause an employer to extend a job offer and which methods yield the best pool of job applicants. Survey data were collected from undergraduate business majors. They were analyzed using…

  19. First-Generation College Students' Guilt and Its Influences on Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Osorio, Osmara

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative dissertation looks at how first-generation college students (FGCS) experience the emotion of guilt as it relates to social capital within higher education. This study included 21 FGCS enrolled at two community colleges in Los Angeles County, California. The study found that guilt, along with other variables influence…

  20. The Perspectives of Two First-Generation College Students Pursuing Doctoral Degrees in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil, Martina; McCall, Joyce M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this autoethnographic multiple case study was to compare experiences of two first-generation college students pursuing doctoral degrees in music education. Motivations for pursuing an advanced degree were to enact change in the field of music education and fulfill personal ambitions. Participants encountered two challenges,…

  1. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  2. Social cognitive predictors of first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriott, Patton O; Hudyma, Aaron; Keene, Chesleigh; Santiago, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The present study tested Lent's (2004) social-cognitive model of normative well-being in a sample (N = 414) of first- and non-first-generation college students. A model depicting relationships between: positive affect, environmental supports, college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, academic progress, academic satisfaction, and life satisfaction was examined using structural equation modeling. The moderating roles of perceived importance of attending college and intrinsic goal motivation were also explored. Results suggested the hypothesized model provided an adequate fit to the data while hypothesized relationships in the model were partially supported. Environmental supports predicted college self-efficacy, college outcome expectations, and academic satisfaction. Furthermore, college self-efficacy predicted academic progress while college outcome expectations predicted academic satisfaction. Academic satisfaction, but not academic progress predicted life satisfaction. The structural model explained 44% of the variance in academic progress, 56% of the variance in academic satisfaction, and 28% of the variance in life satisfaction. Mediation analyses indicated several significant indirect effects between variables in the model while moderation analyses revealed a 3-way interaction between academic satisfaction, intrinsic motivation for attending college, and first-generation college student status on life satisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of applying the normative model of well-being to promote first- and non-first-generation college students' academic and life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Examining the Relations between Subjective Social Class, Academics, and Well-Being in First-Generation College Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbow, Alexander James

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…

  4. At a Glance: Forty Schools That Serve Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent School, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a list of low and no tuition independent schools. Profile information is accurate as of May 2016. Profiles contain student body information, how the school works, the school mission, and contact information. [Online Feature

  5. Intensive College Counseling and the Enrollment and Persistence of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Benjamin; Goodman, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Though counseling is one commonly pursued intervention to improve college enrollment and completion for disadvantaged students, there is relatively little causal evidence on its efficacy. We use a regression discontinuity design to study the impact of intensive college counseling provided by a Massachusetts program to college-seeking, low-income…

  6. Chain Effects 2015: The Impact of Academy Chains on Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Merryn; Francis, Becky; Kirby, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Academies were started in 2000 to alter the fortunes of failing schools that disproportionately served students from some of the nation's poorest communities. By helping these schools with the support of philanthropic, educational and business partners, the intention was to improve the lives of young people from the least privileged backgrounds by…

  7. The Experiences of Low-Income Latino/a Students in the California Community College System at a Time of Education Budget Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Justin Akers

    2013-01-01

    Budget cuts have reduced courses and student services within California community colleges. This coincides with the growth of low-income Latino male (Latinos) and Latina female (Latinas) student enrollment. Budget cuts have been implemented throughout the system, including in the Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS), which…

  8. The Effect of an Out-of-School Enrichment Program on the Academic Achievement of High-Potential Students from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Jaret; McIntosh, Jason; Gentry, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    High-potential students from low-income families are at an academic disadvantage compared with their more affluent peers. To address this issue, researchers have suggested novel approaches to mitigate gaps in student performance, including out-of-school enrichment programs. Longitudinal mixed effects modeling was used to analyze the growth of…

  9. Is It Really up to Me? Academic and Life Tensions for "Double First-Generation" College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of first-generation college students who were enrolled in online degree programs at a traditional brick-and-mortar university located in the western United States. These students were viewed as "double first-generation" because they were not only the first in their family to pursue a bachelor's degree,…

  10. Finding Purpose in Pain: Using Logotherapy as a Method for Addressing Survivor Guilt in First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Williams, Cyrus, III; Harden, Dia

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college students face a variety of academic and personal challenges, including survivor guilt (Piorkowski, 1983). Survivor guilt for these students involves negative emotions related to leaving family and friends "behind" in difficult contexts and lived experiences. This article provides (a) an overview of first-generation college…

  11. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, E Benjamín; Arósquipa, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income). These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  12. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benjamín Puertas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. METHODS: An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income. These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. RESULTS: A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  13. Diabetes Awareness of Low-Income Middle School Students Participating in the Help a Friend, Help Yourself Youth Diabetes Awareness Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroten, Kathryn; Reames, Elizabeth S.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the effectiveness of the LSU AgCenter Help a Friend, Help Yourself youth diabetes education curriculum to increase knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its symptoms in low-income middle school students participating in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program. The curriculum includes four lessons with…

  14. A Comparison of Perceptions of Barriers to Academic Success among High-Ability Students from High- and Low-Income Groups: Exposing Poverty of a Different Kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Frazier, Andrea Dawn; Kim, Mihyeon; Cross, Tracy L.

    2018-01-01

    In 14 focus group interviews, sixth- to eighth-grade high-ability students from high- (n = 36) and low-income (n = 45) families were asked to describe the barriers they perceived to their academic success. Three themes were identified through the qualitative analysis: "Constraining Environments, Integration versus Isolation," and…

  15. Project Promise: A Long-Term Follow-Up of Low-Income Gifted Students Who Participated in a Summer Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Corina R.; Johnsen, Susan K.; Saxon, Terrill F.; Witte, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    "Overlooked gems" is the term used in gifted education to describe high-potential, low-income students who are unable to excel because of significant barriers in their homes, environments, and educational systems. To address these barriers, educators have offered enrichment and other types of talent development programs to this at-risk…

  16. Faculty as Institutional Agents for Low-Income Latino Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Fields at a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the exponential growth of Latinos during the past decade and an increase in higher education participation, there continues to be a gap in degree attainment compared to other ethnic and racial groups in this country. This gap is even greater for low-income Latino students seeking a degree in STEM fields. A proposed solution for this gap…

  17. Surprising Ripple Effects: How Changing the SAT Score-Sending Policy for Low-Income Students Impacts College Access and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Michael; Mbekeani, Preeya P.; Nipson, Margaret M.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2017-01-01

    Subtle policy adjustments can induce relatively large "ripple effects." We evaluate a College Board initiative that increased the number of free SAT score reports available to low-income students and changed the time horizon for using these score reports. Using a difference-in-differences analytic strategy, we estimate that targeted…

  18. Role of Family, Culture, and Peers in the Success of First-Generation Cambodian American College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jennifer; Kim, Simon; Haviland, Don

    2015-01-01

    Cambodian American college students are often overlooked in academe because of the model minority myth. The stereotype overshadows the challenges and heterogeneity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander population. This exploratory study examined the experiences of 13 first-generation Cambodian American college students at a large, public institution in California. Findings revealed that, despite obstacles of being first-generation with limited cultural capital, students were transformed ...

  19. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoi Tibbetts

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available First-generation (FG college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011 and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001 while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or “fitting in” concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a. Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could

  20. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J; Hecht, Cameron A; Borman, Geoffrey D; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2018-01-01

    First-generation (FG) college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree) face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011) and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001) while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or "fitting in" concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a). Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory) in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns) can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched) with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could result in fewer

  1. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J.; Hecht, Cameron A.; Borman, Geoffrey D.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2018-01-01

    First-generation (FG) college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree) face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011) and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001) while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or “fitting in” concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a). Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory) in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns) can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched) with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could result in

  2. Social Capital and Academic Motivation among First-Generation Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Roxanne Venus; Hudley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Social capital, the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation (Stanton-Salazar, 2001), is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of low-income adolescents who are the first in their families to attend college. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can help students…

  3. Socialization and Information Horizons: Source Use Behavior of First-Generation and Continuing-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tien-I

    2013-01-01

    First-generation college (FGC) students have been described as an underrepresented group in comparison to their continuing-generation counterparts (non-FGC students). Studying college students' socialization experiences and their use of academic resources can help us understand how to facilitate their academic success. Incorporating…

  4. Role of Family, Culture, and Peers in the Success of First-Generation Cambodian American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cambodian American college students are often overlooked in academe because of the model minority myth. The stereotype overshadows the challenges and heterogeneity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander population. This exploratory study examined the experiences of 13 first-generation Cambodian American college students at a large, public institution in California. Findings revealed that, despite obstacles of being first-generation with limited cultural capital, students were transformed into successful leaners when they received validation from their parents and peers and felt a sense of belonging to the college community through their involvement in an ethnic-based student organization.

  5. Characteristics Associated with Persistence and Retention among First-Generation College Students Majoring in Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Lorie Lasseter

    Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive

  6. A Phenomenological Study of How High School Advanced Placement Classes Prepared First-Generation College Students for Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-generation college students and the perceived influence of taking high school Advanced Placement (AP) courses on their college education. The following research questions were addressed: (a) what motivated students to consider going to college, (b) what was their experience in taking AP…

  7. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  8. Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Fryberg, Stephanie A; Markus, Hazel Rose; Johnson, Camille S; Covarrubias, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    American universities increasingly admit first-generation college students whose parents do not have 4-year degrees. Once admitted, these students tend to struggle academically, compared with continuing-generation students--students who have at least 1 parent with a 4-year degree. We propose a cultural mismatch theory that identifies 1 important source of this social class achievement gap. Four studies test the hypothesis that first-generation students underperform because interdependent norms from their mostly working-class backgrounds constitute a mismatch with middle-class independent norms prevalent in universities. First, assessing university cultural norms, surveys of university administrators revealed that American universities focus primarily on norms of independence. Second, identifying the hypothesized cultural mismatch, a longitudinal survey revealed that universities' focus on independence does not match first-generation students' relatively interdependent motives for attending college and that this cultural mismatch is associated with lower grades. Finally, 2 experiments at both private and public universities created a match or mismatch for first-generation students and examined the performance consequences. Together these studies revealed that representing the university culture in terms of independence (i.e., paving one's own paths) rendered academic tasks difficult and, thereby, undermined first-generation students' performance. Conversely, representing the university culture in terms of interdependence (i.e., being part of a community) reduced this sense of difficulty and eliminated the performance gap without adverse consequences for continuing-generation students. These studies address the urgent need to recognize cultural obstacles that contribute to the social class achievement gap and to develop interventions to address them. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Achievement for Low-Income Students and Students of Color. Shattering Expectations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Marni; Theokas, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Typically, achievement gaps between groups of students are measured as either differences in average scores or differences in proficiency rates. But, practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have long recognized that these approaches don't tell the whole story. Average scores, for example, are good at summarizing trends but can mask real…

  10. A Qualitative Exploration of First Generation College Students and the Use of Facebook in the College Choice Selection Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Cindy E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory phenomenological narrative qualitative study was to investigate the influence of Facebook on first-generation college students' selection of a college framed within Hossler and Gallagher's (1987) college process model. The three questions which guided this research explored the influence of the social media website…

  11. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  12. Examining Conceptual and Operational Definitions of "First-Generation College Student" in Research on Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Karie Jo; Klonowski, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This research brief reports that students who have parents with little to no postsecondary education have an increasing presence in colleges and universities. Researchers recognize that these individuals face unique barriers in higher education programs that affect their ability to graduate. Given the wide concern about student retention,…

  13. Does PLUS Push? A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between PLUS Loans and Persistence for Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tracae M.

    2017-01-01

    Given the growth of the PLUS loan program and its increasing importance in facilitating college access for many students, makes it critical to better understand the relationship between this form of federal financial aid and student outcomes. Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS: 12), conducted by the U.S. Department…

  14. "Mi'ja, You Should Be a Writer": Latino Parental Support of Their First-Generation Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jessica Singer

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective interview study investigated the role of parental support in the writing growth of eight first-generation Latino college students in the years prior to admission to a 4-year university. All of the students came from low-income households in urban settings and spoke zero English at the time they entered kindergarten. Participants…

  15. First-Generation College Students and Undergraduate Research: Narrative Inquiry into the University of Arizona's Ronald E. McNair Achievement Program and the Phenomenon of Student Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing numbers of first-generation college students enrolling in colleges and universities across the US, so too is the need to begin preparing such underrepresented students for graduate school and a career in academia. As a phenomenological case study of student transformation, this dissertation examines the experience of nine…

  16. Recruiting first generation college students into the Geosciences: Alaska's EDGE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A.; Connor, C.

    2008-12-01

    Funded in 2005-2008, by the National Science Foundation's Geoscience Education Division, the Experiential Discoveries in Geoscience Education (EDGE) project was designed to use glacier and watershed field experiences as venues for geospatial data collected by Alaska's grade 6-12 middle and high school teachers and their students. EDGE participants were trained in GIS and learned to analyze geospatial data to answer questions about the warming Alaska environment and to determine rates of ongoing glacier recession. Important emphasis of the program was the recruitment of Alaska Native students of Inupiat, Yup'ik, Athabascan, and Tlingit populations, living in both rural and urban areas around the state. Twelve of Alaska's 55 school districts have participated in the EDGE program. To engage EDGE students in the practice of scientific inquiry, each was required to carry out a semester scale research project using georeferenced data, guided by their EDGE teacher and mentor. Across Alaska students investigated several Earth systems processes including freezing conditions of lake ice; the changes in water quality in storm drains after rainfall events; movements of moose, bears, and bison across Alaskan landscapes; changes in permafrost depth in western Alaska; and the response of migrating waterfowl to these permafrost changes. Students correlated the substrate beneath their schools with known earthquake intensities; measured cutbank and coastal erosion on northern rivers and southeastern shorelines; tracked salmon infiltration of flooded logging roads; noted the changing behavior of eagles during late winter salmon runs; located good areas for the use of tidal power for energy production; tracked the extent and range of invasive plant species with warming; and the change of forests following deglaciation. Each cohort of EDGE students and teachers finished the program by attended a 3-day EDGE symposium at which students presented their research projects first in a

  17. Low-Income Hispanic and Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Parent and Peer Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Lizbeth; Machida, Sandra K.; Kline, Linda; Huang, Leesa

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and parental support play important roles in determining academic achievement and have been positively correlated with academic success. It is important to determine if students from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) families perceive less parent support than students from middle-SES families. The participants (n?=?54) were high…

  18. Understanding Loan Use and Debt Burden among Low-Income and Minority Students at a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Torres, Maria; McKinney, Lyle; Horn, Catherine; Jones, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a sample of community college students from a diverse, large urban community college system in Texas. To gain a deeper understanding about the effects of background characteristics on student borrowing behaviors and enrollment outcomes, the study employed descriptive statistics and regression techniques to examine two separate…

  19. The Relationship between Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement for First Generation Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…

  20. The Cultural and Educational Transitioning of First Generation Immigrant Undergraduate Students in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore, Ada L.; Lerner, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Canadian society and the significance of education for occupational mobility have prompted investigations into immigrant's educational attainment, yet little research examines immigrant post-secondary students. This phenomenological study illuminates the institutional, societal, educational, and psychosocial barriers facing…

  1. The Future Is Now: First-Generation Students, Community Engagement and Innovative Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Leigh; Lloyd, Meggan; Prida, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The College of St. Joseph is a small, Catholic liberal arts college in central Vermont. Traditionally serving white Vermont students with minimal minority representation from other parts of New England, retention rates have in recent years fluctuated between 39% and 75%, in comparison with the 70% national retention rate. In the past four years,…

  2. Supporting First-Generation College Students through Classroom-Based Practices. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report, which was commissioned as part of the Institute for Higher Education Policy's Walmart Minority Student Success Initiative, seeks to highlight how specific institutional policies and faculty-driven, classroom-based practices at Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) can change in an effort to better support the academic and social…

  3. The Developing Purposes of Low-Income College Students in China's Elite Universities: A Longitudinal Case Study of How Socioeconomic Background and University Culture Interact to Influence the Development and Realization of Low Income College Students' Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanxia

    2014-01-01

    In the process of China's transformation from a socialist to a post-socialist society, China's entire system of education has experienced breathtaking expansion and reform. In this context, first-tier universities increasingly accept students from more financially well off backgrounds. While second-tier universities are inclined to accept more…

  4. The impact of a museum travelling exhibition on middle school teachers and students from rural, low-income homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.

  5. Will the Pell Grant Have the Ability To Provide Access and Choice to Low-Income Students in the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Vicente M.

    This paper provides a basic understanding of the Pell Grant program and summarizes the evidence regarding its effectiveness. The Basic Educational Opportunities Program, known as the Pell Grant program, began in 1973 as a means of providing disadvantaged students access to a postsecondary education. The Pell Grant program has tried to keep up with…

  6. An Investigation of Participation in Weekly Music Workshops and Its Relationship to Academic Self-Concept and Self-Esteem of Middle School Students in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jihae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how I Am A Dreamer Musician Program (IDMP) affected academic self-concept and self-esteem of middle school students in low-income communities. During the seven weeks of the weekly music workshops, students participated in different musical activities including playing percussion instruments, singing,…

  7. Impact of Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists in Educating and Screening Low-Income Women for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro, PharmD, MPH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD and to increase awareness of risk factors among female patients of a community health center with an on-site 340B pharmacy.Methods: The program consisted of a 10-minute educational intervention and brief pre-test, post-test, and participant satisfaction survey. Adult female patients at the clinic for any provider visit or prescription fill were eligible to participate. Participants met individually with a student pharmacist or faculty member and verbally completed the pre-test. The participant received education regarding CVD, risk factors, and symptoms of myocardial infarction and were screened for hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. The post-test was then verbally administered. Participants answered the satisfaction survey privately. Based on individual needs, educational materials and information on available pharmacy clinical services were provided. The university IRB deemed the study exempt. Results: Eighty-four individuals received educational materials and/or a screening test. Of those, 30 women (mean age 46.9 years completed the educational intervention. Thirteen (43% reported smoking; 22 (73% identified themselves as overweight. Fourteen (47% indicated a preexisting diagnosis of hypertension. Correct responses for 6 of 8 knowledge-based questions were statistically significantly improved from pre-test to post-test (p<0.05. Twenty-nine patients (97% rated the program as “useful” or “very useful”. Conclusion: CVD is the leading cause of death in U.S. women. Data from this program indicate that through screening and education, pharmacists and student pharmacists can impact female patients’ knowledge of CVD risk factors. Continued efforts in this area may help to reduce the public health burden of CVD.

  8. Formational Turning Points in the Transition to College: Understanding How Communication Events Shape First-Generation Students' Pedagogical and Interpersonal Relationships with Their College Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiffany R.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, I explored student-teacher interaction, student-teacher relationship formation and development, and the ways in which student-teacher interaction and relationships facilitated support and persistence for first-generation (FG) students during the transition to college. Using transition theory as a sensitizing framework, I took…

  9. What Are the Motivational Factors of First-Generation Minority College Students Who Overcome Their Family Histories to Pursue Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Edith; Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2014-01-01

    The pathway to college is not equal for all students. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and minorities often face difficult challenges in trying to obtain a college education. Thus, this study utilized a qualitative grounded theory approach to explore and to understand how first-generation minority college students are motivated to…

  10. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  11. Analyzing Student Aid Packaging To Improve Low-Income and Minority Student Access, Retention and Degree Completion. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Porter, John D.; DuBrock, Caryl P.

    This study examined the persistence of and financial aid to needy students, underrepresented minority students, and women students, especially those majoring in science, engineering, and mathematics at a large public research university. An institutional student tracking and student financial aid database was used to follow four freshmen cohorts…

  12. Is the "First-Generation Student" Term Useful for Understanding Inequality? the Role of Intersectionality in Illuminating the Implications of an Accepted--Yet Unchallenged--Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly

    2018-01-01

    First-generation students (FGSs) have received a great deal of attention in education research, practice, and policy. The difficulty of understanding and subsequently addressing the various and persistent configurations of inequality associated with FGSs lies with the complicated yet obscure state of the FGS term itself. Leaving the term…

  13. Navigating New Worlds: A Real-Time Look at How Successful and Non-Successful First-Generation College Students Negotiate Their First Semesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Erik E.

    2012-01-01

    This study of fifteen first generation American college freshmen documents their initial semester with a focus on factors and dispositions contributing to eventual success or failure. Students were identified prior to campus arrival, allowing for immediate and real-time data collection as they were experiencing the beginning of their college…

  14. “Life is a struggle and we have to keep on fighting”: first generation students in Portugal in the age of economic crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical account of the impact of the economic crisis on the public higher education sector in Portugal by analyzing the biographical case of one particular first generation student, whose narrative mirrors the precarious and unstable condition of Portuguese students. It argues that the current state redistribution policies are based on a negative recognition of those in need, and that over emphasizing the cost-sharing role of families in the support of first gene...

  15. Deepening Understanding of Prior Knowledge: What Diverse First-Generation College Students in the U.S. Can Teach Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    Educational research indicates that teachers revealing and utilizing students' prior knowledge supports students' academic learning. Yet, the variation in students' prior knowledge is not fully known. To better understand students' prior knowledge, I drew on sociocultural learning theories to examine racially and ethnically diverse college…

  16. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  17. GeoX: A New Pre-college Program to Attract Underrepresented Minorities and First Generation Students to the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. C.; Garcia, S. J.; Houser, C.; GeoX Team

    2011-12-01

    An emerging challenge in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education is the recruitment of underrepresented groups in those areas of the workforce. This paper describes the structure and first-year results of the Geosciences Exploration Summer Program (GeoX) at Texas A&M University. Recent evidence suggest that pipeline programs should target junior and senior high school students who are beginning to seriously consider future career choices and appropriate college programs. GeoX is an overnight program that takes place during the summer at Texas A&M University. Over the course of a week, GeoX participants interact with faculty from the College of Geosciences, administrators, current students, and community leaders through participation in inquiry-based learning activities, field trips, and evening social events. The aim of this project is to foster a further interest in pursuing geosciences as an undergraduate major in college and thereby increase participation in the geosciences by underrepresented ethnic minority students. With funding from industry and private donors, high achieving rising junior and rising senior students, with strong interest in science and math, were invited to participate in the program. Students and their parents were interviewed before and after the program to determine if it was successful in introducing and enhancing awareness of the: 1) various sub-disciplines in the geosciences, 2) benefits of academia and research, 3) career opportunities in each of those fields and 4) college admission process including financial aid and scholarship opportunities. Results of the survey suggest that the students had a very narrow and stereotypical view of the geosciences that was almost identical to the views of their parents. Following the program, the students had a more expanded and positive view of the geosciences compared to the pre-program survey and compared to their parents. While it remains to be seen how many of those

  18. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  19. Improving College-Going Trends for First Generation Latino Students: The Importance of Habitus, School Culture and Culturally Responsive Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout history, the United States has symbolized a place of opportunity, viewed as a place where achieving a better life is possible. This viewpoint still holds true for Latino immigrants, who currently account for more than half of the country's population growth since 2000. Latino families and students specifically see higher education as a…

  20. The Relation of Fear of Failure, Procrastination and Self-Efficacy to Academic Success in College for First and Non First-Generation Students in a Private Non-Selective Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth Moores

    2013-01-01

    First-generation students enroll in college expecting to be the first in their families to obtain a bachelor's degree, yet historically; the number of these students who graduate with four-year degrees is much lower than their non first-generation peers (Nunez & Cuccara-Alamin; Choy, 2001; Glenn, 2008). Limited research exists on the…

  1. Conceptions of a Good College Student, Parent-Student Communication About College, First-Year Grades, and College Retention Among First- and Non-First-Generation College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Palbusa, Julienne Marie Alipio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined conceptions of a good college student, parent-student communication about college, academic achievement, college student retention, and college generation status among first-year college students. 344 undergraduates described the characteristics and skills of a good college student. In addition, they reported the frequency, perceived helpfulness, and quality (instrumental and emotional support) of parent-student communication about college. Student GPA and second year rete...

  2. "Low Income Doesn't Mean Stupid and Destined for Failure": Challenging the Deficit Discourse around Students from Low SES Backgrounds in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jade; Devlin, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The discourse around students from low socio-economic backgrounds often adopts a deficit conception in which these students are seen as a "problem" in higher education. In light of recent figures pointing to an increase in the number and proportion of these students participating in higher education [Pitman, T. 2014. "More Students…

  3. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  4. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel featured…

  5. The impact of home-school cultural value conflicts and President Trump on Latina/o first-generation college students' attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda; Ramirez, Gerardo; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2018-06-21

    Around the world, people migrate from poorer countries with less educational opportunity to richer ones with greater educational opportunity. In this journey, they bring their family obligation values into societies that value individual achievement. This process can create home-school cultural value conflict-conflict between family and academic obligations-for the children of Latina/o immigrants who attend universities in the United States. We hypothesised that this conflict causes cognitive disruption. One-hundred sixty-one Latina/o first-generation university students (called college students in the United States) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental prompts; thereafter, the students engaged in an attentional control task (i.e., the Stroop test). For Latina/o students living close to home, prompting a home-school cultural value conflict was more deleterious to attentional control than the other conditions. In addition, across all Latina/o students, a comparison of performance before and after President Trump's election and inauguration showed that prompting family obligation (without mention of conflict) led to a significantly greater loss of attentional control after Trump was elected and inaugurated, compared with before Trump. We hypothesise that this effect resulted from Trump's threats and actions to deport undocumented Latina/o immigrants, thus making fear about the fate of family members more salient and cognitively disruptive. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Providing Comprehensive Educational Opportunity to Low Income Students. Part 5: A Proposal for Essential Standards and Resources. A Report of the Task Force on Comprehensive Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    This fifth in a five part series, states that, if comprehensive educational opportunity is conceived as a right, then the state must commit to providing it and must develop a policy infrastructure to assure broad access, uniform quality, regularized funding, and firm accountability strictures to ensure all students a meaningful opportunity to…

  8. Health Advocacy Project: Evaluating the Benefits of Service Learning to Nursing Students and Low Income Individuals Involved in a Community-Based Mental Health Promotion Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels-Dennis, Joan; Xia, Liudi; Secord, Sandra; Raiger, Amelia

    2016-10-08

    Poverty, along with other factors such as unemployment, work and life stressors, interpersonal violence, and lack of access to high quality health and/or social services all play a role in determining who develops a mental illness and for whom those symptoms persist or worsen. Senior nursing student preparing to enter the field and working in a service learning capacity may be able to influence early recovery and symptom abatement among those most vulnerable to mental illness. A consortium of community stakeholders and researchers collaboratively designed a 10-week mental health promotion project called the Health Advocacy Project (HAP). The project combines case management and system navigation support delivered by trained and highly supervised nursing students to individuals experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, we present the findings of a qualitative fidelity evaluation that examines the effectiveness of nursing students in delivering the health advocacy intervention at the level and with the intensity originally intended. The findings demonstrate how the services of senior nursing students may be optimized to benefit our healthcare system and populations most at risk for developing MDD and PTSD.

  9. Successful schools and risky behaviors among low-income adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mitchell D; Coller, Karen M; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Kennedy, David P; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Brown, Arleen F; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders, Is There An Advantage to Being on Medicaid Because of reduced financial barriers, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment of...

  11. School-based intervention to improve the mental health of low-income, secondary school students in Santiago, Chile (YPSA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cova Felix

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common and can have devastating effects on the life of adolescents. Psychological interventions are the first-line for treating or preventing depression among adolescents. This proposal aims to evaluate a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among student's aged 13-14 attending municipal state secondary schools in Santiago, Chile. Study design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the main clusters. We compared this intervention with a control group in a study involving 22 schools, 66 classes and approximately 2,600 students. Students in the active schools attended 11 weekly and 3 booster sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioural models. The control schools received their usual but enhanced counselling sessions currently included in their curriculum. Mean depression scores and indicators of levels of functioning were assessed at 3 and 12 months after the completion of the intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Direct and indirect costs were measured in both groups to assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Discussion As far as we are aware this is the first cluster randomised controlled trial of a school intervention for depression among adolescents outside the Western world. Trial Registration ISRCTN19466209

  12. College Match Advising for the Moderate- and High-Achieving Student: Promoting Knowledge, Sharing Advice, and Giving Support. College Match Issue Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus that our nation must increase the number of low-income and first-generation students who enroll in and complete college, yet many academically capable low-income students enroll in nonselective four-year and two-year colleges where graduation rates are low and where they are less likely to succeed; others fail to enroll at…

  13. To Grab and To Hold: Cultivating communal goals to overcome cultural and structural barriers in first generation college students' science interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jill M; Muragishi, Gregg A; Smith, Jessi L; Thoman, Dustin B; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2015-12-01

    Homogeneity within science limits creativity and discovery, and can feed into a perpetuating cycle of underrepresentation. From enhancing social justice to alleviating health and economic disadvantages, broadening participation in science is imperative. We focus here on first-generation students (FGS) and identify factors which grab and hold science interest among this underrepresented group. Might the culture and norms within science unintentionally limit FGS' participation? We argue that two distinct aspects of communal goals contribute to FGS' underrepresentation at different stages of the STEM pipeline: cultural perceptions of science as uncommunal (little emphasis on prosocial behavior and collaboration) and the uncommunal structure of STEM graduate education and training. Across 2 studies we investigated factors that catch (Study 1) and hold (Study 2) FGS' science interest. In Study 1, we find only when FGS believe that working in science will allow them to fulfill prosocial communal purpose goals are they more intrinsically interested in science. Yet, later in the pipeline science education devalues prosocial communal goals creating a structural mobility barrier among FGS. Study 2 found that FGS generally want to stay close to home instead of relocating to pursue a graduate education. For FGS (versus continuing-generation students), higher prosocial communal goal orientation significantly predicted lower residential mobility. We discuss implications for interventions to counteract the uncommunal science education and training culture to help improve access to FGS and other similarly situated underrepresented populations.

  14. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  15. Deweyan Democratic Learning Communities and Student Marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Ebie, Gwyn

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges have long been recognized as enrolling a disproportionate share of first-generation college students, low-income students, women, and students of color. Additionally, community colleges have significant enrollments of students who identify as immigrants; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT); and disabled. Many of these…

  16. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  17. Coping with low incomes and cold homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Will; White, Vicki; Finney, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of low-income households in Great Britain which explored households’ strategies for coping both with limited financial resources in the winter months, when demand for domestic energy increases, and, in some cases, with cold homes. The study combined a national survey of 699 households with an income below 60 per cent of national median income with in-depth interviews with a subsample of 50 households. The primary strategy adopted by low-income households to cope with financial constraint was to reduce spending, including spending on essentials such as food and fuel, and thereby keep up with core financial commitments. While spending on food was usually reduced by cutting the range and quality of food purchased, spending on energy was usually reduced by cutting consumption. Sixty-three per cent of low-income households had cut their energy consumption in the previous winter and 47 per cent had experienced cold homes. Improvements to the thermal performance of homes reduced but did not eliminate the risk of going cold as any heating cost could be a burden to households on the lowest incomes. Householders’ attitudes were central to their coping strategies, with most expressing a determination to ‘get by’ come what may.

  18. Fewer Resources, More Debt: Loan Debt Burdens Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine M.; Williams, Krystal L.; Smith, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Student loans have become an increasingly important way for students and their families to pay for college, but for students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), student loan debt is a substantial burden. Students who attend these institutions--many of whom are low-income and first-generation--must borrow at higher rates and,…

  19. Tailoring science education graduate programs to the needs of science educators in low-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; van den Berg, Euwe

    Science education graduate programs in high-income countries frequently enroll students from low-income countries. Upon admission these students have profiles of knowledge, skills, and experiences which can be quite different from those of students from the host high-income countries. Upon graduation, they will normally return to work in education systems with conditions which differ greatly from those in high-income countries. This article attempts to clarify some of the differences and similarities between such students. It offers suggestions for making graduate programs more responsive to the special needs of students from low-income countries and to the opportunities they offer for enhancing cross-cultural sensitivity. Many of the suggestions can be incorporated within existing programs through choices of elective courses and topics for papers, projects, and research. Many references are provided to relevant literature on cultural issues and on science education in low-income countries.

  20. Effects of low income on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2003-06-10

    Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not

  1. Navigating the transition to college: First-generation undergraduates negotiate identities and search for success in STEM and non-STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Season Shelly

    2009-12-01

    Historically, racial and ethnic minority students from low income backgrounds have faced unequal access to colleges and universities. Recently, both K-12 and higher education institutions, specifically the University of California, in response to Proposition 209, have made efforts to increase access and opportunities for all students. Similarly, female minority students are underrepresented in selected science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) majors and careers. Using a qualitative research design, this study investigates how first generation, low income, underrepresented minority students who graduated from an innovative college preparatory high school enact coping strategies that they were explicitly taught to achieve success within the context of university science and math courses. The presence of a unique, college-prep high school on the campus of UC San Diego, which accepts exclusively low-income students through a randomized lottery system, creates an unusual opportunity to study the transition from high school to college for this population, a cohort of underrepresented students who were taught similar academic coping strategies for success in college. This study aims to understand how students develop their college-going, academic identities within the context of their colleges and universities. Furthermore, this study intends to understand the phenomenon of "transition to college" as a lived experience of first-generation, low income, minority students, who all share a similar college preparatory, high school background. The main research questions are: (1) How do underrepresented students experience the transition from a college preparatory high school to college? (2) How are students developing their college-going, academic identities in the context of their educational institutions? and (3) What factors support or constrain student participation and success in college science courses? Twenty-eight students participated in this study. Based on

  2. 77 FR 65139 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY... amend its low-income credit unions regulation by extending the time credit unions have to accept a low- income designation. Under the current rule, an FCU that has received notification from NCUA that it...

  3. 78 FR 4030 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY... amending its low-income credit unions regulation by extending the time period in which a federal credit union (FCU) may accept a low-income designation. Under the current rule, an FCU that receives notice...

  4. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  5. Occupational and Educational Goals of Low Income Children in Kentucky, 1969 and 1975. RS-49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee

    Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…

  6. Cracking the Student Aid Code: Parent and Student Perspectives on Paying for College

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Board Advocacy & Policy Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Paying for college is a challenge for many Americans and navigating the financial aid process can be very difficult, especially for low-income and first-generation college students. The College Board commissioned research to learn more about students' and parents' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about the importance of a college education and how…

  7. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  8. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  9. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  10. 75 FR 8392 - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-11] Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Lists the Following Information Title Of Proposal: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb...

  11. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  12. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... family income at or below 200 percent of the Federal poverty line for a family of the size involved; (ii... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child. (a...

  13. Poject Managment Approach to Public Low Income Housing. | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research assesses the impacts of project management (PM) variables on the socio-economic formation of public low-income housing (LIH) users in Abia and ... socio-economic impact of public low income housing (LIH) and the PM variables: project scope control (PS), project planning (PPC), project cost control (PC), ...

  14. Is the Feeling Mutual? Examining Parent-Teacher Relationships in Low-Income, Predominantly Latino Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah; Robinson, Michelle; Valentine, Jessa Lewis; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Strong parent-teacher relationships are critical to students' academic success. Mismatches in parents' and teachers' perceptions of each other may negatively affect children's outcomes. Using survey data collected from parents and teachers in 52 low-income, predominantly Latino schools, we explore subgroup variation in parents' and teachers'…

  15. Fostering Community and Civic Engagement in Low-Income Multicultural Schools through Transformative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Barbara; Horman, Judith; Lapointe, Claire

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine how transformative leadership enables students from a low-income and multicultural neighbourhood to learn about democracy, responsible citizenship, and community engagement at school. As part of a graduate seminar on critical pedagogy and cultural studies in education, in-depth group interviews were conducted with…

  16. A Talent for Tinkering: Developing Talents in Children from Low-Income Households through Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ann; Adelson, Jill L.; Kidd, Kristy A.; Cunningham, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Guided by the theoretical framework of curriculum as a platform for talent development, this quasi-experimental field study investigated an intervention focused on engineering curriculum and curriculum based on a biography of a scientist through a comparative design implemented in low-income schools. Student outcome measures included science…

  17. Designing Low-Income Housing Using Local Architectural Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumansyahjaya, K.; Tatura, L. S.

    2018-02-01

    The provision of houses for low-income people who do not have a home worthy of being one of the major problems in the city of Gorontalo, because the community in establishing the house only pay attention to their wants and needs in creating a healthy environment, the beauty of the city and the planning of the home environment in accordance with the culture of the people of Gorontalo. In relation to the condition, the focus of this research is the design of housing based on local architecture as residential house so that it can be reached by a group of low income people with house and environment form determined based on family development, social and economic development of society and environment which take into account the local culture. Stages of this research includes five (5) stages, including the identification phase characteristics Gorontalo people of low income, the characteristics of the identification phase house inhabited by low-income people, the stage of identification preference low-income households, the phase formation house prototype and the environment, as well as the stage of formation model home for low-income people. Analysis of the model homes for low-income people using descriptive analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, and discrimination analysis to produce a prototype of the house and its surroundings. The prototype is then reanalyzed to obtain the model home for low-income people in the city of Gorontalo. The shape of a model home can be used as a reference for developers of housing intended for low-income people so that housing is provided to achieve the goals and the desired target group.

  18. Wanted: Low-Income High Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with issues of community-college transfers of students from Alamance Community College to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. This article discusses the involvement of the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation in the issue of community-college transfer. The Jack Kent Cooke Foundation, based in Lansdowne, Va., near Washington,…

  19. Patient safety in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ‘first do no harm’ is taught to every medical and nursing student. This phrase means that, as professionals, our first duty is to make sure that patients are not harmed as a result of their care.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments can provide benefits to low-income communities by investing in energy efficiency. Use the Program Finder table to identify those programs that reach the sectors and audiences of interest in your organization.

  1. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  2. achieving improved financing for low-income producers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Approaches, Improved Access, Finance, Low-income, Producers. INTRODUCTION .... either by setting up a dual-purpose financial institution, or by making ..... management information systems (Braverman and. Huppi, 1991).

  3. A Portrait of Low-Income Migrants in Contemporary Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    GARDNER, ANDREW; GARDNER, ANDREW; PESSOA, SILVIA; DIOP, ABDOULAYE; AL-GHANIM, KALTHAM; LE TRUNG, KIEN; HARKNESS, LAURA

    2013-01-01

    Though transnational labor migration in the Gulf States has increasingly been of scholarly interest, that scholarship has to date relied largely on qualitative ethnographic methodologies or small non-representative sampling strategies. This paper presents the findings of a large representative sample of low-income migrant laborers in Qatar. The data describe the basic characteristics of the low-income migrant population in Qatar, the process by which migrants obtain employment, the frequency ...

  4. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  5. The moderating role of brands for low income luxury consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Santino Bizarrias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The value of luxury is a multidimensional construct that assesses how consumers consider the various dimensions of luxury in their consumption relations. The consumption of luxury is not a trivial activity for most people, but brings a certain fascination and is part of the imaginary of the lower classes in emerging markets. The social identity of these consumers is changing because they aspire a new social position. But luxury consumption hurts the standards of this consumer profile. At the same time the self esteem is observed as an important element of people self-confirmation. For consumers, specifically, self-esteem is an important antecedent of consumption decisions. A sample of low income students was analyzed in this study to describe their relationship with luxury, and its influence on self-esteem when moderated by brand expressiveness. Through structural equation modeling this study found that the expression of the brand moderates the relationship of the value of luxury with self-esteem, allowing consumers of lower classes to observe a significant role of luxury in their lives.

  6. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  7. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  8. Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Evans

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. Methods The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1 Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH only (Comparison, (2 CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG], (3 CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT], and (4 CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined. The outcome variables include student’s weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Results Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369 and parents (n = 1206 at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and

  9. Measuring Social Capital among First-Generation and Non-First-Generation, Working-Class, White Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Roxanne; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of working class, first-generation college students. Social capital is the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can aid students in managing an otherwise unfamiliar…

  10. CROWDING AND SHOPPING VALUE IN LOW-INCOME RETAIL CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Quezado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the great potential of low-income consumption, this research is based on the scales developed by Babin, Darden and Griffin (1994 and by Machleit, Kellaris and Eroglu (1994, aiming to investigate hedonic and utilitarian consumer behavior and its relation with low-income perception of crowding. A research was performed with 404 consumers in real store environment and the results showed that consumers revealed being prone to utilitarian behavior in both centers. About crowding phenomenon, the consumers felt more uncomfortable by crowding at the commercial center with less infrastructure. There were indices that this discomfort was less intense in hedonic consumers.

  11. Concept of innovation in low-income market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Koki da Costa Nogami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Investigate the concept and the adoption of innovation in the low-income market. Design/methodology/approach – Four different studies were conducted. First, a Delphi study with 126 Marketing and Innovation professors from graduate programs. Second, interviews with 13 professionals, technical assistance professionals and retail managers. Third, two focus groups with low-income consumers. Fourth, survey with 390 respondents. Findings – The results indicate that innovations in the low-income markets are mainly characterized by adaptations and adjustments in products, with emphasis on incremental innovations, not radical. In addition, the adoption of innovation in this context is characterized as late, not initial. Originality/value – In terms of theoretical contributions, the present study reveals how the concept of innovation is built in the low-income market. From a perspective collectively constructed with information from different market agents (industry, retail and consumers, research findings become robust to understanding a phenomenon. Moreover, in addition to different market agents, different methods of data collection and analysis were also used, further enriching the results. This collective contribution, based theoretically on a literature of social construction, interviewing different market agents and using different methodological approaches, synergistically potentiated the development of this paper

  12. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  13. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.

  14. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  15. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  16. Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social Entrepreneurship in India. A social enterprise is one that uses innovation, finance and business acumen in a business setting to produce social outcomes such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. Social enterprises generate products and ...

  17. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  18. Alienation: A Concept for Understanding Low-Income, Urban Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the concept of alienation and how it can be used to understand low-income, urban clients. A description is presented of 4 dimensions of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, and social isolation. Case illustrations are provided, and recommendations are made for counseling alienated clients. This article…

  19. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a survey of assistance programs that public utility commissions have approved in most states to assist the low-income customers of utilities within their states. Surveys find that there is no single model of low-income assistance; rather, each state has adopted a program that meets its particular circumstances. However, while the details of programs vary considerably, they all fall within four broad categories: (1) Affordability programs, which provide direct assistance in paying energy bills; (2) Consumer protections, such as collection practices and installment billing requirements, which make it easier to pay energy bills on time; (3) Education programs, which teach consumers about prudent energy use and counsel them about budgeting; and (4) Efficiency and weatherization programs, which make investments to help consumers control their energy bills by reducing their need for energy. Programs usually include more than one of these components. All programs also include outreach and evaluation components. This report describes these options, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the economic and other benefits of utility assistance programs for low-income customers. Low-income programs help participants by lowering the fraction of their incomes devoted to energy bills (the energy burden) from a very high level. In the United States, the median household devotes only 3.8 percent of its income to electricity while a family depending on a minimum-wage earner must devote 12.1 percent to energy while facing housing cost increases all over the nation. Low-income families unable to keep up with these pressures find themselves forced to go without power at times, to move, or to forgo other necessities such as food or medicine in order to pay their electricity bills

  20. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers'…

  1. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  2. Obesity Risk in Children: The Role of Acculturation in the Feeding Practices and Styles of Low-Income Hispanic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-12-01

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hispanic mothers of preschoolers were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study examining child eating behaviors. At baseline, mothers completed questionnaires on feeding styles, feeding practices, and acculturation. Regression analyses compared feeding styles and food parenting practices of first-generation, immigrant mothers born outside the United States (n = 138) and mothers born in the United States (n = 31). The correlates of acculturation with these same constructs were also examined. Immigrant mothers reported using highly directive food parenting practices more often than mothers born in the United States, including pressuring their child to consume more food, using food as a reward, and controlling child food intake by limiting less-healthy foods. First-generation mothers were more likely to show authoritarian, and less likely to show indulgent, feeding styles. Greater maternal acculturation was associated with less restriction of food for weight reasons. Although first-generation, immigrant mothers reported using highly controlling food parenting practices with their children, those born in the United States were more indulgent with their children in the feeding context. Mechanisms that promote greater indulgence in more-acculturated mothers need to be identified.

  3. Occupational Engagement in Low-Income Latina Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Alix G

    This qualitative study examined the experience of occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors and suggests the potential for occupational therapy practitioners to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable and underserved population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 participants. Inductive analysis was used to code for themes and patterns related to occupational engagement and quality of life (QOL). Lack of occupational engagement negatively affected QOL, but participation in occupations such as religious activity and caregiving promoted well-being. Financial concerns and communication barriers decreased QOL. Breast cancer can have a negative impact on occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors; however, some occupations may increase QOL. Socioeconomic status and cultural values influence occupational engagement and QOL. Occupational therapy practitioners can improve health outcomes in this population through awareness of relevant sociocultural factors and attention to appropriate patient communication. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  5. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  6. Estimating the Impact of Low-Income Universal Service Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Ackerberg; David R. DeRemer; Michael H. Riordan; Gregory L. Rosston; Bradley S. Wimmer

    2013-01-01

    This policy study uses U.S. Census microdata to evaluate how subsidies for universal telephone service vary in their impact across low-income racial groups, gender, age, and home ownership. Our demand specification includes both the subsidized monthly price (Lifeline program) and the subsidized initial connection price (Linkup program) for local telephone service. Our quasi-maximum likelihood estimation controls for location differences and instruments for price endogeneity. The microdata all...

  7. Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pehrsson, Erica C.; Tsukayama, Pablo; Patel, Sanket; Mej?a-Bautista, Melissa; Sosa-Soto, Giordano; Navarrete, Karla M.; Calderon, Maritza; Cabrera, Lilia; Hoyos-Arango, William; Bertoli, M. Teresita; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antibiotic-resistant infections annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. This problem is exacerbated by resistance gene exchange between pathogens and benign microbes from diverse habitats. Mapping resistance gene dissemination between humans and their environment is a public health priority. We characterized the bacterial community structure and resistance exchange networks of hundreds of interconnected human fecal and environmental samples from two low-income Latin A...

  8. Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Øderud

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore life expectancy (life expectancy is the average remaining years of life of an individual and the situation of persons living with SCI in low income settings. Method: Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals. Results: There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges. Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

  9. Empowering low-income black families of handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S

    1991-10-01

    A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.

  10. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  11. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  12. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Shea, Judy A; Rubin, David; Wood, Joanne

    2014-07-01

    Current assessments of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may not adequately encompass the breadth of adversity to which low-income urban children are exposed. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the range of adverse childhood experiences faced by young adults who grew up in a low-income urban area. Focus groups were conducted with young adults who grew up in low-income Philadelphia neighborhoods. Using the nominal group technique, participants generated a list of adverse childhood experiences and then identified the 5 most stressful experiences on the group list. The most stressful experiences identified by participants were grouped into a ranked list of domains and subdomains. Participants identified a range of experiences, grouped into 10 domains: family relationships, community stressors, personal victimization, economic hardship, peer relationships, discrimination, school, health, child welfare/juvenile justice, and media/technology. Included in these domains were many but not all of the experiences from the initial ACEs studies; parental divorce/separation and mental illness were absent. Additional experiences not included in the initial ACEs but endorsed by our participants included single-parent homes; exposure to violence, adult themes, and criminal behavior; personal victimization; bullying; economic hardship; and discrimination. Gathering youth perspectives on childhood adversity broadens our understanding of the experience of stress and trauma in childhood. Future work is needed to determine the significance of this broader set of adverse experiences in predisposing children to poor health outcomes as adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Playing Fair: The Contribution of High-Functioning Recess to Overall School Climate in Low-Income Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…

  14. First-Generation Transgenic Plants and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan-Peter; Keizer, Paul; Jansen, Ritsert

    1993-01-01

    The statistical analyses of populations of first-generation transgenic plants are commonly based on mean and variance and generally require a test of normality. Since in many cases the assumptions of normality are not met, analyses can result in erroneous conclusions. Transformation of data to

  15. Financial management of low-income urban families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnittgrund, K.P. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Baker, G.

    1983-09-01

    The major focus of this research was the difference in financial-management practices used by low-income urban white, black, and Mexican-American families. A random sample of 199 interviews was completed during the spring of 1980 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. The sample consisted of 69 white, 70 black, and 60 Mexican-American families. Differences in financial behavior did occur for each race. In addition, they were optimistic regarding their own ability to handle money and resolve financial problems but generally negative toward the ability of other families to manage money, use credit, and plan purchases. 20 references, 3 tables.

  16. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  17. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  18. Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Low-Income Latino Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Hilda; Caughy, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children and examine differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences by immigrant generational status. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of parents/caregivers of a nationally representative sample of US children. The study sample was limited to Latino children in households with an annual income ≤200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) whose parents responded to a 9-item inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Descriptive statistics estimated the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and examined differences in prevalence by immigrant generational status. Of 22 297 children, 29% (n = 6483) were Latino (9% first generation, 57% second generation, 30% third or higher generation); 25% (n = 1692) of all Latino children were exposed to 2 or more adverse childhood experiences. Latino immigrant children had a lower prevalence (13%; n = 801) compared with nonimmigrant Latino children (40%; n = 772). The most common adverse childhood experiences were financial hardship and parent divorce/separation. The total number and mean number of adverse childhood experiences differed by child generational status, and the differences persisted after stratification by age and FPL. The prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences was highest among third- or higher-generation nonimmigrant children and lowest among second-generation immigrant children. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children is similar to the prevalence for all US children; however, the prevalence is significantly higher in nonimmigrant children. Targeted screening to address adverse childhood experiences, policy changes, and guidance regarding care practices to address adverse childhood experiences in Latino children are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Preconception Health Behaviors of Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Adejoke B; Sneller, Krista; Ebeye, Tega D; Dykstra, Megan Jongekrijg; Ellens, Victoria L; Lee, HaEun Grace; Zandee, Gail L

    2016-01-01

    Preconception behaviors have a significant impact on birth outcomes, particularly among low-income minority groups, and women with unplanned pregnancies. This study examined women's perceived health status and behaviors such as drinking, smoking, exercise, and use of multivitamins and folic acid. This was a descriptive study based on a convenience sample of women living in urban underserved neighborhoods. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using STATA 13. The sample consisted of 123 women ages 18 to 51 years (mean = 30.57); 51.22% were Hispanic, 36.59% African American, and 12.2% Caucasian. Over 70% had a household income of less than $20,000, 57.72% had no health insurance in the last year, and 58.54% were not married. These women were below the Healthy People 2020 goals for drinking, smoking, and multivitamin use, especially those who were planning to get pregnant in the next 6 months or not sure of their pregnancy planning status. There were no significant differences on any of the preconception health behavior variables based on pregnancy intention. Nurses and healthcare providers should emphasize importance of practicing healthy behaviors during the preconception period among low-income ethnic minority women specifically those living in urban medically underserved areas who are unsure of their pregnancy planning status or are at risk of unintended pregnancy.

  20. Nation's Capital to cover low-income women's abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-15

    Sharon Pratt Kelly, the mayor of the District of Columbia, has announced that, effective May 1, 1994, the city will use its Medical Charities Fund to pay for "medically appropriate" abortions for women with annual incomes of US$13,200 who do not have health insurance that covers abortions. This income level represents 185% of the federal poverty level for single women. The determination as to whether an abortion is "appropriate" will be made by the woman's physician. From 1989-93, there was a ban on the use of District of Columbia tax monies to cover abortions for local women. In 1988, however, approximately 4000 District women received funding for their abortions. The US$1 million Medical Charities Fund was originally set up to cover emergency room bills for low-income District residents who did not qualify for Medicaid. $650,000 is expected to be added to the fund; in addition, the District's 1995 budget will allocate funding earmarked for abortion coverage for low-income women.

  1. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  2. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898, we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers. Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  3. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  4. Social marketing nutrition education for low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel; Stotz, Sarah; Childers, Austin; Phua, Joe; Hibbs, Judy; Murray, Deborah; Lee, Jung Sun

    2018-01-01

    As access to healthy food (or lack thereof) could be considered a social justice issue, social workers should be concerned about this issue and willing to collaborate with colleagues of various disciplines to address it. This study was a formative evaluation conducted to understand best practices, recommendations, and feasibility of a social-marketing-based nutrition education program tailored to the needs of adults with limited income. The authors report findings from focus groups conducted with Cooperative Extension Agents (CEAs) and region coordinators (n = 45) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) (n = 69) eligible participants to inform the development of a social marketing nutrition intervention for SNAP-Ed in Georgia. Barriers to healthy eating included cultural preferences, costs of healthy food, lack of time, and lack of availability. Social marketing has a potential to deliver effective and efficient SNAP-Ed targeted to large, limited-resource Georgians. Segmenting the low-income population based on geographical location as well as best methods for outreach can allow tailored messages to meet identified needs, lifestyles, and other variables that make these individuals most likely to respond to the program. Food security and nutrition education are topics of concern for all health care professionals interested in addressing complex health issues of many low-income adults.

  5. Outpatient case management in low-income epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Al-Saadi, Sam; Orth, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Case management (CM) has been shown to improve the medical care of patients in several paradigms of general medicine. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of CM on low-income patients with epilepsy. From 2002 to 2003, 737 epilepsy patients had CM provided by a non-profit, state-supported, epilepsy service subserving a four county region in southeastern Florida. Standardized survey forms distributed by the Florida Department of Health were completed by 159 consecutive patients at program admission. Follow-up information regarding seizure frequency, antiepileptic drugs, and quality of life self-rating was performed after 1 year of CM. The patients evaluated were composed of 58.5% men, with a mean age of 41.0 years. After CM, an increase in self-reported seizure control was seen in 40.2% of patients (preduction of ED visits per patient from 1.83 per patient per year before CM to 0.14 per patient per year after CM (p<0.0001, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Following CM, fewer patients reported difficulty with friends, employers, problems socializing, and feelings of anger (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). CM of low-income patients with epilepsy resulted in self-reported improvement in seizure control, QoL, and significantly reduced ED visitation. CM in epilepsy is feasible and represents a cost-effective improvement in outpatient epilepsy management.

  6. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in...

  7. 77 FR 25787 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2013 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS, or inform individuals for...

  8. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  9. The support gap: New teachers' early experiences in high-income and low-income schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Moore Johnson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors consider three sources of support for new teachers—hiring practices, relationships with colleagues, and curriculum—all found in earlier research to influence new teachers’ satisfaction with their work, their sense of success with students, and their eventual retention in their job. They find that a "support gap" exists: new teachers in low-income schools are less likely than their counterparts in high-income schools to experience timely and information-rich hiring, to benefit from mentoring and support by experienced colleagues, and to have a curriculum that is complete and aligned with state standards, yet flexible for use in the classroom. Such patterns of difference between high-income and lowincome schools warrant careful consideration because they reveal broad patterns of inequity, which can have severe consequences for low-income students. Survey data for this study were collected from random samples of teachers in five states. One survey, focusing on hiring practices and teachers’ relationships with colleagues, was administered to 374 first-year and secondyear teachers in Florida, Massachusetts, and Michigan. A second survey, focusing on curriculum, was administered to 295 second-year elementary school teachers in Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Washington. The inequitable patterns of support for teachers reported here have important implications for the work of state policymakers, school district administrators, and principals. The authors describe these and offer recommendations for policy and practice in the conclusion.

  10. Sustainable performance of microinsurance in low-income markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Mazambani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable performance in microinsurance offering in low-income markets is important to ensure that the service simultaneously achieves corporate profitability and poverty alleviation. Sustainable performance requires a balanced integration of supply and demand factors in the offering of the service. Microinsurance is still supply driven thereby creating a lopsided mismatch between demand and supply that leads to oversupply and low uptake. On the basis of extant literature, the paper aims to propose and discuss factors critical to demand and supply of microinsurance. A conceptual framework for sustainable microinsurance is presented with individual metrics that can be addressed as managerial tools for driving and controlling sustained superior performance. While this is a theoretical paper, microinsurance practitioners may benefit from the application of the presented theory

  11. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D

    1992-06-01

    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  12. How motivation influences breastfeeding duration among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin D; Strobino, Donna; Carpenter, Laura M; Milligan, Renee; Pugh, Linda C

    2009-05-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 low-income breastfeeding women to explore the incentives and disincentives to breastfeeding experienced within 6 months postpartum. Using an individual net benefit maximization (INBM) framework based on economic theory, we assessed women's motivations, incentives, and disincentives for breastfeeding. Based on the framework and their experience breastfeeding, women fell into 3 groups: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and successfully experienced with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Successfully experienced women were most likely to breastfeed to 6 months. Intrinsically motivated women valued breastfeeding but often required information and instruction to reach breastfeeding goals. Extrinsically motivated women were least likely to continue breastfeeding even with support and instruction. Providers can screen women to determine their experience and motivation then tailor interventions accordingly. Intrinsically motivated women may need support and instruction, extrinsically motivated women may benefit from motivational interviewing, and successfully experienced women may need only minimal breastfeeding counseling.

  13. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A

    1996-10-01

    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  14. "First generation" automated DNA sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatko, Barton E; Kieleczawa, Jan; Ju, Jingyue; Gardner, Andrew F; Hendrickson, Cynthia L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Beginning in the 1980s, automation of DNA sequencing has greatly increased throughput, reduced costs, and enabled large projects to be completed more easily. The development of automation technology paralleled the development of other aspects of DNA sequencing: better enzymes and chemistry, separation and imaging technology, sequencing protocols, robotics, and computational advancements (including base-calling algorithms with quality scores, database developments, and sequence analysis programs). Despite the emergence of high-throughput sequencing platforms, automated Sanger sequencing technology remains useful for many applications. This unit provides background and a description of the "First-Generation" automated DNA sequencing technology. It also includes protocols for using the current Applied Biosystems (ABI) automated DNA sequencing machines. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. "Why Wait Years to Become Something?" Low-Income African American Youth and the Costly Career Search in For-Profit Trade Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Megan M.; DeLuca, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of low-income and minority youth are now pursuing shorter-duration sub-baccalaureate credentials at for-profit trade and technical schools. However, many students drop out of these schools, leaving with large debts and few job prospects. Despite these dismal outcomes, we know very little about students' experiences in for-profit…

  16. The Economic Payoff for Closing College-Readiness and Completion Gaps: Why States Should Invest in Accelerating Low-Income Youth to and through Postsecondary Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The low rates at which U.S. college students complete a degree and the amount time they spend in remedial coursework are national problems. The situation is particularly acute for low-income and other underserved youth, including populations such as Hispanic students that are growing the fastest in the country and that have some of the lowest…

  17. CFD Simulations to Improve Ventilation in Low-Income Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rosemond; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Quality of housing plays an important role in public health. In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the leading causes of death include tuberculosis, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, so improving home ventilation could potentially mitigate these negative health effects. The goal of this project is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the relative effectiveness of different ventilation strategies for Dhaka homes. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD model of a standard Dhaka home with apertures of different sizes and locations was developed to predict air exchange rates. Our initial focus is on simulating ventilation driven by buoyancy-alone conditions, which is often considered the limiting case in natural ventilation design. We explore the relationship between ventilation rate and aperture area to determine the most promising configurations for optimal ventilation solutions. Future research will include the modeling of wind-driven conditions, and extensive uncertainty quantification studies to investigate the effect of variability in the layout of homes and neighborhoods, and in local wind and temperature conditions. The ultimate objective is to formulate robust design recommendations that can reduce risks of respiratory illness in low-income housing.

  18. Xerostomia Among Older Adults With Low Income: Nuisance or Warning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Moreno, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of xerostomia and related factors among low-income older adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Using data from the Home Healthcare Service Project, a population-based interview survey with home healthcare service, a total of 9,840 adults 65 years of age and older were assessed for the presence of xerostomia in association with aspects of health lifestyles, chronic disease, oral conditions, and oral function. Overall, 40% of participants reported experiencing xerostomia. Multivariate regression analysis indicated xerostomia was more likely to be reported by women having symptoms of gingival bleeding/pain, having difficulty swallowing liquid or chewing solid food, and having multiple chronic diseases. Interestingly, older adults who live alone and drink alcohol (two or more times per week) reported fewer problems with xerostomia. Increased focus on the detrimental health consequences of xerostomia would make treatment a higher priority. Improved assessment of at-risk populations, particularly among the elderly, could lead to earlier preventative interventions, lessening the negative impact on quality of life. Health professionals along with the general public need increased knowledge about the detrimental effects of xerostomia on overall health. There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N=289) of children (mean age 70.8months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding scheme was reliably applied. Maternal feeding practices were measured by questionnaire and videotaped eating interactions. Logistic regressions were used to test the associations of participant characteristics with the presence of each theme, and bivariate analyses were used to test the associations of the presence of each theme with feeding practices. Three themes were identified: 1) mothers worry that their child does overeat, 2) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because they manage their child's eating behavior, and 3) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because of characteristics inherent to the child. Child obesity predicted the themes; mothers of obese and overweight children are more likely to be concerned about overeating. Themes were associated with lower levels of observed pressure to eat. Only Theme 2 was associated with greater restrictive feeding practices. Interventions that provide parents' practical, healthy ways to prevent child overeating may be helpful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  1. Should low-income countries invest in breast cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Shimokata, Tomoya; Honda, Kazunori; Tsukuura, Hiroaki; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    With the increase in incidence and mortality of breast cancer in low-income countries (LICs), the question of whether LICs should promote breast cancer screening for early detection has gained tremendous importance. Because LICs have limited financial resources, the value of screening must be carefully considered before integrating screening programs into national healthcare system. Mammography-the most commonly used screening tool in developed countries-reduces breast cancer-specific mortality among women of age group 50-69, but the evidence is not so clear for younger women. Further, it does not reduce the overall mortality. Because the women in LICs tend to get breast cancer at younger age and are faced with various competing causes of mortality, LICs need to seriously evaluate whether mammographic screening presents a good value for the investment. Instead, we suggest a special module of clinical breast examination that could provide similar benefits at a very low cost. Nevertheless, we believe that LICs would obtain a much greater value for their investment if they promote primary prevention by tobacco cessation, healthier food and healthier lifestyle campaigns instead.

  2. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  3. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  4. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Ward; Fiona Verity; Patricia Carter; George Tsourtos; John Coveney; Kwan Chui Wong

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy ...

  5. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  6. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  7. 24 CFR 1000.142 - What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income homebuyer housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities § 1000.142 What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income... recipient shall describe in its IHP its determination of the useful life of each assisted housing unit in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the âuseful lifeâ during...

  8. Food Choices of Minority and Low-Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Barraclough, Susan J.; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective strategies are needed to address obesity, particularly among minority and low-income individuals. Purpose To test whether a two-phase point-of-purchase intervention improved food choices across racial, socioeconomic (job type) groups. Design A 9-month longitudinal study from 2009 to 2010 assessing person-level changes in purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods following sequentially introduced interventions. Data were analyzed in 2011. Setting/participants Participants were 4642 employees of a large hospital in Boston MA who were regular cafeteria patrons. Interventions The first intervention was a traffic light–style color-coded labeling system encouraging patrons to purchase healthy items (labeled green) and avoid unhealthy items (labeled red). The second intervention manipulated “choice architecture” by physically rearranging certain cafeteria items, making green-labeled items more accessible, red-labeled items less accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of green- (or red-) labeled items purchased by an employee. Subanalyses tracked beverage purchases, including calories and price per beverage. Results Employees self-identified as white (73%), black (10%), Latino (7%), and Asian (10%). Compared to white employees, Latino and black employees purchased a higher proportion of red items at baseline (18%, 28%, and 33%, respectively, p0.05 for interaction between race or job type and intervention). Mean calories per beverage decreased similarly over the study period for all racial groups and job types, with no increase in per-beverage spending. Conclusions Despite baseline differences in healthy food purchases, a simple color-coded labeling and choice architecture intervention improved food and beverage choices among employees from all racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:22898116

  9. Global adjoint tomography: first-generation model

    KAUST Repository

    Bozdağ, Ebru

    2016-09-23

    We present the first-generation global tomographic model constructed based on adjoint tomography, an iterative full-waveform inversion technique. Synthetic seismograms were calculated using GPU-accelerated spectral-element simulations of global seismic wave propagation, accommodating effects due to 3-D anelastic crust & mantle structure, topography & bathymetry, the ocean load, ellipticity, rotation, and self-gravitation. Fréchet derivatives were calculated in 3-D anelastic models based on an adjoint-state method. The simulations were performed on the Cray XK7 named \\'Titan\\', a computer with 18 688 GPU accelerators housed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The transversely isotropic global model is the result of 15 tomographic iterations, which systematically reduced differences between observed and simulated three-component seismograms. Our starting model combined 3-D mantle model S362ANI with 3-D crustal model Crust2.0. We simultaneously inverted for structure in the crust and mantle, thereby eliminating the need for widely used \\'crustal corrections\\'. We used data from 253 earthquakes in the magnitude range 5.8 ≤ M ≤ 7.0. We started inversions by combining ~30 s body-wave data with ~60 s surface-wave data. The shortest period of the surface waves was gradually decreased, and in the last three iterations we combined ~17 s body waves with ~45 s surface waves. We started using 180 min long seismograms after the 12th iteration and assimilated minor- and major-arc body and surface waves. The 15th iteration model features enhancements of well-known slabs, an enhanced image of the Samoa/Tahiti plume, as well as various other plumes and hotspots, such as Caroline, Galapagos, Yellowstone and Erebus. Furthermore, we see clear improvements in slab resolution along the Hellenic and Japan Arcs, as well as subduction along the East of Scotia Plate, which does not exist in the starting model. Point-spread function tests demonstrate that we are approaching the

  10. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  11. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  12. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  13. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  14. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income children...

  15. 76 FR 36976 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... low-income designation using the geo-coding software the agency has developed for that purpose to...

  16. 75 FR 80364 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union... (FCUs) that do not qualify for a low-income designation using the geo-coding software the NCUA has developed for that purpose to submit an analysis of a statistically valid sample of their member income data...

  17. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  18. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the... of your Portfolio Concerns must be Low-Income Enterprises in which you have an Equity Capital... total dollars) in Equity Capital Investments in Low-Income Enterprises. (b) Non-compliance with this...

  19. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  20. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  1. 78 FR 33154 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2014 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax disputes with the IRS, or educate individuals for whom... Grant Application Package and Guidelines, IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2013), can be downloaded from the...

  2. 76 FR 34297 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2012 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (LITC... representation for free or for a nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS..., IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2011), can be downloaded from the IRS Internet site at http://www.irs.gov...

  3. Developmental Trends in Self-Regulation among Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, H. Abigail; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Raikes, Helen H.; Ayoub, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The attainment of self-regulatory skills during the toddler years is an understudied issue, especially among low-income children. The present study used growth modeling to examine the change over time and the final status in children's abilities to self-regulate, in a sample of 2,441 low-income children aged 14 to 36 months. Positive growth in…

  4. Federally Funded Education and Job Training Programs for Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…

  5. Detecting Diabetic Blindness in Low-Income Mexican Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Kenny Mendoza-Herrera, a former graduate student at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico and one of the winners of PCD's 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kenny answers questions about his winning research and what impact his study has on the prevention of diabetic blindness and public health, particularly for Mexican adults.

  6. Electronic Payment Adoption in the Banking Sector of Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome Alemu; Tridib Bandyopadhyay; Solomon Negash

    2015-01-01

    Banks in low-income countries are launching e-banking services such as Internet banking, SMS banking, ATM banking, card banking, point of sales (PoS) and mobile banking. Among these planned services, ATM is the most matured service in many private and state owned banks in Ethiopia. ATM is a recent phenomenon in low-income countries (; ), and is still being introduced in financial sectors in low-income countries (Angeli, 2008; ) making investigation of factors of ICT technology adoption in low...

  7. Using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroever, Stephanie J; Mackert, Michael S; McAlister, Alfred L; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the value of using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents. We evaluated qualitative data obtained through focus groups with low-income, predominantly Hispanic parents. Results were mixed; lack of time and credibility were the primary objections parents cited in using social media to obtain information about their children's health. Social media has value as part of an overall communication strategy, but more work is needed to determine the most effective way to use this channel in low-income populations.

  8. Detecting Diabetic Blindness in Low-Income Mexican Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-09

    This podcast features Kenny Mendoza-Herrera, a former graduate student at the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico and one of the winners of PCD’s 2017 Student Research Paper Contest. Kenny answers questions about his winning research and what impact his study has on the prevention of diabetic blindness and public health, particularly for Mexican adults.  Created: 10/9/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/9/2017.

  9. 26 CFR 1.42-1T - Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... credit agencies for exclusive use in making housing credit allocations to buildings that are part of... housing credit allocations in excess of an agency's aggregate housing credit dollar amount. In the event... not perform an independent investigation of the qualified low-income building in order to certify on...

  10. First-generation Students’ Underperformance at University: The Impact of the Function of Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël eJury

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to recent research, university not only has the role to educate and train students, it also has the role to select the best students. We argue that this function of selection disadvantages first-generation students, in comparison with continuing-generation students. Thus, the mere activation of the function of selection should be sufficient to produce achievement differences between first-generation and continuing-generation students in a novel academic task. Furthermore, we propose that when the function of selection is salient, first-generation students would be more vigilant to a cue that may confirm their inferiority, which should explain their underperformance. In the present experiment, participants were asked to complete an arithmetic modular task under two conditions, which either made the function of selection salient or reduced its importance. Participants’ vigilance to a threatening cue (i.e., their performance relative to others was measured through an eye-tracking technique. The results confirmed that first-generation students performed more poorly compared to continuing-generation students only when the function of selection was salient while no differences appeared in the no-selection condition. Regarding vigilance, the results did not confirm our hypothesis; thus, mediation path could not be tested. However, results indicated that at a high level of initial performance, first-generation students looked more often at the threatening cue. In others words, these students seemed more concerned about whether they were performing more poorly than others compared to their continuing-generation counterparts. Some methodological issues are discussed, notably regarding the measure of vigilance.

  11. "I'm Happy with My Mommy": Low-Income Preschoolers' Causal Attributions for Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined low-income African American and European American preschoolers' socioemotional causal attributions. Results indicate that younger preschoolers, particularly young African Americans, may need help articulating emotions. Adults can support children's emotional reasoning through scaffolding. (Author)

  12. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  13. The conceptual mismatch: transportation stressors and experiences for low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Physical access to jobs has long been identified as a barrier to employment and earnings, with prior : research identifying the spatial mismatch between suburban entry-level jobs and low-income workers. : However, existing transportation resear...

  14. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas.

  15. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tract (QCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — It allows to generate tables for Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tracts (QCT) and for Difficult Development Areas (DDA). LIHTC Qualified...

  16. Low-Income Demand for Local Telephone Service: Effects of Lifeline and Linkup

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ackerberg; Michael Riordan; Gregory Rosston; Bradley Wimmer

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive data set on local telephone service prices is used to evaluate the effect of Lifeline and Linkup programs on the telephone penetration rates of low-income households in the United States. Lifeline and Linkup programs respectively subsidize the monthly subscription and initial installation charges of eligible low-income households. Telephone penetration rates are explained by an estimated nonlinear function of local service characteristics (including subsidized prices) and the ...

  17. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and ...

  18. Legislated changes to federal pension income in Canada will adversely affect low income seniors' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J C Herbert; Fleisch, Valerie C; McIntyre, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    This study uses a population health intervention modeling approach to project the impact of recent legislated increases in age eligibility for Canadian federally-funded pension benefits on low income seniors' health, using food insecurity as a health indicator. Food insecurity prevalence and income source were assessed for unattached low income (seniors aged 65-69 years (population weighted n=151,485) using public use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 4.1 (2007-2008). Seniors' benefits through federal public pension plans constituted the main source of income for the majority (79.4%) of low income seniors aged 65-69 years, in contrast to low income seniors aged 60-64 years who reported their main income from employment, employment insurance, Workers' Compensation, or welfare. The increase in income provided by federal pension benefits for low income Canadians 65 and over coincided with a pronounced (50%) decrease in food insecurity prevalence (11.6% for seniors ≥65 years versus 22.8% for seniors seniors' benefits in Canada from 65 to 67 years will negatively impact low income seniors' health, relegating those who are food insecure to continued hardship. © 2013.

  19. Does a low-income urban population practise healthy dietary habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nurul Ain; Thangiah, Nithiah; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unhealthy dietary habits and practices in a low-income community in an urban area and determine the associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low-income housing area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected using a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews by trained enumerators in order to obtain details on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary practices. Descriptive statistics showed that 86.7% of the respondents in the low-income community consumed fruit and vegetables less than five times per day, 11.7% consumed carbonated and sweetened drinks more than twice per day and about 25% consumed fast food more than four times per month. In total, 65.2% (n=945) did not have healthy dietary practices. Binary logistic regression showed that age, education and ethnicity were significant predictors of unhealthy dietary practices among the low-income community. Those in the 30-59 years age group had higher odds (odds ratio 1.65, p=0.04) of practising an unhealthy diet as compared with those older than 60 years of age. Unhealthy dietary practices were found to be common among the low-income group living in an urban area. Healthy lifestyle intervention should be highlighted so that it can be adopted in the low-income group.

  20. Guided goal setting: effectiveness in a dietary and physical activity intervention with low-income adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    Determining the effectiveness of the guided goal setting strategy on changing adolescents' dietary and physical activity self-efficacy and behaviors. Adolescents were individually assigned to treatment (intervention with guided goal setting) or control conditions (intervention without guided goal setting) with data collected before and after the education intervention. Urban middle school in a low-income community in Central California. Ethnically diverse middle school students (n = 94, 55% male) who were participants of a USDA nutrition education program. Driven by the Social Cognitive Theory, the intervention targeted dietary and physical activity behaviors of adolescents. Dietary self-efficacy and behavior; physical activity self-efficacy and behavior; goal effort and spontaneous goal setting. ANCOVA and path analysis were performed using the full sample and a sub-sample informed by Locke's recommendations (accounting for goal effort and spontaneous goal setting). No significant differences were found between groups using the full sample. Using the sub-sample, greater gains in dietary behavior (p goal effort and spontaneous goal setting, this study provides some evidence that the use of guided goal setting with adolescents may be a viable strategy to promote dietary and physical activity behavior change.

  1. Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-Income, Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has funded fifty-nine state, urban, and rural systemic initiatives. The purpose of the initiatives is to promote achievement in math, science, and technology among all students, and to encourage schools and communities to secure the resources needed to maintain such outcomes. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI is a six-state consortium which focuses these efforts on low-income, rural schools. The primary means of accomplishing ARSI's aims is a one-day-one-school site visit, called a Program Improvement Review, done by an ARSI math or science expert. The centrally important Program Improvement Reviews, however, seem to be premised on unsubstantiated assumptions as to the static, easy-to-understand, easy-to-evaluate nature of educational achievement in rural Appalachian schools. As a result, the Reviews resemble exercises in early-twentieth century scientific management, and are unlikely to enhance achievement in science or math. Consequently, even if there is merit to the commonsense human capital approach to economic growth and development on which systemic initiatives are tacitly premised, this first- person account makes a case that desired payoffs are unlikely to follow from the work of ARSI.

  2. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  3. Effects of simplifying outreach materials for energy conservation programs that target low-income consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Canfield, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Critics have speculated that the limited success of energy conservation programs among low-income consumers may partly be due to recipients having insufficient literacy to understand the outreach materials. Indeed, we found outreach materials for low-income consumers to require relatively high levels of reading comprehension. We therefore improved the Flesch–Kincaid readability statistics for two outreach brochures, by using shorter words and shorter sentences to describe their content. We examined the effect of that simplification on low-income consumers′ responses. Participants from low-income communities in the greater Pittsburgh area, who varied in literacy, were randomly assigned to either original communications about energy conservation programs or our simplified versions. Our findings suggest that lowering readability statistics successfully simplified only the more straightforward brochure in our set of two, likely because its content lent itself better to simplification. Findings for this brochure showed that simplification improved understanding of its content among both low-literacy and high-literacy recipients, without adversely affecting their evaluation of the materials, or their intention to enroll in the advertised programs. We discuss strategies for improving communication materials that aim to reach out to low-income populations. - Highlights: • Brochures about energy programs for low-income consumers can be too hard to read. • We made brochures easier to read by using shorter words and shorter sentences. • Simplifying a straightforward brochure improved the understanding of all recipients. • However, simplifying a complex brochure had no effect on understanding. • We suggest strategies for improving outreach to low-income consumers

  4. Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Merwin, Elizabeth I; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of two neighborhood walkability (the extent to which the built environment is pedestrian friendly) metrics on health outcomes of women living in low-income urban neighborhoods, both before and after accounting for individual and neighborhood factors. A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used. The sample of 1800 low-income women was drawn from Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study (a study of low-income women from three U.S. cities). Using multilevel modeling and geographic information systems, the study sought to determine the effect of distance to public transportation and residential density on health status, mental health symptoms, and health-related limitations. No significant relationship was found between the two walkability metrics and health outcomes. Instead, neighborhood problems that affect crime and safety impacted health status and mental health symptoms. As cities make changes to the built environment with the hope of affecting residents' health outcomes, public health nurses need to be aware that changing walkability characteristics in a neighborhood may not affect the health of residents of high crime, low-income neighborhoods. Without first addressing neighborhood crime, efforts to improve walkability in low-income neighborhoods may fail. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An optimization algorithm for simulation-based planning of low-income housing projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Construction of low-income housing projects is a replicated process and is associated with uncertainties that arise from the unavailability of resources. Government agencies and/or contractors have to select a construction system that meets low-income housing projects constraints including project conditions, technical, financial and time constraints. This research presents a framework, using computer simulation, which aids government authorities and contractors in the planning of low-income housing projects. The proposed framework estimates the time and cost required for the construction of low-income housing using pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls. Five main components constitute the proposed framework: a network builder module, a construction alternative selection module, a simulation module, an optimization module and a reporting module. An optimization module utilizing a genetic algorithm enables the defining of different options and ranges of parameters associated with low-income housing projects that influence the duration and total cost of the pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls method. A computer prototype, named LIHouse_Sim, was developed in MS Visual Basic 6.0 as proof of concept for the proposed framework. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the use of the developed framework and to illustrate its essential features.

  6. How Medicaid Expansion Affected Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.

  7. How children with special health care needs affect the employment decisions of low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Davidoff, Amy

    2004-09-01

    To better understand the impact of having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN), on low-income parents' employment decisions. Using data from the 1999 and 2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we estimate multivariate statistical regressions (logit and tobit models) to estimate the relationship between having a CSHCN and the likelihood of employment and hours of employment for a sample-of low-income single parents. Controlling for differences in demographic and family characteristics, we find no significant association between having a CSHCN and the probability of work or the number of hours worked among low-income single-parent families. Separate analysis of different dimensions of special health care needs shows that parents of children with activity limitations are significantly less likely to work and work fewer hours. This result does not hold true for the group of children defined based on elevated or special service use, or for the group of children with specific chronic conditions. These results indicate that only a specific subset of children with special needs present difficulties for low-income parents' work. This suggests that policies to help low-income single parents of children with disabilities move into work should target this specific subset of children with special health care needs.

  8. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week’s supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability. It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  9. Perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Robinson, Jo-Ani; Tavila, Aliitasi; Wilton, Jenny; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2008-07-01

    In New Zealand the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples. Nutrition labels have the potential to promote healthy food choices and eating behaviours. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of research among indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities and low-income populations regarding their perceptions, use and understanding of nutrition labels. Our aim was to evaluate perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples and to explore improvements or alternatives to current labelling systems. Māori, Samoan and Tongan researchers recruited participants who were regular food shoppers. Six focus groups were conducted which involved 158 people in total: one Māori group, one Samoan, one Tongan, and three low-income groups. Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders rarely use nutrition labels to assist them with their food purchases for a number of reasons, including lack of time to read labels, lack of understanding, shopping habits and relative absence of simple nutrition labels on the low-cost foods they purchase. Current New Zealand nutrition labels are not meeting the needs of those who need them most. Possible improvements include targeted social marketing and education campaigns, increasing the number of low-cost foods with voluntary nutrition labels, a reduction in the price of 'healthy' food, and consideration of an alternative mandatory nutrition labelling system that uses simple imagery like traffic lights.

  10. Opportunities for Prevention: Assessing Where Low-Income Patients Seek Care for Preventable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar A; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Bernet, Patrick; Moises, James

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has many aspects that are aimed at improving health care for all Americans, including mandated insurance coverage for individuals, as well as required community health needs assessments (CHNAs), and reporting of investments in community benefit by nonprofit hospitals in order to maintain tax exemptions. Although millions of Americans have gained access to health insurance, many--often the most vulnerable--remain uninsured, and will continue to depend on hospital community benefits for care. Understanding where patients go for care can assist hospitals and communities to develop their CHNA and implementation plans in order to focus resources where the need for prevention is greatest. This study evaluated patient care-seeking behavior among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Florida in 2008--analyzed in 2013--to assess whether low-income patients accessed specific safety net hospitals for treatment or received care from hospitals that were geographically closer to their residence. This study found evidence that low-income patients went to hospitals that treated more low-income patients, regardless of where they lived. The findings demonstrate that hospitals-especially public safety net hospitals with a tradition of treating low-income patients suffering from CAD-should focus prevention activities where low-income patients reside.

  11. Travel patterns and characteristics of low-income subpopulation in New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Hyeonsup [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that people residing in poverty face more mobility challenges in their daily travels as compared to those living in higher income households. In many cities, the lack of a public transportation systems and investments in low-income areas are making it difficult for those living in poverty to access jobs, goods, and services (schools, groceries, health cares, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and identify patterns and trends of the low-income residents within NYS. The 2009 National Household Travel Survey data was used as the primary information source to analyze subjects associated with poverty and mobility, as well as to address questions such as are there differences in traveler demographics between the low-income population and those of others who live in various NYS regions (e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS)? How do they compare with the population at large (e.g., rest of the country) or with findings from previous years (i.e., trend)? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the low-income group? Through this study, various key findings on low-income population sizes, household characteristics, travel patterns, and mobility limitations were identified and summarized in this report.

  12. Wanting better: a qualitative study of low-income parents about their children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Linsenmayer, Kristi A; Williams, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the purpose of this study was to understand low-income parents' experiences and how these influenced their oral health-related behavior toward their children. Twenty-eight parents were recruited from 7 sites that serve low-income families. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed, were comprised of mostly open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Parents' experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families' oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is part of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played an important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wanted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children's preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental care for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families.

  13. Food stress in Adelaide: the relationship between low income and the affordability of healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  14. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Pitts, M Melinda; Lee, Chung-Won

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. A retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Low-income families. Family income was linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2099 families living near or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity (i.e., having insufficient funds to purchase enough food to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle) was calculated from the 18-core-item food security module of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Current smoking status was determined. Smoking prevalence was higher among low-income families who were food insecure compared with low-income families who were food secure (43.6% vs. 31.9%; p < .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking was associated with an increase in food insecurity of approximately six percentage points (p < .01). Given our finding that families near the federal poverty level spend a large share of their income on cigarettes, perhaps it would be prudent for food-assistance and tobacco-control programs to work together to help low-income people quit smoking.

  15. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Research Process and the Library: First-Generation College Seniors vs. Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Elizabeth; Logan, Firouzeh

    2013-01-01

    In a follow-up study to the ERIAL (Ethnographic Research in Illinois Academic Libraries) Project, librarians at UIC compared the responses of first-generation college freshmen from the original study to those of seniors. The study's aim was to determine whether student information literacy increases as a result of undergraduate education and to…

  17. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Bucking the trend? Health care expenditures in low-income countries 1990-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, M

    1999-01-01

    Health care expenditures in low-income countries are analysed for the years 1990 and 1995 using four key indicators. Key findings include a substantial reduction in public spending per capita across low-income countries between 1990-95; a significant shift towards private expenditures, which appears increasingly to be substituting rather than supplementing public expenditures; a fall in total and public health spending in many countries despite growth in national income, contradicting the relationship found in other studies. Two possible explanations are put forward. First that the patterns found are a direct result of the structural adjustment policies adopted by many low-income countries, which aim to control and often cut public financing, whilst promoting private health expenditures. Secondly, that following the wave of privatization of state industries, many governments are finding problems adapting to their new role as a tax collector, and are thus not benefiting from economic growth to the extent that might be expected.

  19. Social Policy Trends- Housing Affordability for Families with Low Incomes Across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita (Gres Wilkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.

  20. The Role of Educational Aspirations and Expectations in the Discontinuity of Intergenerational Low-Income Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill,, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and expectations were identified from ages 10 to 18 (grades five through 12): “stable-high” group, “stable-low” group, “increaser” group, and “decreaser” group. Among participants from low-income families, those in the stable-high group and the increaser group were equally likely to graduate from high school. High school graduation was positively associated with level of total household income at age 30. Findings suggest that social work efforts that support the development of high educational aspirations and expectations in children might serve to reduce the intergenerational continuity of low-income status. PMID:24385713

  1. Economics, Marketing and Low Income Individuals: interest after a history of indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Wilcox Hemais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the early years of marketing, researchers used theories and concepts from economics as base for the development of their own theories and concepts. This similarity can be seen in the way marketing viewed the low income individual and his relationship with consumption, in the first studies of the subject. Like the economists, researchers in marketing described these individuals as dependents of society and governments to better their lives. This view changes when Prahalad defends a new perspective, through which individuals in this context are seen as consumers, with desires to consume products of diverse nature. The objective of this article, therefore, is to analyze the paths trailed by economics and two moments in marketing about the low income individual. Initially, the view economics has on low income individuals is discussed, so that, afterwards, two perspectives of marketing about this segment can be presented.

  2. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  3. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  4. The Impact of Group Drumming on Social-Emotional Behavior in Low-Income Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-income youth experience social-emotional problems linked to chronic stress that are exacerbated by lack of access to care. Drumming is a non-verbal, universal activity that builds upon a collectivistic aspect of diverse cultures and does not bear the stigma of therapy. A pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group design was used to assess the effects of 12 weeks of school counselor-led drumming on social-emotional behavior in two fifth-grade intervention classrooms versus two standard education control classrooms. The weekly intervention integrated rhythmic and group counseling activities to build skills, such as emotion management, focus and listening. The Teacher’s Report Form was used to assess each of 101 participants (n = 54 experimental, n = 47 control, 90% Latino, 53.5% female, mean age 10.5 years, range 10–12 years. There was 100% retention. ANOVA testing showed that intervention classrooms improved significantly compared to the control group in broad-band scales (total problems (P < .01, internalizing problems (P < .02, narrow-band syndrome scales (withdrawn/depression (P < .02, attention problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-oriented scales (anxiety problems (P < .01, attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (P < .01, inattention subscale (P < .001, oppositional defiant problems (P < .03, and other scales (post-traumatic stress problems (P < .01, sluggish cognitive tempo (P < .001. Participation in group drumming led to significant improvements in multiple domains of social-emotional behavior. This sustainable intervention can foster positive youth development and increase student-counselor interaction. These findings underscore the potential value of the arts as a therapeutic tool.

  5. Practicing preventive health: the underlying culture among low-income rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W; Harpel, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities on the basis of geographic location, social economic factors and education levels are well documented. However, even when health care services are available, there is no guarantee that all persons will take preventive health measures. Understanding the cultural beliefs, practices, and lifestyle choices that determine utilization of health services is an important factor in combating chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal, cultural, and external barriers that interfered with participating in a community-based preventive outreach program that included health screening for obesity, diabetes, heart diseases, and hypertension when cost and transportation factors were addressed. Six focus groups were conducted in a rural community of Louisiana. Focus groups were divided into 2 categories: participants and nonparticipants. Three focus groups were completed with Dubach Health Outreach Project (DUHOP) participants and 3 were completed with nonparticipants. The focus group interviews were moderated by a researcher experienced in focus group interviews; a graduate student assisted with recording and note-taking during the sessions. Four main themes associated with barriers to participation in preventive services emerged from the discussions: (1) time, (2) low priority, (3) fear of the unknown, and (4) lack of companionship or support. Health concerns, free services, enjoyment, and free food were identified as motivators for participation. The findings of this study indicated that the resulting synergy between low-income status and a lack of motivation regarding health care prevention created a complicated practice of health care procrastination, which resulted in unnecessary emergency care and disease progression. To change this practice to proactive disease prevention and self care, a concerted effort will need to be implemented by policy makers, funding agents, health care providers, and community leaders and members.

  6. Qualitative Study of First-Generation Latinas: Understanding Motivation for Choosing and Persisting in Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Verdin, Dina; Godwin, Allison F; Morazes, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduates pursuing an engineering degree continue to be an underrepresented group at four-year universities. Compared to their male counterparts, fewer women enter the field of engineering; however, of those Latino/as who do matriculate, they have the same likelihood of persisting as their White counterparts. Furthermore, a dearth of underrepresented students such as Latino/as and first-generation college students enter or remain in the field of engineering. The need for increased...

  7. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  8. "Broken windows": Relationship between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Kim, Dong Ha

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the association between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among African American youth. Cross-sectional data were collected from 683 African American youth from low-income communities. Measures for demographics, neighborhood conditions (i.e. broken windows index), mental health, delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed. Major findings indicated that participants who reported poorer neighborhood conditions compared to those who lived in better living conditions were more likely to report higher rates of mental health problems, delinquency, substance use, and unsafe sexual behaviors. Environmental factors need to be considered when addressing the behavioral health of low-income African American youth.

  9. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  10. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  11. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  12. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  13. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  14. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  15. Children's Effects on Parenting Stress in a Low Income, Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, R. Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parenting stress and other maternal and child characteristics were investigated with 66 low income mothers and their five- to eight-year-old children at risk for educational disabilities. Child characteristics (self esteem, behavior conduct, and spelling achievement) and maternal characteristics (self esteem and crowding…

  16. Healthy and comfortable dwellings for the low-income settlements in Surakarta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsandrie, Y.; Bokel, R.M.J.; Van der Linden, A.C.; Kurvers, S.R.; Cauberg, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Technology for the low-income group of people should be as simple as their daily life. Giving recommendations for simple dwelling design and changing people’s behaviour for a better living are the concerns of this research. A field-survey was conducted in November-December 2010 involving 426

  17. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  18. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  19. Prospera Digital Phase II: Financial inclusion for low-income women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prospera Digital Phase II: Financial inclusion for low-income women in Mexico ... a research network in Latin America, to identify barriers and opportunities to scale up ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  20. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  1. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  2. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  3. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  4. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  5. Multidisciplinary Perspectives towards the Education of Young Low-Income Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Demir-Dagdas, Tuba; Cakmakci, Huzeyfe; Cava-Tadik, Yasemin; Intepe-Tingir, Seyma

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the issues surrounding low-income immigrants in the U.S. and the ways they shape the educational experiences of their young children. Using a multidisciplinary lens including sociology, family studies, education, and mental health, the authors analyse multiple perspectives towards the educational experiences of children in…

  6. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  7. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  8. 76 FR 64882 - Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...] Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program AGENCY: Federal... payments would replace the current administrative process, under which the Universal Service Administrative... Wireline Competition Bureau (WCB) seeks comment on a proposal for disbursing Universal Service Fund low...

  9. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  10. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  11. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  12. Experiential Cooking Programs for Low-Income Adults: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Karen; Vineyard, Michelle; Olson, Ann; Peterson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Experiential cooking classes for low-income adults can help improve healthy nutrition behaviors. However, nutrition educators and Extension professionals can face challenges in successful implementation of these programs such as difficulties recruiting and retaining participants. Drawing upon lessons learned from a cooking intervention with…

  13. Preschool Interactive Peer Play Mediates Problem Behavior and Learning for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…

  14. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  15. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  16. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  17. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environm...

  18. The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzgar, Matthew; Rideout, Todd C.; Fontes-Villalba, Maelan; Kuipers, Remko S.

    Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a

  19. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  20. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Social Competence among Low-Income Preschoolers: Emotion Socialization Practices and Social Cognitive Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between emotion socialization variables, social cognitive knowledge, and children's social competence in preschoolers from low-income families. Found that mothers' self-reported emotion socialization practices were related to children's emotional knowledge and sibling caregiving behavior. (MDM)

  2. Low-Income Parental Profiles of Coping, Resource Adequacy, and Public Assistance Receipt: Links to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…

  3. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  4. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  5. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  6. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  7. Life After Welfare Reform: Low-Income Single Parent Families, Pre- and Post-TANF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janice; Song, Xue; Jones-DeWeever, Avis

    This study used data from the first and last waves of the 1996 U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation to compare the characteristics and wellbeing of low-income, single parent families before and after passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), noting the characteristics and…

  8. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  9. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  10. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  11. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  12. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  13. Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study,…

  14. Childbirth attendance strategies and their impact on maternal mortality and morbidity in low-income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyone, Thidar; Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Tellier, Siri

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To review quantitative evidence of the effect on maternal health of different childbirth attendance strategies in low-income settings. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Studies using quantitative methods, referring to the period 1987-2011, written in English and reporting the impact ...

  15. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  16. Personal Empowerment in the Study of Home Internet Use by Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda; Gallo, Michael; Nucklos, Eddy; Sherblom, Stephen; Pennick, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a United States Department of Commerce (National Telecommunications and Information Administrations, NTIA, 1995) study of home Internet use by Low-income families. The study investigated the barriers, benefits (empowerment), and perceived worth of the Internet and concluded that home Internet access enabled powerful emotional and…

  17. Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children Who Are Low Income and Linguistically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sandilos, Lia; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Lopez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to (a) provide an in-depth description of the frequency and type of language interactions that children who are low income and/or dual language learners (DLLs) experience in their classrooms and (b) examine whether differences exist in children's language experiences based on children's DLL status and level of…

  18. Social Support and Low-Income, Urban Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Roche, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of engaged parenting in explaining longitudinal associations between maternal perceptions of social network support and whether youth engage in delinquent behaviors during the transition into adolescence. The sample included 432 low-income, African American and Latino youth (49% female) and their mothers…

  19. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  20. Characterizing Air Pollution in Two Low-Income Neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of urban population growth in the world, with a large number of urban residents living in low-income “slum” neighborhoods. We conducted a study for an initial assessment of the levels and spatial and/or temporal patterns of multiple polluta...

  1. Fruit and vegetable attitudes, norms, and intake in low-income youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) attitudes and norms have been shown to influence intake in youth; yet research with low-income youth and studies supplementing self-report with objective measures of intake are lacking. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated FV intake, FV attitudes, and FV norms were coll...

  2. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  3. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  4. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM. Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model revealed that 20.5% (21.8% and 38.46% (38.9% of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  5. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, A.; Bruce, N.; Cairncross, S.; Davies, M.; Greenland, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Lindsay, S.; Lindsay, T.; Satterthwaite, D.; Wilkinson, P.

    2013-01-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme

  6. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  7. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  8. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  9. Health-related quality-of-life in low-income, uninsured men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Tracey L; Fink, Arlene; Kwan, Lorna; Maliski, Sally; Connor, Sarah E; Clerkin, Barbara; Litwin, Mark S

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to describe health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in low-income men with prostate cancer. Subjects were drawn from a statewide public assistance prostate cancer program. Telephone and mail surveys included the RAND 12-item Health Survey and UCLA Prostate Cancer Index Short Form and were compared with normative age-matched men without cancer from the general population reported on in the literature. Of 286 eligible men, 233 (81%) agreed to participate and completed the necessary items. The sample consisted of 51% Hispanics, 23% non-Hispanic whites, and 17% African Americans. The low-income men had worse scores in every domain of prostate-specific and general HRQOL than had the age-matched general population controls. The degree of disparity indicated substantial clinical differences in almost every domain of physical and emotional functioning between the sample group and the control group. Linear regression modeling determined that among the low-income men, Hispanic race, and income level were predictive of worse physical functioning, whereas only comorbidities predicted mental health. Low-income patients with prostate cancer appear to have quality-of-life profiles that are meaningfully worse than age-matched men from the general population without cancer reported on in the literature.

  10. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  11. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  12. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  13. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  14. Contraceptive use among low-income urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manisha; Meena, Jyoti; Sharma, Sumedha; Poddar, Anju; Dhalliwal, Vikas; Modi-Satish Chander Modi, S C; Singh, Kamlesh

    2011-02-01

    The reports of a rise in contraceptive practices have not been matched by a similar decrease in population, so there is a need to look into the causes of this discrepancy. To obtain information from low-income urban married women regarding their contraceptive knowledge, practices, and utilization of the services. Percentage of low-income urban married women using contraception, different types of contraception used, influence of education on choice of contraception. All nonpregnant married women between the ages of 18 and 45 years, belonging to low-income groups were selected for study. Statistical analysis was done using EPI Info ver-5.0. Chi square test was used to test the significance of data. Contraceptive use among these women was 52%; the most common method was tubal ligation. Educated women used spacing methods more often than uneducated women. Women had adequate awareness regarding type of contraceptives available but had no idea about the timing of starting contraception after delivery and about emergency contraception. The low-income urban population is aware of the importance of limiting the family size and has family planning facilities yet has less contraceptive usage because of low level of education, increased rate of discontinuation, and lack of proper knowledge of the use of contraception. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. 78 FR 63993 - ``Low-Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... changes in the Consumer Price Index. The Secretary annually adjusts the low-income levels based on the... applicable programs. The income figures below have been updated to reflect increases in the Consumer Price... recognition of same-sex spouses and same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional. In light of this decision...

  16. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  17. A Postsecondary Transition Model for Low-Income, Minority Youth in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexis Tolbert

    2016-01-01

    School administrators are in the best position, but often lack the knowledge, to help low-income, minority youth transition to college. Consequently, some youth are not meeting their full potential and there are long-term, deleterious consequences on local economies as wage earning potential stagnates. Using Aslanargun's, Farmer-Hinton's, and…

  18. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  19. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  20. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  1. Search for first generation leptoquarks in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-07-15

    A search for first generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full H1 data sample is used in the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 446 pb{sup -1}. No evidence for the production of leptoquarks is observed in final states with a large transverse momentum electron or with large missing transverse momentum, and constraints on leptoquark models are derived. For leptoquark couplings of electromagnetic strength {lambda}=0.3, first generation leptoquarks with masses up to 800 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level. (orig.)

  2. Search for First Generation Leptoquarks in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Andreev, V.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2011-10-25

    A search for first generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in ep collisions is performed by the H1 experiment at HERA. The full H1 data sample is used in the analysis, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 446 pb^-1. No evidence for the production of leptoquarks is observed in final states with a large transverse momentum electron or with large missing transverse momentum, and constraints on leptoquark models are derived. For leptoquark couplings of electromagnetic strength lambda=0.3, first generation leptoquarks with masses up to 800 GeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

  3. Cell Phone Ownership and Service Plans Among Low-Income Smokers: The Hidden Cost of Quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June-Marie; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Quitlines (QLs) are free, effective sources of treatment for tobacco dependence. Although the QL number is toll-free, the use of cell phones as the sole source of telephony may impose an unintended cost, in terms of cell minutes. To quantify the use of cell-only telephony among self-pay or Medicaid smokers, assess their calling plans, and estimate the impact of a typical course of QL counseling. A survey of smokers age at least 18 years visiting an American urban emergency department from April to July, 2013. Seven-hundred seventy-three smokers were surveyed, of whom 563 (72.8%) were low-income, defined as having Medicaid or no insurance. All low-income smokers had at least one phone: 48 (8.5%) reported land-lines only, 159 (28.2%) land-lines and cells, and 356 (63.2%) cells only. Of the cell phone owners, monthly calling plans provided unlimited minutes for 339/515 (65.8%), at most 250 minutes for 124 (24.1%), and more than 250 minutes for 52 (10.0%). Another recent trial found that QL users make a median of 1 call lasting 28 minutes, with the 75th and 90th percentiles of calls and minutes at 3 and 4 calls, and 48 and 73.6 minutes, respectively. Thus, robust use of QL services could consume 11%-29% of a low-income smoker's typical 250 monthly cell minutes. Among low-income smokers, cell phones are often the sole telephone. Robust use of the QL may impose a substantial burden on low-income smokers' calling plans, and therefore deter use of the QL. Exempting calls to QLs from counting against smokers' plans may help promote QL utilization. Low-income individuals have high rates of smoking, and are more likely to own only cell phones, not landlines, for telephone access. Because cell phone calling plans often have limited numbers of monthly minutes, cell-only individuals may have to spend a substantial proportion of their monthly minutes on QL services. This may act as a deterrent to using an otherwise free, effective means of treatment for tobacco dependence

  4. Postpartum Health Information Seeking Using Mobile Phones: Experiences of Low-Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and

  5. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  6. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  7. A review of low income energy assistance measures adopted in other jurisdictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Low-income energy assistance programs (LIEPs) have been established and implemented in many jurisdictions to help make electricity and natural gas more affordable. Low-income programs also serve many other public interest goals, such as safeguarding and protecting the public health and welfare of the citizens; augmenting incomes or standards of living for the lowest income energy customers; encouraging conservation and more efficient use of energy resources; reducing customer care costs for utilities; reducing uncollectible accounts and bad debt expense for utilities; and reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gas levels. This report contained a summary of the policies, programs, and measures that have been implemented, mandated, or allowed by regulators in other jurisdictions to assist low-income energy consumers with electricity and natural gas costs. The report categorized the differing low income policies and programs that have been implemented and examined the effectiveness of those policies and programs as measured by the costs and benefits, as well the level of customer participation. These categories included rate discounts or waivers; modified rate designs; alternative billing methods; customer rebates; conservation and demand side management programs; budget or equal billing; payment plans for past due accounts; waivers of late payment charges; waivers or reductions of customer security deposits; limits on disconnections; and reduced or waived fees for reconnections. The report covered regulatory jurisdictions, including those in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, and Finland. The report also discussed the role of regulators, utilities, charitable organizations, and other interested parties in developing and implementing low-income energy assistance programs that were cost-effective and efficient. It was concluded that, in addition to rate discounts or waivers of the fixed monthly service charge, many

  8. Systematic Review of Factors Influencing Farmers' Market Use Overall and among Low-Income Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Vaudrin, Nicole; Schneider, Christine; Trapl, Erika; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Taggart, Morgan; Ariel Cascio, M; Walsh, Colleen; Flocke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates a widening gap in fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption between high- and low-income Americans. This gap is related, in part, to decreased access to food retailers that sell fresh F/V in low-income communities. Farmers' markets are identified as a strategy for improving F/V consumption by increasing access to these foods. The aim of this systematic review was to examine literature published from 1994 to 2014 to identify facilitators and barriers of farmers' markets use, particularly among low-income consumers. Peer-reviewed literature was identified in Ebsco Host (Academic Search Complete). Inclusion criteria for abstract review was primary research focused on farmers' market use identifying 87 studies for full-text review. Full-text review identified articles focused on facilitators and/or barriers of farmers' market use resulting in 49 articles. At least two reviewers completed review of all articles. Of the 49 articles, 39% specified inclusion of low-income consumers and fewer than 15% focused on racial and ethnic minorities. Few studies were guided by theory and/or used standardized metrics. Results indicate farmers' market use is influenced by multiple economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal factors. Among studies that included low-income populations (n=19), key barriers to farmers' market use were perceptions that food assistance benefits were not accepted, belief that food variety at farmers' markets was limited, lack of access to transportation, lack of racial/ethnic diversity in the market space, and mismatch between markets and personal lifestyles. There is wide variation in study design and reporting standards and infrequent use of standardized measures limiting comparisons across studies. There is a need to establish valid and reliable metrics and reporting standards for evaluating farmers' markets. Findings may inform interventions, programs, and policies to promote farmers' market use. Copyright

  9. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  10. Playing fair: the contribution of high-functioning recess to overall school climate in low-income elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy, and inclusive play to study how improving recess functioning can affect school climate. Data from teacher, principal, and recess coach interviews; student focus groups; recess observations; and a teacher survey are triangulated to understand the ways that recess changed during implementation. Comparing schools that achieved higher- and lower-functioning recesses, we link recess functioning with school climate. Recess improved in all schools, but 4 of the 6 achieved a higher-functioning recess. In these schools, teachers and principals agreed that by the end of the year, recess offered opportunities for student engagement, conflict resolution, pro-social skill development, and emotional and physical safety. Respondents in these four schools linked these changes to improved overall school climate. Recess is an important part of the school day for contributing to school climate. Creating a positive recess climate helps students to be engaged in meaningful play and return to class ready to learn. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  11. Academic Vocabulary Learning in First Through Third Grade in Low-Income Schools: Effects of Automated Supplemental Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Ziolkowski, Robyn A; Bojczyk, Kathryn E; Marty, Ana; Schneider, Naomi; Harpring, Jayme; Haring, Christa D

    2017-11-09

    This study investigated cumulative effects of language learning, specifically whether prior vocabulary knowledge or special education status moderated the effects of academic vocabulary instruction in high-poverty schools. Effects of a supplemental intervention targeting academic vocabulary in first through third grades were evaluated with 241 students (6-9 years old) from low-income families, 48% of whom were retained for the 3-year study duration. Students were randomly assigned to vocabulary instruction or comparison groups. Curriculum-based measures of word recognition, receptive identification, expressive labeling, and decontextualized definitions showed large effects for multiple levels of word learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that students with higher initial Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores (Dunn & Dunn, 2007) demonstrated greater word learning, whereas students with special needs demonstrated less growth in vocabulary. This model of vocabulary instruction can be applied efficiently in high-poverty schools through an automated, easily implemented adjunct to reading instruction in the early grades and holds promise for reducing gaps in vocabulary development.

  12. Smart-phone obesity prevention trial for adolescent boys in low-income communities: the ATLAS RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Dally, Kerry A; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Finn, Tara L; Lubans, David R

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention for adolescent boys, an obesity prevention intervention using smartphone technology. ATLAS was a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12-14 years) considered at risk of obesity. The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and involved: teacher professional development, provision of fitness equipment to schools, face-to-face physical activity sessions, lunchtime student mentoring sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application and Web site, and parental strategies for reducing screen-time. Outcome measures included BMI and waist circumference, percent body fat, physical activity (accelerometers), screen-time, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, muscular fitness, and resistance training skill competency. Overall, there were no significant intervention effects for BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat, or physical activity. Significant intervention effects were found for screen-time (mean ± SE: -30 ± 10.08 min/d; P = .03), sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (mean: -0.6 ± 0.26 glass/d; P = .01), muscular fitness (mean: 0.9 ± 0.49 repetition; P = .04), and resistance training skills (mean: 5.7 ± 0.67 units; P < .001). This school-based intervention targeting low-income adolescent boys did not result in significant effects on body composition, perhaps due to an insufficient activity dose. However, the intervention was successful in improving muscular fitness, movement skills, and key weight-related behaviors. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries : a literature review of attraction and retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the

  14. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...

  15. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...

  16. Access and Mobilization: How Social Capital Relates to Low-Income Youth's Postsecondary Educational (PSE) Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…

  17. Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations Share: © Photodisc ... in minority and low-income populations with chronic low-back pain. Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine, Boston ...

  18. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  19. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  20. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  1. 78 FR 16277 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief... codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each state agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to furnish HUD, not...

  2. 75 FR 9609 - Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Tenant Data Collection: Responses To Advance Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... comment on methodology for the collection of data on low-income housing tax credit housing, as required by... 36 (to be codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each State agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to...

  3. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  4. The educational journeys of first-generation college women in STEM: A grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Susan

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the various factors that influenced these first-generation college women as they chose a college and selected a STEM major and subsequently persisted to upper level (junior/senior) status. Twenty-five first-generation college women in STEM majors who attended a research-intensive university in the Midwest were interviewed. Approaching this study using constructivist grounded theory provided the opportunity for deeper insights by examining data at a conceptual level while preserving the voices of the women in this study. The women faced numerous challenges on their journeys, yet they persisted. As the women in this study selected and persisted in STEM, they demonstrated thoughtful determination, experienced shifting identities, established purposeful relationships and applied forward thinking, as they practiced high-stakes decision-making during their journeys. The experiences of these women, namely first-generation women in STEM fields, may inform students, parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers concerned with (a) inspiring students to consider STEM majors, (b) fostering student success in STEM throughout their academic journeys, and (c) ultimately increasing the number of underrepresented minorities and women in the STEM fields.

  5. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  6. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  7. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Lu, Li; Jun, Ye Xue; Mei, Wang Hong

    2007-03-04

    This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day). Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%), compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P opportunity costs, including in terms of healthcare access. The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  8. A number sense intervention for low-income kindergartners at risk for mathematics difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Nancy I; Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The present study examined the effects of an 8-week number sense intervention to develop number competencies of low-income kindergartners (N = 121). The intervention purposefully targeted whole number concepts related to counting, comparing, and manipulating sets. Children were randomly assigned to either a number sense intervention or a business as usual contrast group. The intervention was carried out in small-group, 30-min sessions, 3 days per week, for a total of 24 sessions. Controlling for number sense at pretest, the intervention group made meaningful gains relative to the control group at immediate as well delayed posttest on a measure of early numeracy. Intervention children also performed better than controls on a standardized test of mathematics calculation at immediate posttest.

  9. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  10. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  11. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Macinko, James; Jimenez, Geronimo; Mullachery, Pricila

    2017-11-06

    With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries. Computer-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) distributed to healthcare professionals and researchers. Stimuli representing Rich Countries were chosen from OECD members in the top ten (>$36,000 per capita) World Bank rankings and Poor Countries were chosen from the bottom thirty (based medicine and diffusion of innovations.

  13. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  14. Breast-feeding intentions among low-income pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman; Arnett, Dennis B; Mauk, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Provide a better understanding of the process used by low-income pregnant/postpartum women when deciding whether to breast-feed or not. Pregnant/postpartum women admitted to an obstetrics floor completed a survey to determine breast-feeding intention (n=88). Subjects were primarily Hispanic and African American women. Beliefs and referent other were related positively to attitude and subjective norm, respectively. Subjective norm was related positively to intention to breast-feed. Breast-feeding knowledge was low. Others' opinions clearly influence feeding intentions among this population of low-income women. Inclusion of these significant others, family, and friends within the breast-feeding education process is warranted.

  15. Empowering low-income community in Kampong settlement by exploring people's activities in surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Paulus; Sutanto, Haryati B.

    2017-11-01

    Urban Kampong is a spontaneous settlement growing in several big cities within developing countries including Indonesia. This settlement is developed by low-income people without any plan. Therefore there is no specific housing pattern in the settlement. The characteristics of the settlements is dominated by Javanese traditional roof typology and narrow path with minimal public open spaces. People's creativity in building their houses often uses second hand building materials that make their houses look specific. Besides, infrastructure facilities within Kampong Settlement are very poor. Because the poor living in Urban Kampong have to adjust their live with minimum infrastructure facilities available, they have to be creative in using all facilities available. Through the creativities of low-income people living in Urban Kampong the research will show how the inhabitants can be empowered by exploring inhabitant's creativities and consequently the environmental quality within Urban Kampong can be improved as well.

  16. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  17. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (pEssure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  18. Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Vicente

    2008-09-01

    During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

  19. Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp: A Summer Approach to Prevent Obesity in Low-Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gretchen Lynn; Schneider, Constance; Kaiser, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of participation in a summer camp focused on nutrition and fitness among low-income youth. In 2011-2012, overweight and obese youth (n = 126) from Fresno, CA participated in a free 6-week summer program, Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp (HLFC), which included 3 h/wk of nutrition education provided by University of California CalFresh and 3 hours of daily physical activity through Fresno Parks and Recreation. The researchers used repeated-measures ANOVA to examine changes in weight, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between HLFC and the comparison group (n = 29). Significant pre-post WHtR reductions were observed in HLFC: 0.64 to 0.61 (P obesity prevention among low-income youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal Care Utilization for Mothers from Low-Income Areas of New Mexico, 1989–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Carson, E. Ann; Romain, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999. Methodology/Principal Findings Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20862298

  1. Prenatal care utilization for mothers from low-income areas of New Mexico, 1989-1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999.Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings.These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes.

  2. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  3. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  4. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  5. First generation WWER 440 - What is the 'reasonable' price?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishtuhina, K.

    2004-01-01

    A chronological review of the international nuclear concerns and Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents effects on the international nuclear organizations' policies are presented. The IAEA, G 7 and EU approaches for Soviet design plants' safety and the main results from their implementation are described. The premature closure of the first generation WWER type reactors operated in Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovakia and their unupgradability at a reasonable price are also discussed in this paper

  6. Thermal E/ Z Isomerization in First Generation Molecular Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Yuri; Sugita, Naoya; Ikeda, Mari; Nagatsugi, Fumi; Harada, Nobuyuki; Habata, Yoichi

    2018-04-20

    Determination of a thermal E/ Z isomerization barrier of first generation molecular motors is reported. Stable ( E)-1a directly converts to stable ( Z)-1c without photochemical E/ Z isomerization. The activation Gibbs energy of the isomerization was determined to be 123 kJ mol -1 by circular dichroism spectral changes. Density functional theory calculations show that ( Z)-1c is ∼11.4 kJ mol -1 more stable than ( E)-1a.

  7. First-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with professional guidelines of discipline and but also need to be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first-generation Korean-American parents' perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States, and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first-generation Korean-American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first-generation Korean-American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style, and time-out, use of sticker charts, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children's views on discipline, and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean-American parents' perceptions of discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from western viewpoints.

  8. Feasibility of Internet-based Parent Training for Low-income Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Lucy; Hvizdos, Erica; Bocknek, Erika L; Montgomery, Erica; Ondersma, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Parent training programs promote positive parenting and benefit low-income children, but are rarely used. Internet-based delivery may help expand the reach of parent training programs, although feasibility among low-income populations is still unclear. We examined the feasibility of internet-based parent training, in terms of internet access/use and engagement, through two studies. In Study 1, 160 parents recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) centers completed a brief paper survey regarding internet access and use (all parents received government aid). We found high levels of access, openness, and comfort with the internet and internet-enabled devices. In Study 2, a pilot study, we assessed use of an online parenting program in a project with a sample of 89 predominately low-income parents (75% received government aid). Parents learned about a new, online parenting program (the "5-a-Day Parenting Program") and provided ratings of level of interest and program use 2-weeks and 4-weeks later. Local website traffic was also monitored. At baseline, parents were very interested in using the web-based program, and the majority of parents (69.6%) reported visiting the website at least once. However, in-depth use was rare (only 9% of parents reported frequent use of the online program). Results support the feasibility of internet-based parent training for low-income parents, as most parent were able to use the program and were interested in doing so. However, results also suggest the need to develop strategies to promote in-depth program use.

  9. Financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Lewin, Simon; Ciapponi, Agustín; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Background One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. Objectives To provide an overview of the evidence from...

  10. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  11. LOW-INCOME, MINORITY FATHERS’ CONTROL STRATEGIES AND THEIR CHILDREN'S REGULATORY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith Lee

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), an...

  12. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  13. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that coh...

  14. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  15. Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries; The Role of Regulatory, Institutional, and Macroeconomic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tigran Poghosyan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze factors driving persistently higher financial intermediation costs in low-income countries (LICs) relative to emerging market (EMs) country comparators. Using the net interest margin as a proxy for financial intermediation costs at the bank level, we find that within LICs a substantial part of the variation in interest margins can be explained by bank-specific factors: margins tend to increase with higher riskiness of credit portfolio, lower bank capitalization, and smaller bank si...

  16. LESS SPACE, MORE SPATIALITY FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING UNITS IN EGYPT: IDEAS FROM JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Abdel Gelil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Egyptian government launched a national housing project for low-income families. To minimize cost, it has progressively reduced units’ sizes. Numerous surveys indicate that unit specifications were based on political and economic criteria, rather than on users’ needs, which resulted in the recurrence of the persistent phenomenon of individual modifications. A number of scholars and architects concerned with this phenomenon are advocating the revival of the social design principles of traditional Cairene houses (16th –19th century after adapting them to contemporary needs. However, they provide no concrete solutions as to how to achieve this in small-scale units located in multi-storey buildings. During my research in Japan, I was introduced to traditional middle class urban houses. Their practical designs used to resolve issues of privacy, internal flexibility, storage, and family growth can be beneficially applied to housing units in Egypt. This paper first explains why relying solely on traditional housing designs to resolve social issues associated with low-income units in Egypt is both fanciful and incomplete, then discusses why ideas from Japanese homes can be beneficially applied to low-income housing units in Egypt. Third, this paper examines issues in these units and the resultant modifications by Egyptian households. Next, it analyzes concepts of spatial organization, modular systems, partitioning, and storage in traditional middle class urban houses in Japan. Finally, this paper formulates proposals for fulfilling the social needs of occupants in Egypt by integrating these ideas into low-income housing units.

  17. LOW INCOME CONSUMERS AND ONLINE SHOPPING: APPREHENSIONS IN CONSUMING THROUGH THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo da Silva Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in access of low income consumers to the internet has taken them to use the net in search of entertainment, education and relationships. However, consuming online is still an activity surrounded by distrust. The present study aims to discuss the reasons why low income consumers have apprehension in consuming through the internet. For this, in depth interviews were conducted with 23 low income consumers. The collected data shows that the internet is still seen by the interviewees as being, mainly, for leisure and entertainment. Online shopping still is a task they fear, because of different motives. Initially, one can point the preference to consume in physical stores, since the consumers can touch the desired product, enjoy the trip to the store as a moment of pleasure and the possibility of interacting with salesmen, who help them in their choice. The apprehensions in buying online are also influenced by the perception that sites are not safe, because they offer threats, such as viruses or theft of personal information. Furthermore, interviewees believe that online stores are not compromised with their customers, since they permit problems to occur in the delivery of merchandise, are not clear about the shopping process, and create difficulties in payment method. Another reason for them not to buy online is the perception that if a negative consuming episode of online shopping happened to someone they know, it is also bound to happen with them. Despite this reasoning, these consumers point the importance of help from a third party in their reference group as main incentive for them to face the obstacles to consuming through the internet. In conclusion, it is possible to consider that low income consumers have apprehensions that are similar to their higher income peers, but, also, show different feelings, which are seldom discussed in the literature about online shopping.

  18. African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: comparison of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A

    1997-01-01

    The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.

  19. Pediatric clinical drug trials in low-income countries: key ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, S M; Knoppert, D C; Stanton-Jean, M; Avard, D

    2015-02-01

    Potential child participants in clinical research trials in low-income countries are often vulnerable because of poverty, high morbidity and mortality, inadequate education, and varied local cultural norms. However, vulnerability by itself must not be accepted as an obstacle blocking children from the health benefits that may accrue as an outcome of sound clinical research. As greater emphasis is placed on evidence-based treatment of children, it should be anticipated that there will be a growing call for agreement on principles to guide clinical investigations in low-income countries. There is now general acceptance of the view that children must be protected from non-evidence-based interventions and from substandard treatments. The questions remaining relate to how best to stimulate clinical research activity that will serve the needs of infants, children, and youth in developing countries and how best to assign priority to ethically sound research that will meet their clinical requirements. In low-income countries, 39 % of citizens are 13 years of age or younger, and consequently it is certain that clinical investigations of some new therapeutic products will be conducted there more frequently. This review offers some suggestions for approaches that will help to achieve more effective ethical consideration, including (1) improving the quality of research ethics boards; (2) fostering collaborative partnerships among important stakeholders; (3) making concerted efforts to build capacity; (4) improving the quality of the consent and waiver process; and (5) developing improved governance for harmonized ethics platforms. Continuing support by international organizations is required to sustain the establishment and maintenance of stronger research ethics boards to protect children enrolled in clinical trials. This review underscores the importance of developing a culture of solidarity and true partnership between developed and low-income country organizations, which

  20. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  1. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  2. Health Care Access and Use Among Low-Income Children on Subsidized Insurance Programs in California.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Trenholm; Anna Saltzman; Shanna Shulman; Michael Cousineau; Dana Hughes

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the CaliforniaKids and Healthy Kids programs—county-based insurance programs in California for low-income children. The study examined features of both programs, use of basic health care services by the children enrolled, and typical experiences accessing inpatient and other high-cost care. Children enrolled in the two programs made substantial use of outpatient health care, despite important variation in program features. The study concludes with recommendations on ho...

  3. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Victor, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. Methods This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the T...

  4. An Investigation Into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...

  5. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  6. A vivência de alunos de graduação em enfermagem na assistência à saúde da mulher em uma comunidade de baixa renda: uma abordagem fenomenológica The background got on assistance to woman health in a low income community by undergraduate students of nursing: A phenomenological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo nossa trajetória dirigiu-se para a compreensão da experiência vivida pelos alunos do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem, da EEUSP, na assistência à mulher em uma comunidade de baixa renda da cidade de São Paulo. Obtivemos descrições dos alunos e os dados foram analisados seguindo os passos da fenomenologia. Identificamos cinco temas: experiência gratificante, estimulante e valiosa; experiência de vida, de crescimento pessoal e de quebra de preconceito; atividade que permite conhecer o outro lado da assistência; atividade prática que possibilita sedimentação do conhecimento adquirido teoricamente; experiência importante e necessária. A experiência vivenciada pelos alunos mostrou-se satisfatória favorecendo o processo de ensino-aprendizagem.Our trajectory in this study has addressed to the comprehension of experience which undergraduate students in the Nursing School of USP. This work has been developed in a low incomme community of São Paulo city. We've got descriptions of the students and the data were discussed following the steps of phenomenological assay. We've identified five themes: rewarding experience, stimulant and necessary; experience of life, personal growth and disrupting with prejudice; activity which permits to know the other side of assistance; important and valuable experience; practice activity which makes possible the acquired know edge sedimentation theoretically. The graduation students experience was satisfactory and it was favorable to the teaching-learning process.

  7. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kelly Marinoski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%. The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses.

  8. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  9. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  10. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DEVELOPING 'DO-IT-YOURSELF' (DIY PRODUCTS FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lepre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct involvement of the user in the assembling process of his/her own products or even entire house is a reality among low-income populations in developing countries. Nevertheless, there are a limited number of products that have actually been designed from a do-it-yourself (DIY perspective, which results in several problems, such as poor user safety while the product is being assembled or inadequate results from an improvised assembling. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse barriers to and opportunities for developing DIY products for low-income housing in developing countries. The research method utilises a case study of a DIY product consisting of a hybrid solution that acted as both a partition wall and a wardrobe. The identified opportunities included more systematic use of existing craft competencies among low-income families and the possibility of cost reduction through DIY concepts. Major barriers included the perception of the DIY product as inferior and the difficulty of communicating the DIY assembly process to users who quite often are illiterate.

  11. Digital Inequality and Developmental Trajectories of Low-income, Immigrant, and Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S; Gonzalez, Carmen; Clark, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Children growing up in the United States today are more ethnically and racially diverse than at any time in the nation's history. Because of rising income inequality, almost half of the 72 million children in the United States are also growing up in low-income families, with immigrant and children of color disproportionately likely to be within their ranks. Children in low-income households are more likely to face a number of social challenges, including constrained access to the Internet and devices that connect to it (ie, digital inequality), which can exacerbate other, more entrenched disparities between them and their more privileged counterparts. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics' new guidelines encourage clinicians to reduce children's overexposure to technology, we argue for a more nuanced approach that also considers how digital inequality can reduce low-income children's access to a range of social opportunities. We review previous research on how digital inequality affects children's learning and development and identify areas where more research is needed on how digital inequality relates to specific aspects of children's developmental trajectories, and to identify what interventions at the family, school, and community levels can mitigate the adverse effects of digital inequality as children move through their formal schooling. On the basis of the evidence to date, we conclude with guidelines for clinicians related to supporting digital connectivity and more equitable access to social opportunity for the increasingly diverse population of children growing up in the United States. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  13. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.

  14. Health outcomes in low-income children with current asthma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T; Dell, S; Tassoudji, M; Wang, C

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 were used to measure longitudinal health outcomes among children with asthma. Over 10 000 children aged 1 to 11 years with complete data on asthma status in both years were included. Outcomes included hospitalizations and health services use (HSU). Current asthma was defined as children diagnosed with asthma by a physician and who took prescribed inhalants regularly, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Children having asthma significantly increased their odds of hospitalization (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.70) and health services use (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 2.69, 5.37). Low-income adequacy (LIA) in 1994/ 95 significantly predicts hospitalization and HSU in 1996/97 (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.29, 5.59 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99, respectively). Our results confirmed that both having current asthma and living in low-income families had a significant impact on the health status of children in Canada. Programs seeking to decrease the economic burden of pediatric hospitalizations need to focus on asthma and low-income populations.

  15. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  16. Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.

  17. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. - Highlights: ► We demonstrate the significant impact of the split incentive on low-income tenants. ► We discuss split incentive characteristics, and policy failures. ► We described an on-bill financing model with unique features. ► This policy has protections and incentives for tenants and landlords.

  18. Three models of community mental health services In low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Silva Mary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare and contrast three models of community mental health services in low-income settings. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary and secondary data collected before, during, and after site visits to mental health programs in Nigeria, the Philippines, and India. Study Design Qualitative case study methodology. Data Collection Data were collected through interviews and observations during site visits to the programs, as well as from reviews of documentary evidence. Principal Findings A set of narrative topics and program indicators were used to compare and contrast three community mental health programs in low-income countries. This allowed us to identify a diversity of service delivery models, common challenges, and the strengths and weaknesses of each program. More definitive evaluations will require the establishment of data collection methods and information systems that provide data about the clinical and social outcomes of clients, as well as their use of services. Conclusions Community mental health programs in low-income countries face a number of challenges. Using a case study methodology developed for this purpose, it is possible to compare programs and begin to assess the effectiveness of diverse service delivery models.

  19. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  20. Stakeholder perspectives on barriers for healthy living for low-income african american families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  1. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P maternal control of child's eating routines (P maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. After-school programs for low-income children: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, R

    1999-01-01

    Children's out-of-school time, long a low-level source of public concern, has recently emerged as a major social issue. This, in turn, has heightened interest in the heterogeneous field of after-school programs. This article provides a profile of after-school programs for low-income children, focusing on supply and demand, program emphases, and program sponsors and support organizations. It also discusses the major challenges facing the field in the areas of facilities, staffing, and financing. Details and examples are drawn from the ongoing evaluation of a specific after-school program initiative called MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time), which seeks to strengthen after-school programs in Boston, Chicago, and Seattle. Looking ahead, the article highlights the pros and cons of options for increasing coverage to reach more low-income children, strengthening programs, expanding funding, and articulating an appropriate role for after-school programs to fill in the lives of low-income children.

  4. Internet use among low-income persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayben, J K; Giordano, T P

    2007-10-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to obtain health-related information, communicate with providers and access research. Use of the Internet to obtain health-related information by low-income patients recently diagnosed with HIV infection has not been examined. In 2005, we surveyed 126 low-income patients diagnosed with HIV infection within the last three years. Eighty-five percent of the patients wereInternet to access information about HIV, 52% had never used the Internet, 28% had never used it to obtain health-related information and only 18% had done so at least monthly for the last six months. Two-thirds of the population studied would need instruction on how to use the Internet. In multivariable regression, 2004 income > or =$15,000 predicted monthly Internet use to obtain health-related information. Older age, heterosexual intercourse as HIV risk factor and inadequate health literacy were independent predictors of needing instruction. The low-income population with HIV infection lags behind the general population in Internet access and may not benefit from Internet-dependent advances in health communication, including HIV-related interventions.

  5. Low-income Euro-American mothers' perceptions of health and self-care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Elnora P; Clark, Michele C; Guevara, Edilma B; Svrcek, Claire Y

    2011-01-01

    Health promotion activities may decrease preventable diseases and health system overuse. This study examined how low-income Euro-American mothers described their health/wellness, self-care practices (SCP), and SCP benefits, barriers, and interpersonal influences (norms, modeling, and social support) affecting their SCP. This descriptive qualitative study used a convenience sample of 10 low-income, English-speaking mothers, 25-43 years old, seeking women's/children's health services at a large urban Texas health clinic. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, using a standardized semistructured interview guide; data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman's qualitative research methods. All participants primarily described themselves positively and as mothers and workers. Most viewed health and wellness as distinct but typically included physical and emotional well-being. Mothers valued health and SCP for personal and family reasons. All identified SCP benefits. Most identified SCP barriers. Women viewed themselves as vital to family function and well-being, learned SCP primarily from parents during childhood, and described limited support for SCP. The results provide a better understanding of participants' self-care decision making and are useful in designing appropriate clinical health promotions. Reducing health inequities in low-income women requires further study of the underlying causes and development of effective policies and measures to address them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  7. A Health Equity Problem for Low Income Children: Diet Flexibility Requires Physician Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D

    2015-09-01

    USDA programs, such as the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and/or National School Lunch Program (NSLP), enable child care centers and schools to provide free and reduced price meals, daily, to millions of low income children. Despite intention to equalize opportunity for every child to have a healthy diet, USDA program rules may be contributing to child obesity disparities and health inequity. USDA program rules require child care centers and schools to provide meals that include a specified number of servings of particular types of foods and beverages. The rules are designed for the average, healthy weight child to maintain weight and growth. They are not designed for the underweight child to gain weight, obese child to normalize weight, or pre-diabetic child to avoid incident diabetes. The rules allow for only one meal pattern and volume, as opposed to a flexible spectrum of meal patterns and portion sizes. Parents of children who participate in the CACFP, SBP, and/or NSLP do not have control over the amount or composition of the subsidized meals. Parents of overweight, obese, or diabetic children who participate in the subsidized meal programs can request dietary change, special meals or accommodations to address their child's health status, but child care providers and schools are not required to comply with the request unless a licensed physician signs a "Medical statement to request special meals and/or accommodations". Although physicians are the only group authorized to change the foods, beverages, and portion sizes served daily to low income children, they are not doing so. Over the past three years, despite an overweight and obesity prevalence of 30% in San Francisco child care centers serving low income children, zero medical statements were filed to request special meals or accommodations to alter daily meals in order to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or prevent postprandial hyperglycemia. Low income children

  8. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  9. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  10. The views of low-income employees regarding mandated comprehensive employee benefits for the sake of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikes, Katherin A; Hull, Sara C; Danis, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors stand in the way of good health for low-income populations. We suggest that employee benefits might serve as a means of improving the health of low-wage earners. We convened groups of low-income earners to design hypothetical employee benefit packages. Qualitative analysis of group discussions regarding state-mandated benefits indicated that participants were interested in a great variety of benefits, beyond health care, that address socioeconomic determinants of health. Long-term financial and educational investments were of particular value. These results may facilitate the design of employee benefits that promote the health of low-income workers.

  11. The Views of Low-Income Employees Regarding Mandated Comprehensive Employee Benefits for the Sake of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikes, Katherin A.; Hull, Sara C.; Dams, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors stand in the way of good health for low-income populations. We suggest that employee benefits might serve as a means of improving the health of low-wage earners. We convened groups of low-income earners to design hypothetical employee benefit packages. Qualitative analysis of group discussions regarding state-mandated benefits indicated that participants were interested in a great variety of benefits, beyond health care, that address socioeconomic determinants of health. Long-term financial and educational investments were of particular value. These results may facilitate the design of employee benefits that promote the health of low-income workers. PMID:20391255

  12. Chemical exposures in recently renovated low-income housing: Influence of building materials and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Udesky, Julia O; Colton, Meryl D; McCauley, Martha; Camann, David E; Yau, Alice Y; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-12-01

    Health disparities in low-income communities may be linked to residential exposures to chemicals infiltrating from the outdoors and characteristics of and sources in the home. Indoor sources comprise those introduced by the occupant as well as releases from building materials. To examine the impact of renovation on indoor pollutants levels and to classify chemicals by predominant indoor sources, we collected indoor air and surface wipes from newly renovated "green" low-income housing units in Boston before and after occupancy. We targeted nearly 100 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including phthalates, flame retardants, fragrance chemicals, pesticides, antimicrobials, petroleum chemicals, chlorinated solvents, and formaldehyde, as well as particulate matter. All homes had indoor air concentrations that exceeded available risk-based screening levels for at least one chemical. We categorized chemicals as primarily influenced by the occupant or as having building-related sources. While building-related chemicals observed in this study may be specific to the particular housing development, occupant-related findings might be generalizable to similar communities. Among 58 detected chemicals, we distinguished 25 as primarily occupant-related, including fragrance chemicals 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetralin (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB). The pre- to post-occupancy patterns of the remaining chemicals suggested important contributions from building materials for some, including dibutyl phthalate and xylene, whereas others, such as diethyl phthalate and formaldehyde, appeared to have both building and occupant sources. Chemical classification by source informs multi-level exposure reduction strategies in low-income housing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the implications of dental treatment costs for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Patrick; McNally, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Dental disease is concentrated among those with low socioeconomic status. Dental care is not publicly funded, and many Canadians must therefore make difficult financial choices when accessing dental care. Families who live in poverty have difficulty meeting even their most basic household needs, so dental treatment may not be affordable. The objective of this study was to understand how the cost of dental treatment affects the monthly budgets of families with low incomes. A chart review was conducted for a sample of 213 new patients examined at the Dalhousie University dental clinic over a 1-year period. Costs for proposed treatment plans were averaged. The patients" ability to pay for proposed treatment was examined in the context of various income scenarios. Two hundred and one patients were included in the final analysis. Dental treatment costs per patient averaged approximately $1600 for the year, with 42% of the planned treatment completed within the first year. The estimated monthly cost of completed treatment was $55. When the cost of a healthy diet was included in the monthly budget, it was determined that families in Nova Scotia with parents working for minimum wage and those receiving income assistance would experience a 100% shortfall for dental expenses. Low-income families in Nova Scotia were unable to afford both a nutritious diet and dental care. This is disturbing, given the links between a healthy diet and both overall health and dental health. An understanding of the significance of income shortfalls for those with low incomes, especially as they affect even basic nutritional needs, will help dental professionals to appreciate the seriousness of this issue and the difficulties that many Canadians face when trying to access basic dental care.

  14. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983

  15. Breastfeeding support - the importance of self-efficacy for low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne

    2010-07-01

    Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.

  16. Financial hardship and self-rated health among low-income housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Harley, Amy E; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian G

    2013-08-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among residents of low-income housing. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Health in Common Study (N = 828), an observational study to investigate social and physical determinants of cancer risk-related behaviors among residents of low-income housing in three cities in the Boston metropolitan area. Modified Poisson regression models were used to obtain the relative risk of low SRH (fair or poor), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Unadjusted models revealed that the respondents reporting financial hardship were 53% more likely to report low SRH compared with those not reporting financial hardship. After controlling for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, and psychological distress, the results showed that those reporting financial hardship were 44% more likely to report low SRH. Our results suggest that financial hardship is a robust predictor of SRH; and over and above the influence of demographic and traditional socioeconomic indicators, and even psychological distress, financial hardship remains strongly associated with low SRH. Additional research needs to be conducted to further elucidate this pathway and to better understand the determinants of variability in financial hardship among low-income housing residents to ensure the most appropriate policy levers (e.g., housing-related policy, food-related policy) are chosen to improve health outcomes in this population.

  17. Green Schoolyards in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods: Natural Spaces for Positive Youth Development Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn R. Bates

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-income families are increasingly growing up in urban areas with limited access to nature. In these environments, strategies that promote access to natural outdoor spaces, such as green schoolyards, may enhance positive youth development outcomes by promoting physical activity (PA and prosocial behavior, as well as increasing perceptions of safety. The current study examines children’s PA and social interactions, as well as caregiver and teacher perceptions of safety, injuries, teasing/bullying, and gang activity on three newly renovated green schoolyards in low-income urban neighborhoods. A multi-method strategy, including behavioral mapping and caregiver- and teacher-reported surveys, was utilized at three time points to examine positive youth development outcomes and maintenance of effects over time. Analyses revealed that children evidenced a range of PA on the green schoolyards and demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary activity over time. The majority of children were engaged in social interactions with peers on the green schoolyards when observed. Less than 3% of interactions were negative and follow-up analyses found significant increases in positive interactions on the green schoolyards up to 24 months post-renovation. Caregivers and teachers reported increased perceptions of safety, fewer injuries, less teasing/bullying, and less gang-related activity on the renovated green schoolyards in comparison to the pre-renovation schoolyards, and these effects were maintained up to 32 months post-renovation. Overall, the study suggests that green schoolyards may promote positive development outcomes among youth living in urban, low-income neighborhoods by providing natural and safe spaces for PA and prosocial behavior.

  18. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  19. [Coverage of nutritional and health programs in the low income strata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, M A; González, N; Mardones, F; Moenne, A M; Sánchez, H

    1982-06-01

    The extent and consequences of exclusion of low income strata from maternal and child health programs in Chile are analyzed using available data. Infant mortality has been shown by several studies to be closely associated with socioeconomic status in Chile. Babies of illiterate mothers showed the highest rate of mortality and the least improvement in rate between 1972-78. The effect of socioeconomic status on the mortality rate of infants in greatly influenced by birth weight; low birth weight infants of low income groups suffer significantly higher mortality than among higher income groups. Several national studies in Chile demonstrated a relationship between infant malnutrition and health program coverage. Infant malnutrition is greatest in groups benefiting least from health care. Based on the fact that 90.5% of births in 1980 were professionally attended, it is estimated that 9.5% of the low income population lacks access to health care. A recent survey showed that 9.9% of the population under 6 years, some 105,848 children, was not covered by the National Complementary Feeding Program. Another study showed that 12.3% of mothers had no prenatal medical attention prior to their most recent birth; mothers with little or no education, living in rural areas, and of high parity were most likely not to have received medical attention. Factors responsible for lack of access to health and nutrition programs appeared to include unsatisfactory relationships with the health workers, poor acceptability of foods offered, excessive distance and waiting times, and lack of interest or motivation on the part of the mothers.

  20. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  1. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliyhah Al-Bayan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in

  2. Knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Renata Evangelista; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Machado, Daniel Rodrigues; Braga, Vanessa Augusta; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women. an integrative review was conducted in February 2016 on the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE databases, and in the SciELO journals directory. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected. the knowledge produced comprises two main themes: "health in face of economic adversities" and "reciprocity in social support between low-income older women and their social network". health professionals, especially nurses, should be attentive to aspects related to social determinants and the health of low-income older women, highlighting the fact that they are not always the recipients of care. identificar o conhecimento produzido sobre a saúde das mulheres idosas de baixa renda. revisão integrativa realizada em fevereiro de 2016, nas bases de dados SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE e no diretório de revistas SciELO. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 24 artigos. o conhecimento produzido congrega dois temas principais: "a saúde diante das adversidades econômicas" e "reciprocidade no apoio social entre as mulheres idosas de baixa renda e sua rede social". os profissionais de saúde, em especial o enfermeiro, devem atentar para aspectos relacionados aos determinantes sociais e de saúde de mulheres idosas de baixa renda, destacando-se que elas, nem sempre, são apenas receptoras de cuidado.

  3. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  4. Poor parents?: the realities of work-life balance in a low-income neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley Dean

    2007-01-01

    The article explores the work-life balance policy agenda as it has emerged in post-industrial societies, such as the UK, and it reports on a small-scale study of the experiences and expectations of work-life balance in a low-income inner-London neighbourhood. From the study certain general issues are identified relating to the inconsistency of employers' practices and the currently fragmented nature of childcare provision. And certain issues of particular relevance for low-earning parents are...

  5. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  6. Midline versus transverse incision for cesarean delivery in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels J

    2014-01-01

    While transverse incision is the recommended entry technique for cesarean delivery in high-income countries, it is our experience that midline incision is still used routinely in many low-income settings. Accordingly, international guidelines lack uniformity on this matter. Although evidence...... is limited, the literature suggests important advantages of the transverse incision, with lower risk of long-term disabilities such as wound disruption and hernia. Also, potential extra time spent on this incision appears not to impact neonatal outcome. Therefore, we suggest that it is time for a change...

  7. Interviews with low-income Pennsylvanians verify a need to enhance eating competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts Krall, Jodi; Lohse, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    Continuation of unhealthful dietary patterns and poor diet-related health outcomes among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations underscores the need to improve diet quality for this group. Enhancing eating competence, based on the Satter model of eating competence (ecSatter), may be one effective method to reach this goal, but requires substantiation in a low-income audience. This study utilized a qualitative approach to examine the congruence of the ecSatter model with the cognitive eating behaviors of a low-income audience. Structured interviews were conducted during summer of 2006 with 70 low-income adults in Pennsylvania. Themes about decisional factors that guide food selection, nutrition/health interests, and cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences were generated through content analysis. Thematic differences among eating competence levels and food security categories were examined. Nutrition information access preferences were also obtained. Eating competence, measured with the ecSatter Inventory, was low for this sample (mean 28.8+/-8.3). Convenience, mood, family, and availability of food at home, but not nutrition, were salient factors guiding meal and snack planning for both eating competent and noneating competent participants. Nearly equal proportions of persons with eating competence and without eating competence reported that they would make changes to their food purchases if they had more money to spend on food. Interestingly, for participants without eating competence, but not for those with eating competence, weight management played an important role in meal/snack planning, food purchases, and nutrition/health interests. ecSatter provided a tenable framework for rationalizing participants' cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences. Participants without eating competence were more likely to express negative thoughts and feelings associated with eating, regardless of food security status. The Internet, which was

  8. Managing anemia in low-income toddlers: barriers, challenges and context in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Rebecca; Pierce, Michelle B; Ferris, Ann M; Slivka, Hilda; Joyce, Patricia; Bernstein, Bruce A; Russell-Curtis, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    Iron-deficiency remains a concern among low-income toddlers in the U.S. This formative study describes how primary care providers serving high-risk 1- to 3-year-old children in an urban ambulatory care setting approach anemia. Data collection included a retrospective review of randomly selected medical records (n=264) and semi-structured interviews with clinicians (n=41). Thirty-eight percent of the children presented with anemia (Hgb variable. While providers felt clinically comfortable with anemia, they felt burdened and challenged by follow-up. Communication and system barriers weighed most heavily on perceived treatment outcomes.

  9. Medicines coverage and community-based health insurance in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anita K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The 2004 International Conference on Improving Use of Medicines recommended that emerging and expanding health insurances in low-income countries focus on improving access to and use of medicines. In recent years, Community-based Health Insurance (CHI schemes have multiplied, with mounting evidence of their positive effects on financial protection and resource mobilization for healthcare in poor settings. Using literature review and qualitative interviews, this paper investigates whether and how CHI expands access to medicines in low-income countries. Methods We used three complementary data collection approaches: (1 analysis of WHO National Health Accounts (NHA and available results from the World Health Survey (WHS; (2 review of peer-reviewed articles published since 2002 and documents posted online by national insurance programs and international organizations; (3 structured interviews of CHI managers about key issues related to medicines benefit packages in Lao PDR and Rwanda. Results In low-income countries, only two percent of WHS respondents with voluntary insurance belong to the lowest income quintile, suggesting very low CHI penetration among the poor. Yet according to the WHS, medicines are the largest reported component of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in these countries (median 41.7% and this proportion is inversely associated with income quintile. Publications have mentioned over a thousand CHI schemes in 19 low-income countries, usually without in-depth description of the type, extent, or adequacy of medicines coverage. Evidence from the literature is scarce about how coverage affects medicines utilization or how schemes use cost-containment tools like co-payments and formularies. On the other hand, interviews found that medicines may represent up to 80% of CHI expenditures. Conclusion This paper highlights the paucity of evidence about medicines coverage in CHI. Given the policy commitment to expand CHI

  10. Reviewing the application of the balanced scorecard with implications for low-income health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, S M Wasin; Abbas, Farhat; Pappas, Gregory; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2007-01-01

    High-income countries (HICs) are increasingly making use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in healthcare. Evidence about BSC usage in low-income countries (LICs) is deficient. This study assessed feasibility of BSC use in LICs. Systematic review of electronic databases shows that the BSC improved patient, staff, clinical, and financial outcomes in HICs. To translate the experience of BSC use in HICs to their use in LICs, the applicability parameters of the National Committee for Quality Assurance were applied. Despite contextual challenges, pilot testing of BSC use can be undertaken in selected LICs. Committed leadership, cultural readiness, quality information systems, viable strategic plans, and optimum resources are required.

  11. Financing the response to HIV in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Licea, José Antonio; Wiegelmann, Jan; Arán, Christian; Guthrie, Teresa; De Lay, Paul; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    To describe levels of national HIV spending and examine programmatic allocations according to the type of epidemic and country income. Cross-sectional analysis of HIV expenditures from 50 low-income and middle-income countries. Sources of information included country reports of domestic spending by programmatic activity and HIV services. These HIV spending categories were cross tabulated by source of financing, stratified by type of HIV epidemic and income level of the country and reported in international dollars (I$). Fifty low-income and middle-income countries spent US $ 2.6 billion (I$ 5.8 billion) on HIV in 2006; 87% of the funding among the 17 low-income countries came from international donors. Average per capita spending was I$ 2.1 and positively correlated with Gross National Income. Per capita spending was I$ 1.5 in 9 countries with low-level HIV epidemics, I$ 1.6 in 27 countries with concentrated HIV epidemics and I$ 9.5 in 14 countries with generalized HIV epidemics. On average, spending on care and treatment represented 50% of AIDS spending across all countries. The treatment-to-prevention spending ratio was 1.5:1, 3:1, and 2:1 in countries with low-level, concentrated and generalized epidemics, respectively. Spending on prevention represented 21% of total AIDS spending. However, expenditures addressing most-at-risk populations represented less than 1% in countries with generalized epidemics and 7% in those with low-level or concentrated epidemics. The most striking finding is the mismatch between the types of HIV epidemics and the allocation of resources. The current global economic recession will force countries to rethink national strategies, especially in low-income countries with high aid dependency. Mapping HIV expenditures provides crucial guidance for reallocation of resources and supports evidence-based decisions. Now more than ever, countries need to know and act on their epidemics and give priority to the most effective programmatic

  12. [Living conditions and gastroenteritis in the low income population of Tijuana, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiz Fernández, G; Barragán de Olaiz, C

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the low income population of certain areas of the city of Tijuana, Mexico. Data collected showed that these suburban areas are inhabited by people from rural areas of Mexico, with minimum education, that basically work at the "maquiladoras". General hygienic conditions were poor and the services insufficient. The prevalence of diarrheas among the population was extremely high in the two weeks previous to the study, being highest for children less than one year old, in which the proportion with at least one episode of diarrhea was 47 per cent.

  13. Motivators to engage in health promotion activities by low-income black fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Wilma J; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about the health status of low-income Black fathers. Little is known about their motivators to participate in health promotion activities. This descriptive qualitative research study explored these motivators. Focus groups were used to gather the data. Themes included avoiding specific diseases, helping others, a personal desire to learn, and modeling positive behaviors. These findings provide baseline data that might be used to develop community interventions targeting this group. Additional work will focus on validating these results and further exploration of some of the motivators verbalized by these participants.

  14. Medicare Part D: Are Insurers Gaming the Low Income Subsidy Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarolis, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows how in Medicare Part D insurers' gaming of the subsidy paid to low-income enrollees distorts premiums and raises the program cost. Using plan-level data from the first five years of the program, I find multiple instances of pricing strategy distortions for the largest insurers. Instrumental variable estimates indicate that the changes in a concentration index measuring the manipulability of the subsidy can explain a large share of the premium growth observed between 2006 and 2011. Removing this distortion could reduce the cost of the program without worsening consumer welfare.

  15. Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, R; Ford, N; Maher, D; Bissell, K; Van den Bergh, R; van den Boogaard, W; Reid, T; Castro, K G; Draguez, B; von Schreeb, J; Chakaya, J; Atun, R; Lienhardt, C; Enarson, D A; Harries, A D

    2012-01-01

    Operational research in low-income countries has a key role in filling the gap between what we know from research and what we do with that knowledge-the so-called know-do gap, or implementation gap. Planned research that does not tangibly affect policies and practices is ineffective and wasteful, especially in settings where resources are scarce and disease burden is high. Clear parameters are urgently needed to measure and judge the success of operational research. We define operational rese...

  16. Patient-centered technological assessment and monitoring of depression for low-income patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Vidyanti, Irene; Liu, Pai; Hawkins, Caitlin; Ramirez, Magaly; Guterman, Jeffrey; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Ell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant challenge for ambulatory care because it worsens health status and outcomes, increases health care utilizations and costs, and elevates suicide risk. An automatic telephonic assessment (ATA) system that links with tasks and alerts to providers may improve quality of depression care and increase provider productivity. We used ATA system in a trial to assess and monitor depressive symptoms of 444 safety-net primary care patients with diabetes. We assessed system properties, evaluated preliminary clinical outcomes, and estimated cost savings. The ATA system is feasible, reliable, valid, safe, and likely cost-effective for depression screening and monitoring for low-income primary care population.

  17. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Brian S.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Lee, Chung-won

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. This analysis is a retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Family income is linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2,099 families living near or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Food insecurit...

  18. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée ...

  19. Outstanding challenges for rotavirus vaccine introduction in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustrup, Marte; Madsen, Lizell B; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide. Two internationally licensed rotavirus vaccines have proven to be efficacious in middle and high-income countries and they could potentially be valuable tools for the prevention of rotavirus....... There is also a need for political commitment to prevent rotavirus infections as well as a need for an overall strengthening of the health systems in low-income countries. If these challenges were met, rotavirus vaccination could substantially improve child health and survival from rotavirus...

  20. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  1. Search for the first generation scalar leptoquarks with D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothenet, A.

    2004-05-01

    This work was dedicated to the search for pairs of first generation scalar leptoquarks one decaying into ej and the other into νj. The experimental data used (175,6 pb -1 ) is that collected during the run-II of the D0 experiment at Tevatron. The production cross-sections of scalar leptoquark pairs has been assessed at a 95% confidence level for different values of the mass. The comparison of these values with theoretical values has led us to state that for a branching ratio β = 0.5 the existence of scalar leptoquarks with a mass lower than 194 GeV is not possible. For a branching ratio β = 1, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 238 GeV may be excluded while for β = 0.5, some scalar leptoquarks with mass < 213 GeV are excluded

  2. Search for first-generation leptoquarks at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E.G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brummer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P.J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C.D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R.K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Dobur, D.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A.T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L.S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Fang, S.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Gottlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J.C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Huttmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H.P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T.W.; Jungst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I.I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L.A.; Kim, J.Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T.Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K.R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J.F.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F.Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Morris, J.D.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R.J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P.G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D.D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y.D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A.A.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schonberg, V.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W.H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A.D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N.N.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Whitmore, J.J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yagues-Molina, A.G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zabiegalov, O.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    A search for first-generation leptoquarks was performed in electron-proton and positron-proton collisions recorded with the ZEUS detector at HERA in 2003-2007 using an integrated luminosity of 366 pb^-1. Final states with an electron and jets or with missing transverse momentum and jets were analysed, searching for resonances or other deviations from the Standard Model predictions. No evidence for any leptoquark signal was found. The data were combined with data previously taken at HERA, resulting in a total integrated luminosity of 498 pb^-1. Limits on the Yukawa coupling, lambda, of leptoquarks were set as a function of the leptoquark mass for different leptoquark types within the Buchmueller-Rueckl-Wyler model. Leptoquarks with a coupling lambda=0.3 are excluded for masses up to 699 GeV.

  3. Search for First Generation Leptoquarks in the $e \

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumia, Federica [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2001-12-01

    The subject of this thesis is the search for first-generation scalar and vector leptoquarks produced in pairs in proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV and disintegrating in the channels "evjj" and " Eejj ". The analysis was carried out on the data collected by the CDF experiment during the period 1992-1995. The signature of the events sought is as follows: one energetic electron, two high-energy hadronic jets and transverse energy missing in channel "evjj" and two high-energy electrons, as well as two high-energy jets In the channel "eejj". No evidence of the signal is found. For each disintegration channel and for their combination, the lower limits on the leptoquarks mass were therefore determined at a confidence level of 95%

  4. Search for first-generation leptoquarks at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2012-05-15

    A search for first-generation leptoquarks was performed in electron-proton and positron-proton collisions recorded with the ZEUS detector at HERA in 2003-2007 using an integrated luminosity of 366 pb{sup -}1. Final states with an electron and jets or with missing transverse momentum and jets were analysed, searching for resonances or other deviations from the Standard Model predictions. No evidence for any leptoquark signal was found. The data were combined with data previously taken at HERA, resulting in a total integrated luminosity of 498 pb{sup -}1. Limits on the Yukawa coupling, {lambda}, of leptoquarks were set as a function of the leptoquark mass for different leptoquark types within the Buchmueller-Rueckl-Wyler model. Leptoquarks with a coupling {lambda}=0.3 are excluded for masses up to 699 GeV.

  5. Empowerment in the process of health messaging for rural low-income mothers: an exploratory message design project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoory, Linda; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost; Duggal, Mili; Briones, Rowena Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Rural, low-income mothers face challenges to their health equal to or greater than those of low-income mothers from urban areas. This study put health message design into the hands of low-income rural mothers. The current study filled a research gap by analyzing a participatory process used to design health messages tailored to the everyday lives of rural low-income mothers. A total of forty-three mothers participated in nine focus groups, which were held from 2012 to 2013, in eight states. The mothers were from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Participants discussed food security, physical activity, and oral health information. They created messages by considering several elements: visuals, length of message, voice/perspective, self-efficacy and personal control, emotional appeals, positive and negative reinforcements, and steps to health behavior change. This study was innovative in its focus on empowerment as a key process to health message design.

  6. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  7. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  8. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2004-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  9. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  10. Extension of the behavioral model of healthcare utilization with ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Lisa A; Marshall, Linda L; Eve, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial vulnerabilities were added to a model of healthcare utilization. This extension was tested among low-income women with ethnicity addressed as a moderator. Structured interviews were conducted at 2 points in time, approximately 1 year apart. The constructs of psychosocial vulnerability, demographic predisposing, barriers, and illness were measured by multiple indicators to allow use of Structural Equation Modeling to analyze results. The models were tested separately for each ethnic group. Community office. African-American (N = 266), Euro-American (N = 200), and Mexican-American (N = 210) women were recruited from the Dallas Metropolitan area to participate in Project Health Outcomes of Women, a multi-year, multi-wave study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with this sample. Participants had been in heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year, were between 20 and 49 years of age, and had incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level. Healthcare utilization, defined as physician visits and general healthcare visits. Illness mediated the effect of psychosocial vulnerability on healthcare utilization for African Americans and Euro-Americans. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex. Psychosocial vulnerability on illness was partially mediated by barriers, which also directly affected utilization. Psychosocial vulnerabilities were significant utilization predictors for healthcare use for all low-income women in this study. The final models for the 2 minority groups, African Americans and Mexican Americans, were quite different. Hence, women of color should not be considered a homogeneous group in comparison to Euro-Americans.

  11. Patterns of Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk in Low-Income, Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808

  12. Improved Methods for Fire Risk Assessment in Low-Income and Informal Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Twigg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fires cause over 300,000 deaths annually worldwide and leave millions more with permanent injuries: some 95% of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. Burn injury risk is strongly associated with low-income and informal (or slum settlements, which are growing rapidly in an urbanising world. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in poorer countries are constrained by inadequate data on incidence, impacts, and causes, which is mainly due to a lack of capacity and resources for data collection, analysis, and modelling. As a first step towards overcoming such challenges, this project reviewed the literature on the subject to assess the potential of a range of methods and tools for identifying, assessing, and addressing fire risk in low-income and informal settlements; the process was supported by an expert workshop at University College London in May 2016. We suggest that community-based risk and vulnerability assessment methods, which are widely used in disaster risk reduction, could be adapted to urban fire risk assessment, and could be enhanced by advances in crowdsourcing and citizen science for geospatial data creation and collection. To assist urban planners, emergency managers, and community organisations who are working in resource-constrained settings to identify and assess relevant fire risk factors, we also suggest an improved analytical framework based on the Haddon Matrix.

  13. Phenotypes of asthma in low-income children and adolescents: cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lucia Barros Cabral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Studies characterizing asthma phenotypes have predominantly included adults or have involved children and adolescents in developed countries. Therefore, their applicability in other populations, such as those of developing countries, remains indeterminate. Our objective was to determine how low-income children and adolescents with asthma in Brazil are distributed across a cluster analysis. Methods: We included 306 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and under medical treatment for at least one year of follow-up. At enrollment, all the patients were clinically stable. For the cluster analysis, we selected 20 variables commonly measured in clinical practice and considered important in defining asthma phenotypes. Variables with high multicollinearity were excluded. A cluster analysis was applied using a twostep agglomerative test and log-likelihood distance measure. Results: Three clusters were defined for our population. Cluster 1 (n = 94 included subjects with normal pulmonary function, mild eosinophil inflammation, few exacerbations, later age at asthma onset, and mild atopy. Cluster 2 (n = 87 included those with normal pulmonary function, a moderate number of exacerbations, early age at asthma onset, more severe eosinophil inflammation, and moderate atopy. Cluster 3 (n = 108 included those with poor pulmonary function, frequent exacerbations, severe eosinophil inflammation, and severe atopy. Conclusions: Asthma was characterized by the presence of atopy, number of exacerbations, and lung function in low-income children and adolescents in Brazil. The many similarities with previous cluster analyses of phenotypes indicate that this approach shows good generalizability.

  14. Improved Methods for Fire Risk Assessment in Low-Income and Informal Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, John; Christie, Nicola; Haworth, James; Osuteye, Emmanuel; Skarlatidou, Artemis

    2017-02-01

    Fires cause over 300,000 deaths annually worldwide and leave millions more with permanent injuries: some 95% of these deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. Burn injury risk is strongly associated with low-income and informal (or slum) settlements, which are growing rapidly in an urbanising world. Fire policy and mitigation strategies in poorer countries are constrained by inadequate data on incidence, impacts, and causes, which is mainly due to a lack of capacity and resources for data collection, analysis, and modelling. As a first step towards overcoming such challenges, this project reviewed the literature on the subject to assess the potential of a range of methods and tools for identifying, assessing, and addressing fire risk in low-income and informal settlements; the process was supported by an expert workshop at University College London in May 2016. We suggest that community-based risk and vulnerability assessment methods, which are widely used in disaster risk reduction, could be adapted to urban fire risk assessment, and could be enhanced by advances in crowdsourcing and citizen science for geospatial data creation and collection. To assist urban planners, emergency managers, and community organisations who are working in resource-constrained settings to identify and assess relevant fire risk factors, we also suggest an improved analytical framework based on the Haddon Matrix.

  15. Acculturation Influences Postpartum Eating, Activity, and Weight Retention in Low-Income Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chantel L; Tate, Deborah F; Schaffner, Andrew; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen Erickson; Diamond, Molly; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Sanchez, Teresa; Mercado, Adrian; Hagobian, Todd; Phelan, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    Low-income Hispanic women experience elevated rates of high postpartum weight retention (PPWR), which is an independent risk factor for lifetime obesity. Sociocultural factors might play an important role among Hispanic women; however, very few studies have examined this association. The purpose of our study was to examine the associations between acculturation and maternal diet, physical activity, and PPWR. This is a cross-sectional study of baseline data from 282 Hispanic women participating in the FitMoms/Mamás Activas study, a randomized controlled trial examining the impact of primarily an internet-based weight control program, in reducing PPWR among low-income women. We performed multivariable linear regression to examine the association of acculturation with diet quality, physical activity, and PPWR at study entry. A total of 213 (76%) women had acculturation scores reflecting Mexican orientation or bicultural orientation, whereas 69 (24%) had scores that represented assimilation to Anglo culture. Women who were more acculturated had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, lower HEI scores, and lower physical activity levels than women who were less acculturated (p acculturation and PPWR in that for every 1-unit increase in acculturation score, PPWR increased, on average, by 0.80 kg. Higher acculturation was associated with poorer diet and physical activity behaviors and greater PPWR.

  16. Health systems research in a low income country - easier said than done

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Mike; Irimu, Grace; Wamae, Annah; Were, Fred; Wasunna, Aggrey; Fegan, Greg; Peshu, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Summary Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in many low-income country health systems. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved hospital care for severely ill, referred children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet we know little about how to achieve this. We describe the evolution and final design of an intervention study attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. We believe our experience illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system rather than an individual level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question - does it work? While there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries the importance of strong, broadly-based local partnerships and long term commitment even to initiate projects are not always appreciated. PMID:18495913

  17. A framework for understanding grocery purchasing in a low-income urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Drew A; Palmer, Anne M; Beckham, Sarah W; Surkan, Pamela J

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates that food desert environments limit low-income shoppers' ability to purchase healthy foods, thereby increasing their likelihood of diet-related illnesses. We sought to understand how individuals in an urban American food desert make grocery-purchasing decisions, and specifically why unhealthy purchases arise. Analysis is based on ethnographic data from participant observation, 37 in-depth interviews, and three focus groups with low-income, primarily African American shoppers with children. We found participants had detailed knowledge of and preference for healthy foods, but the obligation to consistently provide food for their families required them to apply specific decision criteria which, combined with structural qualities of the supermarket environment, increased unhealthy purchases and decreased healthy purchases. Applying situated cognition theory, we constructed an emic model explaining this widely shared grocery-purchasing decision process and its implications. This context-specific understanding of behavior suggests that multifaceted, system-level approaches to intervention are needed to increase healthy purchasing in food deserts.

  18. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  19. Shaping Core Health Messages: Rural, Low-Income Mothers Speak Through Participatory Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost

    2018-04-23

    Rural, low-income families are disproportionately impacted by health problems owing to structural barriers (e.g., transportation, health insurance coverage) and personal barriers (e.g., health literacy). This paper presents a Participatory Action Research (PAR) model of co-created Core Health Messages (CHMs) in the areas of dental health, food security, health insurance, and physical activity. The research project engaged a multi-disciplinary team of experts to design initial health messages; rural, low-income mothers to respond to, and co-create, health messages; and stakeholders who work with families to share their insights. Findings reveal the perceptions of mothers and community stakeholders regarding messages and channels of message dissemination. By using PAR, a learner engagement approach, the researchers intend to increase the likelihood that the CHMs are culturally appropriate and relevant to specific populations. The CHM-PAR model visually illustrates an interactive, iterative process of health message generation and testing. The paper concludes with implications for future research and outreach in a technological landscape where dissemination channels are dynamic. This paper provides a model for researchers and health educators to co-create messages in a desired format (e.g., length, voice, level of empathy, tone) preferred by their audiences and to examine dissemination methods that will best reach those audiences.

  20. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.