WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-frequency phased-array methods

  1. Using Low-Frequency Phased Arrays to Detect Cracks in Cast Austenitic Piping Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a multi-year program funded by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) to address NDE reliability of inservice inspection (ISI) programs, recent studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the US NRC on the utility, effectiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) inspection techniques as related to the ISI of primary piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes progress, recent developments and early results from an assessment of a portion of this work relating to the ultrasonic low frequency phased array inspection technique. Westinghouse Owner's Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks, PNNL samples containing thermal fatigue cracks and several blank vintage specimens having very coarse grains that are representative of early centrifugally cast piping installed in PWRs, are being used for assessing the inspection method. The phased array approach was implemented using an R/D Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1.0 MHz and 500 kHz, providing composite volumetric images of the samples. Several dual, transmit-receive, custom designed low-frequency arrays are employed in laboratory trials. Results from laboratory studies for assessing detection of thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks in cast stainless steel piping welds are discussed

  2. Low Frequency Phased Array Application for Crack Detection in Cast Austenitic Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a multi-year program funded by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) to address nondestructive examination (NDE) reliability of inservice inspection (ISI) programs, studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the US NRC on the utility, effectiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as related to the ISI of primary piping components in US commercial nuclear power plants. This paper describes progress, recent developments and results from an assessment of a portion of the work relating to the ultrasonic low frequency phased array inspection technique. Westinghouse Owner's Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks, PNNL samples containing thermal fatigue cracks and several blank vintage specimens having very coarse grains that are representative of early centrifugally cast piping installed in PWRs, were used for assessing the inspection method. The phased array approach was implemented using an R/D Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1.0 MHz and 500 kHz, providing composite volumetric images of the samples. Several dual, transmit-receive, custom designed low-frequency arrays were employed in laboratory trials. Results from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization and length sizing effectiveness are discussed.

  3. Application of phased array technology for identification of low frequency noise sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo E. Camargo; Patricio A. Ravetta; Ricardo A. Burdisso; Adam K. Smith [NIOSH (United States)

    2009-12-15

    A study conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) revealed that 90% of coal miners have hearing impairment by age 50, compared to only 10% of those not exposed to occupational noise. According to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Continuous Mining Machine (CM) operators account for 30% of workers exposed to noise doses exceeding the Permissible Exposure Level (PEL). In this context, NIOSH is conducting research to identify and control dominant noise sources in CMs. Previous noise source identification was performed using a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) 1.92-m diameter, 42-microphone phased array. These measurements revealed that the impacts from the conveyor chain onto the tail roller, and the impacts from the conveyor chain onto the upper deck are the dominant noise sources at the tail-section of the CM. The objectives of the work presented in this paper were: (1) To rank the noise radiated by the different sections of the conveyor, and (2) to determine the effect of a urethane-coated tail roller on the noise radiated by the tail-section. This test was conducted using an Acoustical and Vibrations Engineering Consultants (AVEC) 3.5-m diameter, 121-microphone phased array. The results from this new test show that a urethane-coated tail roller yields reductions in the tail-section of 2 to 8 dB in Sound Pressure Level in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 5 kHz. However, integration of the acoustic maps shows that the front-section and mid-section of the conveyor also contain dominant noise sources. Therefore, a urethane-coated tail roller in combination with a chain with urethane-coated flights that reduces the noise sources in the front and mid sections of the conveyor is required to yield a significant noise reduction on the CM operator's overall exposure. These results show the applicability of phased array technology for low frequency noise source identification.

  4. Integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Solin, Pavel; Karban, Pavel; Ulrych, Bohus

    2009-01-01

    A modern presentation of integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge on integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics. Blending theory with numerous examples, it introduces key aspects of the integral methods used in engineering as a powerful alternative to PDE-based models. Readers will get complete coverage of: The electromagnetic field and its basic characteristics An overview of solution methods Solutions of electromagnetic fields by integral expressions Integral and integrodifferential methods

  5. Development of ultrasonic inspection equipment using phased array method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Yamatoya, Naofumi; Umino, Tomohiro; Baba, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    This study presents new phased array UT equipments, one is developed as portable type for field inspection and the other is developed for 2D-matrix array (3D Focus-UT). The pulser of square burst wave was adopted for these new equipments to enhance flaw echo amplitude. At over 3 cycles of square burst cycle, the authors confirmed over 10 dB enhancement of bottom echo amplitude. Moreover, a new flaw imaging method using S-SAFT was also adopted for equipments to improve SN ratio and flaw echo resolution in inspection image. The authors verified effects of S-SAFT using side drilled hole specimen, about 2 times of improvement of SN ratio and flaw echo resolution. (author)

  6. Continuous-Scan Phased Array Measurement Methods for Turbofan Engine Acoustic Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes an SBIR project to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of a method for measuring phased array acoustic data for...

  7. LOMEGA: a low frequency, field implicit method for plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-04-01

    Field implicit methods for low frequency plasma simulation by the LOMEGA (Low OMEGA) codes are described. These implicit field methods may be combined with particle pushing algorithms using either Lorentz force or guiding center force models to study two-dimensional, magnetized, electrostatic plasmas. Numerical results for ωsub(e)deltat>>1 are described. (author)

  8. Ultrasonic testing with the phased array method at the pipe connection inner edges in pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekow, G.; Wuestenberg, H.; Hesselmann, H.; Rathgeb, W.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing with the phased array method at the pipe connection inner edges in pipings. The pipe connection inner corner tests in feedwater lines to the main coolant pipe were carried out by Preussen-Elektra in cooperation with Siemens KWU and the BAM with the ultrasonic phased array method. The testing plan was developed by means of a computed model. For a trial of the testing plan, numerous ultrasonic measurements with the phased array method were carried out using a pipe test piece with TH-type inner edges, which was a 1:1 model of the reactor component to be tested. The data measured at several test notches in the pipe connection inner edge area covered by a plating of 6 mm were analyzed. (orig./MM) [de

  9. Sampling methods for low-frequency electromagnetic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, Bastian; Hanke, Martin; Schneider, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    For the detection of hidden objects by low-frequency electromagnetic imaging the linear sampling method works remarkably well despite the fact that the rigorous mathematical justification is still incomplete. In this work, we give an explanation for this good performance by showing that in the low-frequency limit the measurement operator fulfils the assumptions for the fully justified variant of the linear sampling method, the so-called factorization method. We also show how the method has to be modified in the physically relevant case of electromagnetic imaging with divergence-free currents. We present numerical results to illustrate our findings, and to show that similar performance can be expected for the case of conducting objects and layered backgrounds

  10. A characteristics of the small crack evaluation technique by triangle method with phased array UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a kind of nondestructive test to detect a crack or discontinuity in material or material surface by sending ultrasound to it. This conventional ultrasonic test has some difficulties to detect crack or inspect material specially in the case of complex-shaped power plant components such as Turbine blade root. Phased array UT system and its application methods for complex shaped power plant components will be a good alternative method which overcome present UT weakness. This study was aimed at developing a new method for finding the crack on material or material structures, and especially for determining the crack length without moving transducer. Especially ultrasonic phased array with electronic scan technique was used in carrying out both sizing and detect ability of crack as its depth and length changes. The response of ultrasonic phased array was analyzed to obtain the special method of determining crack length without moving the transducer and detect-ability of crack minimal length and depth from the material. The result showed a newly developed method for crack length determining is very real method which has its accuracy and verify the effectiveness of method compared to a conventional crack length determining method

  11. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki H.; Xie, Gan Q.

    1994-01-01

    A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.

  12. An autocorrelation method to detect low frequency earthquakes within tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.R.; Beroza, G.C.; Shelly, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that deep tremor in the Nankai Trough under western Shikoku consists of a swarm of low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) that occur as slow shear slip on the down-dip extension of the primary seismogenic zone of the plate interface. The similarity of tremor in other locations suggests a similar mechanism, but the absence of cataloged low frequency earthquakes prevents a similar analysis. In this study, we develop a method for identifying LFEs within tremor. The method employs a matched-filter algorithm, similar to the technique used to infer that tremor in parts of Shikoku is comprised of LFEs; however, in this case we do not assume the origin times or locations of any LFEs a priori. We search for LFEs using the running autocorrelation of tremor waveforms for 6 Hi-Net stations in the vicinity of the tremor source. Time lags showing strong similarity in the autocorrelation represent either repeats, or near repeats, of LFEs within the tremor. We test the method on an hour of Hi-Net recordings of tremor and demonstrates that it extracts both known and previously unidentified LFEs. Once identified, we cross correlate waveforms to measure relative arrival times and locate the LFEs. The results are able to explain most of the tremor as a swarm of LFEs and the locations of newly identified events appear to fill a gap in the spatial distribution of known LFEs. This method should allow us to extend the analysis of Shelly et al. (2007a) to parts of the Nankai Trough in Shikoku that have sparse LFE coverage, and may also allow us to extend our analysis to other regions that experience deep tremor, but where LFEs have not yet been identified. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Investigating low-frequency compression using the Grid method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    in literature. Moreover, slopes of the low-level portions of the BM I/O functions estimated at 500 Hz were examined, to determine whether the 500-Hz off-frequency forward masking curves were affected by compression. Overall, the collected data showed a trend confirming the compressive behaviour. However......There is an ongoing discussion about whether the amount of cochlear compression in humans at low frequencies (below 1 kHz) is as high as that at higher frequencies. It is controversial whether the compression affects the slope of the off-frequency forward masking curves at those frequencies. Here......, the Grid method with a 2-interval 1-up 3-down tracking rule was applied to estimate forward masking curves at two characteristic frequencies: 500 Hz and 4000 Hz. The resulting curves and the corresponding basilar membrane input-output (BM I/O) functions were found to be comparable to those reported...

  14. Laser induced ultrasonic phased array using full matrix capture data acquisition and total focusing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratoudaki, Theodosia; Clark, Matt; Wilcox, Paul D

    2016-09-19

    Laser ultrasonics is a technique where lasers are employed to generate and detect ultrasound. A data collection method (full matrix capture) and a post processing imaging algorithm, the total focusing method, both developed for ultrasonic arrays, are modified and used in order to enhance the capabilities of laser ultrasonics for nondestructive testing by improving defect detectability and increasing spatial resolution. In this way, a laser induced ultrasonic phased array is synthesized. A model is developed and compared with experimental results from aluminum samples with side drilled holes and slots at depths of 5 - 20 mm from the surface.

  15. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  16. Evaluation of Methods for In-Situ Calibration of Field-Deployable Microphone Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Current field-deployable microphone phased arrays for aeroacoustic flight testing require the placement of hundreds of individual sensors over a large area. Depending on the duration of the test campaign, the microphones may be required to stay deployed at the testing site for weeks or even months. This presents a challenge in regards to tracking the response (i.e., sensitivity) of the individual sensors as a function of time in order to evaluate the health of the array. To address this challenge, two different methods for in-situ tracking of microphone responses are described. The first relies on the use of an aerial sound source attached as a payload on a hovering small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) vehicle. The second relies on the use of individually excited ground-based sound sources strategically placed throughout the array pattern. Testing of the two methods was performed in microphone array deployments conducted at Fort A.P. Hill in 2015 and at Edwards Air Force Base in 2016. The results indicate that the drift in individual sensor responses can be tracked reasonably well using both methods. Thus, in-situ response tracking methods are useful as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the health of a phased array during long duration deployments.

  17. Effects of very low frequency electromagnetic method (VLFEM) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of livestock dung on ground water status in the study area. To achieve this, a very low frequency EM survey was conducted; the aim and objective was to detect fractures in the subsurface. VLF data were acquired at 5m intervals along two profiles, with maximum length of 60m in the ...

  18. Theoretical model and experimental verification on the PID tracking method using liquid crystal optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangru; Xu, Jianhua; Huang, Ziqiang; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Tianyi; Wu, Shuanghong; Qiu, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystal optical phased array (LC-OPA) has been considered with great potential on the non-mechanical laser deflector because it is fabricated using photolithographic patterning technology which has been well advanced by the electronics and display industry. As a vital application of LC-OPA, free space laser communication has demonstrated its merits on communication bandwidth. Before data communication, ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing) process costs relatively long time to result in a bottle-neck of free space laser communication. Meanwhile, dynamic real time accurate tracking is sensitive to keep a stable communication link. The electro-optic medium liquid crystal with low driving voltage can be used as the laser beam deflector. This paper presents a fast-track method using liquid crystal optical phased array as the beam deflector, CCD as a beacon light detector. PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) loop algorithm is introduced as the controlling algorithm to generate the corresponding steering angle. To achieve the goal of fast and accurate tracking, theoretical analysis and experimental verification are demonstrated that PID closed-loop system can suppress the attitude random vibration. Meanwhile, theoretical analysis shows that tracking accuracy can be less than 6.5μrad, with a relative agreement with experimental results which is obtained after 10 adjustments that the tracking accuracy is less than12.6μrad.

  19. A novel method to design sparse linear arrays for ultrasonic phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Chen, Bin; Shi, Ke-Ren

    2006-12-22

    In ultrasonic phased array testing, a sparse array can increase the resolution by enlarging the aperture without adding system complexity. Designing a sparse array involves choosing the best or a better configuration from a large number of candidate arrays. We firstly designed sparse arrays by using a genetic algorithm, but found that the arrays have poor performance and poor consistency. So, a method based on the Minimum Redundancy Linear Array was then adopted. Some elements are determined by the minimum-redundancy array firstly in order to ensure spatial resolution and then a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the remaining elements. Sparse arrays designed by this method have much better performance and consistency compared to the arrays designed only by a genetic algorithm. Both simulation and experiment confirm the effectiveness.

  20. Beam-pointing error compensation method of phased array radar seeker with phantom-bit technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuqiu WEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A phased array radar seeker (PARS must be able to effectively decouple body motion and accurately extract the line-of-sight (LOS rate for target missile tracking. In this study, the real-time two-channel beam pointing error (BPE compensation method of PARS for LOS rate extraction is designed. The PARS discrete beam motion principium is analyzed, and the mathematical model of beam scanning control is finished. According to the principle of the antenna element shift phase, both the antenna element shift phase law and the causes of beam-pointing error under phantom-bit conditions are analyzed, and the effect of BPE caused by phantom-bit technology (PBT on the extraction accuracy of the LOS rate is examined. A compensation method is given, which includes coordinate transforms, beam angle margin compensation, and detector dislocation angle calculation. When the method is used, the beam angle margin in the pitch and yaw directions is calculated to reduce the effect of the missile body disturbance and to improve LOS rate extraction precision by compensating for the detector dislocation angle. The simulation results validate the proposed method.

  1. Multiobjective Optimization Method for Multichannel Microwave Components of Active Phased Array Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel microwave components are widely used and the active phased array antenna is a typical representative. The high power generated from T/R modules in active phased array antenna (APAA leads to the degradation of its electrical performances, which seriously restricts the development of high-performance APAA. Therefore, to meet the demand of thermal design for APAA, a multiobjective optimization design model of cold plate is proposed. Furthermore, in order to achieve temperature uniformity and case temperature restrictions of APAA simultaneously, optimization model of channel structure is developed. Besides, an airborne active phased array antenna was tested as an example to verify the validity of the optimization model. The valuable results provide important reference for engineers to enhance thermal design technology of antennas.

  2. Study on The Extended Range Weather Forecast of Low Frequency Signal Based on Period Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    Although many studies have explored the MJO and its application for weather forecasting, low-frequency oscillation has been insufficiently studied for the extend range weather forecasting over middle and high latitudes. In China, low-frequency synoptic map is a useful tool for meteorological operation department to forecast extend range weather. It is therefore necessary to develop objective methods to serve the need for finding low-frequency signal, interpretation and application of this signal in the extend range weather forecasting. In this paper, method of Butterworth band pass filter was applied to get low-frequency height field at 500hPa from 1980 to 2014 by using NCEP/NCAR daily grid data. Then period analysis and optimal subset regression methods were used to process the low frequency data of 150 days before the first forecast day and extend the low frequency signal of 500hPa low-frequency high field to future 30 days in the global from June to August during 2011-2014. Finally, the results were test. The main results are as follows: (1) In general, the fitting effect of low frequency signals of 500hPa low-frequency height field by period analysis in the northern hemisphere was better than that in the southern hemisphere, and was better in the low latitudes than that in the high latitudes. The fitting accuracy gradually reduced with the increase of forecast time length, which tended to be stable during the late forecasting period. (2) The fitting effects over the 6 key regions in China showed that except filtering result over Xinjiang area in the first 10 days and 30 days, filtering results over the other 5 key regions throughout the whole period have passed reliability test with level more than 95%. (3) The center and scope of low and high low frequency systems can be fitted well by using the methods mentioned above, which is consist with the corresponding use of the low-frequency synoptic map for the prediction of the extended period. Application of the

  3. Novel method for detecting weak magnetic fields at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, S.; Castillo-Torres, J.; Mendoza-Santos, J. C.; Zamorano-Ulloa, R.

    2005-06-01

    A low-level-intensity magnetic field detection system has been designed and developed based on the amplification-selection process of signals. This configuration is also very sensitive to magnetic field changes produced by harmonic-like electrical currents transported in finite-length wires. Experimental and theoretical results of magnetic fields detection as low as 10-9T at 120Hz are also presented with an accuracy of around 13%. The assembled equipment is designed to measure an electromotive force induced in a free-magnetic-core coil in order to recover signals which are previously selected, despite the fact that their intensities are much lower than the environment electromagnetic radiation. The prototype has a signal-to-noise ratio of 60dB. This system also presents the advantage for using it as a portable unit of measurement. The concept and prototype may be applied, for example, as a nondestructive method to analyze any corrosion formation in metallic oil pipelines which are subjected to cathodic protection.

  4. Real-time 3D imaging methods using 2D phased arrays based on synthetic focusing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Jun; Song, Tai-Kyong

    2008-07-01

    A fast 3D ultrasound imaging technique using a 2D phased array transducer based on the synthetic focusing method for nondestructive testing or medical imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, each column of a 2D array is fired successively to produce transverse fan beams focused at a fixed depth along a given longitudinal direction and the resulting pulse echoes are received at all elements of a 2D array used. After firing all column arrays, a frame of high-resolution image along a given longitudinal direction is obtained with dynamic focusing employed in the longitudinal direction on receive and in the transverse direction on both transmit and receive. The volume rate of the proposed method can be increased much higher than that of the conventional 2D array imaging by employing an efficient sparse array technique. A simple modification to the proposed method can further increase the volume scan rate significantly. The proposed methods are verified through computer simulations.

  5. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  6. Study of a New Method of Tracking Control with Zero Steady-State Error on Very-Low Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A servo control system is prone to low speed and unsteadiness during very-low-frequency follow-up. A design method of feedforward control based on intelligent controller is put foward. Simulation and test results show that the method has excellent control characteristics and strong robustness, which meets the servo control needs with very-low frequency.

  7. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangWook Park

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP and the IEEE standard guidelines.

  8. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minhyuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the IEEE standard guidelines. PMID:27898688

  9. Numerical Exposure Assessment Method for Low Frequency Range and Application to Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangWook; Kim, Minhyuk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical exposure assessment method is presented for a quasi-static analysis by the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. The proposed method is composed of scattered field FDTD method and quasi-static approximation for analyzing of the low frequency band electromagnetic problems. The proposed method provides an effective tool to compute induced electric fields in an anatomically realistic human voxel model exposed to an arbitrary non-uniform field source in the low frequency ranges. The method is verified, and excellent agreement with theoretical solutions is found for a dielectric sphere model exposed to a magnetic dipole source. The assessment method serves a practical example of the electric fields, current densities, and specific absorption rates induced in a human head and body in close proximity to a 150-kHz wireless power transfer system for cell phone charging. The results are compared to the limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the IEEE standard guidelines.

  10. Comparison of objective methods for assessment of annoyance of low frequency noise with the results of a laboratory listening test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Subjective assessments made by test persons were compared to results from a number of objective measurement and calculation methods for the assessment of low frequency noise. Eighteen young persons with normal hearing listened to eight environmental low frequency noises and evaluated the annoyance...

  11. Analysis of Circularly Polarized Hemispheroidal Dielectric Resonator Antenna Phased Arrays Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs are subsequen......The method of auxiliary sources is employed to model and analyze probe-fed hemispheroidal dielectric resonator antennas and arrays. Circularly polarized antenna elements of different designs are analyzed, and impedance bandwidths of up to 14.7% are achieved. Selected element designs...

  12. A Method of Estimating Pressure and Intensity Distributions of Multielement Phased Array High Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Field at Full Power Using a Needle Hydrophone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ying; Shen Guofeng; Bai Jingfeng; Chen Yazhu

    2011-01-01

    The pressure and intensity distribution of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields at full power are critical for predicting heating patterns and ensuring safety of the therapy. With the limitations of maximum pressure at the hydrophone and damage from cavitation or thermal effects, it is hard to measure pressure and intensity directly when HIFU is at full power. HIFU-phased arrays are usually composed of large numbers of small elements and the sound power radiated from some of them at full power is measureable using a hydrophone, we grouped them based on the limitation of maximum permissible pressure at the hydrophone and the characteristics of the element arrangement in the array. Then sound field measurement of the group was carried out at full power level. Using the acoustic coherence principle, the pressure and intensity distribution of the array at full power level can be calculated from corresponding values from the groups. With this method, computer simulations and sound field measurement of a 65-element concentric distributed phased array was carried out. The simulation results demonstrate theoretically the feasibility of this method. Measurements on the 65-element phased array also verify the effectiveness of this method for estimating the pressure and intensity distribution of phased array at full power level using a needle hydrophone.

  13. Examination of measurement and its method of compensation of the sensitivity distribution using phased array coil for body scan

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, T; Iizuka, A; Taniguchi, Y; Ishikuro, A; Hongo, T; Inoue, H; Ogura, A

    2003-01-01

    The influence on the quality of images by measurement of a sensitivity distribution and the use of a sensitivity compensation filter was considered using an opposite-type phased array coil and volume-type phased array coil. With the opposite-type phased array coil, the relation between coil interval and filter was investigated for the image intensity correction (IIC) filter, surface coil intensity correction (SCIC) filter (GE), and the Normalize filter (SIEMENS). The SCIC filter and Normalize filter showed distance dependability over the coil interval of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and uniformity was observed, and the existence of an optimal coil interval was suggested. Moreover, with the IIC filter, distance dependability over a coil interval was small, and the decrease in contrast with use was remarkable. On the other hand, with the volume-type phased array coil, the overlap of an array element was investigated to determine the influence it had on sensitivity distribution. Although the value stabilized in t...

  14. Methods of developing an emission cataster for low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, E.; Frohn, O.; Koffke, K.; Dunker, J.; Plotzke, O.

    1996-01-01

    In the common environment each individual is exposed to a large variety of power frequency or extremely low frequency (EFL) electric and magnetic fields. Traditionally these fields have been thought to be harmless but recent scientific studies reveal, however, that at least effects do exists. Therefore father investigations have to be carried out in order to obtain a greater data base. As a major point new ways have to be established that allow an effective collection of an relevant data concerning the exposition m this fields. In our contribution for the first time methods that consider simultaneously an major field emittants in the ramp of 0-500 Hz spread over the area as great as a town district. These methods have been developed and successfully tested in the district Buch/Karow of Berlin during the research study 'emission cataster of electric and magnetic field exposure in Berlin -a comparative study in selected public areas'. In this study the following field sources have been taken to consideration: i) 110-kV, 220-kV, 380-kV transmission lines, ii) 110-kV power transmission cables, iii) relay station Karow, iv) 10-kV medium voltage level, v) 1-kV distribution level, vi) power stations, vii) railway, viii) urban railway. (author)

  15. Phased array antenna control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  16. Characterisation of hole traps in GaAs Fets by DLTS, low frequency noise and g sub M dispersion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Kaya, L.; Jones, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Deep level effects in GaAs MOSFET have been characterised in the ohmic channel using DLTS, low frequency excess noise and dispersion technique. An isothermal multi exponential curve fitting method has been devised and implanted into the DLTS system. Multi exponential curve fitting method used to decompose a multi exponential transient into its constituents so that the peak signature can be better characterised for the case whereas several peaks are closely spaced. Low frequency excess noise and dispersion techniques also confirm the trap in signature of the same traps observed in the DLTS measurements. (author)

  17. [THE CORRECTION OF TROPHIC DISORDERS IN CHILDREN OF CHRONIC GASTRODUODENITIS WITH METHOD LOW-FREQUENCY LIGHT-MAGNETOTHERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, T A; Sadovnikova, I V; Belousova, T E

    2015-01-01

    The results of a survey of school children with chronic gastroduodenitis when applying at an early period the medical rehabilitation with method low-frequency light-magnetotherapy. During treatment of hospital was evaluated vegetative-trophic status with methods of cardiointervalography and thermovision functional tests. In normalizes clinical parameters was correction in dynamics of the vegetative status in children, it confirms the effectiveness of the therapy. It is proved, that the use of low-frequency light-magnetotherapy has a positive effect on the vegetative--trophic provision an organism and normalizes the vegetative dysfunction.

  18. Application of the ultrasonic phased array technique to alloy 182 weld inspection in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Chu Chung; Shie, Namg Chian; Chu, Shyr Liang; Lee, Sou See; Toung, Jean Chung; Su, Liang Chun; Yang, Hai Ming

    2006-01-01

    Cracks were found in nickel-based welds frequently in some nuclear power plants. The development of inspection technique capability of finding these cracks is thus in great demand. The difficulties of inspection and evaluation for nickel-based welds include ultrasonic reflection of interface of dissimilar materials, ultrasonic distortion of anisotropic microstructure, and signal-to-noise ratio reduction of coarse grain. In this study, an Alloy 182 mock-up with the same size and material properties as in the field is designed and fabricated. The Alloy 182 mock-up specimen contains various cracks and notches for calibration. Phased array UT and other ultrasonic inspection techniques are used in this study. Based on the experiment results, the phased array probe with 2D dual crystals and low frequency (1.5MHz) longitudinal wave is found to perform well. Finally, phased array ultrasonic testing technique has been approved to be an effectively nondestructive test method for DMW with real size testing block involved. Typically, phased array probe can generate sharp tip diffraction signal and thus reliable and accurate result can be obtained for sizing the defect. Furthermore, phased array probe can also generate various angles and focal lengths and thus combinatorial effect can be achieved for several traditional probes. With a full understanding of the beam behavior and an optimized delay laws, the phased away ultrasonic technique integrated with an automatic scanner will achieve not only to save scanning time but also to reduce the amount of radiation exposure on field inspection.

  19. A new method for calculation of low-frequency coupling impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurennoy, S.S.; Stupakov, G.V.

    1993-05-01

    In high-energy proton accelerators and storage rings the bunch length is typically at least a few times larger than the radius of the vacuum chamber. For example, the SSC will have an rms bunch length above 6 cm and a beam-pipe radius below 2 cm. The main concern for beam stability in such a machine is the low-frequency impedance, i.e., the coupling impedance at frequencies wen below the cut-off frequency of the vacuum chamber. In the present paper we develop a new analytical approach for calculation of the low-frequency impedance of axisymmetric structures that allows us to give quick and reliable estimates of contributions to the impedance from various chamber discontinuities. Simple formulae for the longitudinal impedance of some typical discontinuities are obtained

  20. Subjective annoyance caused by indoor low-level and low frequency noise and control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Guo-qing; ZHANG Bang-jun; SHANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of low-level noise has not been widely noticed. This paper discovered that low-level and low frequency noise(Aweighted equivalent level Leq < 45 dB) causes higher probability of subjective annoyance. The fuzzy mathematic principle was applied to deal with the threshold level of subjective annoyance from noise in this study; there is preferable relationship between the indoor noise and noise annoyance at low frequency noise level. Study indicated at the same centered noise level, the change of annoyance probability is mainly caused by the change of the frequency spectrum characteristic of the indoor noise. Under low noise level environment, without change of the medium-low frequency noise, the slight increase of medium-high frequency noise level with the help of noise sheltering effect can significantly reduce the noise annoyance. This discovery brings a new resolution on how to improve the environmental quality of working or living places. A noise control model is given in this study according to the acoustic analysis.

  1. Blending of phased array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Arno; van Groenestijn, Gert-Jan; van Neer, Paul; Blacquière, Gerrit; Volker, Arno

    2018-04-01

    The use of phased arrays is growing in the non-destructive testing industry and the trend is towards large 2D arrays, but due to limitations, it is currently not possible to record the signals from all elements, resulting in aliased data. In the past, we have presented a data interpolation scheme `beyond spatial aliasing' to overcome this aliasing. In this paper, we present a different approach: blending and deblending of data. On the hardware side, groups of receivers are blended (grouped) in only a few transmit/recording channels. This allows for transmission and recording with all elements, in a shorter acquisition time and with less channels. On the data processing side, this blended data is deblended (separated) by transforming it to a different domain and applying an iterative filtering and thresholding. Two different filtering methods are compared: f-k filtering and wavefield extrapolation filtering. The deblending and filtering methods are demonstrated on simulated experimental data. The wavefield extrapolation filtering proves to outperform f-k filtering. The wavefield extrapolation method can deal with groups of up to 24 receivers, in a phased array of 48 × 48 elements.

  2. Manual phased arrays for weld inspections using North American codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Phased arrays are primarily a method of generating and receiving ultrasound, not a new technology. In addition, the physics of ultrasound generated by phased arrays is identical to that from conventional monocrystals. Not surprisingly, all the major North American (and some European) codes accept phased arrays, either explicitly or implicitly. However, the technique and procedures needs to be proven, typically by a Performance Demonstration. The ASME (AmeicanSociety for Mechanical Engineers) Section V and API RP2X explicitly accept phased arrays. Three ASME code cases have been written specifically fo manual phased array: Code Cases 2541. 2557 and 2558. Over and above the general requirements of Article 4, these Code Cases require full waveform calibration. This is echoed in ASTM E-2491, a Standard Guide for setting up phased arrays. In addition. details such as focusing and reporting are addressed. The American Petroleum Institute QUTE procedure did not need any modifications to be compatible with manual phased arrays. The American Welding Society (AWS) Structural Welding Code D1.1 implicitly accepts phased arrays. New technologies such as phased arrays can be proven using Annex K. Nonetheless, a manual phased array unit using the standard AWS probe and displaying 45, 60 and 70degrees waveforms would be acceptable for D1.1 a s is . Overall, most major North American codes accept phased arrays, however, the technique and procedures must be proven, often using a Performance Demonstration. (author)

  3. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  4. Solving ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction of spheroidal wave equation at low frequency by supersymmetric quantum mechanics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wen-Lin; Tian Gui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The spheroidal wave functions are found to have extensive applications in many branches of physics and mathematics. We use the perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics to obtain the analytic ground eigenvalue and the ground eigenfunction of the angular spheroidal wave equation at low frequency in a series form. Using this approach, the numerical determinations of the ground eigenvalue and the ground eigenfunction for small complex frequencies are also obtained.

  5. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  6. LOFAR, the low frequency array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a next-generation radio telescope designed by ASTRON, with antenna stations concentrated in the north of the Netherlands and currently spread into Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom; plans for more LOFAR stations exist in several other countries. Utilizing a novel, phased-array design, LOFAR is optimized for the largely unexplored low frequency range between 30 and 240 MHz. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid re-pointing of the telescopes as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. Processing (e.g. cross-correlation) takes place in the LOFAR BlueGene/P supercomputer, and associated post-processing facilities. With its dense core (inner few km) array and long (more than 1000 km) interferometric baselines, LOFAR reaches unparalleled sensitivity and resolution in the low frequency radio regime. The International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) is now issuing its first call for observing projects that will be peer reviewed and selected for observing starting in December. Part of the allocations will be made on the basis of a fully Open Skies policy; there are also reserved fractions assigned by national consortia in return for contributions from their country to the ILT. In this invited talk, the gradually expanding complement of operationally verified observing modes and capabilities are reviewed, and some of the exciting first astronomical results are presented.

  7. Sensitivity of new detection method for ultra-low frequency gravitational waves with pulsar spin-down rate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemaru, Naoyuki; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko

    2018-04-01

    A new detection method for ultra-low frequency gravitational waves (GWs) with a frequency much lower than the observational range of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) was suggested in Yonemaru et al. (2016). In the PTA analysis, ultra-low frequency GWs (≲ 10-10 Hz) which evolve just linearly during the observation time span are absorbed by the pulsar spin-down rates since both have the same effect on the pulse arrival time. Therefore, such GWs cannot be detected by the conventional method of PTAs. However, the bias on the observed spin-down rates depends on relative direction of a pulsar and GW source and shows a quadrupole pattern in the sky. Thus, if we divide the pulsars according to the position in the sky and see the difference in the statistics of the spin-down rates, ultra-low frequency GWs from a single source can be detected. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of this method by Monte-Carlo simulations and estimate the sensitivity, considering only the "Earth term" while the "pulsar term" acts like random noise for GW frequencies 10-13 - 10-10 Hz. We find that with 3,000 milli-second pulsars, which are expected to be discovered by a future survey with the Square Kilometre Array, GWs with the derivative of amplitude of about 3 × 10^{-19} {s}^{-1} can in principle be detected. Implications for possible supermassive binary black holes in Sgr* and M87 are also given.

  8. Experimental implementation of a low-frequency global sound equalization method based on free field propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Lydolf, Morten

    2007-01-01

    An experimental implementation of a global sound equalization method in a rectangular room using active control is described in this paper. The main purpose of the work has been to provide experimental evidence that sound can be equalized in a continuous three-dimensional region, the listening zone......, which occupies a considerable part of the complete volume of the room. The equalization method, based on the simulation of a progressive plane wave, was implemented in a room with inner dimensions of 2.70 m x 2.74 m x 2.40 m. With this method,the sound was reproduced by a matrix of 4 x 5 loudspeakers...... in one of the walls. After traveling through the room, the sound wave was absorbed on the opposite wall, which had a similar arrangement of loudspeakers, by means of active control. A set of 40 digital FIR filters was used to modify the original input signal before it was fed to the loudspeakers, one...

  9. System and method for earth probing with deep subsurface penetration using low frequency electromagnetic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etten, P. van; Brown, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    An earth probing system uses deep penetration of electromagnetic waves into soil and other media. Advantage is taken of lower attenuation of radar in soil by frequencies of about three megahertz or less. Bursts of electromagnetic energy of various frequencies in this range are consecutively transmitted. The transmitting antenna is continuously tuned, so as to maintain resonance during each burst, allowing large circulating currents and high power output. In a receiving antenna system, a dual antenna arrangement is providing for obtaining improved reception. A corresponding dual antenna circuit employs 'a spatial notch filtering', automatic adjustment of antenna gain-frequency variations, as well as compensation for transmitter gain variation. The system may be implemented in a totally analog, totally digital, or hybrid manner. Preferably, a signal processing method detected and digitally samples signal reflected from subsurface layers and buried objects. The invention provides means for removing system distortions and interfering signals, for compensating for aliasing errors and frequency-dependent antenna gain and phase variations, and for avoiding masking errors introduced by strong reflections. (author)

  10. A Analysis of the Low Frequency Sound Field in Non-Rectangular Enclosures Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Earl Russell

    The details of the low frequency sound field for a rectangular room can be studied by the use of an established analytic technique--separation of variables. The solution is straightforward and the results are well-known. A non -rectangular room has boundary conditions which are not separable and therefore other solution techniques must be used. This study shows that the finite element method can be adapted for use in the study of sound fields in arbitrary shaped enclosures. The finite element acoustics problem is formulated and the modification of a standard program, which is necessary for solving acoustic field problems, is examined. The solution of the semi-non-rectangular room problem (one where the floor and ceiling remain parallel) is carried out by a combined finite element/separation of variables approach. The solution results are used to construct the Green's function for the low frequency sound field in five rooms (or data cases): (1) a rectangular (Louden) room; (2) The smallest wall of the Louden room canted 20 degrees from normal; (3) The largest wall of the Louden room canted 20 degrees from normal; (4) both the largest and the smallest walls are canted 20 degrees; and (5) a five-sided room variation of Case 4. Case 1, the rectangular room was calculated using both the finite element method and the separation of variables technique. The results for the two methods are compared in order to access the accuracy of the finite element method models. The modal damping coefficient are calculated and the results examined. The statistics of the source and receiver average normalized RMS P('2) responses in the 80 Hz, 100 Hz, and 125 Hz one-third octave bands are developed. The receiver averaged pressure response is developed to determine the effect of the source locations on the response. Twelve source locations are examined and the results tabulated for comparison. The effect of a finite sized source is looked at briefly. Finally, the standard deviation of the

  11. Low frequency, electrodynamic simulation of kinetic plasmas with the DArwin Direct Implicit Particle-In-Cell (DADIPIC) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    This dissertation describes a new algorithm for simulating low frequency, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. DArwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-Cell (DADIPIC), as its name implies, is a combination of the Darwin and direct implicit methods. One of the difficulties in simulating plasmas lies in the enormous disparity between the fundamental scale lengths of a plasma and the scale lengths of the phenomena of interest. The objective is to create models which can ignore the fundamental constraints without eliminating relevant plasma properties. Over the past twenty years several PIC methods have been investigated for overcoming the constraints on explicit electrodynamic PIC. These models eliminate selected high frequency plasma phenomena while retaining kinetic phenomena at low frequency. This dissertation shows that the combination of Darwin and Direct Implicit allows them to operate better than they have been shown to operate in the past. Through the Darwin method the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations are reformulated into a set of elliptic equations. Propagating light waves do not exist in the formulation so the Courant constraint on the time step is eliminated. The Direct Implicit method is applied only to the electrostatic field with the result that electrostatic plasma oscillations do not have to be resolved for stability. With the elimination of these constraints spatial and temporal discretization can be much larger than that possible with explicit, electrodynamic PIC. The code functions in a two dimensional Cartesian region and has been implemented with all components of the particle velocities, the E-field, and the B-field. Internal structures, conductors or dielectrics, may be placed in the simulation region, can be set at desired potentials, and driven with specified currents

  12. PHARUS : PHased ARray Universal SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paquay, M.H.A.; Vermeulen, B.C.B.; Koomen, P.J.; Hoogeboom, P.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been developed. The project is called PHARUS, an acronm for PHased ARray Universal SAR. This instrument serves remote sensing applications. The antenna system contains 48 active modules (expandable to 96). A module

  13. Optically Controlled Phased Array Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garafalo, David

    1998-01-01

    .... The antenna is a 3-foot by 9 foot phased array capable of a scan angle of 120 degrees. The antenna was designed to be conformal to the cargo door of a large aircraft and is designed to operate in the frequency range of 830 - 1400 MHz with a 30...

  14. The Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell (DADIPIC) method for simulation of low frequency plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.; Hewett, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm for simulating low frequency, kinetic phenomena in plasma. Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell (DADIPIC), as its name implies, is a combination of the Darwin and direct implicit methods. Through the Darwin method the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations are reformulated into a set of elliptic equations. Propagating light waves do not exist in the formulation so the Courant constraint on the time step is eliminated. The direct implicit method is applied only to the electrostatic field with the result that electrostatic plasma oscillations do not have to be resolved for stability. With the elimination of these constraints spatial and temporal discretization can be much larger than that possible with explicit, electrodynamic PIC. We discuss the algorithms for pushing the particles and solving the fields in 2D cartesian geometry. We also detail boundary conditions for conductors and dielectrics. Finally, we present two test cases, electron cyclotron waves and collisionless heating in inductively coupled plasmas. For these test cases DADIPIC shows agreement with analytic kinetic theory and good energy conservation characteristics. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Low frequency noise study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This report documents a study to investigate human response to the low-frequency : content of aviation noise, or low-frequency noise (LFN). The study comprised field : measurements and laboratory studies. The major findings were: : 1. Start-of-takeof...

  16. Estimation of Existence Geothermal Manifestation Using Very Low Frequency (VLF) Method in the PagerkandangVulcanic, Dieng, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Asri; Asti Anggari, Ega; Dwiasih, Novi; Suyanto, Imam

    2018-03-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) measurement has been done at Pagerkandang Volcanic, Dieng Volcanic Complex (DVC) to examine the possible existence of conductive zones that related with geothermal manifestation. VLF – EM survey used tilt mode with T-VLF BRGM Iris Instrument operated with two frequencies, they are 22200 Hz from Japan (JJI) and 19800 Hz from Australia (NWC). There are five lines with distance between lines is 50 m, and distance between measure points is 20 m. The parameters measured from VLF method are tilt angle (%) and elliptisity (%). Data processed by tilt angle value with fraser and Karous – Hjelt filter used WinVLF program. Karous – Hjelt filter resulted current density contour to estimate lateral location from conductive and resistive zones. The conductive zone is interpreted as the area which have high current density value. This area located at eastern dan western of Pagerkandang Volcanic. The conductive zone related to geothermal manifestation as like as fumarol that appeared because presenced of normal fault. Whereas the resistive zone is interpreted as the area which have low current density value. This area spread almost in the middle of the Pagerkandang Volcanic. The resistive zone was caused by the high weathering in claystone.

  17. LOW FREQUENCY DAMPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BOGATEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The low frequency damper is an autonomous equipment for damping vibrations with the 1-20Hz range.Its autonomy enables the equipment to be located in various mechanical systems, without requiring special hydraulic installations.The low frequency damper was designed for damping the low frequency oscillations occurring in the circuit controls of the upgraded IAR-99 Aircraft.The low frequency damper is a novelty in the aerospace field ,with applicability in several areas as it can be built up in an appropriate range of dimensions meeting the requirements of different beneficiaries. On this line an equipment able to damp an extended frequency range was performed for damping oscillations in the pipes of the nuclear power plants.This damper, tested in INCAS laboratories matched the requirements of the beneficiary.The low frequency damper is patented – the patent no. 114583C1/2000 is held by INCAS.

  18. Development and implementation of UT procedures for nuclear and other applications using TRL phased array probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardome, V.; Delaide, M.; Cermak, J.; Cruysweegs, E.; Plateau, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, Vincotte developed, qualified and applied various UT procedures for the automated in-service inspection of austenitic and dissimilar metal welds, using conventional ultrasonic probes. In a process of continuous improvement, Vincotte is upgrading these existing procedures by applying low frequency TRL phased array probes. This presentation situates this recent innovation within the phased array history of Vincotte. Particular attention will be paid to these newest phased array developments, in terms of probe development, angled beam generation and scanning patterns. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of phased array UT conditions using ultrasonic visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Takashi; Komura, Ichirou

    2008-01-01

    Phased array provides many advantages over conventional ultrasonic testing method, but phased array has also limitations. This paper describes typical results of the experimental sound field analysis generated from the array probe. A photo-elastic ultrasonic visualization technique was applied in this study. The sound fields of shear wave generated from the array probe was equivalent to that from the fixed angle probe. (author)

  20. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  1. Low-frequency oscillations in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li-Qiu; Han Liang; Yu Da-Ren; Guo Ning

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the research development of low-frequency oscillations in the last few decades. The findings of physical mechanism, characteristics and stabilizing methods of low-frequency oscillations are discussed. It shows that it is unreasonable and incomplete to model an ionization region separately to analyze the physical mechanism of low-frequency oscillations. Electro-dynamics as well as the formation conditions of ionization distribution play an important role in characteristics and stabilizing of low-frequency oscillations. Understanding the physical mechanism and characteristics of low- frequency oscillations thoroughly and developing a feasible method stabilizing this instability are still important research subjects. (review)

  2. Method to minimize the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations with time-offset injection for neutral-point-clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time-offset to the three phase turn-on times. The proper time-offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  3. Superconducting electron tunneling as detection method for low frequency resonant vibration modes of interstitials in fcc lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of objective methods for assessment of annoyance of low frequency noise with the results of a laboratory listening test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The effect of low frequency noise and vibration on people is an important issue for communities around many industrial facilities and an transportation systems. There are a number of research groups throughout the world which have been actively researching these effects. This book brings together...... and vibration on people is widespread; thus this work will appeal to researchers in disciplines as diverse as acoustics, vibration, psychology, occupational health and environmental health It will also appeal to researchers in academia and designers of all kinds of industrial equipment, in terms of its...

  5. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  6. LOFAR - low frequency array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Gunst, André

    Nog een paar maanden en dan wordt de grootste radiotelescoop ter wereld officieel geopend: LOFAR, de ‘Low Frequency Arraÿ'.LOFAR is een nieuwe radiotelescoop die in Nederland gebouwd wordt door ASTRON, de Stichting Astronomisch Onderzoek in Nederland. Met LOFAR heeft Nederland er straks een uniek

  7. Low frequency radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarka, Philippe; Cecconi, Baptiste; Tagger, Michel; Torchinsky, Steve; Picard, Philippe; Pezzani, Jacques; Cognard, Ismael; Boone, Frederic; Woan, Graham; Weber, Rodolphe; Gousset, Thierry; Lautridou, Pascal; Dallier, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Low frequency radioastronomy deals with the direct detection (below 100 MHz) and heterodyne detection (up to few GHz) of electromagnetic waves (phase and amplitude) followed by a time or spectral analysis. The 30. Goutelas school covered several aspects of radioastronomy involving various aspects of physics: non-thermal phenomena in plasmas and physics of magnetized plasmas, atomic and molecular physics, and particle physics. These proceedings comprise 17 lectures dealing with: 1 - Low-Frequency Radioastronomy Basics (P. Zarka); 2 - Radioastronomy Historical Highlights (S. A. Torchinsky); 3 - Antennas (P. Picard, J. Pezzani); 4 - Receptors (P. Picard, J. Pezzani); 5 - Pulsars chronometry: metrology in radioastronomy (I. Cognard); 6 - Interferometry as imaging technique (F. Boone); 7 - Radio propagation and scintillation (G. Woan); 8 - Square Kilometer Array (S. A. Torchinsky); 9 - Techniques against radio-electrical interferences in low-frequency radioastronomy (R. Weber); 10 - Introduction to poly-phase filtering (R. Weber); 11 - Three decades of Jupiter's radio-emission studies: from the Nancay deca-meter network to LOFAR (P. Zarka); 12 - Atmospheric showers and their radio counterpart (T. Gousset); 13 - From cosmic rays radio-detection to pulse radioastronomy (P. Lautridou, R. Dallier); 14 - The CODALEMA project (R. Dallier, P. Lautridou); 15 - Space-based radio measurements: Gonio-polarimetry (B. Cecconi); 16 - Radio astronomy from space (G. Woan); 17 - LOFAR: the Low Frequency Array and the French FLOW consortium (M. Tagger, P. Zarka)

  8. New applications using phased array techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Hauser, Th.; Voelz, U.

    2001-01-01

    In general, the application of phased array techniques used to be limited to heavy components with large wall thicknesses, such as those in the nuclear power industry. With the improvement of the phased array equipment, including phased array search units, other application areas are now accessible for the phased array inspection technique, e.g. the inspection of turbine blade roots, weld inspection with a wall thickness ranging from 12 to 40 mm, inspection of aircraft components, inspection of spot welds and the inspection of concrete building components. The objective for the use of phased array techniques has not significantly changed since their first application, e.g. instant adjustment of the sound beam to the geometry of the test object by steering incidence angle, skew angle and/or sound field focusing. Because some new phased array technique applications are still in the experimental (laboratory) stage, this article will focus on some examples for practical, real-weld applications

  9. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  10. Antennas for Frequency Reconfigurable Phased Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Sensors such as phased array radars play a crucial role in public safety. They are unavoidable for surveillance, threat identification and post-disaster management. However, different scenarios impose immensely diverse requirements for these systems. Phased array systems occupy a large space. In

  11. Delineation of Gold Mineralization Zone using Resistivity and Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic Methods around, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A.; Panda, K. P.; Singh, A.; Sharma, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The results of electrical resistivity and VLF electromagnetic surveys are presented in this study to delineate the suitable geological structure associated with gold mineralization near Lawa Village (Seraikela-Kharsawan, Jharkhand), India. The area under observation lies in North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (NSMB) which is bounded by Chotanagpur Gneiss Complex in north and Archean Singhbhum Craton in the south. Shear zone of the study area, trending E-W, is mainly associated with Cu-U mineralization which is also associated with gold. Previous geological studies have revealed that this region can be a potential site for gold prospects within NSMB. A comprehensive electrical resistivity imaging and very low frequency surveys have been performed around Lawa village to outline appropriate conducting zones, with their lateral extension and depth extent, which may be associated with gold mineralization. Resistivity survey done using Dipole-Dipole multi-electrode array reveals multiple zones of mineralization separated by variable distances. The VLF data in the current study was tainted by non-stationary and non-linear noises which cannot be eliminated by standard filtering techniques. Therefore to restore signals with significant geologic information empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique was used. The noise free data obtained was then processed using Fast Imaging technique to obtain apparent current density pseudo-sections for interpretation. Interpretation and analysis of results from each investigating survey demonstrate a steeply dipping conductor with E-W strike direction along the shear zone. These conductive zones are characterized by low resistivity and high current density values.

  12. Possibility of application of low-frequency piezothromboelastografy method for the evaluation of haemostatic potential of blood in coronary bypass surgery on the background of long aspirinotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Fanaskova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the hemostatic system on the aspirin therapy background using the VerifyNow Aspirin test, as well as examining platelet aggregation and low-frequency piezothromboelastography in patients with coronary artery disease during coronary artery bypass grafting.Materials and methods. 100 people with coronary artery disease who were taking aspirin (75–100 mg daily for more than 1 year were examined. The study was performed in the perioperative period of coronary bypass surgery without aspirin withdrawal. Evaluation of hemostasis was performed by the VerifyNow Aspirin тest (USA, platelet aggregation (Нelena Laboratories AggRAMTM, Britain and the low-frequency piezothromboelastography (ARP-01M “Mednord”, Russia.Results. Patients included in the study were sensitive to aspirin when under long-term administration of a drug: indicator test was VerifyNow ARU 496,9 ± 21,3%, the platelet aggregation to ADP and adrenaline was reduced by 46% and 52%, respectively. In the early postoperative period platelet aggregation of ADP decreased by 73,2%, collagen – 75,9%, and adrenaline – 82,64% in comparison with the control group.Perioperative hemorrhagic complications in the study group were not observed. Reduction of platelet aggregation after aspirin therapy was accompanied by an increase in thrombin activity of the blood, which allows for evaluation of the method of low-frequency piezothromboelastography (LPTEG. In the early postoperative period, the results of LPTEG, thrombin potential, and anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of blood were partially normalized without reaching the level of the control group.Conclusion. For the evaluation of hemostasis under aspirin therapy it is advisable to apply the low-frequency piezothromboelastography, which in contrast to the VerifyNow test and traditional platelet aggregation, allows one to reveal a degree of impairment in thrombin blood activity and to conduct an integrative assessment on all

  13. Method to Minimize the Low-Frequency Neutral-Point Voltage Oscillations With Time-Offset Injection for Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    time of small- and medium-voltage vectors. However, if the power factor is lower, there is a limitation to eliminate neutral-point oscillations. In this case, the proposed method can be improved by changing the switching sequence properly. Additionally, a method for neutral-point voltage balancing......This paper proposes a method to reduce the low-frequency neutral-point voltage oscillations. The neutral-point voltage oscillations are considerably reduced by adding a time offset to the three-phase turn-on times. The proper time offset is simply calculated considering the phase currents and dwell...

  14. Transverse Oscillations for Phased Array Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    of superficial blood vessels. To broaden the usability of the method, it should be expanded to a phased array geometry enabling vector velocity imaging of the heart. Therefore, the scan depth has to be increased to 10-15 cm. This paper presents suitable pulse echo fields (PEF). Two lines are beamformed...... (correlation coefficient, R: -0.76), and therefore predict estimator performance. CV is correlated with the standard deviation (R=0.74). The results demonstrate the potential for using a phased array for vector velocity imaging at larger depths, and potentially for imaging the heart....

  15. Phased array UT (Ultrasonic Testing) used in electricity production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Phased Array-Ultrasonic testing techniques widely used for detection and quantitative determination of the lattice defects which have been formed from fatigues or stress corrosion cracking in the materials used in the electricity production plants are presented with particular focus on the accurate determination of the defects depth (sizing) and defects discrimination applicable to weld metals of austenite stainless steels and Ni base alloys. The principle of this non-destructive analysis is briefly explained, followed by point and matrix focus phased array methods developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd are explained rather in detail with illustration and the evaluated results. (S. Ohno)

  16. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed

  17. Evidence of performance for phased array/ALOK-inspection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, H.; Kroening, M.; Rathgeb, W.; Gebhardt, W.; Kappes, W.; Barbian, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phased-array probes combined with the ALOK method give an US test system which results in major improvements of automated ultrasonic testing of pressure vessels. The authors discuss the improvements in test execution, defect detection and interpretation by means of tandem defects and defect detection in fault displays. (DG) [de

  18. Applications of the phased array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Hauser, Th.; Voelz, U.

    1999-01-01

    The application of the phased array technique was limited to heavy and thick wall components as present in the nuclear industry. With the improvement of the equipment and probes other application areas are now open for the phased array technique, e.g. the inspection of the turbine blade root, weld inspection in a wall thickness range between 12 and 40 mm, inspection of aircraft components, inspection of spot welds or inspection of concretes. The aim of the use of phased array techniques has not been changed related to the first applications, i.e. the adaptation of the sound beam to the geometry by steering the angel of incidence or the skewing angle as well as the focussing of sound fields. Due to the fact, that the new applications of the phased array techniques in some cases don't leave the laboratories for the time being, the examples of this contribution will focus applications with practical background. (orig.)

  19. Phased array ultrasound testing on complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Arif Tuan Mat; Khazali Mohd Zin

    2009-01-01

    Phase array ultrasonic inspection is used to investigate its response to complex welded joints geometry. A 5 MHz probe with 64 linear array elements was employed to scan mild steel T-joint, nozzle and node samples. These samples contain many defects such as cracks, lack of penetration and lack of fusion. Ultrasonic respond is analysed and viewed using the Tomoview software. The results show the actual phase array images on respective types of defect. (author)

  20. Searching for chaos on low frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Wesner

    2004-01-01

    A new method for detecting low dimensional chaos in small sample sets is presented. The method is applied to financial data on low frequency (annual and monthly) for which few observations are available.

  1. Development of a Fibre-Phased Array Laser-EMAT Ultrasonic System for Defect Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, C; Demachi, K; Koyama, K; Uesaka, M; Fukuchi, T; Chen, Z

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a phased array laser ultrasound system with using fibre optic delivery and a custom-designed focusing objective lens has been developed for enhancing the ultrasound generation. The fibre-phased array method is applied to improve the sensitivity and detecting ability of the laser-EMAT system for defect inspection

  2. Intracavitary ultrasound phased arrays for thermal therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin

    Currently, the success of hyperthermia and thermal surgery treatments is limited by the technology used in the design and fabrication of clinical heating devices and the completeness of the thermometry systems used for guidance. For both hyperthermia and thermal surgery, electrically focused ultrasound generated by phased arrays provides a means of controlling localized energy deposition in body tissues. Intracavitary applicators can be used to bring the energy source close to a target volume, such as the prostate, thereby minimizing normal tissue damage. The work performed in this study was aimed at improving noninvasive prostate thermal therapies and utilized three research approaches: (1) Acoustic, thermal and optimization simulations, (2) Design and fabrication of multiple phased arrays, (3) Ex vivo and in vivo experimental testing of the heating capabilities of the phased arrays. As part of this study, a novel aperiodic phased array design was developed which resulted in a 30- 45% reduction in grating lobe levels when compared to conventional phased arrays. Measured acoustic fields generated by the constructed aperiodic arrays agreed closely with the fields predicted by the theoretical simulations and covered anatomically appropriate ranges. The power capabilities of these arrays were demonstrated to be sufficient for the purposes of hyperthermia and thermal surgery. The advantage of using phased arrays in place of fixed focus transducers was shown by demonstrating the ability of electronic scanning to increase the size of the necrosed tissue volume while providing a more uniform thermal dose, which can ultimately reduce patient treatment times. A theoretical study on the feasibility of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) thermometry for noninvasive temperature feedback control was investigated as a means to improve transient and steady state temperature distributions achieved in hyperthermia treatments. MRI guided ex vivo and in vivo experiments demonstrated

  3. Structure-borne low-frequency noise from multi-span bridges: A prediction method and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. D.; Wu, D. J.; Li, Q.; Botteldooren, D.

    2016-04-01

    Structure-borne noise from railway bridges at far-field points is an important indicator in environmental noise assessment. However, studies that predict structure-borne noise tend to model only single-span bridges, thus ignoring the sound pressure radiating from adjacent spans. To simulate the noise radiating from multi-span bridges induced by moving vehicles, the vibrations of a multi-span bridge are first obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction simulation using the mode superposition method. A procedure based on the 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) boundary element method (BEM) is then presented to promote the efficiency of acoustical computation compared with the 3D BEM. The simulated results obtained from both the single-span and multi-span bridge models are compared with the measured results. The sound predictions calculated from the single-span model are accurate only for a minority of near-field points. In contrast, the sound pressures calculated from the multi-span bridge model match the measured results in both the time and frequency domains for all of the near-field and far-field points. The number of bridge spans required in the noise simulation is then recommended related to the distance between the track center and the field points of interest. The spatial distribution of multi-span structure-borne noise is also studied. The variation in sound pressure levels is insignificant along the length of the bridge, which validates the finding that the sound test section can be selected at an arbitrary plane perpendicular to the multi-span bridge.

  4. Development of phased-array ultrasonic testing probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Seiichi; Kurokawa, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masaru; Tada, Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    Phased-array ultrasonic testing was developed for nondestructive evaluation of power plants. Phased-array UT scans and focuses an ultrasonic beam to inspect areas difficult to inspect by conventional UT. We developed a highly sensitive piezoelectric composite, and designed optimized phased-array UT probes. We are applying our phased-array UT to different areas of power plants. (author)

  5. Microelectromechanical Switches for Phased Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Scardelletti, Maximillian; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of a MicroElectro-Mechanical (MEM) microstrip series switch. This switch is being developed for use in a K-band phased array antenna that NASA will use for communication links in its Earth orbiting satellites. Preliminary insertion loss and isolation measurements are presented.

  6. Waveguide Phased Array Antenna Analysis and Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Keizer, W.P.M.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of two software packages for analysis and synthesis of waveguide phased array antennas are shown. The antennas consist of arrays of open-ended waveguides where irises can be placed in the waveguide apertures and multiple dielectric sheets in front of the apertures in order to accomplish a

  7. Robotic inspection of fiber reinforced composites using phased array UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Jeffrey T.; De Odorico, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound is the current NDE method of choice to inspect large fiber reinforced airframe structures. Over the last 15 years Cartesian based scanning machines using conventional ultrasound techniques have been employed by all airframe OEMs and their top tier suppliers to perform these inspections. Technical advances in both computing power and commercially available, multi-axis robots now facilitate a new generation of scanning machines. These machines use multiple end effector tools taking full advantage of phased array ultrasound technologies yielding substantial improvements in inspection quality and productivity. This paper outlines the general architecture for these new robotic scanning systems as well as details the variety of ultrasonic techniques available for use with them including advances such as wide area phased array scanning and sound field adaptation for non-flat, non-parallel surfaces.

  8. A 2.5-dimensional method for the prediction of structure-borne low-frequency noise from concrete rail transit bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Song, Xiaodong; Wu, Dingjun

    2014-05-01

    Predicting structure-borne noise from bridges subjected to moving trains using the three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM) is a time consuming process. This paper presents a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) BEM-based procedure for simulating bridge-borne low-frequency noise with higher efficiency, yet no loss of accuracy. The two-dimensional (2D) BEM of a bridge with a constant cross section along the track direction is adopted to calculate the spatial modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) of the bridge using the space-wave number transforms of its 3D modal shapes. The MATVs calculated using the 2.5D method are then validated by those computed using the 3D BEM. The bridge-borne noise is finally obtained through the MATVs and modal coordinate responses of the bridge, considering time-varying vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction. The presented procedure is applied to predict the sound pressure radiating from a U-shaped concrete bridge, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from field tests on Shanghai rail transit line 8. The numerical results match well with the measured results in both time and frequency domains at near-field points. Nevertheless, the computed results are smaller than the measured ones for far-field points, mainly due to the sound radiation from adjacent spans neglected in the current model.

  9. Low-frequency-noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    From 203 cases of low-frequency complaints a random selection of twenty-one cases were investigated. The main aim of the investigation was to answer the question whether the annoyance is caused by an external physical sound or by a physically non-existing sound, i.e. low-frequency tinnitus. Noise...... of the complainants are annoyed by a physical sound (20-180 Hz), while others suffer from low-frequency tinnitus (perceived frequency 40-100 Hz). Physical sound at frequencies below 20 Hz (infrasound) is not responsible for the annoyance - or at all audible - in any of the investigated cases, and none...... of the complainants has extraordinary hearing sensitivity at low frequencies. For comparable cases of low-frequency noise complaints in general, it is anticipated that physical sound is responsible in a substantial part of the cases, while low-frequency tinnitus is responsible in another substantial part of the cases....

  10. Probe suppression in conformal phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Neethu, P S

    2017-01-01

    This book considers a cylindrical phased array with microstrip patch antenna elements and half-wavelength dipole antenna elements. The effect of platform and mutual coupling effect is included in the analysis. The non-planar geometry is tackled by using Euler's transformation towards the calculation of array manifold. Results are presented for both conducting and dielectric cylinder. The optimal weights obtained are used to generate adapted pattern according to a given signal scenario. It is shown that array along with adaptive algorithm is able to cater to an arbitrary signal environment even when the platform effect and mutual coupling is taken into account. This book provides a step-by-step approach for analyzing the probe suppression in non-planar geometry. Its detailed illustrations and analysis will be a useful text for graduate and research students, scientists and engineers working in the area of phased arrays, low-observables and stealth technology.

  11. Measuring low-frequency noise indoors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    that is exceeded in 10% of the volume of a room (L10) is proposed as a rational and objective target for a measurement method. In Sweden and Denmark rules exist for measuring low-frequency noise indoors. The performance of these procedures was investigated in three rooms. The results from the Swedish method were...

  12. Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) detected during episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events in Cascadia using a match filter method indicate repeating events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, A. A.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) occur in transitional zones of faults, releasing seismic energy in the 0.02-0.05 Hz frequency band over a 90 s duration and typically have magntitudes within the range of Mw 3.0-4.0. VLFEs can occur down-dip of the seismogenic zone, where they can transfer stress up-dip potentially bringing the locked zone closer to a critical failure stress. VLFEs also occur up-dip of the seismogenic zone in a region along the plate interface that can rupture coseismically during large megathrust events, such as the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake [Ide et al., 2011]. VLFEs were first detected in Cascadia during the 2011 episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event, occurring coincidentally with tremor [Ghosh et al., 2015]. However, during the 2014 ETS event, VLFEs were spatially and temporally asynchronous with tremor activity [Hutchison and Ghosh, 2016]. Such contrasting behaviors remind us that the mechanics behind such events remain elusive, yet they are responsible for the largest portion of the moment release during an ETS event. Here, we apply a match filter method using known VLFEs as template events to detect additional VLFEs. Using a grid-search centroid moment tensor inversion method, we invert stacks of the resulting match filter detections to ensure moment tensor solutions are similar to that of the respective template events. Our ability to successfully employ a match filter method to VLFE detection in Cascadia intrinsically indicates that these events can be repeating, implying that the same asperities are likely responsible for generating multiple VLFEs.

  13. Proceedings of the Third EPRI Phased Array Ultrasound Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Phased array technology for ultrasonic examination is providing innovative solutions for nuclear in-service examination applications. EPRI has been a prime mover in the development and deployment of phased array ultrasound applications in the domestic nuclear market over the past decade. As part of this strategic effort, EPRI has hosted a series of seminars on phased array technology and its applications

  14. Application of phased arrays in basic and in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, W.; Schwarz, H.P.; Bonitz, F.; Woll, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the scope of the reactor safety research program of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology a flexible microcomputer controlled phased array system was developed. Meanwhile, several industrial prototypes for simple and complicated applications are built up. The applicability of phased array systems in NDE for basic and inservice inspections of reactor pressure vessels is investigated. Methods for defect detection, reconstruction and classification are described

  15. Nonlinear Modelling of Low Frequency Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Erling Sandermann

    1997-01-01

    In the Danish LoDist project on distortion from dynamic low frequency loudspeakers a detailed nonlinear model of loudspeakers has been developed. The model has been implemented in a PC program so that it can be used to create signals for listening tests and analysis. Also, different methods...

  16. Nonlinear Modelling of Low Frequency Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Erling Sandermann

    1997-01-01

    In the Danish LoDist project on distortion from dynamic low-frequency loudspeakers, a detailed nonlinear model of loudspeakers has been developed. The model has been implemented in a PC program so that it can be used to create signals for listening tests and analysis. Also, different methods...

  17. Low frequency electromagnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Zhou Yan; He Yicheng; Zheng Zhenxing; Liu Sunkun

    2000-01-01

    The measurement technique of low frequency electromagnetic field is reported. According to this principle, the authors have designed a sensor, which is used to measure the natural electromagnetic field, SLEMP and electromagnetic signals generated by some explosions. The frequency band of this sensor is from 0.08 Hz to 2 MHz

  18. Low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    is only heard by a single person in the household. This raises the fundamental question whether the complainants are annoyed by an external physical sound, or if other explanations such as low-frequency tinnitus must be sought. The main aim of this study is to answer this fundamental question...

  19. 2D director calculation for liquid crystal optical phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Zhang, J; Wu, L Y

    2005-01-01

    A practical numerical model for a liquid crystal cell is set up based on the geometrical structure of liquid crystal optical phased arrays. Model parameters include width and space of electrodes, thickness of liquid crystal layer, alignment layers and glass substrates, pre-tilted angles, dielectric constants, elastic constants and so on. According to electrostatic field theory and Frank-Oseen elastic continuum theory, 2D electric potential distribution and 2D director distribution are calculated by means of the finite difference method on non-uniform grids. The influence of cell sizes on director distribution is analyzed. The fringe field effect between electrodes is also discussed

  20. Application of optical processing to adaptive phased array radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, C. W.; Vijaya Kumar, B. V. K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the applicability of optical processing to Adaptive Phased Array Radar (APAR) data processing will be summarized. Subjects that are covered include: (1) new iterative Fourier transform based technique to determine the array antenna weight vector such that the resulting antenna pattern has nulls at desired locations; (2) obtaining the solution of the optimal Wiener weight vector by both iterative and direct methods on two laboratory Optical Linear Algebra Processing (OLAP) systems; and (3) an investigation of the effects of errors present in OLAP systems on the solution vectors.

  1. Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Marcher, Jønne; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    .79 to 0.92, indicating a correlation between the performance metrics of the TO spectrum and the velocity estimates. Because these performance metrics are much more readily computed, the TO fields can be optimized faster for improved velocity estimation of both simulations and measurements. For simulations......, but with a poorer performance compared with a 128-element transducer. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the TO method is suitable for use in conjunction with a phased-array transducer, and that 2-D vector velocity estimation is possible down to a depth of 15 cm....

  2. A study for soundness of turbine blade root using ultrasonic and phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Doo Song; Park, Sang Ki; Cho, Yong Sang; Lee, Sang Gug; Huh, Kuang Bum

    2003-01-01

    Power plant is consisted of many component parts for the generation of the electricity, and occasionally, turbine equipment may be caused in break-down because of the damage of the blade root. Phased array ultrasonic testing system has become available for practical application in complicated geometry such as turbine blade root, tenon, disc in power industry. This research describes the characteristics of phased array ultrasonic testing signal for various type of blade roots in thermal Power Plant turbines. This application of Phased array ultrasonic testing system has been promoted mainly to save inspection time and labor cost of turbine inspection. The characteristic of phased array ultrasonic testing signal for power plant component in very simple to understand but to difficult for perform the inspection. This paper is focused on the safety of the turbine equipment by the ultrasonic measurement and phased array analysis. As a result of the test through ultrasonic and phased array method, we have concluded that the main damage in these turbine blade root parts could be generated by the concentrated stress and centrifugal force.

  3. A study for soundness of turbine blade root using ultrasonic and phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Doo Song; Park, Sang Ki; Cho, Yong Sang; Lee, Sang Gug; Huh, Kuang Bum

    2003-01-01

    Power plant is consisted of many component parts for the generation of the electricity and occasionally, turbine equipment may be caused in break-down because of the damage of the blade root. Phased array ultrasonic testing system has become available for power industry. This research describes the characteristics of phased array ultrasonic testing signal for various type of blade roots in thermal power plant turbines. This application of Phased array ultrasonic testing system has been promoted mainly to save inspection time and labor cost of turbine inspection. The characteristic of phased array ultrasonic testing signal for power plant component in very simple to understand but to difficult for perform the inspection. This paper is focused on the safety of the turbine equipment by the ultrasonic measurement and phased array analysis. As a result of the test through ultrasonic and phased array method, we have concluded that the main damage in these turbine blade roots parts could be generated by the concentrated stress and centrifugal force.

  4. PHASED ARRAY FEED CALIBRATION, BEAMFORMING, AND IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, Jonathan; Elmer, Michael; Waldron, Jacob; Jones, David; Stemmons, Alan; Jeffs, Brian D.; Warnick, Karl F.; Richard Fisher, J.; Norrod, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Phased array feeds (PAFs) for reflector antennas offer the potential for increased reflector field of view and faster survey speeds. To address some of the development challenges that remain for scientifically useful PAFs, including calibration and beamforming algorithms, sensitivity optimization, and demonstration of wide field of view imaging, we report experimental results from a 19 element room temperature L-band PAF mounted on the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope. Formed beams achieved an aperture efficiency of 69% and a system noise temperature of 66 K. Radio camera images of several sky regions are presented. We investigate the noise performance and sensitivity of the system as a function of elevation angle with statistically optimal beamforming and demonstrate cancelation of radio frequency interference sources with adaptive spatial filtering.

  5. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-11-02

    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  6. Multiband Photonic Phased-Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Suning

    2015-01-01

    A multiband phased-array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. Crystal Research, Inc., has developed a multiband photonic antenna that is based on a high-speed, optical, true-time-delay beamformer. It is capable of simultaneously steering multiple independent radio frequency (RF) beams in less than 1,000 nanoseconds. This high steering speed is 3 orders of magnitude faster than any existing optical beamformer. Unlike other approaches, this technology uses a single controlling device per operation band, eliminating the need for massive optical switches, laser diodes, and fiber Bragg gratings. More importantly, only one beamformer is needed for all antenna elements.

  7. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  8. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  9. Solar observations with a low frequency radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, I.; Seiradakis, J.; Dogramatzidis, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have set up a low frequency radio monitoring station for solar bursts at the Observatory of the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki. The station consists of a dual dipole phased array, a radio receiver and a dedicated computer with the necessary software installed. The constructed radio receiver is based on NASA's Radio Jove project. It operates continuously, since July 2010, at 20.1 MHz (close to the long-wavelength ionospheric cut-off of the radio window) with a narrow bandwidth (~5 kHz). The system is properly calibrated, so that the recorded data are expressed in antenna temperature. Despite the high interference level of an urban region like Thessaloniki (strong broadcasting shortwave radio stations, periodic experimental signals, CBs, etc), we have detected several low frequency solar radio bursts and correlated them with solar flares, X-ray events and other low frequency solar observations. The received signal is monitored in ordinary ASCII format and as audio signal, in order to investigate and exclude man-made radio interference. In order to exclude narrow band interference and calculate the spectral indices of the observed events, a second monitoring station, working at 36 MHz, is under construction at the village of Nikiforos near the town of Drama, about 130 km away of Thessaloniki. Finally, we plan to construct a third monitoring station at 58 MHz, in Thessaloniki. This frequency was revealed to be relatively free of interference, after a thorough investigation of the region.

  10. Design and Analysis of MEMS Linear Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS linear phased array based on “multi-cell” element is designed to increase radiation sound pressure of transducer working in bending vibration mode at high frequency. In order to more accurately predict the resonant frequency of an element, the theoretical analysis of the dynamic equation of a fixed rectangular composite plate and finite element method simulation are adopted. The effects of the parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction on the three-dimensional beam directivity characteristics are comprehensively analyzed. The key parameters in the analysis include the “cell” number of element, “cell” size, “inter-cell” spacing and the number of elements, element width. The simulation results show that optimizing the linear array parameters both in the lateral and elevation direction can greatly improve the three-dimensional beam focusing for MEMS linear phased array, which is obviously different from the traditional linear array.

  11. Looking Below the Surface with Ultrasonic Phased Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is a brief tutorial on the benefits of volumetric ultrasonic phased array line scanning. The article describes the need, the approach, and the methods/practices used to analyze the data for flaw detection and characterization in the nuclear power plant component arena. If you are inspecting the integrity of nuclear power plant components during a scheduled outage, time is likely against you. Time is a luxury that most inspectors do not possess in their daily jobs. They are required to quickly and efficiently perform nondestructive testing (NDT) on various components within the nuclear power plant facility. In addition to the obvious financial impacts ($1M+ per day) of prolonging planned outages, time constraints also are put in place for the safety and health of the inspectors. For instance, while working in highly radioactive or contaminated environments of the plant, inspectors have a limited window of time to volumetrically inspect components for flaws, such as cracks, defects or other anomalies that might lead to leakage or failure during operation. In the interest of simplicity, flaws are limited to cracks for our purposes. Ultrasonic phased array volumetric line scanning is emerging as a powerful tool that allows for quick inspections of components that had been very time-consuming using earlier technologies.

  12. Low frequency sound field enhancement system for rectangular rooms using multiple low frequency loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2006-01-01

    an enhancement system with extra loudspeakers the sound pressure level distribution along the listening area presents a significant improvement in the subwoofer frequency range. The system is simulated and implemented on the three different rooms and finally verified by measurements on the real rooms.......Rectangular rooms have strong influence on the low frequency performance of loudspeakers. Simulations of three different room sizes have been carried out using finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) in order to predict the behaviour of the sound field at low frequencies. By using...

  13. A phased array bread board for future remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R. W.; Schmidt, E.

    The next generation of SAR antennas will be of the active phased-array type. The ongoing development of a phased-array breadboard for remote sensing is described. Starting from a detailed system design, a functional representative breadboard was developed. The design and the performance of the breadboard are discussed.

  14. Simulation Based Investigation of Focusing Phased Array Ultrasound in Dissimilar Metal Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Hee Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Flaws at dissimilar metal welds (DMWs, such as reactor coolant systems components, Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM, Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI etc., in nuclear power plants have been found. Notably, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC in the DMWs could cause significant reliability problems at nuclear power plants. Therefore, phased array ultrasound is widely used for inspecting surface break cracks and stress corrosion cracks in DMWs. However, inspection of DMWs using phased array ultrasound has a relatively low probability of detection of cracks, because the crystalline structure of welds causes distortion and splitting of the ultrasonic beams which propagates anisotropic medium. Therefore, advanced evaluation techniques of phased array ultrasound are needed for improvement in the probability of detection of flaws in DMWs. Thus, in this study, an investigation of focusing and steering phased array ultrasound in DMWs was carried out using a time reversal technique, and an adaptive focusing technique based on finite element method (FEM simulation. Also, evaluation of focusing performance of three different focusing techniques was performed by comparing amplitude of phased array ultrasonic signals scattered from the targeted flaw with three different time delays.

  15. Application of ultrasonic phased array technique for inspection of stud bolts in nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Ho; Park, Min Su; Cho, Youn Ho; Park, Moon Ho

    2004-01-01

    The stud bolt is one of crucial parts for safety of reactor vessels in nuclear power plants. Cracks initiation and propagation were reported in stud bolts using closure of reactor vessel and head. Stud bolts are inspected by ultrasonic technique during overhaul periodically for the prevention of stud bolt failure and radioactive leakage from nuclear reactor. In conventional ultrasonic testing for inspection of stud bolts, crack was detected by using shadow effect. It take too much time to inspect stud bolt by using conventional ultrasonic technique. In addition, there were numerous spurious signal reflected from every thread. In this study, the advanced ultrasonic phased array technique was introduced for inspect stud bolts. The phased array technique provide fast inspection and high detectability of defects. There are sector scanning and linear scanning method in phased array technique, and these scanning methods were applied to inspect stud bolt and detectability was investigated.

  16. Frequency-domain imaging algorithm for ultrasonic testing by application of matrix phased arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolmatov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Constantly increasing demand for high-performance materials and systems in aerospace industry requires advanced methods of nondestructive testing. One of the most promising methods is ultrasonic imaging by using matrix phased arrays. This technique allows to create three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging with high lateral resolution. Further progress in matrix phased array ultrasonic testing is determined by the development of fast imaging algorithms. In this article imaging algorithm based on frequency domain calculations is proposed. This approach is computationally efficient in comparison with time domain algorithms. Performance of the proposed algorithm was tested via computer simulations for planar specimen with flat bottom holes.

  17. Oscillographic Chronopotentiometry with High and Low Frequency Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel electroanalytical method, oscillographic chronopotentiometry with high and low frequency current, is presented in this paper. With this method, the sensitivity of almost all kinds of oscillographic chronopotentiometry can be enhanced about one order.

  18. RCS estimation of linear and planar dipole phased arrays approximate model

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the RCS of a parallel-fed linear and planar dipole array is derived using an approximate method. The signal propagation within the phased array system determines the radar cross section (RCS) of phased array. The reflection and transmission coefficients for a signal at different levels of the phased-in scattering array system depend on the impedance mismatch and the design parameters. Moreover the mutual coupling effect in between the antenna elements is an important factor. A phased array system comprises of radiating elements followed by phase shifters, couplers, and terminating load impedance. These components lead to respective impedances towards the incoming signal that travels through them before reaching receive port of the array system. In this book, the RCS is approximated in terms of array factor, neglecting the phase terms. The mutual coupling effect is taken into account. The dependence of the RCS pattern on the design parameters is analyzed. The approximate model is established as a...

  19. Three-dimensional real-time synthetic aperture imaging using a rotating phased array transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Dufait, Remi; Schoisswohl, Armin

    2002-01-01

    phased array, which is rotated over the volume of interest. The data is acquired using coded signals and synthetic transmit aperture imaging. Only one group of elements transmits at a time. The delays are set such as to form a cylindrical wave. The back-scattered signal carries information not only from......Current 3D real-time imaging is done either with sparse 2D arrays, or with mechanically moved phased arrays. The former results in a poor resolution and contrast due to a limited amount of elements. The latter has the disadvantage of low frame rates due to the sequential acquisition of the volume...... line-by-line and plane-by-plane. This paper describes an approach which combines mechanically moved phased array with synthetic transmit aperture imaging, resulting in high volume acquisition rates without a trade-off in image quality. The scan method uses a conventional fully populated 64 element...

  20. Optical Techniques for Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Communications Antennas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edge, Colin

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this program was to study the application of optical techniques to signal distribution and beamforming networks in phased array antennas for Army mobile tactical communications systems...

  1. Depscor-95 Agile Optical Phased Arrays for Microspacecraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fork, Richard

    1999-01-01

    ... average power beams with little or no mechanical movement are especially interesting. Recent advances in semiconductor and optical fiber lasers suggest lightweight compact optical phased arrays suitable for microspacecraft are feasible...

  2. Rail flaw sizing using conventional and phased array ultrasonic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    An approach to detecting and characterizing internal defects in rail through the use of phased array ultrasonic testing has shown the potential to reduce the risk of missed defects and improve transverse defect characterization. : Transportation Tech...

  3. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotationon the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail, The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without ro-tation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis foree to centrifugal foree and the axial pressure gradient.

  4. Low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华军; 章本照; 苏霄燕

    2003-01-01

    The low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe was studied by using the method of bi-parameter perturbation. Perturbation solutions up to the second order were obtained and the effects of rotation on the low frequency oscillatory flow were examined in detail. The results indicated that there exists evident difference between the low frequency oscillatory flow in a rotating curved pipe and in a curved pipe without rotation. During a period, four secondary vortexes may exist on the circular cross-section and the distribution of axial velocity and wall shear stress are related to the ratio of the Coriolis force to centrifugal force and the axial pressure gradient.

  5. Remoting alternatives for a multiple phased-array antenna network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-10-01

    Significant improvements in technology have made phased array antennas an attractive alternative to the traditional dish antenna for use on wide body airplanes. These improvements have resulted in reduced size, reduced cost, reduced losses in the transmit and receive channels (simplifying the design), a significant extension in the bandwidth capability, and an increase in the functional capability. Flush mounting (thus reduced drag) and rapid beam switching are among the evolving desirable features of phased array antennas. Beam scanning of phased array antennas is limited to +/-45 degrees at best and therefore multiple phased array antennas would need to be used to insure instantaneous communications with any ground station (stations located at different geographical locations on the ground) and with other airborne stations. The exact number of phased array antennas and the specific installation location of each antenna on the wide body airplane would need to be determined by the specific communication requirements, but it is conceivable as many as five phased array antennas may need to be used to provide the required coverage. Control and switching of these antennas would need to be accomplished at a centralized location on the airplane and since these antennas would be at different locations on the airplane an efficient scheme of remoting would need to be used. To save in cost and keep the phased array antennas as small as possible the design of the phased array antennas would need to be kept simple. A dish antenna and a blade antenna (small size) could also be used to augment the system. Generating the RF signals at the central location and then using RF cables or waveguide to get the signal to any given antenna could result in significant RF losses. This paper will evaluate a number of remoting alternatives to keep the system design simple, reduce system cost, and utilize the functional capability of networking multiple phased array antennas on a wide body

  6. Analysis of Low Frequency Oscillation Using the Multi-Interval Parameter Estimation Method on a Rolling Blackout in the KEPCO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Shik Shim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multiple time interval (“multi-interval” parameter estimation method. The multi-interval parameter estimation method estimates a parameter from a new multi-interval prediction error polynomial that can simultaneously consider multiple time intervals. The root of the multi-interval prediction error polynomial includes the effect on each time interval, and the important mode can be estimated by solving one polynomial for multiple time intervals or signals. The algorithm of the multi-interval parameter estimation method proposed in this paper is applied to the test function and the data measured from a PMU (phasor measurement unit installed in the KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation system. The results confirm that the proposed multi-interval parameter estimation method accurately and reliably estimates important parameters.

  7. Low frequency electrical and magnetic methods for non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in fiber reinforced cementitious composites: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faifer, Marco; Ferrara, Liberato; Ottoboni, Roberto; Toscani, Sergio

    2013-01-21

    Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective.

  8. Brainstem response audiometry in the determination of low-frequency hearing loss : a study of various methods for frequency-specific ABR-threshold assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.G.J. Conijn

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBrainstem Electric Response Audiometry (BERA) is a method to visualize some of the electric activity generated in the auditory nerve and the brainstem during the processing of sound. The amplitude of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) is very small (0.05-0.5 flV). The potentials

  9. Method for enhancing low frequency output of impulsive type seismic energy sources and its application to a seismic energy source for use while drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P; Stokes, Robert H; Glowka, David A

    2014-12-02

    A method for operating an impulsive type seismic energy source in a firing sequence having at least two actuations for each seismic impulse to be generated by the source. The actuations have a time delay between them related to a selected energy frequency peak of the source output. One example of the method is used for generating seismic signals in a wellbore and includes discharging electric current through a spark gap disposed in the wellbore in at least one firing sequence. The sequence includes at least two actuations of the spark gap separated by an amount of time selected to cause acoustic energy resulting from the actuations to have peak amplitude at a selected frequency.

  10. Sensor Fusion Techniques for Phased-Array Eddy Current and Phased-Array Ultrasound Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrowood, Lloyd F. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Sensor (or Data) fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate and comprehensive information than is provided by a single data source. Sensor fusion may also be used to combine multiple signals from a single modality to improve the performance of a particular inspection technique. Industrial nondestructive testing may utilize multiple sensors to acquire inspection data depending upon the object under inspection and the anticipated types of defects that can be identified. Sensor fusion can be performed at various levels of signal abstraction with each having its strengths and weaknesses. A multimodal data fusion strategy first proposed by Heideklang and Shokouhi that combines spatially scattered detection locations to improve detection performance of surface-breaking and near-surface cracks in ferromagnetic metals is shown using a surface inspection example and is then extended for volumetric inspections. Utilizing data acquired from an Olympus Omniscan MX2 from both phased array eddy current and ultrasound probes on test phantoms, single and multilevel fusion techniques are employed to integrate signals from the two modalities. Preliminary results demonstrate how confidence in defect identification and interpretation benefit from sensor fusion techniques. Lastly, techniques for integrating data into radiographic and volumetric imagery from computed tomography are described and results are presented.

  11. A Study on a Crack Evaluation Technique for Turbine Blade Root Using Phased Array Ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Jung, Gye Jo; Park, Sang Ki; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a kind of nondestructive test to detect a crack or discontinuity in materials or on material surfaces by sending ultrasound to it. This conventional ultrasonic technique has some limitations in reliably detecting crack or accurately assessing materials in the case of complex-shaped power plant components such as a turbine blade root. An alternative method for such a difficult inspection is highly needed. In this study, application of a phased array ultrasonic testing (UT) system to a turbine blade, one of the critical power plant components, has been considered, and the particular incident angle has been determined so that the greatest track detectability and the most accurate crack length evaluation nay be achieved. The response of ultrasonic phased array was also analyzed to establish a special method to determine the track length without moving the transducer. The result showed that the developed method for crack length assessment is a more accurate and effective method, compared with the conventional method

  12. The isolation of low frequency impact sounds in hotel construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVerde, John J.; Dong, David W.

    2002-11-01

    One of the design challenges in the acoustical design of hotels is reducing low frequency sounds from footfalls occurring on both carpeted and hard-surfaced floors. Research on low frequency impact noise [W. Blazier and R. DuPree, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1521-1532 (1994)] resulted in a conclusion that in wood construction low frequency impact sounds were clearly audible and that feasible control methods were not available. The results of numerous FIIC (Field Impact Insulation Class) measurements performed in accordance with ASTM E1007 indicate the lack of correlation between FIIC ratings and the reaction of occupants in the room below. The measurements presented include FIIC ratings and sound pressure level measurements below the ASTM E1007 low frequency limit of 100 Hertz, and reveal that excessive sound levels in the frequency range of 63 to 100 Hertz correlate with occupant complaints. Based upon this history, a tentative criterion for maximum impact sound level in the low frequency range is presented. The results presented of modifying existing constructions to reduce the transmission of impact sounds at low frequencies indicate that there may be practical solutions to this longstanding problem.

  13. A simple uniformity test for ultrasound phased arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2016-09-01

    It is difficult to test phased array ultrasound transducers for non functioning elements. We aimed to modify a widely performed test to improve its ease and effectiveness for these arrays. A paperclip was slowly moved along the transducer array, with the scanner operating in M-mode, imaging at a fundamental frequency with automatic gain and grey scale adjustment disabled. Non-functioning elements are identified by a dark vertical line in the image. The test was repeated several times for each transducer, looking for consistency of results. 2 transducers, with faults already shown by electronic transducer testing, were used to validate the method. 23 transducers in clinical use were tested. The results of the modified test on the 2 faulty transducers agreed closely with electronic transducer testing results. The test indicated faults in 5 of the 23 transducers in clinical use: 3 with a single failed element and 2 with non-uniform sensitivity. 1 transducer with non-uniform sensitivity had undergone lens repair; the new lens was visibly non-uniform in thickness and further testing showed a reduction in depth of penetration and a loss of elevational focus in comparison with a new transducer. The modified test is capable of detecting non-functioning elements. Further work is required to provide a better understanding of more subtle faults. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic phased array with surface acoustic wave for imaging cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To accurately measure crack lengths, we developed a real-time surface imaging method (SAW PA combining an ultrasonic phased array (PA with a surface acoustic wave (SAW. SAW PA using a Rayleigh wave with a high sensitivity to surface defects was implemented for contact testing using a wedge with the third critical angle that allows the Rayleigh wave to be generated. Here, to realize high sensitivity imaging, SAW PA was optimized in terms of the wedge and the imaging area. The improved SAW PA was experimentally demonstrated using a fatigue crack specimen made of an aluminum alloy. For further verification in more realistic specimens, SAW PA was applied to stainless-steel specimens with a fatigue crack and stress corrosion cracks (SCCs. The fatigue crack was visualized with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and its length was measured with a high accuracy of better than 1 mm. The SCCs generated in the heat-affected zones (HAZs of a weld were successfully visualized with a satisfactory SNR, although responses at coarse grains appeared throughout the imaging area. The SCC lengths were accurately measured. The imaging results also precisely showed complicated distributions of SCCs, which were in excellent agreement with the optically observed distributions.

  15. Low frequency rf current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control

  16. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  17. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  18. Improvement of ultrasonic testing by use of phased arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, W; Bonitz, F.; Woll, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper examines the applicability of phased-array technology in non-destructive material testing for quality control, basic inspection and in-service inspections of the primary containment of nuclear power plants. Initial experiments on sonic aigrette control, defect margin reconstruction and the classification of defects have been carried out using medical equipment as commercially available which had been modified for non-destructive applications. At the same time, a for more flexible microcomputer-controlled phased-array system was developed, particularly designed for material testing. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Damage detection in multilayered fiber-metal laminates using guided-wave phased array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Ameneh; Ohadi, Abdolrezap; Sadighi, Mojtaba; Amindavar, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study employs the Lamb wave method to detect damage in Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs). The method is based on quasiisotropic behavior approximation and beam forming techniques. Delay and sum and minimum variance distorsionless response beam formers are applied to a uniform linear phased array. The simulation in finite element software is conducted to evaluate the performance of the presented procedure. The two types of damage studied are the following: (1) Delamination between fiber-epoxy and metal layers and (2) crack on the metal layer. The present study has the following important contributions: (1) Health monitoring of multi-damaged FMLs using Lamb waves and beam forming technique, (2) detection of damage type, (3) detection of damage size by 1D phased array, and (4) identification of damages that occurred very close to the laminate edges or close to each other.

  20. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  1. Simulation tools for industrial applications of phased array inspection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaut, St.; Roy, O.; Chatillon, S.; Calmon, P.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic phased arrays techniques have been developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission in order to improve defects characterization and adaptability to various inspection configuration (complex geometry specimen). Such transducers allow 'standard' techniques - adjustable beam-steering and focusing -, or more 'advanced' techniques - self-focusing on defects for instance -. To estimate the performances of those techniques, models have been developed, which allows to compute the ultrasonic field radiated by an arbitrary phased array transducer through any complex specimen, and to predict the ultrasonic response of various defects inspected with a known beam. Both modeling applications are gathered in the Civa software, dedicated to NDT expertise. The use of those complementary models allows to evaluate the ability of a phased array to steer and focus the ultrasonic beam, and therefore its relevancy to detect and characterize defects. These models are specifically developed to give accurate solutions to realistic inspection applications. This paper briefly describes the CIVA models, and presents some applications dedicated to the inspection of complex specimen containing various defects with a phased array used to steer and focus the beam. Defect detection and characterization performances are discussed for the various configurations. Some experimental validation of both models are also presented. (authors)

  2. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  3. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du [NDE Performance Demonstration Team, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  4. Characteristic Assessments of the Phased Array UT System Developed by KHNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chan-Hee; Jee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hun; Yoo, Hyun-Ju [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The ultrasonic testing (UT) is an important one of the nondestructive examination methods which are used for the in-service inspection in the nuclear power plant. It is mainly used for the inspection of welds in piping and nozzle for many components. Technologies for the ultrasonic testing have been advanced for the reduction of inspection time and the increase of inspection reliability. In the manual ultrasonic testing system, it is not easy to compare the variation of inspection signals over time, because the data cannot be stored during the inspection. For the purpose of inspecting nuclear power components, the KHNP developed a phased array UT system including pulser-receiver, AD converter, beam-former, phased array probe, and scanner with 3-directional degree of freedom. Characteristics of the KHNP PA system and the results of acquired signals are described in detail in this paper.

  5. Characteristic Assessments of the Phased Array UT System Developed by KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chan-Hee; Jee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hun; Yoo, Hyun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasonic testing (UT) is an important one of the nondestructive examination methods which are used for the in-service inspection in the nuclear power plant. It is mainly used for the inspection of welds in piping and nozzle for many components. Technologies for the ultrasonic testing have been advanced for the reduction of inspection time and the increase of inspection reliability. In the manual ultrasonic testing system, it is not easy to compare the variation of inspection signals over time, because the data cannot be stored during the inspection. For the purpose of inspecting nuclear power components, the KHNP developed a phased array UT system including pulser-receiver, AD converter, beam-former, phased array probe, and scanner with 3-directional degree of freedom. Characteristics of the KHNP PA system and the results of acquired signals are described in detail in this paper

  6. On absorption of low frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.

    1993-03-01

    The drift kinetic equation (DKE) is used to establish a formula for power absorption of small amplitude, low frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields in a hot toroidal axisymmetric plasma. The stationary plasma is first considered. Electrons and ions are described by local Maxwellian distributions, alpha particles by a local slowing-down distribution. The fluctuating part of the distribution function for each species is then evaluated from the linearized DKE in terms of the EM fields using a perturbation method. The parameter b p =B p /B o , where B p is the poloidal component of the magnetostatic field B o , and the parameter v d /λω, where v d is the magnetic curvature drift, λ the wavelength perpendicular to B o and ω the frequency of the EM fields, are considered to be small. By integrating the resulting distribution function over velocity space, an explicit formula for the power absorbed by each species is obtained. To obtain an expression suitable for direct implementation in an ideal-MHD code, the electric field component parallel to the magnetostatic field is evaluated using the quasi-neutrality equation. (author) 4 refs

  7. One-dimensional phased array with mechanical motion for conformal ultrasound hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Yaw; Lin, Win-Li; Kuo, Te-Son

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of conformal heating for external ultrasound hyperthermia by using a phased array transducer with mechanical motion. In this system, a one-dimensional phased array is arranged on a shaft and moves along the shaft, while dynamically focusing on the planning target volume (PTV) with numerous focal spots. To prevent overheating in the intervening tissue between the skin and the PTV, the shaft and the phased array are rotated together to enlarge the acoustical window. With the purpose of conformal heating, the power deposition of the PTV is constructed by combinations of the focal spots and an iterative gradient descent method is then used to determine an optimal set of power weightings for the focal spots. Different tumour shapes are evaluated and the simulation results demonstrate that the volume percentage of the PTV with temperatures higher than 43 deg. C is over 95%. The overheating volume outside the PTV is less than 25% of the PTV. This method provides good conformal heating for external ultrasound hyperthermia. The concept of combining electrical focusing and mechanical motion has the advantages of both enlarging the acoustic window and providing dynamic focusing ability, which is essential for successful conformal heating

  8. Detecting failed elements on phased array ultrasound transducers using the Edinburgh Pipe Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Scott; Pye, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Aims Imaging faults with ultrasound transducers are common. Failed elements on linear and curvilinear array transducers can usually be detected with a simple image uniformity or ‘paperclip’ test. However, this method is less effective for phased array transducers, commonly used in cardiac imaging. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of failed elements could be detected through measurement of the resolution integral (R) using the Edinburgh Pipe Phantom. Methods A 128-element paediatric phased array transducer was studied. Failed elements were simulated using layered polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as an attenuator and measurements of resolution integral were carried out for several widths of attenuator. Results All widths of attenuator greater than 0.5 mm resulted in a significant reduction in resolution integral and low contrast penetration measurements compared to baseline (p tests to detect failed elements on phased array transducers. Particularly encouraging is the result for low contrast penetration as this is a quick and simple measurement to make and can be performed with many different test objects, thus enabling ‘in-the-field’ checks. PMID:27482276

  9. DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS OF LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRICA POPOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more and more studies have shown that, the low frequency field strength (particularly magnetic, 50 / 60Hz are a major risk factor; according to some specialists - even more important as the radiation field. As a result, the personnel serving equipment and facilities such as: electric generators, synchronous, the motors, the inverters or power transformers is subjected continually to intense fields, in their vicinity, with possible harmful effects in the long term by affecting metabolism cell, espectively, the biological mechanisms.Therefore, finding new methods and tools for measurement and analysis of low frequency electromagnetic fields may lead to improved standards for exposure limits of the human body.

  10. Resonant magnetic pumping at very low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, Ernesto

    1978-01-01

    We propose to exploit for plasma heating purposes the very low frequency limit of the Alfven wave resonance condition, which reduces essentially to safety factor q=m/n, a rational number. It is shown that a substantial fraction of the total RF-energy can be absorbed by the plasma. The lowest possible frequency value is determined by the maximum tolerable width of the RF-magnetic islands which develop near the singular surface. The obvious interest of the proposed scheme is the low frequency value (f<=10 KHz) which allows the RF-coils to be protected by stainless steel or even to be put outside the liner

  11. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...... was found to steadily decrease with decreasing center frequency. Although the observed decrease in filter bandwidth with decreasing center frequency was only approximately monotonic, the preliminary data indicates the filter bandwidth does not stabilize around 100 Hz, e.g. it still decreases below...

  12. Gravity and low-frequency geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Teisseyre, Roman

    1989-01-01

    This fourth volume in the series Physics and Evolution of the Earth's Interior, provides a comprehensive review of the geophysical and geodetical aspects related to gravity and low-frequency geodynamics. Such aspects include the Earth's gravity field, geoid shape theory, and low-frequency phenomena like rotation, oscillations and tides.Global-scale phenomena are treated as a response to source excitation in spherical Earth models consisting of several shells: lithosphere, mantle, core and sometimes also the inner solid core. The effect of gravitation and rotation on the Earth's shape is anal

  13. SAFT-assisted sound beam focusing using phased arrays (PA-SAFT) for non-destructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekar, Paritosh; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.

    2015-04-01

    Focusing of sound has always been a subject of interest in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. An integrated approach to sound beam focusing using phased array and synthetic aperture focusing technique (PA-SAFT) has been developed in the authors' laboratory. The approach involves SAFT processing on ultrasonic B-scan image collected by a linear array transducer using a divergent sound beam. The objective is to achieve sound beam focusing using fewer elements than the ones required using conventional phased array. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on aluminium blocks with artificial flaws and steel plate samples with embedded volumetric weld flaws, such as slag and clustered porosities. The results obtained by the PA-SAFT approach are found to be comparable to those obtained by conventional phased array and full matrix capture - total focusing method approaches.

  14. Planck 2015 results: II. Low Frequency Instrument data processings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places where our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release...

  15. Removing Background Noise with Phased Array Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary; Stephens, David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test conducted to determine how well microphone phased array processing software could pull an acoustic signal out of background noise. The array consisted of 24 microphones in an aerodynamic fairing designed to be mounted in-flow. The processing was conducted using Functional Beam forming software developed by Optinav combined with cross spectral matrix subtraction. The test was conducted in the free-jet of the Nozzle Acoustic Test Rig at NASA GRC. The background noise was produced by the interaction of the free-jet flow with the solid surfaces in the flow. The acoustic signals were produced by acoustic drivers. The results show that the phased array processing was able to pull the acoustic signal out of the background noise provided the signal was no more than 20 dB below the background noise level measured using a conventional single microphone equipped with an aerodynamic forebody.

  16. Active cancellation of probing in linear dipole phased array

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2015-01-01

    In this book, a modified improved LMS algorithm is employed for weight adaptation of dipole array for the generation of beam pattern in multiple signal environments. In phased arrays, the generation of adapted pattern according to the signal scenario requires an efficient adaptive algorithm. The antenna array is expected to maintain sufficient gain towards each of the desired source while at the same time suppress the probing sources. This cancels the signal transmission towards each of the hostile probing sources leading to active cancellation. In the book, the performance of dipole phased array is demonstrated in terms of fast convergence, output noise power and output signal-to-interference-and noise ratio. The mutual coupling effect and role of edge elements are taken into account. It is established that dipole array along with an efficient algorithm is able to maintain multilobe beamforming with accurate and deep nulls towards each probing source. This work has application to the active radar cross secti...

  17. Fabrication of Phased Array EMAT and Its Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Bong Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Ki Bok

    2010-01-01

    EMAT has been applied in various fields for flaw detection and material characterization because it has noncontact property in wave generation and a good mode selectivity. Unfortunately, however, EMAT shows low signal to noise ratio relative to commercial contact transducer because of low energy conversion efficiency. If the phase matching through the control of time delay between each coil consisting of the array EMAT is accomplished, it is expected that it will be a solution for the improvement of low signal to noise ratio. In this experiment, the phased array EMATs which consists of 3 or 4 meander coils and one big magnet were fabricated for surface and vertical shear wave generation. Effect of phased delay control on signal directivity and amplitude enhancement was verified. A slit with the depth of 0.5 mm and a side-drill hole of 0.5 mm diameter were clearly detected by fabricated phased array EMATs, respectively

  18. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  19. Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    channeled to the battery or power plant. Figure 2. WPT System Block Diagram for Battery Charging. Source : [2]. Wireless power transfer has gained...EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION by Sean X. Hong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHASED ARRAY EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 5

  20. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  1. Phased-array design for MST and ST radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    All of the existing radar systems fully dedicated to clear-air radar studies use some type of phased-array antennas. The effects of beam-steering techniques including feed networks and phase shifters; sidelobe control; ground-clutter suppression; low altitude coverage; arrays with integrated radiating elements and feed networks; analysis of coaxial-collinear antennas; use of arrays with multiple beams; and array testing and measure on structural design of the antenna are discussed.

  2. Hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array for millimeter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukierman, Ari; Lee, Adrian T.; Raum, Christopher; Suzuki, Aritoki; Westbrook, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and measured performance of a hierarchical sinuous-antenna phased array coupled to superconducting transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for millimeter wavelengths. The architecture allows for dual-polarization wideband sensitivity with a beam width that is approximately frequency-independent. We report on measurements of a prototype device, which uses three levels of triangular phased arrays to synthesize beams that are approximately constant in width across three frequency bands covering a 3:1 bandwidth. The array element is a lens-coupled sinuous antenna. The device consists of an array of hemispherical lenses coupled to a lithographed wafer, which integrates TESs, planar sinuous antennas, and microwave circuitry including band-defining filters. The approximately frequency-independent beam widths improve coupling to telescope optics and keep the sensitivity of an experiment close to optimal across a broad frequency range. The design can be straightforwardly modified for use with non-TES lithographed cryogenic detectors such as kinetic inductance detectors. Additionally, we report on the design and measurements of a broadband 180° hybrid that can simplify the design of future multichroic focal planes including but not limited to hierarchical phased arrays.

  3. Low-frequency fields - health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, J.

    1993-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields, epidemiological studies and discusses health risks in detail. He describes the assessment principles of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), medical principles for risk assessment, determination of limits and thesholds, and aspects of prevention. This is supplemented to by several fables and literature list. (Uhe) [de

  4. Orbiting low frequency array for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Rai Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Engelen, Steven; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Verhoeven, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection

  5. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  6. Ku Band Phased Array Feed Development for Surface Water Ocean Topography Mission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to design components essential to the development of phased arrays and phased array feeds for use in remote sensing. Specifically the...

  7. Phased Array Imaging of Complex-Geometry Composite Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Progress in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of new composite materials are driving major advances in the design of aerospace engine components which now have highly complex geometries optimized to maximize system performance. However, shape complexity poses significant challenges to traditional nondestructive evaluation methods whose sensitivity and selectivity rapidly decrease as surface curvature increases. In addition, new aerospace materials typically exhibit an intricate microstructure that further complicates the inspection. In this context, an attractive solution is offered by combining ultrasonic phased array (PA) technology with immersion testing. Here, the water column formed between the complex surface of the component and the flat face of a linear or matrix array probe ensures ideal acoustic coupling between the array and the component as the probe is continuously scanned to form a volumetric rendering of the part. While the immersion configuration is desirable for practical testing, the interpretation of the measured ultrasonic signals for image formation is complicated by reflection and refraction effects that occur at the water-component interface. To account for refraction, the geometry of the interface must first be reconstructed from the reflected signals and subsequently used to compute suitable delay laws to focus inside the component. These calculations are based on ray theory and can be computationally intensive. Moreover, strong reflections from the interface can lead to a thick dead zone beneath the surface of the component which limits sensitivity to shallow subsurface defects. This paper presents a general approach that combines advanced computing for rapid ray tracing in anisotropic media with a 256-channel parallel array architecture. The full-volume inspection of complex-shape components is enabled through the combination of both reflected and transmitted signals through the part using a pair of arrays held in a yoke

  8. Extreme Low Frequency Acoustic Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an extremely low frequency (ELF) microphone and acoustic measurement system capable of infrasound detection in a portable and easily deployable form factor. In one embodiment of the invention, an extremely low frequency electret microphone comprises a membrane, a backplate, and a backchamber. The backchamber is sealed to allow substantially no air exchange between the backchamber and outside the microphone. Compliance of the membrane may be less than ambient air compliance. The backplate may define a plurality of holes and a slot may be defined between an outer diameter of the backplate and an inner wall of the microphone. The locations and sizes of the holes, the size of the slot, and the volume of the backchamber may be selected such that membrane motion is substantially critically damped.

  9. Very-low-frequency magnetic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendry, J.B.; O'Brien, S.

    2002-01-01

    We show that a set of current-carrying wires can exhibit an effective magnetic permeability at very low frequencies of a few hertz. The resonant permeability, which is negative above the resonance frequency, arises from the oscillations of the wires driven by the applied magnetic field. We show that a large, frequency-specific and tunable effective permeability can be realized for a wide range of strengths of the applied field. (author)

  10. Galactic foreground science: Faraday Tomography at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkorn, Marijke

    2018-05-01

    This contribution describes how low-frequency radio-spectropolarimetric imaging as done for Epoch of Reionization detection is used to investigate the nearby Galactic interstellar medium. The method of Faraday Tomography allows disentangling of every line of sight into various components in Faraday depth, which is a proxy for density-weighted magnetic field. I discuss instrumental biases and side effects of this method, and early results it has yielded.

  11. Non-destructive ultrasonic techniques for classifying and reconstructing defects; ALOK, phased arrays, holography-SAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, P.; Schmitz, V.; Mueller, W.; Gebhardt, W.; Barbian, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The only way to achieve ultrasonic testing methods capable of reconstructing defects or inhomogeneities is to measure those data that are related to the geometry of the reflector. These are phase and time-of-flight as a function of the locus of incidence. For this purpose several synthetic aperture methods have been developed in recent years by our institute: ALOK and phased arrays as searching and analysing systems, especially for in-service inspection of nuclear power plants; and holography and SAFT as analysing systems. Their ability to detect, localize, classify and reconstruct defects is discussed. (author)

  12. Phased Array Focusing for Acoustic Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victor Farm-Guoo; Bedair, Sarah S; Lazarus, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) through acoustic waves can achieve higher efficiencies than inductive coupling when the distance is above several times the transducer size. This paper demonstrates the use of ultrasonic phased arrays to focus power to receivers at arbitrary locations to increase the power transfer efficiency. Using a phased array consisting of 37 elements at a distance nearly 5 times the receiver transducer diameter, a factor of 2.6 increase in efficiency was achieved when compared to a case equivalent to a single large transducer with the same peak efficiency distance. The array has a total diameter of 7 cm, and transmits through air at 40 kHz to a 1.1-cm diameter receiver, achieving a peak overall efficiency of 4% at a distance of 5 cm. By adjusting the focal distance, the efficiency can also be maintained relatively constant at distances up to 9 cm. Numerical models were developed and shown to closely match the experimental energy transfer behavior; modeling results indicate that the efficiency can be further doubled by increasing the number of elements. For comparison, an inductive WPT system was also built with the diameters of the transmitting and receiving coils equivalent to the dimensions of the transmitting ultrasonic phased array and receiver transducer, and the acoustic WPT system achieved higher efficiencies than the inductive WPT system when the transmit-to-receive distance is above 5 cm. In addition, beam angle steering was demonstrated by using a simplified seven-element 1-D array, achieving power transfer less dependent on receiver placement.

  13. Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.

  14. Cross correlation measurement of low frequency conductivity noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aditya Kumar; Nigudkar, Himanshu; Chakraborti, Himadri; Udupa, Aditi; Gupta, Kantimay Das

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the low frequency noise(1/f noise)an experimental technique based on cross correlation of two channels is presented. In this method the device under test (DUT)is connected to the two independently powered preamplifiers in parallel. The amplified signals from the two preamplifiers are fed to two channels of a digitizer. Subsequent data processing largelyeliminates the uncorrelated noise of the two channels. This method is tested for various commercial carbon/metal film resistors by measuring equilibrium thermal noise (4kBTR). The method is then modified to study the non-equilibrium low frequency noise of heterostructure samples using fiveprobe configuration. Five contact probes allow two parts of the sample to become two arms of a balanced bridge. This configuration helps in suppressing the effect of power supply fluctuations, bath temperature fluctuations and contact resistances.

  15. SAR processing with stepped chirps and phased array antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Wideband radar signals are problematic for phased array antennas. Wideband radar signals can be generated from series or groups of narrow-band signals centered at different frequencies. An equivalent wideband LFM chirp can be assembled from lesser-bandwidth chirp segments in the data processing. The chirp segments can be transmitted as separate narrow-band pulses, each with their own steering phase operation. This overcomes the problematic dilemma of steering wideband chirps with phase shifters alone, that is, without true time-delay elements.

  16. Automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system for rail wheel sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, Paul; Weiland, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the design, system automation, calibration and validation of an automated ultrasonic system for the inspection of new and in service wheel set assemblies from diesel-electric locomotives and gondola cars. This system uses Phased Array (PA) transducers for flaw detection and Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) for the measurement of residual stress. The system collects, analyses, evaluates and categorizes the wheel sets automatically. This data is archived for future comparison and trending. It is also available for export to a portal lathe for increased efficiency and accuracy of machining, therefore allowing prolonged wheel life.

  17. An ultrasonic phased array applicator for deep localized hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Foster, S.G.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of an ultrasonic phased array applicator presents a major advantage over the fixed beam ultrasonic applicators which are typically used for clinical hyperthermia. Such an applicator allows focal region placement in the three dimensional treatment field by electronic steering instead of mechanical movement of the transducer assembly. The design of an array is discussed theoretically, considering that the constraints on grating lobes and power output for hyperthermic applications are quite different from those for imaging. The effects of various design parameters are discussed. Experimental results are presented for several arrays for frequencies under 1 Mhz

  18. Phased array ultrasonic testing of dissimilar metal pipe weld joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeev, J.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sharma, Govind K; Joseph, A.; Purnachandra Rao, B.

    2015-01-01

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW) joints made of stainless steel and ferritic steel is used in nuclear industries as well as oil and gas industries. These joints are prone to frequent failures which makes the non-destructive testing of dissimilar metal weld joints utmost important for reliable and safe operation of nuclear power plants and oil and gas industries. Ultrasonic inspection of dissimilar metal weld joints is still challenging due to the inherent anisotropic and highly scattering nature. Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) is an advanced technique and its capability has not been fully explored for the inspection of dissimilar metal welds

  19. Analysis of ultrasonic beam profile due to change of elements' number for phased array transducer (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Woo; Lee, Joon Hyun

    1998-01-01

    The phased array offers many advantages and improvements over conventional single-element transducers such as the straight-beam and angle-beam. The advantages of array sensors for large structures are two folds; firstly, array transducers provide a method of rapid beam steering and sequential addressing of a large area of interest without requiring mechanical or manual scanning which is particularly important in real-time application. Secondly, array transducer provide a method of dynamic focusing, in which the focal length of the ultrasonic beam varies as the pulse propagates through the material. There are some parameters such as number, size, center to center space of elements to design phased array transducer. In previous study. the characteristics of beam steering and dynamic focusing had been simulated for ultrasonic SH-wave with varying the number of phased array transducer's element. In this study, the characteristic of beam steering for phased array transducer has been simulated for ultrasonic SH-wave on the basis of Huygen's principle with varying center to center space of elements. Ultrasonic beam directivity and focusing due to change of time delay of each element were discussed with varying center to center space of elements.

  20. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of airsea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables datasets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea humidity gradient (Δq′) as well as mean air-sea humidity gradient ( Δ q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (ΔT′). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of Δq′, low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U′), Δ q and mean wind speed (U ), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of ΔT′ and U . 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20°N, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa′ (Ta′) and U′, indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs′ (Ts′) also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  1. Automated flaw detection scheme for cast austenitic stainless steel weld specimens using Hilbert-Huang transform of ultrasonic phased array data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Tariq; Majumdar, Shantanu; Udpa, Lalita; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Crawford, Susan; Diaz, Aaron; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop processing algorithms to detect and localize flaws using ultrasonic phased-array data. Data was collected on cast austenitic stainless stell (CASS) weld specimens onloan from the U.S. nuclear power industry' Pressurized Walter Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) traveling specimen set. Each specimen consists of a centrifugally cast stainless stell (CCSS) pipe section welded to a statically cst(SCSS) or wrought (WRSS) section. The paper presents a novel automated flaw detection and localization scheme using low frequency ultrasonic phased array inspection singals from the weld and heat affected zone of the based materials. The major steps of the overall scheme are preprocessing and region of interest (ROI) detection followed by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) of A-scans in the detected ROIs. HHT offers time-frequency-energy distribution for each ROI. The Accumulation of energy in a particular frequency band is used as a classification feature for the particular ROI

  2. Measurement of low-frequency noise in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of low-frequency noise in rooms is problematic due to standing wave patterns. The spatial variation in the sound pressure level can typically be as much as 20-30 dB. For assessment of annoyance from low-frequency noise in dwellings, it is important to measure a level close...... rooms. The sound pressure level was measured 1) in three-dimensional corners and 2) according to current Swedish and Danish measurement methods. Furthermore, the entire sound pressure distributions were measured by scanning. The Swedish and Danish measurement methods include a corner measurement...... to the highest level present in a room, rather than a room average level. In order to ensure representative noise measurements, different positions were investigated based on theoretical considerations and observations from numerical room simulations. In addition measurements were performed in three different...

  3. Low-frequency computational electromagnetics for antenna analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Burke, G.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    An overview of low-frequency, computational methods for modeling the electromagnetic characteristics of antennas is presented here. The article presents a brief analytical background, and summarizes the essential ingredients of the method of moments, for numerically solving low-frequency antenna problems. Some extensions to the basic models of perfectly conducting objects in free space are also summarized, followed by a consideration of some of the same computational issues that affect model accuracy, efficiency and utility. A variety of representative computations are then presented to illustrate various modeling aspects and capabilities that are currently available. A fairly extensive bibliography is included to suggest further reference material to the reader. 90 refs., 27 figs.

  4. Innovative phased array ultrasonic inspection solution for large rotor shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, G.; Devos, D.; Tremblay, P., E-mail: gmaes@zetec.com [Zetec, Ville de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    The increasing needs of energy production led to new rotor shaft designs with larger dimensions. A new generation of nuclear power plants is already being deployed worldwide with such heavy components. Their implementation requires new inspection tools in order to guarantee the public safety and to ensure the quality of these critical parts. Due to the long sound path, conventional ultrasonic (UT) techniques cannot provide adequate detectability of the reference reflectors required by the existing codes. Also, some standards require multiple angle beams to be applied in addition to the straight beam inspection, and this leads to long inspection times. This paper will address the implementation and validation of phased array (PA) UT techniques, using a semi-flexible 2D array probe, for the inspection of large mono-block rotor shaft forgings. It will show how the beam focusing and steering capabilities of phased array UT probes can be used to overcome the issues occurring with conventional UT probes. Results of acoustic beam simulation, as well as detectability measurements and data acquisitions on representative test specimens will be presented and compared with conventional UT performance. Various aspects of the hardware and software specification will be addressed, as well as the potential reduction of the total inspection time. (author)

  5. Ultrasonic phased arrays for nondestructive inspection of forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.; Rotter, B.; Klanke, H.P.; Harbecke, D.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonic examinations on large forgings like rotor shafts for turbines or components for nuclear reactors are carried out at various manufacturing stages and during in-service inspections. During the manufacture, most of the inspections are carried out manually. Special in-service conditions, such as those at nuclear pressure vessels, have resulted in the development of mechanized scanning equipment. Ultrasonic probes have improved, and well-adapted sound fields and pulse shapes and based on special imaging procedures for the representation of the reportable reflectors have been applied. Since the geometry of many forgings requires the use of a multitude of angles for the inspections in-service and during manufacture, phased-array probes can be used successfully. The main advantages of the phased-array concept, e.g. the generation of a multitude of angles with the typical increase of redundancy in detection and quantitative evaluation and the possibility to produce pictures of defect situations, will be described in this contribution

  6. Manipulating Liquids With Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasound waves can produce the effects of "Acoustic Radiation Pressure" (ARP) and "acoustic streaming." These effects can be used to propel liquid flows and to apply forces that can be used to move or manipulate floating objects or liquid surfaces. NASA's interest in ARP includes the remote-control agitation of liquids and the manipulation of bubbles and drops in liquid experiments and propellant systems. A high level of flexibility is attained by using a high-power acoustic phased array to generate, steer, and focus a beam of acoustic waves. This is called an Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Array, or ARPPA. In this approach, many acoustic transducer elements emit wavelets that converge into a single beam of sound waves. Electronically coordinating the timing, or "phase shift," of the acoustic waves makes it possible to form a beam with a predefined direction and focus. Therefore, a user can direct the ARP force at almost any desired point within a liquid volume. ARPPA lets experimenters manipulate objects anywhere in a test volume. This flexibility allow it to be used for multiple purposes, such as to agitate liquids, deploy and manipulate drops or bubbles, and even suppress sloshing in spacecraft propellant tanks.

  7. Inspection of austenitic welds with ultrasonic phased array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.; Fernandez, F. [Tecnatom (Spain); Dutruc, R.; Ferriere, R. [Metalscan (France)

    2011-07-01

    This series of slides presents the use of ultrasonic phased array technology in the inspection of austenitic welds. The inspection from outside surface (the inspection is performed in contact using wedges to couple the probe to the outer surface of the component) shows that longitudinal wave is the most adequate for perpendicular scans and transversal ultrasonic wave is the most adequate for parallel scans. Detection and length sizing are performed optimally in perpendicular scans. The inspection from inside surface shows: -) Good results in the detection of defects (Sizing has met the requirements imposed by the Authority of the Russian Federation); -) The new design of the mechanical equipment and of the numerous ultrasonic beams refracted by the array probes has increased the volume inspected. The design of the mechanical equipment has also allowed new areas to be inspected (example a piping weld that was not accessible from the outer surface; -) The ultrasonic procedure and Inspection System developed have been validated by the Authority of the Russian Federation. Phase array technique supplies solutions to solve accessibility concerns and improve the ultrasonic inspections of nuclear components

  8. Study of Defect Sizing in Carbon Steel Butt Welds using Conventional Ultrasonic Technique and Phased Array Ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Noorhazleena Azaman; Mohd Yusnisyam Mohd Yusoff

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a proven reliable method which is able to detect and measure the size of defects in butt welds with acceptable tolerance. Recent advancement of technology has introduced a computerized technique which is phased array. Phased array employs focal law that enable focusing and steering of beam at the active aperture axis. This enables one line scanning but covering the whole weld volume as compared to conventional technique which employs aster scan and multiple probes to completely cover the whole weld volume. Phased array also gives multiple data view which assist the interpreter. This paper is about the study of these two techniques and technical analysis of comparison between the two. The conventional technique is performed using GE USM GO with 4 MHz 45 degrees shear wave probe. The phased array technique uses OLYMPUS OMNISCAN MX2 with 5L64 linear array probe with 16 elements aperture and 55 degrees wedge emitting shear wave into the specimen. Sensitivity of both techniques are based on 1.5 mm Side Drilled Hole. The results are compared and analysis such as defect sizing and defect type determination are performed. (author)

  9. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  10. Low-frequency fields - sources and exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunsch, B.

    1993-01-01

    The author briefly discusses definition of terms, gives an introduction to measurement techniques and describes the characteristics of various low-frequency fields and their causes using typical examples: natural electric fields (thunderstroms), natural magnetic fields, technical electric constant fields (urban transportation, households), static magnetic fields (urban transportation, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging), technical electric alternating fields (high-voltage transmission lines, households), and magnetic alternating fields (high-voltage transmission lines). The author discusses both occupational exposure and that of the general public while underpinning his statements by numerous tables, measurement diagrams and charts. (Uhe) [de

  11. Nonmonotonic low frequency losses in HTSCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, H; Gerber, A; Milner, A

    2007-01-01

    A calorimetric technique has been used in order to study ac-field dissipation in ceramic BSCCO samples at low frequencies between 0.05 and 250 Hz, at temperatures from 65 to 90 K. In contrast to previous studies, where ac losses have been reported with a linear dependence on magnetic field frequency, we find a nonmonotonic function presenting various maxima. Frequencies corresponding to local maxima of dissipation depend on the temperature and the amplitude of the ac magnetic field. Flux creep is argued to be responsible for this behaviour. A simple model connecting the characteristic vortex relaxation times (flux creep) and the location of dissipation maxima versus frequency is proposed

  12. Status of the low frequency facility experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracci, L; Calamai, G; Cuoco, E; Dominici, P; Fabbroni, L; Guidi, G; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Mazzoni, M; Stanga, R; Vetrano, F; Porzio, A; Ricciardi, I; Solimeno, S; Ballardin, G; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Casciano, C; Cavalieri, R; Cecchi, R; Cella, G; Dattilo, V; Virgilio, A Di; Fazzi, M; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Frasconi, F; Gennaro, G; Giazotto, A; Holloway, L; Penna, P La; Lomtadze, T; Nenci, F; Nicolosi, L; Lelli, F; Paoletti, F; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Poggiani, R; Raffaelli, F; Taddei, R; Vicere, A; Zhang, Z; Frasca, S; Majorana, E; Palomba, C; Perciballi, M; Puppo, P; Rapagnani, P; Ricci, F

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency facility is a VIRGO R and D experiment having the goal of performing a direct measurement of the thermal noise of the VIRGO suspensions by means of a two-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity suspended to the last stage of the attenuating chain. The present status of advancement of this experiment is reported: the apparatus, including mechanical and optical parts, has been completely built and put into operation. Vacuum facilities and the first control loops are active. First measurements on the suspended cavity are in progress

  13. Simulation model for studying low frequency microinstabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Okuda, H.

    1976-03-01

    A 2 1 / 2 dimensional, electrostatic particle code in a slab geometry has been developed to study low frequency oscillations such as drift wave and trapped particle instabilities in a nonuniform bounded plasma. A drift approximation for the electron transverse motion is made which eliminates the high frequency oscillations at the electron gyrofrequency and its multiples. It is, therefore, possible to study the nonlinear effects such as the anomalous transport of plasmas within a reasonable computing time using a real mass ratio. Several examples are given to check the validity and usefulness of the model

  14. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  15. Status of the low frequency facility experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracci, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Florence (Italy); Calamai, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Cuoco, E [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Dominici, P [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Fabbroni, L [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Guidi, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Urbino, Urbino (Italy); Losurdo, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Martelli, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Mazzoni, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Stanga, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Firenze/Urbino (Italy); Vetrano, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Urbino, Urbino (Italy); Porzio, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Naples (Italy); Ricciardi, I [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Naples (Italy); Solimeno, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Naples (Italy); Ballardin, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Braccini, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Bradaschia, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Casciano, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Cavalieri, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Cecchi, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Cella, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Dattilo, V [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Virgilio, A Di [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Fazzi, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Ferrante, I [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy); Fidecaro, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez Pisa (Italy)] [and others

    2002-04-07

    The low frequency facility is a VIRGO R and D experiment having the goal of performing a direct measurement of the thermal noise of the VIRGO suspensions by means of a two-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity suspended to the last stage of the attenuating chain. The present status of advancement of this experiment is reported: the apparatus, including mechanical and optical parts, has been completely built and put into operation. Vacuum facilities and the first control loops are active. First measurements on the suspended cavity are in progress.

  16. Child leukaemia and low frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, J.

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses the possible causes of child leukaemia: exposure to natural ionizing radiation (notably radon), to pesticides, and to hydrocarbons emitted by road traffic. Some studies suggested that an inadequate reaction of the immune system to an ordinary infection could result in leukaemia. Other factors are suspected, notably extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, the influence of which is then discussed by the author. She evokes and discusses results of different investigations on this topic which have been published since the end of the 1970's. It appears that a distance less than 50 meters from high voltage lines or the vicinity of transformation stations may double the risk of child leukaemia

  17. Minimization of nanosatellite low frequency magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyayev, S. M., E-mail: belyayev@isr.lviv.ua [Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research, Lviv 79060 (Ukraine); Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm 11428 (Sweden); Dudkin, F. L. [Lviv Centre of Institute for Space Research, Lviv 79060 (Ukraine)

    2016-03-15

    Small weight and dimensions of the micro- and nanosatellites constrain researchers to place electromagnetic sensors on short booms or on the satellite body. Therefore the electromagnetic cleanliness of such satellites becomes a central question. This paper describes the theoretical base and practical techniques for determining the parameters of DC and very low frequency magnetic interference sources. One of such sources is satellite magnetization, the reduction of which improves the accuracy and stability of the attitude control system. We present design solutions for magnetically clean spacecraft, testing equipment, and technology for magnetic moment measurements, which are more convenient, efficient, and accurate than the conventional ones.

  18. A procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Andy T; Waddington, David C; Adams, Mags D

    2009-09-01

    The development and application of a procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise (LFN) complaints are described. The development of the assessment method included laboratory tests addressing low frequency hearing threshold and the effect on acceptability of fluctuation, and field measurements complemented with interview-based questionnaires. Environmental health departments then conducted a series of six trials with genuine "live" LFN complaints to test the workability and usefulness of the procedure. The procedure includes guidance notes and a pro-forma report with step-by-step instructions. It does not provide a prescriptive indicator of nuisance but rather gives a systematic procedure to help environmental health practitioners to form their own opinion. Examples of field measurements and application of the procedure are presented. The procedure and examples are likely to be of particular interest to environmental health practitioners involved in the assessment of LFN complaints.

  19. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields and health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Buzdugan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a world abounding in artificially created electromagnetic fields, we consider that a new approach regarding their possible harmful effects on living beings becomes mandatory. The paper reviews briefly the results of some epidemiological studies, the ICNIRP (International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Guidelines and the latest document of the SCENIHR (an organism of the European Commission regarding extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic fields. We are convinced that the best conduct that might be adopted on this matter is the policy of the prudential avoidance. Several examples of possible harmful effects determined by extremely low frequency magnetic fields dedicated to building services engineering in residences are presented, along with several methods of mitigating them.

  20. A low frequency RFI monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shahram; Shankar, N. Udaya; Girish, B. S.; Somashekar, R.

    Radio frequency interference (RFI) is a growing problem for research in radio astronomy particularly at wavelengths longer than 2m. For satisfactory operation of a radio telescope, several bands have been protected for radio astronomy observations by the International Telecommunication Union. Since the radiation from cosmic sources are typically 40 to 100 dB below the emission from services operating in unprotected bands, often the out-of-band emission limits the sensitivity of astronomical observations. Moreover, several radio spectral emissions from cosmic sources are present in the frequency range outside the allocated band for radio astronomy. Thus monitoring of RFI is essential before building a receiver system for low frequency radio astronomy. We describe the design and development of an RFI monitoring system operating in the frequency band 30 to 100 MHz. This was designed keeping in view our proposal to extend the frequency of operation of GMRT down to 40 MHz. The monitor is a PC based spectrometer recording the voltage output of a receiver connected to an antenna, capable of digitizing the low frequency RF directly with an 8 bit ADC and sampling bandwidths up to 16 MHz. The system can operate continuously in almost real-time with a loss of only 2% of data. Here we will present the systems design aspects and the results of RFI monitoring carried out at the Raman Research Institute, Bangalore and at the GMRT site in Khodad.

  1. Phased-array technology for automatic pipeline inspection; Phased Array-Technologie fuer automatisierte Pipeline-Inspektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, J.; Hugger, A.; Franz, J. [GE Energy, PII Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee (Germany); Falter, S.; Oberdoerfer, Y. [GE Inspection Technology Systems, Huerth (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Pipeline inspection pigs with individual test probes are limited in their function due to the fixed arrangement of sensors on the support. In contrast, the phased-array technology enables multitasking of tests, e.g. stress and corrosion testing which formerly required two different test runs with different sensor set-ups. The angles of inclination can be adapted to the test medium, and virtual sensors can be matched in size and overlap so that, e.g., small pittings will be detected. The sensor set-up presented here enables higher test speed and improved flaw detection. The contribution describes the measuring principle, the inspection pig (UltraScan DUO), and some results of prototype measurements. [German] Pruefmolche fuer die Pipelinepruefung mit Einzelpruefkoepfen sind in ihrem Funktionsumfang aufgrund der festliegenden Anordnung der Sensoren im Sensortraeger eingeschraenkt. Die Phased-Array-Technologie gestattet die simultane Durchfuehrung verschiedener Pruefaufgaben, wie beispielsweise der Rissund der Korrosionspruefung, die vorher zwei Prueflaeufe mit verschiedenen Sensortraegern erforderten. Die Einfallswinkel koennen auf das jeweilige Medium angepasst werden, und es besteht die Moeglichkeit, virtuelle Sensoren bezueglich ihrer Groesse und der gegenseitigen Ueberlappung so anzupassen, dass beispielsweise kleine Pittings gefunden werden koennen. Die ausgefuehrte Form gestattet hoehere Pruefgeschwindigkeit und verbesserte Fehlerauffindung. In diesem Artikel werden das Messprinzip und der Inspektionsmolch (UltraScan DUO) beschrieben sowie einige Prototyp-Messergebnisse vorgestellt.

  2. Large-Aperture Membrane Active Phased-Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Large-aperture phased-array microwave antennas supported by membranes are being developed for use in spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar systems. There may also be terrestrial uses for such antennas supported on stationary membranes, large balloons, and blimps. These antennas are expected to have areal mass densities of about 2 kg/sq m, satisfying a need for lightweight alternatives to conventional rigid phased-array antennas, which have typical areal mass densities between 8 and 15 kg/sq m. The differences in areal mass densities translate to substantial differences in total mass in contemplated applications involving aperture areas as large as 400 sq m. A membrane phased-array antenna includes patch antenna elements in a repeating pattern. All previously reported membrane antennas were passive antennas; this is the first active membrane antenna that includes transmitting/receiving (T/R) electronic circuits as integral parts. Other integral parts of the antenna include a network of radio-frequency (RF) feed lines (more specifically, a corporate feed network) and of bias and control lines, all in the form of flexible copper strip conductors on flexible polymeric membranes. Each unit cell of a prototype antenna (see Figure 1) contains a patch antenna element and a compact T/R module that is compatible with flexible membrane circuitry. There are two membrane layers separated by a 12.7-mm air gap. Each membrane layer is made from a commercially available flexible circuit material that, as supplied, comprises a 127-micron-thick polyimide dielectric layer clad on both sides with 17.5-micron-thick copper layers. The copper layers are patterned into RF, bias, and control conductors. The T/R module is located on the back side of the ground plane and is RF-coupled to the patch element via a slot. The T/R module is a hybrid multilayer module assembled and packaged independently and attached to the membrane array. At the time of reporting the information for

  3. An acoustic vector based approach to locate low frequency noise sources in 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.-E. de; Ostendorf, C.; Basten, T.

    2009-01-01

    Although low frequency noise is an issue of huge societal importance, traditional acoustic testing methods have limitations in finding the low frequency source. It is hard to determine the direction of the noise using traditional microphones. Three dimensional sound probes capturing the particle

  4. Dual-Polarized Planar Phased Array Analysis for Meteorological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis for the accuracy requirements of the planar polarimetric phased array radar (PPPAR in meteorological applications. Among many factors that contribute to the polarimetric biases, four factors are considered and analyzed in this study, namely, the polarization distortion due to the intrinsic limitation of a dual-polarized antenna element, the antenna pattern measurement error, the entire array patterns, and the imperfect horizontal and vertical channels. Two operation modes, the alternately transmitting and simultaneously receiving (ATSR mode and the simultaneously transmitting and simultaneously receiving (STSR mode, are discussed. For each mode, the polarimetric biases are formulated. As the STSR mode with orthogonal waveforms is similar to the ATSR mode, the analysis is mainly focused on the ATSR mode and the impacts of the bias sources on the measurement of polarimetric variables are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Some insights of the accuracy requirements are obtained and summarized.

  5. GaAs MMIC elements in phased-array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last six years NASA Lewis Research Center has carried out a program aimed at the development of advanced monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology, principally for use in phased-array antenna applications. Arising out of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program, the initial targets of the program were chips which operated at 30 and 20 GHz. Included in this group of activities were monolithic power modules with an output of 2 watts at GHz, variable phase shifters at both 20 and 30 GHz, low noise technology at 30 GHz, and a fully integrated (phase shifter, variable gain amplifier, power amplifier) transmit module at 20 GHz. Subsequent developments are centered on NASA mission requirements, particularly Space Station communications systems and deep space data communications.

  6. Concept of an interlaced phased array for beam switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. A.; Janardhanan, K. V.; Mukundan, K. K.; Shenoy, K. S. V.

    1990-04-01

    A novel concept is described for feeding and phasing a large linear array of N antenna elements using only three or five feed points and phase shifters and still achieving beam switching. The idea consists of drastically reducing the number of input points by interlacing a small number of serially fed subarrays which are suitably phased. This so-called interlaced phased array (IPA) concept was tested using an array of 15 four-element Yagi antennas with a spacing equal to 0.8 wavelengths and found feasible. Some of the distinct advantages of the IPA in comparison with a conventional system of beam switching are reduced power loss, reduced phasing errors, reduced cost, increased reliability resulting from greatly reduced number of phase shifters, and better symmetry of off-zenith beams.

  7. An electromagnetic spherical phased array thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okress, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are salient physics aspects of a microwave singly reentrant spherical periodic phased array of uniformally distributed identical coaxial radiation elements in an essentially simulated infinite array environment. The array is capable of maintaining coherence or phase control (to the limit of the order of 300 GHz) of its spherically converging electromagnetic transverse magnetic mode radiation field, for confinement (and heating) of thermonuclear plasma in steady-state or inertial thermonuclear fusion. The array also incorporates capability for coaxial directional coupler extraction of fusionpower. The radiation elements of the array are shielded against DT Thermonuclear plasma emissions (i.e., neutrons and bremsstrahlung) by either sufficiently (available) low less tangent and cooled, spherically concentric shield (e.g., Titanium oxide); or alternately by identical material dome windows mounted on each radiation element's aperture of the array. The pump microwave power required for thermonuclear fusion feasibility comprises an array of phase-locked available klystron amplifiers (comparable gyratron amplifiers remain to be developed)

  8. Low frequency temperature forcing of chemical oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan; Thompson, Barnaby W; Wilson, Mark C T; Taylor, Annette F; Britton, Melanie M

    2011-07-14

    The low frequency forcing of chemical oscillations by temperature is investigated experimentally in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction and in simulations of the Oregonator model with Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constants. Forcing with temperature leads to modulation of the chemical frequency. The number of response cycles per forcing cycle is given by the ratio of the natural frequency to the forcing frequency and phase locking is only observed in simulations when this ratio is a whole number and the forcing amplitude is small. The global temperature forcing of flow-distributed oscillations in a tubular reactor is also investigated and synchronisation is observed in the variation of band position with the external signal, reflecting the periodic modulation of chemical oscillations by temperature.

  9. Non-destructive evaluation of welding part of stainless steels by phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatematsu, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Recently, more accurate and convenient Non-Destructive Evaluation techniques are required for flaw inspection of structural materials. Phased array ultrasonic transducers are expected as such as NDE technique but there are many subjects to be solved. Furthermore, commercial phased array systems with conventional scanning and imaging techniques have not fulfilled their maximum potential. The purpose of this paper is to improve the phased array system to be applicable to the inhomogeneity evaluation of welding part of stainless steels. (author)

  10. Sampling phased array a new technique for signal processing and ultrasonic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bulavinov, A.; Joneit, D.; Kröning, M.; Bernus, L.; Dalichow, M.H.; Reddy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Different signal processing and image reconstruction techniques are applied in ultrasonic non-destructive material evaluation. In recent years, rapid development in the fields of microelectronics and computer engineering lead to wide application of phased array systems. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing. It realizes unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The sampling...

  11. Three-dimensional mid-air acoustic manipulation by ultrasonic phased arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoichi; Hoshi, Takayuki; Rekimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The essence of levitation technology is the countervailing of gravity. It is known that an ultrasound standing wave is capable of suspending small particles at its sound pressure nodes. The acoustic axis of the ultrasound beam in conventional studies was parallel to the gravitational force, and the levitated objects were manipulated along the fixed axis (i.e. one-dimensionally) by controlling the phases or frequencies of bolted Langevin-type transducers. In the present study, we considered extended acoustic manipulation whereby millimetre-sized particles were levitated and moved three-dimensionally by localised ultrasonic standing waves, which were generated by ultrasonic phased arrays. Our manipulation system has two original features. One is the direction of the ultrasound beam, which is arbitrary because the force acting toward its centre is also utilised. The other is the manipulation principle by which a localised standing wave is generated at an arbitrary position and moved three-dimensionally by opposed and ultrasonic phased arrays. We experimentally confirmed that expanded-polystyrene particles of 0.6 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm in diameter could be manipulated by our proposed method.

  12. Three-dimensional mid-air acoustic manipulation by ultrasonic phased arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Ochiai

    Full Text Available The essence of levitation technology is the countervailing of gravity. It is known that an ultrasound standing wave is capable of suspending small particles at its sound pressure nodes. The acoustic axis of the ultrasound beam in conventional studies was parallel to the gravitational force, and the levitated objects were manipulated along the fixed axis (i.e. one-dimensionally by controlling the phases or frequencies of bolted Langevin-type transducers. In the present study, we considered extended acoustic manipulation whereby millimetre-sized particles were levitated and moved three-dimensionally by localised ultrasonic standing waves, which were generated by ultrasonic phased arrays. Our manipulation system has two original features. One is the direction of the ultrasound beam, which is arbitrary because the force acting toward its centre is also utilised. The other is the manipulation principle by which a localised standing wave is generated at an arbitrary position and moved three-dimensionally by opposed and ultrasonic phased arrays. We experimentally confirmed that expanded-polystyrene particles of 0.6 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm in diameter could be manipulated by our proposed method.

  13. Image-Guided Surgery of Primary Breast Cancer Using Ultrasound Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebbini, Emad S

    2004-01-01

    .... Piezocomposite transducer technology, especially for phased arrays, is providing high-quality HIFU applicators with increased bandwidth and reduced parasitic cross coupling between the array elements...

  14. Extracting Low-Frequency Information from Time Attenuation in Elastic Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuebao; Liu, Hong; Shi, Ying; Wang, Weihong

    2017-03-01

    Low-frequency information is crucial for recovering background velocity, but the lack of low-frequency information in field data makes inversion impractical without accurate initial models. Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion can recover a smooth model from real data without low-frequency information, which can be used for subsequent inversion as an ideal starting model. In general, it also starts with low frequencies and includes higher frequencies at later inversion stages, while the difference is that its ultralow frequency information comes from the Laplace-Fourier domain. Meanwhile, a direct implementation of the Laplace-transformed wavefield using frequency domain inversion is also very convenient. However, because broad frequency bands are often used in the pure time domain waveform inversion, it is difficult to extract the wavefields dominated by low frequencies in this case. In this paper, low-frequency components are constructed by introducing time attenuation into the recorded residuals, and the rest of the method is identical to the traditional time domain inversion. Time windowing and frequency filtering are also applied to mitigate the ambiguity of the inverse problem. Therefore, we can start at low frequencies and to move to higher frequencies. The experiment shows that the proposed method can achieve a good inversion result in the presence of a linear initial model and records without low-frequency information.

  15. Low-frequency characteristics extension for vibration sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学山; 高峰; 候兴民

    2004-01-01

    Traditional magneto-electric vibration sensors and servo accelerometers have severe shortcomings when used to measure vibration where low frequency components predominate. A low frequency characteristic extension for velocity vibration sensors is presented in this paper. The passive circuit technology, active compensation technology and the closedcycle pole compensation technology are used to extend the measurable range and to improve low frequency characteristics of sensors. Thses three types of low frequency velocity vibration sensors have been developed and widely adopted in China.

  16. Low-frequency Periodic Error Identification and Compensation for Star Tracker Attitude Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiongqi; XIONG Kai; ZHOU Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    The low-frequency periodic error of star tracker is one of the most critical problems for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination.In this paper an approach is proposed to identify and compensate the low-frequency periodic error for star tracker in attitude measurement.The analytical expression between the estimated gyro drift and the low-frequency periodic error of star tracker is derived firstly.And then the low-frequency periodic error,which can be expressed by Fourier series,is identified by the frequency spectrum of the estimated gyro drift according to the solution of the first step.Furthermore,the compensated model of the low-frequency periodic error is established based on the identified parameters to improve the attitude determination accuracy.Finally,promising simulated experimental results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.The periodic error for attitude determination is eliminated basically and the estimation precision is improved greatly.

  17. Low frequency vibration tests on a floating slab track in an underground laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-yun DING; Wei-ning LIU; Ke-fei LI; Xiao-jing SUN; Wei-feng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency vibrations induced by underground railways have attracted increasing attention in recent years. To obtain the characteristics of low frequency vibrations and the low frequency performance of a floating slab track (FST), low frequency vibration tests on an FST in an underground laboratory at Beijing Jiaotong University were carried out. The FST and an unbalanced shaker SBZ30 for dynamic simulation were designed for use in low frequency vibration experiments. Vibration measurements were performed on the bogie of the unbalanced shaker, the rail, the slab, the tunnel invert, the tunnel wall, the tunnel apex, and on the ground surface at distances varying from 0 to 80 m from the track. Measurements were also made on several floors of an adjacent building. Detailed results of low frequency vibration tests were reported. The attenuation of low frequency vibrations with the distance from the track was presented, as well as the responses of different floors of the building. The experimental results could be regarded as a reference for developing methods to control low frequency vibrations and for adopting countermeasures.

  18. Configuration Considerations for Low Frequency Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    The advance of digital signal processing capabilities has spurred a new effort to exploit the lowest radio frequencies observable from the ground, from ˜10 MHz to a few hundred MHz. Multiple scientifically and technically complementary instruments are planned, including the Mileura Widefield Array (MWA) in the 80-300 MHz range, and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) in the 20-80 MHz range. The latter instrument will target relatively high angular resolution, and baselines up to a few hundred km. An important practical question for the design of such an array is how to distribute the collecting area on the ground. The answer to this question profoundly affects both cost and performance. In this contribution, the factors which determine the anticipated performance of any such array are examined, paying particular attention to the viability and accuracy of array calibration. It is argued that due to the severity of ionospheric effects in particular, it will be difficult or impossible to achieve routine, high dynamic range imaging with a geographically large low frequency array, unless a large number of physically separate array stations is built. This conclusion is general, is based on the need for adequate sampling of ionospheric irregularities, and is independent of the calibration algorithms and techniques that might be employed. It is further argued that array configuration figures of merit that are traditionally used for higher frequency arrays are inappropriate, and a different set of criteria are proposed.

  19. A low frequency rotational energy harvesting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febbo, M; Machado, S P; Ramirez, J M; Gatti, C D

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a rotary power scavenging unit comprised of two systems of flexible beams connected by two masses which are joined by means of a spring, considering a PZT (QP16N, Midé Corporation) piezoelectric sheet mounted on one of the beams. The energy harvesting (EH) system is mounted rigidly on a rotating hub. The gravitational force on the masses causes sustained oscillatory motion in the flexible beams as long as there is rotary motion. The intention is to use the EH system in the wireless autonomous monitoring of wind turbines under different wind conditions. Specifically, the development is oriented to monitor the dynamic state of the blades of a wind generator of 30 KW which rotates between 50 and 150 rpm. The paper shows a complete set of experimental results on three devices, modifying the amount of beams in the frame supporting the system. The results show an acceptable sustained voltage generation for the expected range, in the three proposed cases. Therefore, it is possible to use this system for generating energy in a low-frequency rotating environment. As an alternative, the system can be easily adapted to include an array of piezoelectric sheets to each of the beams, to provide more power generation. (paper)

  20. The Engineering Development Array: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope Utilising SKA Precursor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayth, Randall; Sokolowski, Marcin; Booler, Tom; Crosse, Brian; Emrich, David; Grootjans, Robert; Hall, Peter J.; Horsley, Luke; Juswardy, Budi; Kenney, David; Steele, Kim; Sutinjo, Adrian; Tingay, Steven J.; Ung, Daniel; Walker, Mia; Williams, Andrew; Beardsley, A.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Pallot, D.; Trott, C. M.; Wu, C.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array's receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.

  1. Planck 2015 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present an updated description of the Planck Low Frequency (LFI) data processing pipeline, associated with the 2015 data release. We point out the places in which our results and methods have remained unchanged since the 2013 paper and we highlight the changes made for the 2015 release, describing the products (especially timelines) and the ways in which they were obtained. We demonstrate that the pipeline is self-consistent (principally based on simulations) and report all null tests. We refer to other related papers where more detailed descriptions on the LFI data processing pipeline may be found if needed.

  2. Clinical evaluation of phased array multicoil for spine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.M.; Forbes, G.S.; Onofrio, B.M.; Rasmusson, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Often, it is necessary to image the entire spinal canal or cord. Current surface coil technology necessitates a small field of view (FOV) and multiple coil placements, prolonging the examination. The Phased Array Multicoil (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis) allows for high-resolution imaging of a larger segment of the spinal axis (48 cm), negating the need for multiple coil placements. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether, this technology can produce higher-quality images with equal or better expediency in a high-volume clinical practice. The studies were performed with a modified 1.5-T system (General Electric, Milwaukee, Wis). Multiple small surface coils are electronically linked so that each coil images only a small segment of the spinal column. The individual images are then fused to display one high-resolution 512-matrix image with up to a 48-cm FOV. A variety of four coil arrays were tested, including a 24-cm FOV dedicated cervical coil, 48-cm FOV shaped cervical/thoracic and straight thoracic/lumbar coils, and a six-coil array 75-cm entire spine coil. The images were then evaluated for overall quality, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and area of coverage

  3. A phased array antenna for Doppler reflectometry in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Stefan; Lechte, Carsten; Kasparek, Walter [IGVP, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hennequin, Pascale [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Ecole Polytech., F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Conway, Garrard; Happel, Tim [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    In a toroidal plasma, Doppler reflectometry (DR) allows investigating electron density fluctuations with finite k {sub perpendicular} {sub to}. The injected microwave beam's frequency determines the radial position of the probed region, its tilt angle selects the wavenumber satisfying the Bragg condition for backscattering. The rotation velocity can be calculated from the Doppler shift of the backscattered signal's frequency. By varying the injected frequency, radial profiles can be reconstructed. Varying the tilt angle resolves the k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} -spectrum of the fluctuations. For DR, a pair of phased array antennas (PAAs) has been designed, built, and installed in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Beam steering is done by slightly changing the injected frequency, thus, the PAAs do not need any movable parts or electronics inside the vacuum vessel. From 75 to 105 GHz, the PAAs feature 13 frequency bands, each with an angular scan range of -20 to +20 {sup circle}. So, for each angle, there are 13 radial positions to be probed. The results from PAA characterisation, commissioning, and first DR measurements are presented.

  4. Deep local and regional hyperthermia with annular phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Omagari, J.; Hata, K.

    1989-01-01

    33 refractory tumors mainly located in the pelvic cavity after definitive treatment were treated by loco-regional hyperthermia alone (n = 11) or by heat in combination with radiotherapy (n = 22) by annular phased array (APA) manufactured by BSD Corp. Tumors were heated up to more than 42 0 C in 78% of 347 total heat sessions with induction time 22 ± 1 (S.D.) minutes during which those of intra-pelvic organs were elevated up to between 41 and 42 0 C. Tumor response was CR 18%, PR 50% by heat (11.2 ± 1.5 S.D. fractions) combined with radiotherapy (43.8 ± 12.5 S.D. Gy) and by heat alone (8.6 ± 1.3 S.D. fractions) CR 18%, PR 9%. In all heat sessions superficial pain 36%, skin burn (grade 1-2) 12% inside annular array and slight to moderate systemic heat stress 100% were the main adverse reactions we experienced. (orig.)

  5. Experimental demonstration of conformal phased array antenna via transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juan; Yang, Juxing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhiya; Fu, Guang; Hao, Yang

    2018-02-28

    Transformation Optics has been proven a versatile technique for designing novel electromagnetic devices and it has much wider applicability in many subject areas related to general wave equations. Among them, quasi-conformal transformation optics (QCTO) can be applied to minimize anisotropy of transformed media and has opened up the possibility to the design of broadband antennas with arbitrary geometries. In this work, a wide-angle scanning conformal phased array based on all-dielectric QCTO lens is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Excited by the same current distribution as such in a conventional planar array, the conformal system in presence of QCTO lens can preserve the same radiation characteristics of a planar array with wide-angle beam-scanning and low side lobe level (SLL). Laplace's equation subject to Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The isotropic lens with graded refractive index is realized by all-dielectric holey structure after an effective parameter approximation. The measurements of the fabricated system agree well with the simulated results, which demonstrate its excellent wide-angle beam scanning performance. Such demonstration paves the way to a robust but efficient array synthesis, as well as multi-beam and beam forming realization of conformal arrays via transformation optics.

  6. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  7. A Wearable Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Phased Array System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Lee, Hae-Seung; Sodini, Charles G

    2018-01-01

     Practical deficiencies related to conventional transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography have restricted its use and applicability. This work seeks to mitigate several such constraints through the development of a wearable, electronically steered TCD velocimetry system, which enables noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) for monitoring applications with limited operator interaction. A highly-compact, discrete prototype system was designed and experimentally validated through flow phantom and preliminary human subject testing. The prototype system incorporates a custom two-dimensional transducer array and multi-channel transceiver electronics, thereby facilitating acoustic beamformation via phased array operation. Electronic steering of acoustic energy enables algorithmic system controls to map Doppler power throughout the tissue volume of interest and localize regions of maximal flow. Multi-focal reception permits dynamic vessel position tracking and simultaneous flow velocimetry over the time-course of monitoring. Experimental flow phantom testing yielded high correlation with concurrent flowmeter recordings across the expected range of physiological flow velocities. Doppler power mapping has been validated in both flow phantom and preliminary human subject testing, resulting in average vessel location mapping times testing. A wearable prototype CBFV measurement system capable of autonomous vessel search and tracking has been presented. Although flow phantom and preliminary human validation show promise, further human subject testing is necessary to compare velocimetry data against existing commercial TCD systems. Additional human subject testing must also verify acceptable vessel search and tracking performance under a variety of subject populations and motion dynamics-such as head movement and ambulation.

  8. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-02-01

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.

  9. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed

  10. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T. [Edison Welding Institute, 1250 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.

  11. Low frequency electromagnetic fields and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.; Cosic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Electromagnetic fields developed around the electric circuits are considered as magnetic pollution and these fields are produced wherever electric appliances or machinery are used at home as well as at workplace. Electric fields and magnetic fields around the home are produced by anything with electric current flowing through it including: the street power lines, the home wiring system, electric ovens, refrigerators, washing machines, electric clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, television sets, video cassette recorders, toasters, light bulbs, clock radios, electric blankets, mobile phones, etc. In the workplace they would be produced by: nearby power lines, factory machinery, computers/video display units, lights, photocopiers, electrical cabling etc. As one can see, human life is strongly dependent on using-electric appliance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to find out the correlation between electromagnetic fields and health problems. The following significant results have been reported [Lerner E.J., IEEE Spectrum, 57-67, May 1984]: (a) Induction of chromosomal defects in mice spermatogenetic cells following microwave radiation in the Ghz range; (b) Changes in the calcium balance of living cats' brains exposed to microwaves modulated at extremely low frequencies; (c) Alternation of nerve and bone cells exposed to extremely low frequency fields; (d) Decreased activity of the immune cells of mice exposed to modulated microwaves; (e) Apparent increase in deformed foetuses among miniature swine exposed to intense power-line frequency fields. The mostly investigated effect is the effect of electromagnetic irradiation in particular one produced by power lines, and cancer. More than 100 epidemiological studies have been reported but no conclusive result was achieved. A number of studies with laboratory animals were also inconclusive. However, some of these experiments have shown improvements in immune system and tumour suppression when

  12. On the low frequency characteristics of head-related transfer function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2009-01-01

    A method to correct the measured head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) at low frequency was proposed. By analyzing the HRTFs from the spherical head model at low frequency, it is proved that below the frequency of 400 Hz, magnitude of HRTF is nearly constant and the phase is a linear function of frequency both for the far and near field. Therefore, if the HRTFs above 400 Hz are accurately measured by experiment, it is able to correct the HRTFs at low frequency by the theoretical model. The results of calculation and subjective experiment show that the feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Ultrasonic Phased Array Techniques for Detection of Flaws of Stud Bolts in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Choi, Sang Woo

    2006-01-01

    The reactor vessel body and closure head are fastened with the stud bolt that is one of crucial parts for safety of the reactor vessels in nuclear power plants. It is reported that the stud bolt is often experienced by fatigue cracks initiated at threads. Stud bolts are inspected by the ultrasonic technique during the overhaul periodically for the prevention of failure which leads to radioactive leakage from the nuclear reactor. The conventional ultrasonic inspection for stud bolts was mainly conducted by reflected echo method based on shadow effect. However, in this technique, there were numerous spurious signals reflected from every oblique surfaces of the thread. In this study, ultrasonic phased array technique was applied to investigate detectability of flaws in stud bolts and characteristics of ultrasonic images corresponding to different scanning methods, that is, sector and linear scan. For this purpose, simplified stud bolt specimens with artificial defects of various depths were prepared

  14. Development of portable phased array UT system for real-time flaw imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.

    1995-01-01

    Many functions and features of phased array UT technology must be useful for NDE in the industrial field. Some phased array UT systems have been developed for the inspection of nuclear pressure vessel and turbine components. However, phased array UT is still a special NDE technique and it has not been used widely in the past. The reasons of that are system size, cost, operator performance, equipment design and others. TOSHIBA has newly developed PC controlled portable phased array system to solve those problems. The portable phased array UT system is very compact and light but it is able to drive up to 32-channel linear array probe, to display real-time linear/sector B-scan, to display accumulated B-scan with an encoder and to display profile overlaid B-scan. The first applications were turbine component inspections for precise flaw investigation and flaw image data recording

  15. A study on the crack inspection signal characteristics for power plant components by phased array UT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Lim, Sang Gyu; Kil, Du Song

    2001-01-01

    Phased array ultrasonic testing system has become available for practical application in complicated geometry such as turbine blade root, tenon, disc in power industry. This research describes the characteristics of phased array UT signal for various type of blade roots in thermal Power Plant turbines. This application of Phased array ultrasonic testing system has been promoted mainly to save inspection time and labor cost of turbine inspection. The characteristic of phase array UT signal for power plant component is very simple to understand but to difficult for perform the inspection. Since our sophisticated inspection technique and systems are essential for the inspection of steam turbine blade roots that require high reliability, we intend to develop new technology and improve phased array technique based on the wide and much experience for the inspection of turbine components.

  16. Remote tracking of a magnetic receiver using low frequency beacons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinker, Arie; Ginzburg, Boris; Salomonski, Nizan; Frumkis, Lev; Kaplan, Ben-Zion

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency magnetic fields feature high penetration ability, which allows communication, localization, and tracking in environments where radio or acoustic waves are blocked or distorted by multipath interferences. In the present work, we propose a method for tracking a magnetic receiver using beacons of low frequency magnetic field, where the receiver includes a tri-axial search-coil magnetometer. Measuring the beacons’ magnetic fields and calculating the total-field signals enables localization without restrictions on magnetometer orientation, allowing on-the-move tracking. The total-field signals are used by a global search method, e.g., simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, to localize the receiver. The magnetic field produced by each beacon has a dipole structure and is governed by the beacon’s position and magnetic moment. We have investigated two different methods for estimating beacons’ magnetic moments prior to localization. The first method requires directional measurements, whereas for the second method the total-field signal is used. Effectiveness of these methods has been proved in numerous field tests. In the present work, we introduce a method for tracking a moving receiver by successive localizations. Using previous localization as a starting point of the search method for the next localization can reduce execution time and chances for divergence. The proposed method has been tested using numerous computer simulations. Successful system operation has been verified in field conditions. The good tracking capability together with simple implementation makes the proposed method attractive for real-time, low power field applications, such as mobile robots navigation. (paper)

  17. Automated Damage Assessment System for Ballistic Protective Inserts Using Low Frequency Ultrasonics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F; Ozevin, Didem; Finlayson, Richard D; Colanto, David

    2006-01-01

    .... Radiography and low frequency ultrasonics are two methods that can provide information about the condition of a BPI, with respect to cracking and porosity in the ceramic plate and debonding between layers...

  18. Head Injury and Intracranial Pressure Monitor Using Ultrasonic and Low-Frequency Acoustic (ULFA) Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is the development of a non-invasive method and instrument for head injury detection and monitoring using a new approach based on ultrasonic and low-frequency acoustic (ULFA...

  19. Head Injury and Intracranial Pressure Monitor Using Ultrasonic and Low-Frequency (ULFA) Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this research project is the development of a non-invasive method and instrument for head injury detection and monitoring using a new approach based on ultrasonic and low-frequency acoustic (ULFA...

  20. Passive Super-Low Frequency electromagnetic prospecting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Zhao, Shanshan; Hui, Jian; Qin, Qiming

    2017-03-01

    The Super-Low Frequency (SLF) electromagnetic prospecting technique, adopted as a non-imaging remote sensing tool for depth sounding, is systematically proposed for subsurface geological survey. In this paper, we propose and theoretically illustrate natural source magnetic amplitudes as SLF responses for the first step. In order to directly calculate multi-dimensional theoretical SLF responses, modeling algorithms were developed and evaluated using the finite difference method. The theoretical results of three-dimensional (3-D) models show that the average normalized SLF magnetic amplitude responses were numerically stable and appropriate for practical interpretation. To explore the depth resolution, three-layer models were configured. The modeling results prove that the SLF technique is more sensitive to conductive objective layers than high resistive ones, with the SLF responses of conductive objective layers obviously showing uprising amplitudes in the low frequency range. Afterwards, we proposed an improved Frequency-Depth transformation based on Bostick inversion to realize the depth sounding by empirically adjusting two parameters. The SLF technique has already been successfully applied in geothermal exploration and coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir interpretation, which demonstrates that the proposed methodology is effective in revealing low resistive distributions. Furthermore, it siginificantly contributes to reservoir identification with electromagnetic radiation anomaly extraction. Meanwhile, the SLF interpretation results are in accordance with dynamic production status of CBM reservoirs, which means it could provide an economical, convenient and promising method for exploring and monitoring subsurface geo-objects.

  1. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Phased Array Demonstrated With ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) arrays developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rome Laboratory were demonstrated in aeronautical terminals and in mobile or fixed Earth terminals linked with NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four K/Ka-band experimental arrays were demonstrated between May 1994 and May 1995. Each array had GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The 30-GHz transmit array used in uplinks to ACTS was developed by Lewis and Texas Instruments. The three 20-GHz receive arrays used in downlinks from ACTS were developed in cooperation with the Air Force Rome Laboratory, taking advantage of existing Air Force integrated-circuit, active-phased-array development contracts with the Boeing Company and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Four demonstrations, each related to an application of high interest to both commercial and Department of Defense organizations, were conducted. The location, type of link, and the data rate achieved for each of the applications is shown. In one demonstration-- an aeronautical terminal experiment called AERO-X--a duplex voice link between an aeronautical terminal on the Lewis Learjet and ACTS was achieved. Two others demonstrated duplex voice links (and in one case, interactive video links as well) between ACTS and an Army high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV, or "humvee"). In the fourth demonstration, the array was on a fixed mount and was electronically steered toward ACTS. Lewis served as project manager for all demonstrations and as overall system integrator. Lewis engineers developed the array system including a controller for open-loop tracking of ACTS during flight and HMMWV motion, as well as a laptop data display and recording system used in all demonstrations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory supported the AERO-X program, providing elements of the ACTS Mobile Terminal. The successful

  2. Fully Printed, Flexible, Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Hen, Ray T.; Lu, Xuejun; Chen, Maggie Yihong

    2013-01-01

    NASAs future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit, and back to Earth. Flexible antennas are highly desired in many scenarios. Active phased array antennas (active PAAs) with distributed control and processing electronics at the surface of an antenna aperture offer numerous advantages for radar communications. Large-area active PAAs on flexible substrates are of particular interest in NASA s space radars due to their efficient inflatable package that can be rolled up during transportation and deployed in space. Such an inflatable package significantly reduces stowage volume and mass. Because of these performance and packaging advantages, large-area inflatable active PAAs are highly desired in NASA s surface-to-orbit and surface-to-relay communications. To address the issues of flexible electronics, a room-temperature printing process of active phased-array antennas on a flexible Kapton substrate was developed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with many unique physical properties, were successfully proved feasible for the PAA system. This innovation is a new type of fully inkjet-printable, two-dimensional, high-frequency PAA on a flexible substrate at room temperature. The designed electronic circuit components, such as the FET switches in the phase shifter, metal interconnection lines, microstrip transmission lines, etc., are all printed using a special inkjet printer. Using the developed technology, entire 1x4, 2x2, and 4x4 PAA systems were developed, packaged, and demonstrated at 5.3 GHz. Several key solutions are addressed in this work to solve the fabrication issues. The source/drain contact is developed using droplets of silver ink printed on the source/drain areas prior to applying CNT thin-film. The wet silver ink droplets allow the silver to

  3. Applications of the automatic ultrasonic testing system ALOK combined with a phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanger, H.K.; Kappes, W.; Licht, R.; Bohn, H.; Barbian, O.A.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of the automatic testing system ALOK with a controlled probe in the form of a phased array device is a possibility to meet the high requirements on the test method with regard to the statements of the test as well as the requirements on the reduction of operation and preparation times. The system's applications are not limited to the testing of reactors in nuclear technology (basic tests and recurring tests of the RPV and other primary circuit components); they are also of great importance in the non-nuclear sector e.g. the testing of pipelines, of reactors in the chemical field and of offshore structures as well as tests of components in the field of production. The modularity of the system permits an adaptation to the particular testing task with the possibility of using different manipulation and hardware systems. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Analysis of Power System Low Frequency Oscillation Based on Energy Shift Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chunwang; Ma, Daqing

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for analyzing low-frequency oscillation between analytic areas based on energy coefficient is proposed. The concept of energy coefficient is proposed by constructing the energy function, and the low-frequency oscillation is analyzed according to the energy coefficient under the current operating conditions; meanwhile, the concept of model energy is proposed to analyze the energy exchange behavior between two generators. Not only does this method provide an explanation of low-frequency oscillation from the energy point of view, but also it helps further reveal the dynamic behavior of complex power systems. The case analysis of four-machine two-area and the power system of Jilin Power Grid proves the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method in low-frequency oscillation analysis of power system.

  5. Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Reactor Coolant System (Carbon Steel-to-CASS) Dissimilar Metal Weld Mockup Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, S. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cinson, A. D. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC (United States); Diaz, A. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, M. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In the summer of 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff traveled to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, to conduct phased-array ultrasonic testing on a large bore, reactor coolant pump nozzle-to-safe-end mockup. This mockup was fabricated by FlawTech, Inc. and the configuration originated from the Port St. Lucie nuclear power plant. These plants are Combustion Engineering-designed reactors. This mockup consists of a carbon steel elbow with stainless steel cladding joined to a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) safe-end with a dissimilar metal weld and is owned by Florida Power & Light. The objective of this study, and the data acquisition exercise held at the EPRI NDE Center, were focused on evaluating the capabilities of advanced, low-frequency phased-array ultrasonic testing (PA-UT) examination techniques for detection and characterization of implanted circumferential flaws and machined reflectors in a thick-section CASS dissimilar metal weld component. This work was limited to PA-UT assessments using 500 kHz and 800 kHz probes on circumferential flaws only, and evaluated detection and characterization of these flaws and machined reflectors from the CASS safe-end side only. All data were obtained using spatially encoded, manual scanning techniques. The effects of such factors as line-scan versus raster-scan examination approaches were evaluated, and PA-UT detection and characterization performance as a function of inspection frequency/wavelength, were also assessed. A comparative assessment of the data is provided, using length-sizing root-mean-square-error and position/localization results (flaw start/stop information) as the key criteria for flaw characterization performance. In addition, flaw signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the key criterion for detection performance.

  6. Technologies for Low Frequency Radio Observations of the Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing concepts and technologies for low frequency radio astronomy space missions aimed at observing highly redshifted neutral Hydrogen from the Dark Ages. This is the period of cosmic history between the recombination epoch when the microwave background radiation was produced and the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium by the first generation of stars (Cosmic Dawn). This period, at redshifts greater than about 20, is a critical epoch for the formation and evolution of large-scale structure in the universe. The 21-cm spectral line of Hydrogen provides the most promising method for directly studying the Dark Ages, but the corresponding frequencies at such large redshifts are only tens of MHz and thus require space-based observations to avoid terrestrial RFI and ionospheric absorption and refraction. This paper reports on the status of several low frequency technology development activities at JPL, including deployable bi-conical dipoles for a planned lunar-orbiting mission, and both rover-deployed and inflation-deployed long dipole antennas for use on the lunar surface.

  7. Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.

  8. Indoor measurements of low-frequency noise for annoyance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    The sound pressure level within a room may vary as much as 20-30 dB at low frequencies. Mainly the highest levels are of concern with regards to annoyance assessment, rather than a room average. The highest levels can however be very difficult to find. Sound fields in rooms were investigated using......) in an attempt to ensure high levels. The sound pressure level that is exceeded in only 10% of the space of a room (L10) is proposed as a reasonable target for a measurement method. The Swedish method showed good results, however its inclusion of C-weighting can potentially be problematic. The Danish method...... numerical simulations and scanning measurements of the entire sound pressure distributions in three different rooms. Measurements were also performed in three-dimensional corners as well as according to Swedish and Danish guidelines, which include positions close to corners in the floor plane (0.5 to 1 m...

  9. Comparison of Pelvic Phased-Array versus Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla for Local Staging of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have demonstrated the superiority of endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over pelvic phased-array coil MRI at 1.5 Tesla for local staging of prostate cancer. However, few have studied which evaluation is more accurate at 3 Tesla MRI. In this study, we compared the accuracy of local staging of prostate cancer using pelvic phased-array coil or endorectal coil MRI at 3 Tesla. Materials and Methods Between January 2005 and May 2010, 151 patients underwent radi...

  10. Ultrasonic phased array examination of circumferential weld joint in reactor pressure vessel of BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekar, Paritosh, E-mail: pnanekar@barc.gov.in [Quality Assurance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jothilakshmi, N. [Quality Assurance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Phased array technique developed for weld joint inspection in BWR pressure vessel. • Simulation studies were carried out for conventional and phased array probe. • Conventional ultrasonic test shows in-adequate weld coverage and poor resolution. • Focused sound beam in phased array results in good resolution and sensitivity. • Ultrasonic phased array technique is validated on mock-up with reference defects. - Abstract: The weld joints in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are required to be examined periodically for assurance of structural integrity. Ultrasonic phased array examination technique has been developed in authors’ laboratory for inspection of the top flange to shell circumferential weld joint in RPV of BWRs, which are in operation in India since the late 1960s. The development involved detailed simulation studies for computation of focal laws followed by validation on mock-up. The paper brings out the limitations of the conventional ultrasonic technique and how this can be overcome by the phased array approach for the weld joint under consideration. The phased array technique was successfully employed for field examination of this weld joint in RPV during the re-fuelling outage.

  11. Power system low frequency oscillation monitoring and analysis based on multi-signal online identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The advance in the wide-area measurement system (WAMS) is driving the power system to the trend of wide-area monitoring and control.The Prony method is usually used for low frequency oscillation online identification.However,the identified amplitude and phase information is not sufficiently used.In this paper,the amplitude is adopted to detect the occurrence of the oscillation and to obtain the mode observability of the sites.The phase is adopted to identify the oscillation generator grouping and to obtain the mode shapes.The time varying characteristics of low frequency oscillations are studied.The behaviors and the characters of low frequency oscillations are displayed by dynamic visual techniques.Demonstrations on the "11.9" low frequency oscillation of the Guizhou Power Grid substantiate the feasibility and the validation of the proposed methods.

  12. Spontaneous Low Frequency Oscillations in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive bed-side optical method to detect changes in oxygenated (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) in the outermost layers of the cerebral cortex. Cortical oxyHb low frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the 0.......09-0.11 Hz range are affected by changes in cerebral autoregulation (CA), which is altered following stroke. We examined oxyHb LFOs at bed-side as a marker of CA in the subacute phase in stroke patients with or without recombinant tissue plasminogen activator thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We recruited 29...... patients admitted to the stroke unit with symptoms of ischemic stroke. 11/29 patients received thrombolytic therapy. NIRS examination was conducted 2 days (median time) from stroke onset. NIRS optodes were placed on each side of the head with a 3 cm source-detector distance. Using transfer function...

  13. Development and applications of a computer-aided phased array assembly for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.; Montag, H.J.; Wuestenberg, H.; Erhard, A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of modern electronic equipment for programmable signal delay increasingly allows transit-time controlled phased arrays to be applied in non-destructive, ultrasonic materials testing. A phased-array assembly is described permitting fast variation of incident angle of acoustic wave and of sonic beam focus, together with numerical evaluation of measured data. Phased arrays can be optimized by adding programmable electronic equipment so that the quality of conventional designs can be achieved. Applications of the new technical improvement are explained, referring to stress corrosion cracking, turbine testing, echo tomography of welded joints. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Application of immersion phased array UT technique in nickel based alloy weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Nagai, Satoshi; Murakami, Koji; Yuguchi, Yasuhiro; Ootsubo, Tooru; Naruse, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for nondestructive inspection technique has been required in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plant. Immersion phased array UT technique which is not affected the surface geometry of welds has been developed for inspection of BWR internals such as shroud, shroud support, and so on. Phased array UT technique was applied for shroud support mockup specimen with fatigue crack and partially SCC. From the experimental results, the superior performance of phased array UT for the RPV outside and inside inspection was shown. (author)

  15. Improved SNR of phased-array PERES coils via simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, Alfredo O; Medina, LucIa

    2005-01-01

    A computational comparison of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was performed between a conventional phased array of two circular-shaped coils and a petal resonator surface array. The quasi-static model and phased-array optimum SNR were combined to derive an SNR formula for each array. Analysis of mutual inductance between coil petals was carried out to compute the optimal coil separation and optimum number of petal coils. Mutual interaction between coil arrays was not included in the model because this does not drastically affect coil performance. Phased arrays of PERES coils show a 114% improvement in SNR over that of the simplest circular configuration. (note)

  16. Comparison of heating deposition patterns for stacked linear phased array and fixed focus ultrasonic hyperthermia applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic stacked linear phased array applicator for hyperthermia has been designed to heat tumors at depths from 5 to 10 cm. The power deposition pattern for this applicator is compared to that for a fixed focus applicator for several different scan paths. The power deposition pattern for the stacked linear phased array shows hot spots that are not observed for the mechanically scanned fixed focus applicator. These hot spots are related to the skewed power deposition pattern resulting from scanning the focus off the center of the linear arrays. The overall performance of the stacked linear phased array applicator is compared to that of a fixed focus applicator

  17. Extremely low frequencies. Health effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Opinion of the Afsset. Collective expertise report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouh, Alexandre; Brugere, Henri; Clavel, Jacqueline; Febvre, Pascal; Lagroye, Isabelle; Vecchia, Paolo; Dore, Jean-Francois; Anfosso-Ledee, Fabienne; Berengier, Michel; Cesarini, Jean-Pierre; Cohen, Jean-Claude; Planton, Serge; Courant, Daniel; Tardif, Francois; Couturier, Frederic; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; El Khatib, Aicha; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gaffet, Eric; Hours, Martine; Lambert, Jacques; Vallet, Michel; Job, Agnes; Labeyrie, Antoine; Laurier, Dominique; Le Bihan, Olivier; Lepoutre, Philippe; Marchal, Didier; Moch, Annie; Pirard, Philipe; Rumeau, Michel; De Seze, Rene; Attia, Dina; Merckel, Olivier; Fite, Johanna; Guichard, Alexandra; Saihi, Myriam; Guitton, Sophie; Saddoki, Sophia

    2010-03-01

    This report aims at proposing a synthesis of works of international expertise on the health effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, at performing a methodological analysis of the 'Expers' study (a study on the exposure of individuals), at performing a methodological analysis of a study performed by the Criirem in the western part of France, at assessing the contribution of different equipment and situations to the exposure of population to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields, at making recommendations and proposals for a better assessment of the exposure level, and at proposing topics of investigation and research to improve knowledge on these issues. The report recalls the context, scope and modalities of the study, gives an overview of generalities on electromagnetic fields (nature, physical values, electromagnetic spectrum, artificial and natural electromagnetic field sources, exposure threshold values and regulatory context), addresses the assessment of exposure (notion of exposure, exposure assessment methods, analysis of available data, analysis of recent or current studies), gives an overview of biological and health effects of these electromagnetic fields (methodological aspects, interaction between fields and biological tissues, synthesis of the international expertise on health impacts). Recommendations are formulated

  18. Apertif: A new phased-array feed for WSRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth; Adebahr, Björn; de Blok, Willem J. G.; Hess, Kelley M.; Lucero, Danielle M.; Maccagni, Filippo; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Ponomareva, Anastasia; Staveley-Smith, Lister; van der Hulst, J. M.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Verstappen, Joris

    2018-01-01

    Apertif is a phased-array feed for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), increasing the field of view of the telescope by a factor of twenty-five to 6.8 square degrees. In 2018, three legacy surveys will commence: a shallow imaging survey, a medium-deep imaging survey, and a pulsars and fast transients survey. The imaging surveys will be done in full polarization over the frequency range 1130-1430 MHz, which corresponds to redshifts of z=0-0.256 for neutral hydrogen (HI). The spectral resolution is 12.2 kHz, or an HI velocity resolution of 2.6 km/s at z=0 and 3.2 km/s at z=0.256. The full resolution images will have a beam size of 15"x15"/sin(declination), and tapered data products (i.e., 30" resolution images) will also be available. The footprints of the imaging surveys are chosen to maximize coverage of multi-wavelength datasets, including the Herschel Atlas North Galactic Pole field, HetDex region, plus coordination with MaNGA and planned WEAVE follow-up. The survey footprints were also chosen to probe different regions of interest, including the CVn region, Coma cluster, and Perseus-Pisces supercluster. The key science cases for the imaging surveys include understanding how galaxy properties depend on environment, the role of interactions and gas accretion and removal, understanding the smallest gas-rich galaxies, connecting cold gas to AGN, understanding the history of star formation and AGN activity in the faint radio continuum population, and studying magnetic fields in galaxies and large-scale structure. After a proprietary period, the survey data products will be publicly available through the Apertif Long Term Archive (ALTA). Up-to-date information on Apertif and the planned surveys can be found at www.apertif.nl.Commissioning of the Apertif instrument is underway. Here we will present results from the imaging commissioning, highlighting the capabilities of the instrument as related to the key science cases of the imaging surveys.

  19. Wideband Low Side Lobe Aperture Coupled Patch Phased Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduval, Dhruva

    Low profile printed antenna arrays with wide bandwidth, high gain, and low Side Lobe Level (SLL) are in great demand for current and future commercial and military communication systems and radar. Aperture coupled patch antennas have been proposed to obtain wide impedance bandwidths in the past. Aperture coupling is preferred particularly for phased arrays because of their advantage of integration to other active devices and circuits, e.g. phase shifters, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, mixers etc. However, when designing such arrays, the interplay between array performance characteristics, such as gain, side lobe level, back lobe level, mutual coupling etc. must be understood and optimized under multiple design constraints, e.g. substrate material properties and thicknesses, element to element spacing, and feed lines and their orientation and arrangements with respect to the antenna elements. The focus of this thesis is to investigate, design, and develop an aperture coupled patch array with wide operating bandwidth (30%), high gain (17.5 dBi), low side lobe level (20 dB), and high Forward to Backward (F/B) ratio (21.8 dB). The target frequency range is 2.4 to 3 GHz given its wide application in WLAN, LTE (Long Term Evolution) and other communication systems. Notwithstanding that the design concept can very well be adapted at other frequencies. Specifically, a 16 element, 4 by 4 planar microstrip patch array is designed using HFSS and experimentally developed and tested. Starting from mutual coupling minimization a corporate feeding scheme is designed to achieve the needed performance. To reduce the SLL the corporate feeding network is redesigned to obtain a specific amplitude taper. Studies are conducted to determine the optimum location for a metallic reflector under the feed line to improve the F/B. An experimental prototype of the antenna was built and tested validating and demonstrating the performance levels expected from simulation predictions

  20. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kuan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Guan, Dong; Gao, Nansha; Jing, Li

    2016-02-01

    A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) at low frequencies (⩽500Hz) was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial's structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm) lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM). The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  1. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gen; REN BaoHua; ZHENG JianOiu; WANG Jun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables dataeets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-eea humidity gradient (△q') as well as mean air-eea humidity gradient (△q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (△T'). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of △q', low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U'), △q and mean wind speed (U), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation Intensity of △T' and U. 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20ON, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa' (Ta') and U', indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs' (Ts') also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  2. A Low Frequency FBG Accelerometer with Symmetrical Bended Spring Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fufei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements for low-frequency vibration monitoring, a new type of FBG (fiber Bragg grating accelerometer with a bended spring plate is proposed. Two symmetrical bended spring plates are used as elastic elements, which drive the FBG to produce axial strains equal in magnitude but opposite in direction when exciting vibrations exist, leading to doubling the wavelength shift of the FBG. The mechanics model and a numerical method are presented in this paper, with which the influence of the structural parameters on the sensitivity and the eigenfrequency are discussed. The test results show that the sensitivity of the accelerometer is more than 1000 pm/g when the frequency is within the 0.7–20 Hz range.

  3. The Noisiness of Low Frequency Bands of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    The relative noisiness of low frequency 1/3-octave bands of noise was examined. The frequency range investigated was bounded by the bands centered at 25 and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 to 95 db (SPL). Thirty-two subjects used a method of adjustment technique, producing comparison band intensities as noisy as 100 and 200 Hz standard bands at 60 and 72 db. The work resulted in contours of equal noisiness for 1/3-octave bands, ranging in intensity from approximately 58 to 86 db (SPL). These contours were compared with the standard equal noisiness contours; in the region of overlap, between 50 and 200 Hz, the agreement was good.

  4. Antenna data storage concept for phased array radio astronomical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, André W.; Kruithof, Gert H.

    2018-04-01

    Low frequency Radio Astronomy instruments like LOFAR and SKA-LOW use arrays of dipole antennas for the collection of radio signals from the sky. Due to the large number of antennas involved, the total data rate produced by all the antennas is enormous. Storage of the antenna data is both economically and technologically infeasible using the current state of the art storage technology. Therefore, real-time processing of the antenna voltage data using beam forming and correlation is applied to achieve a data reduction throughout the signal chain. However, most science could equally well be performed using an archive of raw antenna voltage data coming straight from the A/D converters instead of capturing and processing the antenna data in real time over and over again. Trends on storage and computing technology make such an approach feasible on a time scale of approximately 10 years. The benefits of such a system approach are more science output and a higher flexibility with respect to the science operations. In this paper we present a radically new system concept for a radio telescope based on storage of raw antenna data. LOFAR is used as an example for such a future instrument.

  5. New customizable phased array UT instrument opens door for furthering research and better industrial implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Gavin; Ginzel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Phased array UT as an inspection technique in itself continues to gain wide acceptance. However, there is much room for improvement in terms of implementation of Phased Array (PA) technology for every unique NDT application across several industries (e.g. oil and petroleum, nuclear and power generation, steel manufacturing, etc.). Having full control of the phased array instrument and customizing a software solution is necessary for more seamless and efficient inspections, from setting the PA parameters, collecting data and reporting, to the final analysis. NDT researchers and academics also need a flexible and open platform to be able to control various aspects of the phased array process. A high performance instrument with advanced PA features, faster data rates, a smaller form factor, and capability to adapt to specific applications, will be discussed

  6. On the (Frequency) Modulation of Coupled Oscillator Arrays in Phased Array Beam Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelski, R.; Acorn, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that arrays of voltage controlled oscillators coupled to nearest neighbors can be used to produce useful aperture phase distributions for phased array antennas. However, placing information of the transmitted signal requires that the oscillations be modulated.

  7. A Multi-Band Photonic Phased Array Antenna for High-Data Rate Communication, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-band phased array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. In order to steer...

  8. A Multi-band Photonic Phased Array Antenna for High-Date Rate Communication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-band phased array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. In order to steer...

  9. Determination of Focal Laws for Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing of Dissimilar Metal Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Ye; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin; Song, Myung Ho; Kang, Suk Chull; Kang, Sung Sik; Kim, Kyung Cho

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of dissimilar metal welds using phased array ultrasound is not easy at all, because crystalline structure of dissimilar metal welds cause deviation and splitting of the ultrasonic beams. Thus, in order to have focusing and/or steering phased array beams in dissimilar metal welds, proper time delays should be determined by ray tracing. In this paper, we proposed an effective approach to solve this difficult problem. Specifically, we modify the Oglivy's model parameters to describe the crystalline structure of real dissimilar metal welds in a fabricated specimen. And then, we calculate the proper time delay and incident angle of linear phased array transducer in the anisotropic and inhomogeneous material for focusing and/or steering phased array ultrasonic beams on the desired position

  10. Phased Array Antenna Testbed Development at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Kubat, Gregory; Johnson, Sandra K.; Anzic, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    Ideal phased array antennas offer advantages for communication systems, such as wide-angle scanning and multibeam operation, which can be utilized in certain NASA applications. However, physically realizable, electronically steered, phased array antennas introduce additional system performance parameters, which must be included in the evaluation of the system. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is currently conducting research to identify these parameters and to develop the tools necessary to measure them. One of these tools is a testbed where phased array antennas may be operated in an environment that simulates their use. This paper describes the development of the testbed and its use in characterizing a particular K-Band, phased array antenna.

  11. Slow and fast light in SOA-EA structures for phased-array antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales, S.; Öhman, Filip; Bermejo, A.

    We present an SOA-EA structure for controlling the phase and amplitude of optically fed phased-array antennas. Phase shifts of 40 degrees are obtained through slow and fast light effects by changing only the reverse voltage....

  12. SPS-ALPHA: The First Practical Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large PHased Array

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SPS-ALPHA (Solar Power Satellite via Arbitrarily Large Phased Array) is a novel, bio-mimetic approach to the challenge of space solar power. If successful, this...

  13. Annoyance of low frequency noise and traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, F.R.; Poulsen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    The annoyance of different low frequency noise sources was determined and compared to the annoyance from traffic noise. Twenty-two subjects participated in laboratory listening tests. The sounds were presented by loudspeakers in a listening room and the spectra of the low frequency noises were...

  14. The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Radio And Very Low Frequency (VLF) Electromagnetic Response Of A Layered Earth Media With Variable Dielectric Permittivity. ... A radio frequency of 125 KHz and a very low frequency (VLF) of 20 KHz were used in the computations and the field parameters studied over a dimensionless induction number, B. The ...

  15. Indoor measurements of sound at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Due to standing waves, the sound pressure level within a room may vary as much as 20-30 dB with low-frequency tonal noise, somewhat less with noise bands. For assessment of annoyance from low-frequency noise it is relevant to measure a level close to the highest level of the room, rather than a r...

  16. Low frequency astronomy - the challenge in a crowded RFI environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency radio astronomy is a hot topic at the moment. Many large arrays of antennas are built to facilitate the astronomical research on low frequencies. Building an instrument for the frequency band below 30 MHz on Earth will run into some problems. One of the issues is the instable and

  17. Compact Polarimetry in a Low Frequency Spaceborne Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, M-L.; Freeman, A.; Dubois-Fernandez, P.; Pottier, E.

    2011-01-01

    Compact polarimetry has been shown to be an interesting alternative mode to full polarimetry when global coverage and revisit time are key issues. It consists on transmitting a single polarization, while receiving on two. Several critical points have been identified, one being the Faraday rotation (FR) correction and the other the calibration. When a low frequency electromagnetic wave travels through the ionosphere, it undergoes a rotation of the polarization plane about the radar line of sight for a linearly polarized wave, and a simple phase shift for a circularly polarized wave. In a low frequency radar, the only possible choice of the transmit polarization is the circular one, in order to guaranty that the scattering element on the ground is illuminated with a constant polarization independently of the ionosphere state. This will allow meaningful time series analysis, interferometry as long as the Faraday rotation effect is corrected for the return path. In full-polarimetric (FP) mode, two techniques allow to estimate the FR: Freeman method using linearly polarized data, and Bickel and Bates theory based on the transformation of the measured scattering matrix to a circular basis. In CP mode, an alternate procedure is presented which relies on the bare surface scattering properties. These bare surfaces are selected by the conformity coefficient, invariant with FR. This coefficient is compared to other published classifications to show its potential in distinguishing three different scattering types: surface, doublebounce and volume. The performances of the bare surfaces selection and FR estimation are evaluated on PALSAR and airborne data. Once the bare surfaces are selected and Faraday angle estimated over them, the correction can be applied over the whole scene. The algorithm is compared with both FP techniques. In the last part of the paper, the calibration of a CP system from the point of view of classical matrix transformation methods in polarimetry is

  18. Sampling phased array - a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Boulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called 'Sampling Phased Array', has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing([1]). It realises a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. Th...

  19. Sampling phased array, a new technique for ultrasonic signal processing and imaging now available to industry

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, J.; Bulavinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years the improvement in the field of microelectronics and computer engineering has led to significant advances in ultrasonic signal processing and image construction techniques that are currently being applied to non-destructive material evaluation. A new phased array technique, called "Sampling Phased Array" has been developed in the Fraunhofer Institute for non-destructive testing [1]. It realizes a unique approach of measurement and processing of ultrasonic signals. The s...

  20. Restoring Low Sidelobe Antenna Patterns with Failed Elements in a Phased Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    optimum low sidelobes are demonstrated in several examples. Index Terms — Array signal processing, beams, linear algebra , phased arrays, shaped...beam antennas. I. INTRODUCTION For many phased array antenna applications , low spatial sidelobes are required, and it is desirable to maintain...represented by a linear combination of low sidelobe beamformers with no failed elements, ’s, in a neighborhood around under the constraint that the linear

  1. Low-frequency scaling applied to stochastic finite-fault modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Stephen; Motazedian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic finite-fault modeling is an important tool for simulating moderate to large earthquakes. It has proven to be useful in applications that require a reliable estimation of ground motions, mostly in the spectral frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz, which is the range of most interest to engineers. However, since there can be little resemblance between the low-frequency spectra of large and small earthquakes, this portion can be difficult to simulate using stochastic finite-fault techniques. This paper introduces two different methods to scale low-frequency spectra for stochastic finite-fault modeling. One method multiplies the subfault source spectrum by an empirical function. This function has three parameters to scale the low-frequency spectra: the level of scaling and the start and end frequencies of the taper. This empirical function adjusts the earthquake spectra only between the desired frequencies, conserving seismic moment in the simulated spectra. The other method is an empirical low-frequency coefficient that is added to the subfault corner frequency. This new parameter changes the ratio between high and low frequencies. For each simulation, the entire earthquake spectra is adjusted, which may result in the seismic moment not being conserved for a simulated earthquake. These low-frequency scaling methods were used to reproduce recorded earthquake spectra from several earthquakes recorded in the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Next Generation Attenuation Models (NGA) database. There were two methods of determining the stochastic parameters of best fit for each earthquake: a general residual analysis and an earthquake-specific residual analysis. Both methods resulted in comparable values for stress drop and the low-frequency scaling parameters; however, the earthquake-specific residual analysis obtained a more accurate distribution of the averaged residuals.

  2. Effects on Performance and Work Quality due to Low Frequency Ventilation Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Rylander, R.; Benton, S.; Leventhall, H. G.

    1997-08-01

    A pilot study was carried out to assess method evaluating effects of low frequency noise on performance. Of special interest was to study objective and subjective effects over time. Two ventilation noises were used, one of a predominantly mid frequency character and the other of a predominantly low frequency character. Both had an NC value of 35. For the study, 50 students were recruited and 30 selected on the basis of subjective reports of pressure on the eardrum after exposure to a low frequency noise. Of these, 14 randomly selected subjects aged 21 and 34 took part. The subjects performed three computerized cognitive tests in the mid frequency or the low frequency noise condition alternatively. Tests I and II were performed together with a secondary task.Questionnaires were used to evaluate subjective symptoms, effects on mood and estimated interference with the test results due to temperature, light and noise. The results showed that the subjective estimations of noise interference with performance were higher for the low frequency noise (psocial orientation (pstudied. The results further indicate that the NC curves do not fully assess the negative effects of low frequency noise on work performance.

  3. Retrieving 3D Wind Field from Phased Array Radar Rapid Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous two-dimensional simple adjoint method for retrieving horizontal wind field from a time sequence of single-Doppler scans of reflectivity and/or radial velocity is further developed into a new method to retrieve both horizontal and vertical winds at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This new method performs two steps. First, the horizontal wind field is retrieved on the conical surface at each tilt (elevation angle of radar scan. Second, the vertical velocity field is retrieved in a vertical cross-section along the radar beam with the horizontal velocity given from the first step. The method is applied to phased array radar (PAR rapid scans of the storm winds and reflectivity in a strong microburst event and is shown to be able to retrieve the three-dimensional wind field around a targeted downdraft within the storm that subsequently produced a damaging microburst. The method is computationally very efficient and can be used for real-time applications with PAR rapid scans.

  4. Application of Neuro-Wavelet Algorithm in Ultrasonic-Phased Array Nondestructive Testing of Polyethylene Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bohlouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene (PE pipelines with electrofusion (EF joining is an essential method of transportation of gas energy. EF joints are weak points for leakage and therefore, Nondestructive testing (NDT methods including ultrasonic array technology are necessary. This paper presents a practical NDT method of fusion joints of polyethylene piping using intelligent ultrasonic image processing techniques. In the proposed method, to detect the defects of electrofusion joints, the NDT is applied based on an ANN-Wavelet method as a digital image processing technique. The proposed approach includes four steps. First an ultrasonic-phased array technique is used to provide real time images of high resolution. In the second step, the images are preprocessed by digital image processing techniques for noise reduction and detection of ROI (Region of Interest. Furthermore, to make more improvement on the images, mathematical morphology techniques such as dilation and erosion are applied. In the 3rd step, a wavelet transform is used to develop a feature vector containing 3-dimensional information on various types of defects. In the final step, all the feature vectors are classified through a backpropagation-based ANN algorithm. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithms are highly reliable and also precise for NDT monitoring.

  5. Low-frequency radio absorption in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M.; Vink, J.; de Gasperin, F.; Salas, P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; van Weeren, R. J.; van Amesfoort, A. S.; Anderson, J.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Blaauw, R.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; van Dijk, P. C. G.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J.; Hörandel, J.; Holties, H. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Krankowski, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulder, H.; Nelles, A.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pekal, R.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Schwarz, D. J.; Smirnov, O.; Soida, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vocks, C.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Zucca, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Cassiopeia A is one of the best-studied supernova remnants. Its bright radio and X-ray emission is due to shocked ejecta. Cas A is rather unique in that the unshocked ejecta can also be studied: through emission in the infrared, the radio-active decay of 44Ti, and the low-frequency free-free absorption caused by cold ionised gas, which is the topic of this paper. Aims: Free-free absorption processes are affected by the mass, geometry, temperature, and ionisation conditions in the absorbing gas. Observations at the lowest radio frequencies can constrain a combination of these properties. Methods: We used Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Low Band Antenna observations at 30-77 MHz and Very Large Array (VLA) L-band observations at 1-2 GHz to fit for internal absorption as parametrised by the emission measure. We simultaneously fit multiple UV-matched images with a common resolution of 17″ (this corresponds to 0.25 pc for a source at the distance of Cas A). The ample frequency coverage allows us separate the relative contributions from the absorbing gas, the unabsorbed front of the shell, and the absorbed back of the shell to the emission spectrum. We explored the effects that a temperature lower than the 100-500 K proposed from infrared observations and a high degree of clumping can have on the derived physical properties of the unshocked material, such as its mass and density. We also compiled integrated radio flux density measurements, fit for the absorption processes that occur in the radio band, and considered their effect on the secular decline of the source. Results: We find a mass in the unshocked ejecta of M = 2.95 ± 0.48 M⊙ for an assumed gas temperatureof T = 100 K. This estimate is reduced for colder gas temperatures and, most significantly, if the ejecta are clumped. We measure the reverse shock to have a radius of 114″± 6″ and be centred at 23:23:26, +58:48:54 (J2000). We also find that a decrease in the amount of mass in the unshocked ejecta

  6. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission at low frequencies in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    -frequency hearing has not yet been characterized by measurement of low-frequency emissions from the cochlea. Low-frequency emissions are expected to be covered in sounds of breathing, blood circulation, and so on, if they exist at all at measurable levels. The present study shows, in essence, that the human ear...... emits distortion at least 1-2 octaves lower in frequency than has previously been shown. The emission is promising for further exploratory and clinical assessment of cochlear activity associated with low-frequency hearing. Anders received his M.Sc. degree in acoustics in 2012 from Aalborg University...

  7. Simulation and experiment for depth sizing of cracks in anchor bolts by ultrasonic phased array technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    There have been lots of reports about the occurrence of cracks in bolts in aging nuclear and thermal power plants. Sizing of such cracks is crucial for assessing the integrity of bolts. Currently, hammering and visual tests are used to detect cracks in bolts. However, they are not applicable for sizing cracks. Although the tip diffraction method is well known as a crack sizing technique, reflection echoes from threads make it difficult to apply this technique to bolts. This paper addresses a method for depth sizing of cracks in bolts by means of ultrasonic phased array technology. Numerical results of wave propagation in bolts by the finite element method (FEM) shows that a peak associated within the vicinity of a crack tip can be observed in the curve of echo intensity versus refraction angle for deep cracks. The refraction angle with respect to this peak decreases as crack depth increases. Such numerical results are verified by experiments on bolt specimens that have electrical discharge machining notches or fatigue cracks with different depths. In the experiment, a 10-MHz linear array probe is used. Depth of cracks in bolts using the refraction angle associated with the peak is determined and compared to actual depths. The comparison shows that accurately determining a crack depth from the inspection results is possible.

  8. Development on multifunctional phased-array fault inspection technology. Aiming at integrity on internals in nuclear power plant reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, Ichiro; Hirasawa, Taiji; Nagai, Satoshi; Naruse, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear power plants sharing an important role in Japanese energy policy, their higher safety and reliability than the other plants are required, and their non-destructive inspection occupies important position for information means to judge their integrity. And, for a part of responses to recent rationalization of the plant operation and increase of aged plants, requirements and positioning onto the non-destructive inspection technology also change. As a result, not only concept on allowable fault sizes is adopted, but also inspection on reactor internals without conventional regulation is obliged to require for size evaluation (sizing) with higher precision to use for secure detection and integrity evaluation of the faults than sizes determined for every internals. For requirement with such higher levels for fault detection and sizing, and for requirement for effective inspection, phased-array supersonic wave fault inspection method is one of the methods with high potential power. Here were introduced on principles and characteristics of the phased-array supersonic wave fault inspection method, and on various fault inspection methods and functions mainly developed for reactor internals inspection. (G.K.)

  9. Qualification of final closure for disposal container II - applicability of TOFD and phased array technique for overpack welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Kawahara, K.; Arakawa, T.; Kurokawa, M.

    2002-01-01

    With a focus on carbon steel, which is one of the candidate materials for the disposal container used in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan, the defect detection capabilities were examined regarding engineering defects of the TOFD technique, an ultrasonic testing method, and the phased array TOFD technique as non-destructive test techniques for the inspection of the weld of a carbon steel overpack. Regarding the TOFD technique, a measurement was conducted concerning the influence of the crossing angle of the ultrasonic beams on the capability of detect flaws, for examining the detection characteristics of the technique in relation to the lid structure of an overpack, and it was pointed out that it is appropriate to consider the lower tip of slit as the reference flaw. Based on the measurements and calculations regarding sound pressure distribution, projections about the scope covered by one test session were made and the optimum testing conditions were examined. Regarding the phased array TOFP technique, the detectability and quantification characteristics were investigated, and comparisons with those of the TOFD technique and the phased array UT technique were made. From the viewpoint of securing long-term corrosion resistance for an overpack, the ways of thinking for ensuring the quality and long-term integrity of the final sealing area of a disposal container were examined. This study stresses that identifying and defining the defects that are harmful to corrosion allowance is important as well as achieving improvements in the welding and testing techniques, and that the question to solve in particular from now on is how to establish effective means to detect defects on the weld surface and the near surface and how to approach the level of tolerance concerning the defects on and near the surface. (orig.)

  10. Challenges and limitations in retrofitting facilities for low frequency noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzba, P. [ATCO Noise Management, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The trend to revise and increase environmental regulations regarding low frequency noise emissions from oil and gas facilities was discussed. Noise related complaints can often be traced to low frequency noise, which is the unwanted sound with a frequency range falling within 31.5-Hz, 63-Hz, and 125-Hz octave bands. This paper also discussed the challenges and limitations of field retrofits of the facilities aimed at reducing low frequency noise. The main sources of low frequency noise associated with a compression facility are the radiator cooler, engine exhaust and the building envelope. Regulators are paying close attention not only to the overall noise exposure as measured by the A-weighted levels, but also to the quality of noise emitted by the particular frequency spectrum. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board recently issued Noise Control Directive 38 and made it a requirement to perform low frequency noise impact assessment for permitting of all new energy facilities. Under Directive 38, the low frequency noise assessment is to be performed using the C-weighted scale as a measure in addition to the previously used A-weighted scale. Directive 38 recommends that in order to avoid low frequency noise problems the difference between the C-weighted and A-weighted levels at the residential locations should be lower than 20 dB. This implies that noise should be limited to 60 dBC for Category 1 residences of low dwelling density. Small upgrades and changes can be made to lower low frequency noise emissions. These may include upgrading building wall insulation, providing wall-to-skid isolation system, upgrading the fan blades, or reducing the rpm of the fans. It was concluded that these upgrades should be considered for facilities in close proximity to residential areas. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Static and low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Tynes, T.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields are reviewed with the objective of summarizing effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people. Static and low frequency electric and magnetic fields may elicit biological reactions. Whether exposure to such fields may affect human health at field strengths present in everyday or occupational life is still unsettled. There is unsufficient knowledge to establish any dose concept relevant to health risk. 196 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Maintenance of extratropical low-frequency variabilities in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, M.

    1994-01-01

    The extratropical low-frequency variability is one of the most important components in extratropical dynamics. While there are some understanding of the high-frequency, synoptic scale storm track eddy development due to baroclinic instability theory, its low-frequency counterpart is poorly understood and the theory for that is slowly evolving. The main difficulty seems to be lying on the fact that the problem is three dimensional in nature

  13. Increasing low frequency sound attenuation using compounded single layer of sonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Preeti; Gupta, Arpan

    2018-05-01

    Sonic crystals (SC) are man-made periodic structures where sound hard scatterers are arranged in a crystalline manner. SC reduces noise in a particular range of frequencies called as band gap. Sonic crystals have a promising application in noise shielding; however, the application is limited due to the size of structure. Particularly for low frequencies, the structure becomes quite bulky, restricting its practical application. This paper presents a compounded model of SC, which has the same overall area and filling fraction but with increased low frequency sound attenuation. Two cases have been considered, a three layer SC and a compounded single layer SC. Both models have been analyzed using finite element simulation and plane wave expansion method. Band gaps for periodic structures have been obtained using both methods which are in good agreement. Further, sound transmission loss has been evaluated using finite element method. The results demonstrate the use of compounded model of Sonic Crystal for low frequency sound attenuation.

  14. Structural-electrical coupling optimisation for radiating and scattering performances of active phased array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congsi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhihai; Wang, Meng; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weifeng

    2018-04-01

    It is well known that calculating and reducing of radar cross section (RCS) of the active phased array antenna (APAA) are both difficult and complicated. It remains unresolved to balance the performance of the radiating and scattering when the RCS is reduced. Therefore, this paper develops a structure and scattering array factor coupling model of APAA based on the phase errors of radiated elements generated by structural distortion and installation error of the array. To obtain the optimal radiating and scattering performance, an integrated optimisation model is built to optimise the installation height of all the radiated elements in normal direction of the array, in which the particle swarm optimisation method is adopted and the gain loss and scattering array factor are selected as the fitness function. The simulation indicates that the proposed coupling model and integrated optimisation method can effectively decrease the RCS and that the necessary radiating performance can be simultaneously guaranteed, which demonstrate an important application value in engineering design and structural evaluation of APAA.

  15. Low-frequency excess flux noise in superconducting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, Sebastian; Ferring, Anna; Fleischmann, Andreas; Enss, Christian [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Low-frequency noise is a rather universal phenomenon and appears in physical, chemical, biological or even economical systems. However, there is often very little known about the underlying processes leading to its occurrence. In particular, the origin of low-frequency excess flux noise in superconducting devices has been an unresolved puzzle for many decades. Its existence limits, for example, the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits or makes high-precision measurements of low-frequency signals using SQUIDs rather challenging. Recent experiments suggest that low-frequency excess flux noise in Josephson junction based devices might be caused by the random reversal of interacting spins in surface layer oxides and in the superconductor-substrate interface. Even if it turns out to be generally correct, the underlying physical processes, i.e. the origin of these spins, their physical nature as well as the interaction mechanisms, have not been resolved so far. In this contribution we discuss recent measurements of low-frequency SQUID noise which we performed to investigate the origin of low-frequency excess flux noise in superconducting devices. Within this context we give an overview of our measurement techniques and link our data with present theoretical models and literature data.

  16. Low frequency torsional vibration gaps in the shaft with locally resonant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dianlong; Liu Yaozong; Wang Gang; Cai Li; Qiu Jing

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of torsional wave in the shaft with periodically attached local resonators is studied with the transfer matrix theory and the finite element method. The analytical dispersion relation and the complex band structure of such a structure is presented for the first time, which indicates the existence of low frequency gaps. The effect of shaft material on the vibration attenuation in band gap is investigated. The frequency response function of the shaft with finite periodic locally resonant oscillators is simulated with finite element method, which shows large vibration attenuation in the frequency range of the gap as expected. The low frequency torsional gap in shafts provides a new idea for vibration control

  17. A Synthetic Phased Array Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor for Quantifying Bolt Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Guldiken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report our findings on implementing a synthetic phased array surface acoustic wave sensor to quantify bolt tension. Maintaining proper bolt tension is important in many fields such as for ensuring safe operation of civil infrastructures. Significant advantages of this relatively simple methodology is its capability to assess bolt tension without any contact with the bolt, thus enabling measurement at inaccessible locations, multiple bolt measurement capability at a time, not requiring data collection during the installation and no calibration requirements. We performed detailed experiments on a custom-built flexible bench-top experimental setup consisting of 1018 steel plate of 12.7 mm (½ in thickness, a 6.4 mm (¼ in grade 8 bolt and a stainless steel washer with 19 mm (¾ in of external diameter. Our results indicate that this method is not only capable of clearly distinguishing properly bolted joints from loosened joints but also capable of quantifying how loose the bolt actually is. We also conducted detailed signal-to-noise (SNR analysis and showed that the SNR value for the entire bolt tension range was sufficient for image reconstruction.

  18. Multi-Channel Deconvolution for Forward-Looking Phase Array Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cross-range resolution of forward-looking phase array radar (PAR is limited by the effective antenna beamwidth since the azimuth echo is the convolution of antenna pattern and targets’ backscattering coefficients. Therefore, deconvolution algorithms are proposed to improve the imaging resolution under the limited antenna beamwidth. However, as a typical inverse problem, deconvolution is essentially a highly ill-posed problem which is sensitive to noise and cannot ensure a reliable and robust estimation. In this paper, multi-channel deconvolution is proposed for improving the performance of deconvolution, which intends to considerably alleviate the ill-posed problem of single-channel deconvolution. To depict the performance improvement obtained by multi-channel more effectively, evaluation parameters are generalized to characterize the angular spectrum of antenna pattern or singular value distribution of observation matrix, which are conducted to compare different deconvolution systems. Here we present two multi-channel deconvolution algorithms which improve upon the traditional deconvolution algorithms via combining with multi-channel technique. Extensive simulations and experimental results based on real data are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed imaging methods.

  19. Theoretical thermal dosimetry produced by an annular phased array system in CT-based patient models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, K.D.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Lynch, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical calculations for the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the resulting temperature distributions produced by an annular phased array (APA) type system are made. The finite element numerical method is used in the formulation of both the electromagnetic (EM) and the thermal boundary value problems. A number of detailed patient models based on CT-scan data from the pelvic, visceral, and thoracic regions are generated to stimulate a variety of tumor locations and surrounding normal tissues. The SAR values from the EM solution are input into the bioheat transfer equation, and steady-rate temperature distributions are calculated for a wide variety of blood flow rates. Based on theoretical modeling, the APA shows no preferential heating of superficial over deep-seated tumors. However, in most cases satisfactory thermal profiles (therapeutic volume near 60%) are obtained in all three regions of the human trunk only for tumors with little or no blood flow. Unsatisfactory temperature patterns (therapeutic volume <50%) are found for tumors with moderate to high perfusion rates. These theoretical calculations should aid the clinician in the evaluation of the effectiveness of APA type devices in heating tumors located in the trunk region

  20. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  1. Standard guide for evaluating performance characteristics of phased-Array ultrasonic testing instruments and systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes procedures for evaluating some performance characteristics of phased-array ultrasonic examination instruments and systems. 1.2 Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this guide are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic examinations. Other electronic instrument characteristics in phased-array units are similar to non-phased-array units and may be measured as described in E 1065 or E 1324. 1.3 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be evaluated. 1.4 This guide establishes no performance limits for examination systems; if such acceptance criteria ar...

  2. Development of phased array UT technique for inspection of turbine wheel rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, I.; Nagal, S.; Goto, M.; Ohmatsu, K.

    1986-01-01

    A phased array UT technique has been developed for the improvement of defect detection under the keyway region of shrunk-on type turbine wheel. The sector scanning mode operation with plexiglas wedge of phased array capability was applied to construct the B-scope image of turbine wheel rim region. Preceding to the inspection test of the model specimen having real shape of rim region, the distribution of sound field intensity along the steering angle of the scanning line was measured on the test block. Then, the minimum depth of detectable defect by the B-scope imaging was evaluated on the dovetail shape specimens which had different depth EDM notches at the each hook fillet. As the results, it has been realized that the B-scope imaging of the sector scanning mode phased array technique has a capability for distinguishing the defect echoes from the many reflection echoes caused by the complexed shape of wheel rim region

  3. Energy harvesting from low frequency applications using piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Z. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to eliminate the replacement of the batteries of electronic devices that are difficult or impractical to service once deployed, harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations or impacts using piezoelectric materials has been researched over the last several decades. However, a majority of these applications have very low input frequencies. This presents a challenge for the researchers to optimize the energy output of piezoelectric energy harvesters, due to the relatively high elastic moduli of piezoelectric materials used to date. This paper reviews the current state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency (0–100 Hz) applications and the methods that have been developed to improve the power outputs of the piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various key aspects that contribute to the overall performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester are discussed, including geometries of the piezoelectric element, types of piezoelectric material used, techniques employed to match the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric element to input frequency of the host structure, and electronic circuits specifically designed for energy harvesters

  4. Bayesian inference on EMRI signals using low frequency approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Asad; Meyer, Renate; Christensen, Nelson; Röver, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) are thought to be one of the most exciting gravitational wave sources to be detected with LISA. Due to their complicated nature and weak amplitudes the detection and parameter estimation of such sources is a challenging task. In this paper we present a statistical methodology based on Bayesian inference in which the estimation of parameters is carried out by advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms such as parallel tempering MCMC. We analysed high and medium mass EMRI systems that fall well inside the low frequency range of LISA. In the context of the Mock LISA Data Challenges, our investigation and results are also the first instance in which a fully Markovian algorithm is applied for EMRI searches. Results show that our algorithm worked well in recovering EMRI signals from different (simulated) LISA data sets having single and multiple EMRI sources and holds great promise for posterior computation under more realistic conditions. The search and estimation methods presented in this paper are general in their nature, and can be applied in any other scenario such as AdLIGO, AdVIRGO and Einstein Telescope with their respective response functions. (paper)

  5. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  6. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T. [Non Destructive Testing Department at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX, (France); Baque, F. [Department of Sodium Technology at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance CEDEX, (France)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  7. Pulse-echo phased array ultrasonic inspection of pultruded rod stitched efficient unitized structure (PRSEUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P. H.

    2011-01-01

    A PRSEUS test article was subjected to controlled impact on the skin face followed by static and cyclic axial compressions. Phased array ultrasonic inspection was conducted before impact, and after each of the test conditions. A linear phased array probe with a manual X-Y scanner was used for interrogation. Ultrasound showed a delamination between the skin and stringer flange adjacent to the impact. As designed, the stitching in the flange arrested the lateral flaw formation. Subsequent ultrasonic data showed no delamination growth due to continued loading.

  8. An Optimal Beamforming Algorithm for Phased-Array Antennas Used in Multi-Beam Spaceborne Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, O. A.; Ivashina, M. V.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Strict requirements for future spaceborne ocean missions using multi-beam radiometers call for new antenna technologies, such as digital beamforming phased arrays. In this paper, we present an optimal beamforming algorithm for phased-array antenna systems designed to operate as focal plane arrays...... to a FPA feeding a torus reflector antenna (designed under the contract with the European Space Agency) and tested for multiple beams. The results demonstrate an improved performance in terms of the optimized beam characteristics, yielding much higher spatial and radiometric resolution as well as much...

  9. Liquid sodium testing of in-house phased array EMAT transducer for L-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourdais, F.; Le Polles, T.; Baque, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an in-house phased array EMAT transducer for longitudinal wave inspection in liquid sodium. The work presented herein is part of an undergoing project aimed at improving in-service inspection techniques for the ASTRID reactor project. The design process of the phased array EMAT probe is briefly explained and followed by a review of experimental test results. We first present test results obtained in the laboratory while the last part of the paper describes the liquid sodium testing and the produced ultrasound images. (authors)

  10. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-06-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3-3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  11. Development of a low-frequency physiotherapeutic device for diabetes manipulated by microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Song; Gong, Jian

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a physiotherapeutic device for diabetes that generates special low-frequency waveform manipulated by a microcontroller. METHODS: A microcontoller and a digital-to-analog converter were utilized along with a keyboard and LED display circuit, to generate desired low-frequecy waveform with the assistance of a software. RESULTS: The complex waveform generated by this device met the demands for diabetes physiotherapy, and the frequency and amplitude could be freely adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: The utilization of a digital-to-analog converter controlled by a microcontroller can very well serve the purpose of a low-frequency physiotherapy for diabetes.

  12. Flextensional fiber Bragg grating-based accelerometer for low frequency vibration measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghua Zhang; Xueguang Qiao; Manli Hu; Zhongyao Feng; Hong Gao; Yang Yang; Rui Zhou

    2011-01-01

    @@ The intelligent structural health monitoring method,which uses a fiber Bragg grating(FBG)sensor,is a new approach in the field of civil engineering.However,it lacks a reliable FBG-based accelerometer for taking structural low frequency vibration measurements.In this letter,a flextensional FBG-based accelerometer is proposed and demonstrated.The experimental results indicate that the natural frequency of the developed accelerometer is 16.7 Hz,with a high sensitivity of 410.7 pm/g.In addition,it has a broad and flat response over low frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 Hz.The natural frequency and sensitivity of the accelerometer can be tuned by adding mass to tailor the sensor performance to specific applications.Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed FBG-based accelerometer.These results show that the proposed accelerometer is satisfactory for low frequency vibration measurements.%The intelligent structural health monitoring method, which uses a fiber Bragg grating {FBG} sensor, ie a new approach in the field of civil engineering. However, it lacks a reliable FBG-based accelerometer for taking structural low frequency vibration measurements. In this letter, a flextensional FBG-based accelerometer is proposed and demonstrated. The experimental results indicate that the natural frequency of the developed accelerometer is 16.7 Hz, with a high sensitivity of 410.7 pm/g. In addition, it has a broad and flat response over low frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 Hz. The natural frequency and sensitivity of the accelerometer can be tuned by adding mass to tailor the sensor performance to specific applications. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed FBG-based accelerometer. These results show that the proposed accelerometer is satisfactory for low frequency vibration measurements.

  13. Characterization and Impact of Low Frequency Wind Turbine Noise Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, James

    Wind turbine noise is a complex issue that requires due diligence to minimize any potential impact on quality of life. This study enhances existing knowledge of wind turbine noise through focused analyses of downwind sound propagation, directionality, and the low frequency component of the noise. Measurements were conducted at four wind speeds according to a design of experiments at incremental distances and angles. Wind turbine noise is shown to be highly directional, while downwind sound propagation is spherical with limited ground absorption. The noise is found to have a significant low frequency component that is largely independent of wind speed over the 20-250 Hz range. The generated low frequency noise is shown to be audible above 40 Hz at the MOE setback distance of 550 m. Infrasound levels exhibit higher dependency on wind speed, but remain below audible levels up to 15 m/s.

  14. Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-02-20

    This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.

  15. Sizing of intergranular stress corrosion cracking using low frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.D.; Avioli, M.J.; Rose, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon the work thus far accomplished on low frequency sizing, the following conclusions can be drawn: the potential of low frequency ultrasound for the sizing of IGSCC seams encouraging as demonstrated in this work. If minimal walking is expected, larger values of crack height/wavelength ratios should not affect the reliability of estimates; notch data points out the validity of signal amplitude for sizing. With care in frequency consideration, the technique can be extended to cracks; when wavelength is greater than flaw size, importance of orientation and reflector shape diminishes although less so for deeper cracks; when beam profile is larger than the defect size, echo amplitude is proportional to defect area when using shear wave probes and corner reflectors; other factors, in addition to crack size, affect signal amplitude. Reference data to compensate for depth and material (HAZ) is a must; additional crack samples should be studied in order to further develop and characterize the use of low frequency ultrasonics

  16. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields - the topic of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the literature about the biological effects of low frequency electric and magnetic fields. It is still an unsettled question whether extremely low frequency magnetic fields may increase the incidence of cancer. Experimental data arise mainly from exposure to field strengths or frequencies seldom or never encountered by people. The results give no clear explanation to the increase in cancer incidence reported in epidemiological works. The spectre of possible mechanisms imply that no simple dose/effect relationship should be expected, as conflicting mechanisms may dominate at different exposure levels. There is therefore no basis at present for giving numerical value to cancer risk from exposure to low frequency electric or magnetic fields

  17. Low frequency electrostatic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1991-09-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency electrostatic modes in a dusty plasma in the presence of a static homogeneous magnetic field are examined. It is found that the presence of the dust particles and the static magnetic field have significant effects on the dispersion relations. For the parallel propagation the electrostatic mode is slightly modified by the magnetic field for the ion acoustic branch. A new longitudinal mode arises at the extreme low frequency limit, which is unaffected by the magnetic field for the parallel propagation. For the transverse propagation the ion acoustic mode is not affected by the magnetic field. However, the undamped extreme low frequency mode is significantly modified by the presence of the magnetic field for the propagation transverse to the direction of the magnetic field. (author). 23 refs

  18. Atomic Oxygen Energy in Low Frequency Hyperthermal Plasma Ashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K R.; Kneubel, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and analytical analysis of the atomic oxygen erosion of pyrolytic graphite as well as Monte Carlo computational modeling of the erosion of Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) polyimide was performed to determine the hyperthermal energy of low frequency (30 to 35 kHz) plasma ashers operating on air. It was concluded that hyperthermal energies in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 eV are produced in the low frequency air plasmas which results in texturing similar to that in low Earth orbit (LEO). Monte Carlo computational modeling also indicated that such low energy directed ions are fully capable of producing the experimentally observed textured surfaces in low frequency plasmas.

  19. Radiative cooling and broadband phenomenon in low-frequency waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of radiative cooling on the pure baroclinic low-frequency waves under the approximation of equatorial -plane and semi-geostrophic condition. The results show that radiative cooling does not, exclusively, provide the damping effects on the development of low-frequency waves. Under the delicate radiative-convective equilibrium, radiative effects will alter the phase speed and wave period, and bring about the broadband of phase velocity and wave period by adjusting the vertical profiles of diabatic heating. when the intensity of diabatic heating is moderate and appropriate, it is conductive to the development and sustaining of the low-frequency waves and their broadband phenomena, not the larger, the better. The radiative cooling cannot be neglected in order to reach the moderate and appropriate intensity of diabatic heating.

  20. Low frequency noise reduction using stiff light composite panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yongchang; LIN Weizheng

    2003-01-01

    The experiment presented in this paper is to investigate and analyze the noise reduction at low frequency using stiff light composite panels. Since these composite panels are made of lightweight and stiff materials, this actuation strategy will enable the creation of composite panels for duct noise control without using traditional heavy structural mass. The results suggest that the mass-spring resonance absorption in the case of a comparatively stiff thick panel with a thin flexible plate is more efficient with minimum weight, when subjected to low-frequency (<500 Hz). The efficiency of the panel absorber depends on the mass of the thin flexible plate and the stiffness of the panel.

  1. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  2. Improvement of the low frequency oscillation model for Hall thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunsheng, E-mail: wangcs@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Huashan [Yanshan University, College of Vehicles and Energy, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei (China)

    2016-08-15

    The low frequency oscillation of the discharge current in Hall thrusters is a major aspect of these devices that requires further study. While the existing model captures the ionization mechanism of the low frequency oscillation, it unfortunately fails to express the dynamic characteristics of the ion acceleration. The analysis in this paper shows this is because of the simplification of the electron equation, which affects both the electric field distribution and the ion acceleration process. Additionally, the electron density equation is revised and a new model that is based on the physical properties of ion movement is proposed.

  3. Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2017-01-10

    Solution of the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE), which is obtained by the classical marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme, becomes inaccurate when the time step is large, i.e., under low-frequency excitation. It is shown here that the inaccuracy stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components under low-frequency excitation.

  4. Optical phased array using guided resonance with backside reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Yu; Arbabi, Amir; Faraon, Andrei

    2018-03-13

    Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.

  5. Effects of Removing Low-Frequency Electric Information on Speech Perception with Bimodal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Jennifer R.; Eggleston, Jessica L.; Reavis, Kelly M.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Reiss, Lina A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to determine whether speech perception could be improved for bimodal listeners (those using a cochlear implant [CI] in one ear and hearing aid in the contralateral ear) by removing low-frequency information provided by the CI, thereby reducing acoustic-electric overlap. Method: Subjects were adult CI subjects with at…

  6. Ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction of a spin-weighted spheroidal wave equation in low frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wen-Lin; Tian Gui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Spin-weighted spheroidal wave functions play an important role in the study of the linear stability of rotating Kerr black holes and are studied by the perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Their analytic ground eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained by means of a series in low frequency. The ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction for small complex frequencies are numerically determined.

  7. Domain Decomposition for Computing Extremely Low Frequency Induced Current in the Human Body

    OpenAIRE

    Perrussel , Ronan; Voyer , Damien; Nicolas , Laurent; Scorretti , Riccardo; Burais , Noël

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Computation of electromagnetic fields in high resolution computational phantoms requires solving large linear systems. We present an application of Schwarz preconditioners with Krylov subspace methods for computing extremely low frequency induced fields in a phantom issued from the Visible Human.

  8. Low Frequency Vibration approach to asess the Performance of wood structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Michael O. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    The primary means of inspecting buildings and other structures is to evaluate each structure member individually. This is a time consuming process that is expensive, particularly if sheathing or other covering materials must be removed to access the structural members. This paper presents an effort to use a low frequency vibration method for assessing the structural...

  9. Low frequency vibration approach for assessing performance of wood floor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Michael O. Hunt; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman

    2005-01-01

    The primary means of inspecting buildings and other structures is to evaluate each structure member individually. This is a time-consuming and expensive process, particularly if sheathing or other covering materials must be removed to access the structural members. The objective of this study was to determine if a low frequency vibration method could be used to...

  10. An Ultra-Wideband Millimeter-Wave Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Markus H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Volakis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Wideband millimeter-wave arrays are of increasing importance due to their growing use in high data rate systems, including 5G communication networks. In this paper, we present a new class of ultra-wideband millimeter wave arrays that operate from nearly 20 GHz to 90 GHz. The array is based on tightly coupled dipoles. Feeding designs and fabrication challenges are presented, and a method for suppressing feed resonances is provided.

  11. Analysis and synthesis of (SAR) waveguide phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, H. J.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes work performed due to ESA contract No. 101 34/93/NL/PB. Started is with a literature study on dual polarized waveguide radiators, resulting in the choice for the open ended square waveguide. After a thorough description of the mode matching infinite waveguide array analysis method - including finiteness effects - that forms the basis for all further described analysis and synthesis methods, the accuracy of the analysis software is validated by comparison with measurements on two realized antennas. These antennas have centered irises in the waveguide apertures and a dielectric wide angle impedance matching sheet in front of the antenna. A synthesis method, using simulated annealing and downhill simplex, is described next and different antenna designs, based on the analysis of a single element in an infinite array environment, are presented. Next, designs of subarrays are presented. Shown is the paramount importance of including the array environment in the design of a subarray. A microstrip patch waveguide exciter and subarray feeding network are discussed and the depth of the waveguide radiator is estimated. Chosen is a rectangular grid array with waveguides of 2.5 cm depth without irises and without dielectric sheet, grouped in linear 8 elements subarrays.

  12. Amplitude and Phase Calibration of an Dual Polarized Active Phased Array Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.C.B.; Paquay, M.H.A.; Koomen, P.J.; Hoogeboom, P.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a Polarimetrie C-band aircraft SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been developed. The project is called PHARUS, an acronym for Phased Array Universal SAR. This instrument serves remote sensing applications. The antenna system contains 48 modules (expandable to 96). A module is

  13. Simulation of a ring resonator-based optical beamformer system for phased array receive antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijmes, M.R.; Meijerink, Arjan; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2009-01-01

    A new simulator tool is described that can be used in the field of RF photonics. It has been developed on the basis of a broadband, continuously tunable optical beamformer system for phased array receive antennas. The application that is considered in this paper is airborne satellite reception of

  14. Photonic integration and components development for a Ku-band phased array antenna system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Zhuang, L.; Burla, M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Noharet, Bertrand; Wang, Qin; Beeker, W.P.; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the development of a phased array antenna system using a photonic beamformer is reported. The paper emphasizes on the photonic integration between two main components of the beamformer, namely the photonic beamformer chip and the electroabsorption modulator array. System level

  15. Diamagneto-Dielectric Anisotropic Wide Angle Impedance Matching Layers for Active Phased Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the full process of designing anisotropic metamaterial (MM) wide angle impedance matching (WAIM) layers. These layers are used to reduce the scan losses that occur in active phased arrays for large scanning angles. Numerical results are provided to show the improvement in

  16. Diamagneto-dielectric anisotropic wide angle impedance matching layers for active phased arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, F.; Cifola, L.; Gerini, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the full process of designing anisotropic metamaterial (MM) wide angle impedance matching (WAIM) layers. These layers are used to reduce the scan losses that occur in active phased arrays for large scanning angles. Numerical results are provided to show the improvement in

  17. A 28 GHz FR-4 Compatible Phased Array Antenna for 5G Mobile Phone Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    The design of a 28 GHz phased array antenna for future fifth generation (5G) mobile-phone applications has been presented in this paper. The proposed antenna can be implemented using low cost FR-4 substrates, while maintaining good performance in terms of gain and efficiency. This is achieved...

  18. Mutual-Coupling Based Phased-Array Calibration: A Robust and Versatile Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekers, D.J.; Dijk, R. van; Vliet, F.E. van

    2013-01-01

    The transmit and receive modules of a large phased array are often calibrated for amplitude and phase variations by an internal calibration network and an offline characterization of the complete array in an anechoic chamber. Such a solution is less obvious in view of current trends towards

  19. Design of a ring resonator-based optical beam forming network for phased array receive antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Klooster, J.W.J.R.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Meijerink, Arjan; Zhuang, L.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; van Etten, Wim; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Schippers, H.; Verpoorte, J.; Wintels, M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel squint-free ring resonator-based optical beam forming network (OBFN) for phased array antennas (PAA) is proposed. It is intended to provide broadband connectivity to airborne platforms via geostationary satellites. In this paper, we present the design of the OBFN and its control system. Our

  20. Real-time 2-D Phased Array Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Fogh, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Echocardiography examination of the blood flow is currently either restricted to 1-D techniques in real-time or experimental off-line 2-D methods. This paper presents an implementation of transverse oscillation for real-time 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) on a commercial BK Ultrasound scanner....... A large field-of-view (FOV) sequence for studying flow dynamics at 11 frames per second (fps) and a sequence for studying peak systolic velocities (PSV) with a narrow FOV at 36 fps were validated. The VFI sequences were validated in a flow-rig with continuous laminar parabolic flow and in a pulsating flow...

  1. Focusing of high intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey; #, ||

    2010-01-01

    A method for focusing high intensity ultrasound through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs whilst maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) is proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, are investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator the diffraction approach provides a 23% gain in peak intensity and results in significantly less power losses on the ribs (1% versus 7.5% of the irradiated power) compared with the geometric one. A 2D 1-MHz phased array with 254 randomly distributed elements, tissue mimicking phantoms, and samples of porcine rib cages are used in experiments; the geometric approach is used to configure how the array is driven. Intensity distributions are measured in the plane of the ribs and in the focal plane using an infra-red camera. Theoretical and experimental results show that it is possible to provide adequate focusing through the ribs without overheating them for a single focus and several foci, including steering at ± 10–15 mm off and ± 20 mm along the array axis. Focus splitting due to the periodic spatial structure of ribs is demonstrated both in simulations and experiments; the parameters of splitting are quantified. The ability to produce thermal lesions with a split focal pattern in ex vivo porcine tissue placed beyond the rib phantom is also demonstrated. The results suggest that the method is potentially useful for clinical applications of HIFU for which the rib cage lies between the transducer(s) and the targeted tissue. PMID:20510186

  2. Probing Pharmaceutical Mixtures during Milling: The Potency of Low-Frequency Raman Spectroscopy in Identifying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Greg; Römann, Philipp; Poller, Bettina; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Rooney, Jeremy S; Huff, Gregory S; Smith, Geoffrey P S; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C; Strachan, Clare J; Fraser-Miller, Sara J

    2017-12-04

    This study uses a multimodal analytical approach to evaluate the rates of (co)amorphization of milled drug and excipient and the effectiveness of different analytical methods in detecting these changes. Indomethacin and tryptophan were the model substances, and the analytical methods included low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (785 nm excitation and capable of measuring both low- (10 to 250 cm -1 ) and midfrequency (450 to 1800 cm -1 ) regimes, and a 830 nm system (5 to 250 cm -1 )), conventional (200-3000 cm -1 ) Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The kinetics of amorphization were found to be faster for the mixture, and indeed, for indomethacin, only partial amorphization occurred (after 360 min of milling). Each technique was capable of identifying the transformations, but some, such as low-frequency Raman spectroscopy and XRPD, provided less ambiguous signatures than the midvibrational frequency techniques (conventional Raman and FTIR). The low-frequency Raman spectra showed intense phonon mode bands for the crystalline and cocrystalline samples that could be used as a sensitive probe of order. Multivariate analysis has been used to further interpret the spectral changes. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has several practical advantages over XRPD, for probing (dis-)order during pharmaceutical processing, showcasing its potential for future development, and implementation as an in-line process monitoring method.

  3. Modulation of cochlear tuning by low-frequency sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, J.F.L.; Prijs, V.F.; Latour, J.B.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    An intense, low-frequency tone (about 30 Hz) modulates the sensitivity of the inner ear to high-frequency stimulation. This modulation is correlated with the displacement of the basilar membrane. The findings suggest that the modulation may also affect cochlear tuning. We have investigated

  4. Mitigation of low-frequency groundnoise from runways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Salomons, E.M.; Beeks, A.A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    With the extra runway at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, introduced in 2003, the noise nuisance for local residents increased due to increased groundnoise. In a case study the effect of enhanced ground absorption on the propagation of low-frequency noise from aircraft ground operations, e.g. departing

  5. Is Reaction Time Variability in ADHD Mainly at Low Frequencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intraindividual variability in reaction times (RT variability) has garnered increasing interest as an indicator of cognitive and neurobiological dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent theory and research has emphasized specific low-frequency patterns of RT variability. However, whether…

  6. Low frequency sounds in dwellings : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Frits (G P)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematically assess the level and spectral distribution of low frequency (LF) sounds in dwellings. Measurements of broad and narrow hand sound levels have been made in 36 Dutch dwellings in 1998. In 19 dwellings there were complaints about LF noise, in 17 others no

  7. The role of low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyze the dynamical features and responsible factors of the low-frequency intraseasonal time scales which influenced the nature of onset, intensity and duration of active/break phases and withdrawal of the monsoon during the anomalous Indian summer monsoon of 2002 – the most severe drought recorded in recent ...

  8. Excitation of low-frequency electrostatic instability on the auroral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-Frequency Electrostatic Instability That Is Observed By Both Ground Facilities And Satellites Have Been Studied In The Auroral Acceleration Region Consisting Of Hot Precipitating Electron Beam From The Magnetosphere, Cold Background Electron And Ion Beam Moving Upward Away From The Earth Along The ...

  9. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This justify focussing on transitional galaxies to find relic-evidences of the immediate past AGN-feedback which decide the future course of evolution of a galaxy. Relic radio lobes can be best detected in low frequency observations with the GMRT, LOFAR and in future SKA. The age of these relic radio plasma can be as old ...

  10. Olfar: orbiting low frequency antenna for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2009-01-01

    New interesting astronomical science drivers for very low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, astronomical observations with Earth-bound radio telescopes at very

  11. OLFAR - Orbiting low frequency antennas for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    One of the last unexplored frequency ranges in radio astronomy is the frequency band below 30 MHz. New interesting astronomical science drivers for low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high

  12. Low-frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez Rivas, J.; Kuttge, M.; Kurz, H.; Haring Bolivar, P.; Sánchez-Gil, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of surface plasmon optics or plasmonics is the active control of the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of low-frequency active plasmonics using semiconductors. We show experimentally that the Bragg scattering

  13. Twenty-two cases of low-frequency noise complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik; Persson-Waye, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark and in other industrialized countries there are cases where people complain about annoying low-frequency or infrasonic noise in their homes. Besides noise annoyance people often report other adverse effects such as insomnia, headache, lack of concentration etc. In many cases the noise...

  14. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs

  15. Low-frequency plasmons in metallic carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Chuu, D.S.; Shung, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    A metallic carbon nanotube could exhibit a low-frequency plasmon, while a semiconducting carbon nanotube or a graphite layer could not. This plasmon is due to the free carriers in the linear subbands intersecting at the Fermi level. The low-frequency plasmon, which corresponds to the vanishing transferred angular momentum, belongs to an acoustic plasmon. For a smaller metallic nanotube, it could exist at larger transferred momenta, and its frequency is higher. Such a plasmon behaves as that in a one-dimensional electron gas (EGS). However, it is very different from the π plasmons in all carbon nanotubes. Intertube Coulomb interactions in a metallic multishell nanotube and a metallic nanotube bundle have been included. They have a strong effect on the low-frequency plasmon. The intertube coupling among coaxial nanotubes markedly modifies the acoustic plasmons in separate metallic nanotubes. When metallic carbon nanotubes are packed in the bundle form, the low-frequency plasmon would change into an optical plasmon, and behave like that in a three-dimensional EGS. Experimental measurements could be used to distinguish metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  17. Preamplifier with ultra low frequency cutoff for infrasonic condenser microphone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnerup, Rasmus Trock; Marbjerg, Kresten; Rasmussen, Per

    2012-01-01

    low frequencies becomes a challenge. The electric preamplifier presented in this paper together with a prepolarized condenser microphone form a measurement system. The developed preamplifier connects the microphone signal directly to the input of an operational amplifier with ultra high input...

  18. Spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in cerebral vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Hansson, Andreas; Phillip, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    ). Analysis of CA by measurement of spontaneous oscillations in the low-frequency spectrum in cerebral vessels might be a useful tool for assessing risk and investigating different treatment strategies in carotid artery disease (CAD) and stroke. We reviewed studies exploring spontaneous oscillations...

  19. Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a kn...

  20. Electrodialytic soil remediation enhanced by low frequency pulse current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Mortensen, John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of low frequency pulse current on decreasing the polarization and energy consumption during the process of electrodialytic soil remediation was investigated in the present work. The results indicated that the transportation of cations through the cation exchange membrane was the rate...

  1. A very brief description of LOFAR the Low Frequency Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.D.; van Haarlem, M.P.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Braun, R.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Stappers, B.W.; Boland, W.H.W.M.; Butcher, H.R.; de Geus, E.J.; Koopmans, L.V.; Fender, R.P.; Kuijpers, H.J.M.E.; Miley, G.K.; Schilizzi, R.T.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wise, M.; Brouw, W.N.; Hamaker, J.P.; Noordam, J.E.; Oosterloo, T.; Bähren, L.; Brentjens, M.A.; Wijnholds, S.J.; Bregman, J.D.; van Cappellen, W.A.; Gunst, A.W.; Kant, G.W.; Reitsma, J.; van der Schaaf, K.; de Vos, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30 240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering

  2. A very brief description of LOFAR - the Low Frequency Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.; Haarlem, M.P. van; Wijnholds, S.J.; Bregman, J.D.; Cappellen, W.A.; Gunst, A.W.; Kant, G.W.; Reitsma, J.; Schaaf, K. van der; Vos, C.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30-240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient

  3. A very brief description of LOFAR -- the Low Frequency Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcke, H.D.E.; Haarlem, M.P. van; Bruyn, A.G. de; Braun, R.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Stappers, B.; Boland, W.H.W.M.; Butcher, H.R.; Geus, E.J. de; Koopmans, L.V.; Fender, R.P.; Kuijpers, H.J.M.E.; Miley, G.K.; Schilizzi, R.T.; Vogt, C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wise, M.W.; Brouw, W.N.; Hamaker, J.P.; Noordam, J.E.; Oosterloo, T.; Bähren, L.; Brentjens, M.A.; Wijnholds, S.J.; Bregman, J.D.; Cappellen, W.A. van; Gunst, A.W.; Kant, G.W.; Reitsma, J.; Schaaf, K. van der; Vos, C.M. de

    2007-01-01

    LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30-240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering

  4. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human primary fibroblasts and immortalized cancer cells exposed to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyyedi, S. S.; Mozdarani, H.; Rezaei Tavirani, M.; Heydari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly increasing possibilities of exposure to environmental extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields have become a topic of worldwide investigation. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may increase cancer risk therefore assessment of chromosomal damage in various cell lines might be of predictive value for future risk estimation. Materials and Methods: Primary cultures of fibroblasts from human skin biopsy were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (3, 50 and 60 Hz, sinusoidal, 3h, and 4 m T). Also immortalized cell lines, SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 were exposed to continuous extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 3 h, 4 m T). Metaphase plates Were prepared according to standard methods and stained in 5% Giemsa solution. Chromosomal aberrations of both chromosome and chromatid types were scored to evaluate the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on primary or established cell lines. Results: Results indicate that by increasing the frequency of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, chromosomal aberrations were increased up to 7-fold above background levels in primary human fibroblast cells. In addition, continuous exposure to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field led to a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in SW480, MCF-7 and 1321N1 cell lines compared to sham control. Conclusion: Results obtained indicate that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields has the potential for induction of chromosomal aberrations in all cell types.

  5. Numerical implementation of magneto-acousto-electrical tomography (MAET) using a linear phased array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soner Gözü, Mehmet; Zengin, Reyhan; Güneri Gençer, Nevzat

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the performance and implementation of magneto-acousto-electrical tomography (MAET) is investigated using a linear phased array (LPA) transducer. The goal of MAET is to image the conductivity distribution in biological bodies. It uses the interaction between ultrasound and a static magnetic field to generate velocity current density distribution inside the body. The resultant voltage due to velocity current density is sensed by surface electrodes attached on the body. In this study, the theory of MAET is reviewed. A 16-element LPA transducer with 1 MHz excitation frequency is used to provide beam directivity and steerability of acoustic waves. Different two-dimensional numerical models of breast and tumour are formed to analyze the multiphysics problem coupled with acoustics and electromagnetic fields. In these models, velocity current density distributions are obtained for pulse type ultrasound excitations. The static magnetic field is assumed as 1 T. To sense the resultant voltage caused by the velocity current density, it is assumed that two electrodes are attached on the surface of the body. The performance of MAET is shown through sensitivity matrix analysis. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two transducer positions with 13 steering angles between -30\\circ to 30\\circ with 5\\circ angular intervals. For the reconstruction of the images, truncated singular value decomposition method is used with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values (20 dB, 40 dB, 60 dB and 80 dB). The resultant images show that the perturbation (5 mm  ×  5 mm) placed 35 mm depth can be detected even if the SNR is 20 dB.

  6. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Design of an electric power system with incorporation of a phased array antenna for OLFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, J.M.; Budianu, A.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Engelen, S.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project is investigating the feasibility of an orbiting low frequency radio telescope. The radio telescope is formed using a swarm of nano-satellites equipped with astronomical antennas, conceivably orbiting the Moon or the second

  8. Measurements of Low Frequency Noise of Infrared Photo-Detectors with Transimpedance Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciura Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method and results of low-frequency noise measurements of modern mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors. A type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice based detector with nBn barrier architecture is compared with a high operating temperature (HOT heterojunction HgCdTe detector. All experiments were made in the range 1 Hz - 10 kHz at various temperatures by using a transimpedance detection system, which is examined in detail. The power spectral density of the nBn’s dark current noise includes Lorentzians with different time constants while the HgCdTe photodiode has more uniform 1/f - shaped spectra. For small bias, the low-frequency noise power spectra of both devices were found to scale linearly with bias voltage squared and were connected with the fluctuations of the leakage resistance. Leakage resistance noise defines the lower noise limit of a photodetector. Other dark current components give raise to the increase of low-frequency noise above this limit. For the same voltage biasing devices, the absolute noise power densities at 1 Hz in nBn are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than in a MCT HgCdTe detector. In spite of this, low-frequency performance of the HgCdTe detector at ~ 230K is still better than that of InAs/GaSb superlattice nBn detector.

  9. A lightweight low-frequency sound insulation membrane-type acoustic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Lu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL at low frequencies (⩽500Hz was designed and the mechanisms were investigated by using negative mass density theory. This metamaterial’s structure is like a sandwich with a thin (thickness=0.25mm lightweight flexible rubber material within two layers of honeycomb cell plates. Negative mass density was demonstrated at frequencies below the first natural frequency, which results in the excellent low-frequency sound insulation. The effects of different structural parameters of the membrane on the sound-proofed performance at low frequencies were investigated by using finite element method (FEM. The numerical results show that, the STL can be modulated to higher value by changing the structural parameters, such as the membrane surface density, the unite cell film shape, and the membrane tension. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  10. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  11. Low-frequency waves in magnetized dusty plasmas revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Khan, M.I.; Amin, R.; Nitta, H.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-10-01

    The general dispersion relation of any wave is examined for low-frequency waves in a homogeneous dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. The low-frequency parallel electromagnetic wave propagates as a dust cyclotron wave or a whistler in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. In the same frequency regime, the transverse electromagnetic magnetosonic wave is modified with a cutoff frequency at the dust-ion lower-hybrid frequency, which reduces to the usual magnetosonic wave in absence of the dust. Electrostatic dust-lower- hybrid mode is also recovered propagating nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field with finite ion temperature and cold dust particles which for strong ion-Larmor radius effect reduces to the usual dust-acoustic wave driven by the ion pressure. (author)

  12. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  13. Fabrication of SU-8 low frequency electrostatic energy harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2011-11-01

    A 1500μm × 1500μm × 150μm out-of-plane, gap closing, electrostatic energy harvester is designed and fabricated to harvest low-frequency ambient vibrations. SU-8 is used to fabricate the proof mass (1200μm × 1200μm × 150μm) and the 5 m springs. Different harvesters were designed to harvest at 50, 75 and 110 Hz. At 110 Hz, Simulations show that with an input vibration of 10 μm amplitude at the frequency of resonance of the structure, the energy harvester should generate an average output power density of 0.032μW/mm3. This is the most area-efficient low-frequency electrostatic harvester to-date. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Treatment time reduction for large thermal lesions by using a multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.-L.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Yen, J.-Y.; Lin, W.-L.

    2003-01-01

    To generate large thermal lesions in ultrasound thermal therapy, cooling intermissions are usually introduced during the treatment to prevent near-field heating, which leads to a long treatment time. A possible strategy to shorten the total treatment time is to eliminate the cooling intermissions. In this study, the two methods, power optimization and acoustic window enlargement, for reducing power accumulation in the near field are combined to investigate the feasibility of continuously heating a large target region (maximally 3.2 x 3.2 x 3.2 cm 3 ). A multiple 1D ultrasound phased array system generates the foci to scan the target region. Simulations show that the target region can be successfully heated without cooling and no near-field heating occurs. Moreover, due to the fact that there is no cooling time during the heating sessions, the total treatment time is significantly reduced to only several minutes, compared to the existing several hours

  15. A kinetic-MHD model for low frequency phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    A hybrid kinetic-MHD model for describing low-frequency phenomena in high beta anisotropic plasmas that consist of two components: a low energy core component and an energetic component with low density. The kinetic-MHD model treats the low energy core component by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, the energetic component by kinetic approach such as the gyrokinetic equation, and the coupling between the dynamics of these two components through plasma pressure in the momentum equation. The kinetic-MHD model optimizes both the physics contents and the theoretical efforts in studying low frequency MHD waves and transport phenomena in general magnetic field geometries, and can be easily modified to include the core plasma kinetic effects if necessary. It is applicable to any magnetized collisionless plasma system where the parallel electric field effects are negligibly small. In the linearized limit two coupled eigenmode equations for describing the coupling between the transverse Alfven type and the compressional Alfven type waves are derived. The eigenmode equations are identical to those derived from the full gyrokinetic equation in the low frequency limit and were previously analyzed both analytically nd numerically to obtain the eigenmode structure of the drift mirror instability which explains successfully the multi-satellite observation of antisymmetric field-aligned structure of the compressional magnetic field of Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma. Finally, a quadratic form is derived to demonstrate the stability of the low-frequency transverse and compressional Alfven type instabilities in terms of the pressure anisotropy parameter τ and the magnetic field curvature-pressure gradient parameter. A procedure for determining the stability of a marginally stable MHD wave due to wave-particle resonances is also presented

  16. Determination of low-frequency vibrational states in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Hasan, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that density of low frequency (v < 1 THz) vibrational states g(v) in glasses can be determined from heat capacities measured at low temperature. These g(v) are identical to those determined from inelastic neutron scattering studies. The form of g(v) is non quadratic and therefore the Debye density of states may not be used to interpret the Raman, and infrared absorption in glasses. (author)

  17. Study on low frequency probe characterization for concrete application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Pauzi Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been widely used in metal and non-metal material. For non-metal material such as concrete, a probe emitting low frequency ultrasonic wave is applied. This paper describes the comparison between three custom made probes using same design and piezoelectric crystal. The only difference is the backing material, which comprise of three different materials. Characterization of each transducer is compared in order to understand the effects of backing material in the probe. (Author)

  18. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  19. On low-frequency whistler propagation in ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation along the Earth surface of an electromagnetic wave with frequency below the ion gyrofrequency is theoretically investigated. In Hall layer of the ionosphere this wave is the whistler mode. It is shown that - contrary to previous works - Ohmic dissipation makes impossible the long-distance propagation of low-frequency whistlers. A many-layer model of the medium is used. The geomagnetic field is considered inclined. The eigen modes and evolution of the initial perturbation are considered

  20. Low-frequency electromagnetic field in a Wigner crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Stupka, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Long-wave low-frequency oscillations are described in a Wigner crystal by generalization of the reverse continuum model for the case of electronic lattice. The internal self-consistent long-wave electromagnetic field is used to describe the collective motions in the system. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the obtained system of equations are derived. The velocities of longitudinal and transversal sound waves are found.

  1. The reduction of low frequency fluctuations in RFP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.A.; Baker, D.A.; Gribble, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    The low frequency fluctuations seen in RFP experiments are found to be correlated with changes in the toroidal flux measured by diamagnetic loops surrounding the discharge. The correlation of the onset of impurity radiation and x-rays with the crash seen in experiments is caused by plasma bombarding the metal liner associated with this loss of flux. Efforts should be made to design improved stabilizing shells that will reduce the loss of flux and give improved RFP energy confinement times

  2. Charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 吕保维; O.Havnes

    1997-01-01

    The charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma, which is derived from the longitudinal dielectric permittivity of the dusty plasma, has been studied by kinetic theory. The results show that the P value, which describes the relative charge density on the dust in the plasma, and the charging frequency of a dust particle Ωc, which describes the ratio of charge changing of the dust particles, determine the character of the charge density fluctuation of low frequency. For a dusty plasma of P<<1, when the charging frequency Ωc is much smaller than the dusty plasma frequency wd, there is a strong charge density fluctuation which is of character of dust acoustic eigen wave. For a dusty plasma of P>>1, when the frequency Ωc, is much larger than wd there are weaker fluctuations with a wide spectrum. The results have been applied to the ionosphere and the range of radius and density of dust particles is found, where a strong charge density fluctuation of low frequency should exist.

  3. Low-frequency noise from large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Pedersen, Christian Sejer

    2011-01-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative...... amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3–3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size...... is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low...

  4. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.

  5. Kinetic Scale Structure of Low-frequency Waves and Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Yoon, Peter H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Araneda, Jaime A., E-mail: rlopezh@umd.edu, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)

    2017-08-10

    The dissipation of solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales is believed to be important for the heating of the corona and for accelerating the wind. The linear Vlasov kinetic theory is a useful tool for identifying various wave modes, including kinetic Alfvén, fast magnetosonic/whistler, and ion-acoustic (or kinetic slow), and their possible roles in the dissipation. However, the kinetic mode structure in the vicinity of ion-cyclotron modes is not clearly understood. The present paper aims to further elucidate the structure of these low-frequency waves by introducing discrete particle effects through hybrid simulations and Klimontovich formalism of spontaneous emission theory. The theory and simulation of spontaneously emitted low-frequency fluctuations are employed to identify and distinguish the detailed mode structures associated with ion-Bernstein modes versus quasi-modes. The spontaneous emission theory and simulation also confirm the findings of the Vlasov theory in that the kinetic Alfvén waves can be defined over a wide range of frequencies, including the proton cyclotron frequency and its harmonics, especially for high-beta plasmas. This implies that these low-frequency modes may play predominant roles even in the fully kinetic description of kinetic scale turbulence and dissipation despite the fact that cyclotron harmonic and Bernstein modes may also play important roles in wave–particle interactions.

  6. A novel ultrasonic phased array inspection system to NDT for offshore platform structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Shan, Baohua; Wang, Xin; Ou, Jinping

    2007-01-01

    A novel ultrasonic phased array detection system is developed for nondestructive testing (NDT). The purpose of the system is to make acquisition of data in real-time from 64-element ultrasonic phased array transducer, and to enable real- time processing of the acquired data. The system is composed of five main parts: master unit, main board, eight transmit/receive units, a 64-element transducer and an external PC. The system can be used with 64 element transducers, excite 32 elements, receive and sample echo signals form 32 elements simultaneously at 62.5MHz with 8 bit precision. The external PC is used as the user interface showing the real time images and controls overall operation of the system through USB serial link. The use of Universal Serial Bus (USB) improves the transform speed and reduces hardware interface complexity. The program of the system is written in Visual C++.NET and is platform independent.

  7. Application of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to the Detection of Defect in Composite Stiffened-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan-Qi; Zhan, Li-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Composite stiffened-structure consists of the skin and stringer has been widely used in aircraft fuselage and wings. The main purpose of the article is to detect the composite material reinforced structure accurately and explore the relationship between defect formation and structural elements or curing process. Based on ultrasonic phased array inspection technology, the regularity of defects in the manufacture of composite materials are obtained, the correlation model between actual defects and nondestructive testing are established. The article find that the forming quality of deltoid area in T-stiffened structure is obviously improved by pre-curing, the defects of hat-stiffened structure are affected by the mandrel. The results show that the ultrasonic phased array inspection technology can be an effectively way for the detection of composite stiffened-structures, which become an important means to control the defects of composite and improve the quality of the product.

  8. Two-dimensional analytic modeling of acoustic diffraction for ultrasonic beam steering by phased array transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiansi; Zhang, Chong; Aleksov, Aleksandar; Salama, Islam; Kar, Aravinda

    2017-04-01

    Phased array ultrasonic transducers enable modulating the focal position of the acoustic waves, and this capability is utilized in many applications, such as medical imaging and non-destructive testing. This type of transducers also provides a mechanism to generate tilted wavefronts in acousto-optic deflectors to deflect laser beams for high precision advanced laser material processing. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented for the diffraction of ultrasonic waves emitted by several phased array transducers into an acousto-optic medium such as TeO 2 crystal. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the distribution of the ultrasonic displacement field in the crystal. The model prediction is found to be in good agreement with the results of a numerical model that is based on a non-paraxial multi-Gaussian beam (NMGB) model. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Development of high-performance phased-array UT system 'DYNARAY' and its application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This article outlined the history leading to develop high-performance phased-array (PA) UT system called DYNARAY, with up to 256 phased-array active channels and maximum 4096 focal laws, lowering the inspection time. As examples it was applied to in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel welded joints using module of PA-UT probe or eddy-current probe, inspection of seal welds of dry storage containers using scanner of PA-UT, crack detection of end ring of generators using PA-UT probe and UT inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel using 500 kHz probe. Advanced data acquisition and analysis functions for PA-UT system had been developed. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  11. Improvement of detection of stress corrosion cracks with ultrasonic phased array probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustenberg, H.; Mohrle, W.; Wegner, W.; Schenk, G.; Erhard, A.

    1986-01-01

    Probes with linear arrays can be used for the detection of stress corrosion cracks especially if the variability of the sound field is used to change the skewing angle of angle beam probes. The phased array concept can be used to produce a variable skewing angle or a variable angle of incidence depending on the orientation of the linear array on the wedge. This helps to adapt the direction of the ultrasonic beam to probable crack orientations. It has been demonstrated with artificial reflectors as well as with corrosion cracks, that the detection of misoriented cracks can be improved by this approach. The experiences gained during the investigations are encouraging the application of phased array probes for stress corrosion phenomena close to the heat effected zone of welds. Probes with variable skewing angles may find some interesting applications on welds in tubular structures e.g., at off shore constructions and on some difficult geometries within the primary circuit of nuclear power plants

  12. PageRank for low frequency earthquake detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    We have analyzed Hi-Net seismic waveform data during the April 2006 tremor episode in the Nankai Trough in SW Japan using the autocorrelation approach of Brown et al. (2008), which detects low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) based on pair-wise waveform matching. We have generalized this to exploit the fact that waveforms may repeat multiple times, on more than just a pair-wise basis. We are working towards developing a sound statistical basis for event detection, but that is complicated by two factors. First, the statistical behavior of the autocorrelations varies between stations. Analyzing one station at a time assures that the detection threshold will only depend on the station being analyzed. Second, the positive detections do not satisfy "closure." That is, if window A correlates with window B, and window B correlates with window C, then window A and window C do not necessarily correlate with one another. We want to evaluate whether or not a linked set of windows are correlated due to chance. To do this, we map our problem on to one that has previously been solved for web search, and apply Google's PageRank algorithm. PageRank is the probability of a 'random surfer' to visit a particular web page; it assigns a ranking for a webpage based on the amount of links associated with that page. For windows of seismic data instead of webpages, the windows with high probabilities suggest likely LFE signals. Once identified, we stack the matched windows to improve the snr and use these stacks as template signals to find other LFEs within continuous data. We compare the results among stations and declare a detection if they are found in a statistically significant number of stations, based on multinomial statistics. We compare our detections using the single-station method to detections found by Shelly et al. (2007) for the April 2006 tremor sequence in Shikoku, Japan. We find strong similarity between the results, as well as many new detections that were not found using

  13. A Model for Low-Frequency Earthquake Slip in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestler, S.; Creager, K.

    2017-12-01

    Low-Frequency Earthquakes (LFEs) are commonly used to identify when and where slow slip occurred, especially for slow slip events that are too small to be observed geodetically. Yet, an understanding of how slip occurs within an LFE family patch, or patch on the plate interface where LFEs repeat, is limited. How much slip occurs per LFE and over what area? Do all LFEs within an LFE family rupture the exact same spot? To answer these questions, we implement a catalog of 39,966 LFEs, sorted into 45 LFE families, beneath the Olympic Peninsula, WA. LFEs were detected and located using data from approximately 100 3-component stations from the Array of Arrays experiment. We compare the LFE family patch area to the area within the LFE family patch that slips through LFEs during Cascadia Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events. Patch area is calculated from relative LFE locations, solved for using the double difference method. Slip area is calculated from the characteristic moment (mean of the exponential moment-frequency distribution) and number LFEs for each family and geodetically measured ETS slip. We find that 0.5-5% of the area within an LFE family patch slips through LFEs. The rest must deform in some other manner (e.g., ductile deformation). We also explore LFE slip patterns throughout the entire slow slip zone. Is LFE slip uniform? Does LFE slip account for all geodetically observed slow slip? Double difference relocations reveal that LFE families are 2 km patches where LFE are clustered close together. Additionally, there are clusters of LFE families with diameters of 4-15 km. There are gaps with no observable, repeating LFEs between LFE families in clusters and between clusters of LFE families. Based on this observation, we present a model where LFE slip is heterogeneous on multiple spatial scales. Clusters of LFE families may represent patches with higher strength than the surrounding areas. Finally, we find that LFE slip only accounts for a small fraction ( 0

  14. Adiabatic perturbation theory for atoms and molecules in the low-frequency regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiskainen, Hanna; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2017-12-14

    There is an increasing interest in the photoinduced dynamics in the low frequency, ω, regime. The multiphoton absorptions by molecules in strong laser fields depend on the polarization of the laser and on the molecular structure. The unique properties of the interaction of atoms and molecules with lasers in the low-frequency regime imply new concepts and directions in strong-field light-matter interactions. Here we represent a perturbational approach for the calculations of the quasi-energy spectrum in the low-frequency regime, which avoids the construction of the Floquet operator with extremely large number of Floquet channels. The zero-order Hamiltonian in our perturbational approach is the adiabatic Hamiltonian where the atoms/molecules are exposed to a dc electric field rather than to ac-field. This is in the spirit of the first step in the Corkum three-step model. The second-order perturbation correction terms are obtained when iℏω∂∂τ serves as a perturbation and τ is a dimensionless variable. The second-order adiabatic perturbation scheme is found to be an excellent approach for calculating the ac-field Floquet solutions in our test case studies of a simple one-dimensional time-periodic model Hamiltonian. It is straightforward to implement the perturbation approach presented here for calculating atomic and molecular energy shifts (positions) due to the interaction with low-frequency ac-fields using high-level electronic structure methods. This is enabled since standard quantum chemistry packages allow the calculations of atomic and molecular energy shifts due to the interaction with dc-fields. In addition to the shift of the energy positions, the energy widths (inverse lifetimes) can be obtained at the same level of theory. These energy shifts are functions of the laser parameters (low frequency, intensity, and polarization).

  15. High resolution MR imaging of the hip using pelvic phased-array coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Mishima, Hajime; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    1997-01-01

    A pelvic phased-array coil was applied to obtain high resolution MR images of the hip. Three-mm-thick fast spin-echo images were obtained in seven hips. Images with a pelvic coil enhanced delineation of acetabular labrum and articular cartilage more clearly than those with a body coil or flexible-surface coil. The use of a pelvic coil in imaging of the hip may be of diagnostic value because of its superior delineation. (author)

  16. A K/Ka band radiating element for Tx/Rx phased array

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran; Arnieri, E.; Amendola, G.; Boccia, L.; Meniconi, E.; Ziegler, V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a K/Ka band radiating element for TX/RX phased arrays. Dual band operations is obtained using a single radiating surface: a novel radiator is adopted and placed in a configuration in which dual band and single band elements are interleaved. The array elements are optimized to scan the beam in excess of 50° in both bands. A subarray with 49 Rx elements and 105 Tx elements was built and measured confirming the results obtained in simulations.

  17. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-channel Digital Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-16

    hardware. An 8-channel ALSTAR array prototype was constructed and demonstrated to achieve 125.5 dB effective isotropic isolation between broadside...transmit and receive beams over a 100 MHz instantaneous band centered at 2.45 GHz. I. INTRODUCTION A phased array capable of Simultaneous Transmit and...Receive (STAR) could provide significant benefits for many applications including communications, radar, spectral sens- ing, and multifunctional systems

  18. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  19. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Matsuzaki, Jumpei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs

  20. Analysis and Simulation of Multi-target Echo Signals from a Phased Array Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Zhen; Zhou Rui

    2017-01-01

    The construction of digital radar simulation systems has been a research hotspot of the radar field. This paper focuses on theoretical analysis and simulation of multi-target echo signals produced in a phased array radar system, and constructs an array antenna element and a signal generation environment. The antenna element is able to simulate planar arrays and optimizes these arrays by adding window functions. And the signal environment can model and simulate radar transmission signals, rada...

  1. Design of a K-Band Transmit Phased Array For Low Earth Orbit Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Thomas; Miller, Stephen; Kershner, Dennis; Anzic, Godfrey

    2000-01-01

    The design of a light weight, low cost phased array antenna is presented. Multilayer printed wiring board (PWB) technology is utilized for Radio Frequencies (RF) and DC/Logic manifold distribution. Transmit modules are soldered on one side and patch antenna elements are on the other, allowing the use of automated assembly processes. The 19 GHz antenna has two independently steerable beams, each capable of transferring data at 622 Mbps. A passive, self-contained phase change thermal management system is also presented.

  2. A K/Ka band radiating element for Tx/Rx phased array

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2017-01-20

    The paper presents a K/Ka band radiating element for TX/RX phased arrays. Dual band operations is obtained using a single radiating surface: a novel radiator is adopted and placed in a configuration in which dual band and single band elements are interleaved. The array elements are optimized to scan the beam in excess of 50° in both bands. A subarray with 49 Rx elements and 105 Tx elements was built and measured confirming the results obtained in simulations.

  3. Image-guided ultrasound phased arrays are a disruptive technology for non-invasive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, Kullervo; Jones, Ryan M

    2016-09-07

    Focused ultrasound offers a non-invasive way of depositing acoustic energy deep into the body, which can be harnessed for a broad spectrum of therapeutic purposes, including tissue ablation, the targeting of therapeutic agents, and stem cell delivery. Phased array transducers enable electronic control over the beam geometry and direction, and can be tailored to provide optimal energy deposition patterns for a given therapeutic application. Their use in combination with modern medical imaging for therapy guidance allows precise targeting, online monitoring, and post-treatment evaluation of the ultrasound-mediated bioeffects. In the past there have been some technical obstacles hindering the construction of large aperture, high-power, densely-populated phased arrays and, as a result, they have not been fully exploited for therapy delivery to date. However, recent research has made the construction of such arrays feasible, and it is expected that their continued development will both greatly improve the safety and efficacy of existing ultrasound therapies as well as enable treatments that are not currently possible with existing technology. This review will summarize the basic principles, current statures, and future potential of image-guided ultrasound phased arrays for therapy.

  4. Application of Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) on Single V-Butt Weld Integrity Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Kamal Shah Shamsudin; Norhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) utilizes arrays of piezoelectric elements that are embedded in an epoxy base. The benefit of having such kind of array is that beam forming such as steering and focusing the beam front possible. This enables scanning patterns such as linear scan, sectorial scan and depth focusing scan to be performed. Ultrasonic phased array systems can potentially be employed in almost any test where conventional ultrasonic flaw detectors have traditionally been used. Weld inspection and crack detection are the most important applications, and these tests are done across a wide range of industries including aerospace, power generation, petrochemical, metal billet and tubular goods suppliers, pipeline construction and maintenance, structural metals, and general manufacturing. Phased arrays can also be effectively used to profile remaining wall thickness in corrosion survey applications. The benefits of PAUT are simplifying inspection of components of complex geometry, inspection of components with limited access, testing of welds with multiple angles from a single probe and increasing the probability of detection while improving signal-to-noise ratio. This paper compares the result of inspection on several specimens using PAUT as to digital radiography. The specimens are welded plates with single V-butt weld made of carbon steel. Digital radiography is done using blue imaging plate with x-ray source. PAUT is done using Olympus MX2 with 5 MHz probe consisting of 64 elements. The location, size and length of defect is compared. (author)

  5. Dynamic focusing of phased arrays for nondestructive testing: characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, A.; Mainguy, F.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in Phased Array hardware developed by R/D TECH for nondestructive testing now allow dynamic focusing on reception. This new option, borrowed from medical technology, enables a programmable, real-time array response on reception by modifying the delay line, the gain, and the activation of each element as a function of time. This technology is presented as a new powerful tool, which can extend the depth-of-field, reduce the beam spread and increase the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Implementation of dynamic focusing in Phased Array systems will present many advantages such as an increase of the Pulse Rate Frequency (PRF). The technology implies a lot of significant possibilities, but also an extensive beam characterization. Some results are presented to quantify the advantages and drawbacks of the technique in comparison with standard phased array zone focusing and conventional UT. Results are clearly demonstrating the effect of dynamic focusing on the depth-of-field, the beam spread, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the acquisition rate, both with linear and annular arrays. Therefore this technique is suitable for applications where long soundpaths and small beam divergence are required as boresonic, billet, and blade root inspections. (author)

  6. Wireless Power Transfer to a Microaerial Vehicle with a Microwave Active Phased Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shotaro Nako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system using a microwave active phased array was developed. In the system, power is transferred to a circling microaerial vehicle (MAV by a microwave beam of 5.8 GHz, which is formed and directed to the MAV using an active phased array antenna. The MAV is expected to support observation of areas that humans cannot reach. The power beam is formed by the phased array with eight antenna elements. Input power is about 5.6 W. The peak power density at 1,500 mm altitude was 2.63 mW/cm2. The power is sent to a circling MAV. Therefore, the transfer beam should be polarized circularly to achieve a constant power supply independent of its yaw angle. To minimize the polarization loss, a sequentially routed antenna (SRA was applied to the transmitter antenna. Results show that the axial ratio of 0.440 dB was accomplished and that power fluctuation was kept below 1%.

  7. High Rate User Ka-Band Phased Array Antenna Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroglanian, Armen; Perko, Kenneth; Seufert, Steve; Dod, Tom; Warshowsky, Jay; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The High Rate User Phased Array Antenna (HRUPAA) is a Ka-Band planar phased array designed by the Harris Corporation for the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The HRUPAA permits a satellite to downlink data either to a ground station or through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The HRUPAA is scanned electronically by ground station / user satellite command over a 120 degree cone angle. The phased array has the advantage of not imparting attitude disturbances to the user spacecraft. The 288-element transmit-only array has distributed RF amplifiers integrated behind each of the printed patch antenna elements. The array has 33 dBW EIRP and is left-hand circularly polarized. An engineering model of a partially populated array has been developed and delivered to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This report deals with the testing of the engineering model at the Goddard Antenna Range near-field and compact range facilities. The antenna specifications are described first, followed by the test plan and test results.

  8. Development of phased array UT procedure for crack depth sizing on nickel based alloy weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Taiji; Okada, Hisao; Fukutomi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) has been occurred at the nickel based alloy weld components such as steam generator safe end weld, reactor vessel safe end weld, and so on, in PWR. Defect detection and sizing is important in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. In the reactor vessel safe end weld, it was impossible to measure crack depth of PWSCC. The crack was detected in the axial direction of the safe end weld. Furthermore, the crack had some features such as shallow, large aspect ratio (ratio of crack depth and length), sharp geometry of crack tip, and so on. Therefore, development and improvement of defect detection and sizing capabilities for ultrasonic inspection technique is required. Phased array UT technique was applied to nickel based alloy weld specimen with SCC cracks. From the experimental results, good accuracy of crack depth sizing by phased array UT for the inside inspection was shown. From these results, UT procedure for crack depth sizing was verified. Therefore, effectiveness of phased array UT for crack depth sizing in the nickel based alloy welds was shown. (author)

  9. Acoustic field of focusing phased array probe and the scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, J.; Miura, S.; Ida, T.; Shiraiwa, T.; Miya, T.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic field of a point focusing cylindrical linear array probe, in which focusing in the axial direction of cylinder is done by the phased linear array and focusing in the orthogonal direction is done geometrically, was studied by numerical calculation and an optimum design of phased array probe for focusing has been obtained. In generally speaking, the beam width at focus point decreases with decrease of width of each transducer element and with increase of synthetic aperture made by total elements. If the number of total array elements excited as one pulse is limited, the above conditions are contradicted. Thus, an optimum element width exists for the best focusing. On the above consideration, we can get focusing ability of phased array nearly as same as geometrical focusing. A developed transducer is a linear array of polymer piezoelectric material of cylindrical shape, of which radius is from 50 mm to 75 mm. The frequency is 10 Mhz and the beam width of 0.5 mm (depending on aperture) in the orthogonal direction to the cylinder axis and 0.7 mm width in the cylinder axis (phased array focusing) have been obtained. A delay circuit for exciting the transducer was newly designed to give maximum performance to the array regarding to accuracy, stability, easy control and etc. A c-scan ultrasonic testing system equipped with this transducer has sixteen times inspection speed compared to the single probe instrument.

  10. K-Band Phased Array Developed for Low- Earth-Orbit Satellite Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, Godfrey

    1999-01-01

    Future rapid deployment of low- and medium-Earth-orbit satellite constellations that will offer various narrow- to wide-band wireless communications services will require phased-array antennas that feature wide-angle and superagile electronic steering of one or more antenna beams. Antennas, which employ monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), are perfectly suited for this application. Under a cooperative agreement, an MMIC-based, K-band phased-array antenna is being developed with 50/50 cost sharing by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Raytheon Systems Company. The transmitting array, which will operate at 19 gigahertz (GHz), is a state-of-the-art design that features dual, independent, electronically steerable beam operation ( 42 ), a stand-alone thermal management, and a high-density tile architecture. This array can transmit 622 megabits per second (Mbps) in each beam from Earth orbit to small Earth terminals. The weight of the total array package is expected to be less than 8 lb. The tile integration technology (flip chip MMIC tile) chosen for this project represents a major advancement in phased-array engineering and holds much promise for reducing manufacturing costs.

  11. Development and Calibration of a Field-Deployable Microphone Phased Array for Propulsion and Airframe Noise Flyover Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Johns, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    A new aeroacoustic measurement capability has been developed consisting of a large channelcount, field-deployable microphone phased array suitable for airframe noise flyover measurements for a range of aircraft types and scales. The array incorporates up to 185 hardened, weather-resistant sensors suitable for outdoor use. A custom 4-mA current loop receiver circuit with temperature compensation was developed to power the sensors over extended cable lengths with minimal degradation of the signal to noise ratio and frequency response. Extensive laboratory calibrations and environmental testing of the sensors were conducted to verify the design's performance specifications. A compact data system combining sensor power, signal conditioning, and digitization was assembled for use with the array. Complementing the data system is a robust analysis system capable of near real-time presentation of beamformed and deconvolved contour plots and integrated spectra obtained from array data acquired during flyover passes. Additional instrumentation systems needed to process the array data were also assembled. These include a commercial weather station and a video monitoring / recording system. A detailed mock-up of the instrumentation suite (phased array, weather station, and data processor) was performed in the NASA Langley Acoustic Development Laboratory to vet the system performance. The first deployment of the system occurred at Finnegan Airfield at Fort A.P. Hill where the array was utilized to measure the vehicle noise from a number of sUAS (small Unmanned Aerial System) aircraft. A unique in-situ calibration method for the array microphones using a hovering aerial sound source was attempted for the first time during the deployment.

  12. Use of a Microphone Phased Array to Determine Noise Sources in a Rocket Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, J.; Mosher, R.

    2010-01-01

    A 70-element microphone phased array was used to identify noise sources in the plume of a solid rocket motor. An environment chamber was built and other precautions were taken to protect the sensitive condenser microphones from rain, thunderstorms and other environmental elements during prolonged stay in the outdoor test stand. A camera mounted at the center of the array was used to photograph the plume. In the first phase of the study the array was placed in an anechoic chamber for calibration, and validation of the indigenous Matlab(R) based beamform software. It was found that the "advanced" beamform methods, such as CLEAN-SC was partially successful in identifying speaker sources placed closer than the Rayleigh criteria. To participate in the field test all equipments were shipped to NASA Marshal Space Flight Center, where the elements of the array hardware were rebuilt around the test stand. The sensitive amplifiers and the data acquisition hardware were placed in a safe basement, and 100m long cables were used to connect the microphones, Kulites and the camera. The array chamber and the microphones were found to withstand the environmental elements as well as the shaking from the rocket plume generated noise. The beamform map was superimposed on a photo of the rocket plume to readily identify the source distribution. It was found that the plume made an exceptionally long, >30 diameter, noise source over a large frequency range. The shock pattern created spatial modulation of the noise source. Interestingly, the concrete pad of the horizontal test stand was found to be a good acoustic reflector: the beamform map showed two distinct source distributions- the plume and its reflection on the pad. The array was found to be most effective in the frequency range of 2kHz to 10kHz. As expected, the classical beamform method excessively smeared the noise sources at lower frequencies and produced excessive side-lobes at higher frequencies. The "advanced" beamform

  13. Low frequency acoustic properties of bilayer membrane acoustic metamaterial with magnetic oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansha Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A bilayer membrane acoustic metamaterial was proposed to overcome the influence of the mass law on traditional acoustic materials and obtain a lightweight thin-layer structure that can effectively isolate low frequency noise. The finite element analysis (FEA results agree well with the experimental results. It is proved that the sound transmission losses (STLs of the proposed structures are higher than those of same surface density acoustic materials. The introduction of the magnetic mass block is different from the traditional design method, in which only a passive mass block is fixed on the membrane. The magnetic force will cause tension in the membrane, increase membrane prestress, and improve overall structural stiffness. The effects of the geometry size on the STLs are discussed in detail. The kind of method presented in this paper can provide a new means for engineering noise control. Keywords: Bilayer membrane acoustic metamaterial, Low frequency sound insulation, Sound transmission loss, Magnet oscillator

  14. Thickness Measurement of a Film on a Substrate by Low-Frequency Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-Xuan; WANG Xiao-Min; MAO Jie

    2004-01-01

    @@ We describe a new simple technique for the low-frequency ultrasonic thickness measurement of an air-backed soft thin layer attached on a hard substrate of finite thickness through the frequency-shifts of the substrate resonances by the substrate-side insonification. A plane compressive wave impinging normally on the substrate surface from a liquid is studied. Low frequency here means an interrogating acoustical wave frequency of less than half of coating to the substrate. Equations for the frequency-shifts are derived and solved by the Newton iterative method and the Taylor expansion method, respectively, indicating satisfactory agreement within the range of interest of thickness ratio of the thin layer to the substrate for a polymer-aluminium structure. An experimental setup is constructed to verify the validity of the technique.

  15. Low-frequency features of the ultrasound echo from an adhesively bonded layer-substrate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaomin; LI Mingxuan; MAO Jie; LIAN Guoxuan

    2005-01-01

    The low-frequency features of the ultrasound reflection spectra from the structure of a single layer on a substrate bonded by a thin adhesive layer are theoretically studied; the low-frequency here means the frequency of the interrogating ultrasonic wave is less than the quart-wavelength resonance frequency of the adhesive layer. The possibility of the inversion of the thickness and the evaluation of the cohesion strength of the adhesive layer from the resonance frequency shifts of the layered system is indicated. An analytic solution to the nonlinear equation satisfied by the resonance frequency is presented by Taylor expansion method showing satisfactory agreement with the numerical results by Newton iterative method. The results indicate larger range for application than the traditional spring model for the thin adhesive layer. In a much lower frequency range the thin adhesive layer may be regarded to be a spring.

  16. Distinguishing low frequency oscillations within the 1/f spectral behaviour of electromagnetic brain signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonuga-Barke Edmund JS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been acknowledged that the frequency spectrum of measured electromagnetic (EM brain signals shows a decrease in power with increasing frequency. This spectral behaviour may lead to difficulty in distinguishing event-related peaks from ongoing brain activity in the electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EEG and MEG signal spectra. This can become an issue especially in the analysis of low frequency oscillations (LFOs – below 0.5 Hz – which are currently being observed in signal recordings linked with specific pathologies such as epileptic seizures or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in sleep studies, etc. Methods In this work we propose a simple method that can be used to compensate for this 1/f trend hence achieving spectral normalisation. This method involves filtering the raw measured EM signal through a differentiator prior to further data analysis. Results Applying the proposed method to various exemplary datasets including very low frequency EEG recordings, epileptic seizure recordings, MEG data and Evoked Response data showed that this compensating procedure provides a flat spectral base onto which event related peaks can be clearly observed. Conclusion Findings suggest that the proposed filter is a useful tool for the analysis of physiological data especially in revealing very low frequency peaks which may otherwise be obscured by the 1/f spectral activity inherent in EEG/MEG recordings.

  17. Low-frequency acoustic atomization with oscillatory flow around micropillars in a microfluidic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yin Nee, E-mail: mailccheung@gmail.com, E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg; Wong, Teck Neng, E-mail: mailccheung@gmail.com, E-mail: mtnwong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nguyen, Nam Trung, E-mail: nam-trung.nguyen@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2014-10-06

    This letter reports a low frequency acoustic atomization technique with oscillatory extensional flow around micropillars. Large droplets passing through two micropillars are elongated. Small droplets are then produced through the pinch-off process at the spindle-shape ends. As the actuation frequency increases, the droplet size decreases with increasing monodispersity. This method is suitable for in-situ mass production of fine droplets in a multi-phase environment without external pumping. Small particles encapsulation was demonstrated with the current technique.

  18. Low-frequency electromagnetic iirradiation treatment of grain in harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Zhalnin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of crop seeds by low-frequency electromagnetic field contributes to obtaining high and stable yields. After this treatment in a laboratory environment crop production can increase from 15 to 40 percent. To research an effect of magnetic field on a seed material in the field we developed technological design for a seeds treatment in a combine harvester «Enisey-1200 NМ». Three modules of low frequency electromagnetic waves source were mounted in the design of transporting working elements from the threshing apparatus to the grain tank for the impact they have on the moving of freshly threshed grain portion. Conditions of magnetization of seeds vere varied. Influence of modes of grain treatment at threshing of spring wheat in a harvester on the effectiveness of the stimulation vere researched. A comparative laboratory analysis of quality of grain, magnetic directly in the harvester, and 3 months after thrashing showed that the new technology allows to increase sowing qualities of grain. Electromagnetic irradiation of grain in a harvester increases the germination of seeds from 6 to 20 percent, germination energy about 30 percent, also raises the weight of the plant parts and more qualitatively clears seeds of a peel that promotes best storage. Regime of magnetization determines a germination ability and readiness og seeds. The most pronounced effect of the grain magnetization is observed under irradiation becomes apparent for more than 9 minutes. Irradiation of grain placed in the hopper of the combine is more effective. The optimum parameters of electromagnetic radiation is a frequency equaled to 16 Hz, the value of magnetic induction of 6 mT. We proposed to extend the technology field stimulation of seeds with low-frequency magnetic field in order to increase germination and yield of different crops. An application of the proposed design of the electromagnetic module for any model and size of modern types of grain and rice harvesters

  19. Planck 2013 results. II. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data......) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the approximate to-20 dB level...

  20. Low-frequency electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, B [NDRE, Box 25, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Pecseli, H L; Sato, H [Physics Department, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Trulsen, J [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Wernik, A W, E-mail: hans.pecseli@fys.uio.n [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18a, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    Low-frequency electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region are studied by analyzing data obtained by instrumented rockets. We identify the origin of the enhanced fluctuation level to be the Farley-Buneman instability. The basic information on instability, such as altitude varying spectra and speed of propagation are obtained. Comparison of power spectra for the fluctuations in plasma density and electrostatic potential, respectively, provides information on the electron dynamics. A bispectral analysis gives indications of phase-coherent couplings within the wave spectrum, while higher order structure functions indicate some intermittent features of the turbulence.

  1. Low frequency phase signal measurement with high frequency squeezing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Zehui; Gao, Jiangrui

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the utility of high-frequency squeezed-state enhanced two-frequency interferometry for low-frequency phase measurement. To use the high-frequency sidebands of the squeezed light, a two-frequency intense laser is used in the interferometry instead of a single-frequency laser as usual. We find that the readout signal can be contaminated by the high-frequency phase vibration, but this is easy to check and avoid. A proof-of-principle experiment is in the reach of modern quantum optic...

  2. Low-frequency oscillations at high density in JFT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Katagiri, Masaki; Suzuki, Norio; Fujisawa, Noboru

    1977-12-01

    Low-frequency oscillations in a plasma were measured with magnetic probes and Si surface-barrier detectors, and behaviour of the high density plasmas was studied. The plasma current profile in the phase of decreasing density after the interruption of gas input is more peaked than during gas input. The introduction of hydrogen during a discharge results in a reduction of the impurities flux. The increase of density by fast gas input is limited with a negative voltage spike. Immediately before a negative voltage spike, oscillations of m=1,2 grow, leading to the spike. (auth.)

  3. High-efficiency ventilated metamaterial absorber at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Li, Xin; Roberts, Robert Christopher; Tian, Jingxuan; Hu, Chuandeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Wang, Shuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a ventilated metamaterial absorber operating at low frequency (90%) has been achieved in both simulations and experiments. This high-efficiency absorption under the ventilation condition originates from the weak coupling of two identical split tube resonators constituting the absorber, which leads to the hybridization of the degenerate eigenmodes and breaks the absorption upper limit of 50% for conventional transmissive symmetric acoustic absorbers. The absorber can also be extended to an array and work in free space. The absorber should have potential applications in acoustic engineering where both noise reduction and ventilation are required.

  4. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M [Institute of Clinical Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 18, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2007-02-21

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  5. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary

  6. Low-frequency fluid waves in fractures and pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2010-09-01

    Low-frequency analytical solutions have been obtained for phase velocities of symmetrical fluid waves within both an infinite fracture and a pipe filled with a viscous fluid. Three different fluid wave regimes can exist in such objects, depending on the various combinations of parameters, such as fluid density, fluid viscosity, walls shear modulus, channel thickness, and frequency. Equations for velocities of all these regimes have explicit forms and are verified by comparisons with the exact solutions. The dominant role of fractures in rock permeability at field scales and the strong amplitude and frequency effects of Stoneley guided waves suggest the importance of including these wave effects into poroelastic theories.

  7. MASER: Measuring, Analysing, Simulating low frequency Radio Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zarka, P. M.; Louis, C.; Coffre, A.; Lamy, L.; Denis, L.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Faden, J.; Piker, C.; André, N.; Genot, V. N.; Erard, S.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.; Sharlow, M.; Sky, J.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The MASER (Measuring, Analysing and Simulating Radio Emissions) project provides a comprehensive infrastructure dedicated to low frequency radio emissions (typically Radioastronomie de Nançay and the CDPP deep archive. These datasets include Cassini/RPWS, STEREO/Waves, WIND/Waves, Ulysses/URAP, ISEE3/SBH, Voyager/PRA, Nançay Decameter Array (Routine, NewRoutine, JunoN), RadioJove archive, swedish Viking mission, Interball/POLRAD... MASER also includes a Python software library for reading raw data.

  8. Planck early results. V. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the processing of data from the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) used in production of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC). In particular, we discuss the steps involved in reducing the data from telemetry packets to cleaned, calibrated, time-ordered data (TOD) and ...... statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the ≈ -10dB level using Jupiter transits, which are also used for geometrical calibration of the focal plane. © ESO, 2011....

  9. Sensitivity of the Low Frequency Facility experiment around 10 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Losurdo, G.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, J.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of thermal noise is a fundamental issue for the improvement of future gravitational wave antennas. The main purpose of the Low Frequency Facility (LFF) is to study pendulum thermal noise in the region of 10 Hz. Data at the LFF has been taking since the beginning of 2003 and has been analyzed in order to thoroughly understand the region around 10 Hz. Above 7 Hz, the displacement noise floor is at the level of 10 -14 m/√Hz, decreasing with frequency approximately as 1/ν. Seismic noise contamination is not observed above a few Hz

  10. Dielectric response of KCN crystals at ultra-low frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemath, Ervino C.; Aegerter, Michel A.; Slaets, J.

    1987-01-01

    We describe an ultra low frequency equipment employing programmable digital technique. The system is used to measure the dielectric parameters et, en and tg d or pure KCN crystals as a function of temperature in the frequency range 10-2 Hz to 40 Hz. The relaxation time of the Cn dipoles presents a classical temperature activated reorientation behaviour characterized by an Arrhenius law t=to exp (U/kT) with t0=7,26 x 10-15 s and U = 0,147 eV.

  11. Sensitivity of the Low Frequency Facility experiment around 10 Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Losurdo, G.; Paoletti, F.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, J.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhang, Z

    2004-02-23

    The reduction of thermal noise is a fundamental issue for the improvement of future gravitational wave antennas. The main purpose of the Low Frequency Facility (LFF) is to study pendulum thermal noise in the region of 10 Hz. Data at the LFF has been taking since the beginning of 2003 and has been analyzed in order to thoroughly understand the region around 10 Hz. Above 7 Hz, the displacement noise floor is at the level of 10{sup -14} m/{radical}Hz, decreasing with frequency approximately as 1/{nu}. Seismic noise contamination is not observed above a few Hz.

  12. An analysis of low frequency noise from large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged, that the noise emitted by the turbines would move down in frequency, and that the contents of low-frequency noise would be enough to cause significant annoyance for the neighbors. The sound emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power......-third-octave-band spectra shows that the relative noise emission is higher in the 63-250 Hz frequency range from turbines above 2 MW than from smaller turbines. The observations confirm a downward shift of the spectrum....

  13. Distinguishing low frequency oscillations within the 1/f spectral behaviour of electromagnetic brain signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanuele, Charmaine; James, Christopher J; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund Js

    2007-12-10

    It has been acknowledged that the frequency spectrum of measured electromagnetic (EM) brain signals shows a decrease in power with increasing frequency. This spectral behaviour may lead to difficulty in distinguishing event-related peaks from ongoing brain activity in the electro- and magnetoencephalographic (EEG and MEG) signal spectra. This can become an issue especially in the analysis of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) - below 0.5 Hz - which are currently being observed in signal recordings linked with specific pathologies such as epileptic seizures or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in sleep studies, etc. In this work we propose a simple method that can be used to compensate for this 1/f trend hence achieving spectral normalisation. This method involves filtering the raw measured EM signal through a differentiator prior to further data analysis. Applying the proposed method to various exemplary datasets including very low frequency EEG recordings, epileptic seizure recordings, MEG data and Evoked Response data showed that this compensating procedure provides a flat spectral base onto which event related peaks can be clearly observed. Findings suggest that the proposed filter is a useful tool for the analysis of physiological data especially in revealing very low frequency peaks which may otherwise be obscured by the 1/f spectral activity inherent in EEG/MEG recordings.

  14. A forward model and conjugate gradient inversion technique for low-frequency ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Koen W A; Wright, William M D

    2006-10-01

    Emerging methods of hyperthermia cancer treatment require noninvasive temperature monitoring, and ultrasonic techniques show promise in this regard. Various tomographic algorithms are available that reconstruct sound speed or contrast profiles, which can be related to temperature distribution. The requirement of a high enough frequency for adequate spatial resolution and a low enough frequency for adequate tissue penetration is a difficult compromise. In this study, the feasibility of using low frequency ultrasound for imaging and temperature monitoring was investigated. The transient probing wave field had a bandwidth spanning the frequency range 2.5-320.5 kHz. The results from a forward model which computed the propagation and scattering of low-frequency acoustic pressure and velocity wave fields were used to compare three imaging methods formulated within the Born approximation, representing two main types of reconstruction. The first uses Fourier techniques to reconstruct sound-speed profiles from projection or Radon data based on optical ray theory, seen as an asymptotical limit for comparison. The second uses backpropagation and conjugate gradient inversion methods based on acoustical wave theory. The results show that the accuracy in localization was 2.5 mm or better when using low frequencies and the conjugate gradient inversion scheme, which could be used for temperature monitoring.

  15. Power system low frequency oscillation mode estimation using wide area measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia Ray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in power systems are triggered by a wide variety of events. The system damps most of the oscillations, but a few undamped oscillations may remain which may lead to system collapse. Therefore low frequency oscillations inspection is necessary in the context of recent power system operation and control. Ringdown portion of the signal provides rich information of the low frequency oscillatory modes which has been taken into analysis. This paper provides a practical case study in which seven signal processing based techniques i.e. Prony Analysis (PA, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, S-Transform (ST, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD, Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT and Matrix Pencil Method (MPM were presented for estimating the low frequency modes in a given ringdown signal. Preprocessing of the signal is done by detrending. The application of the signal processing techniques is illustrated using actual wide area measurement systems (WAMS data collected from four different Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU i.e. Dadri, Vindyachal, Kanpur and Moga which are located near the recent disturbance event at the Northern Grid of India. Simulation results show that the seven signal processing technique (FFT, PA, ST, WVD, ESPRIT, HHT and MPM estimates two common oscillatory frequency modes (0.2, 0.5 from the raw signal. Thus, these seven techniques provide satisfactory performance in determining small frequency modes of the signal without losing its valuable property. Also a comparative study of the seven signal processing techniques has been carried out in order to find the best one. It was found that FFT and ESPRIT gives exact frequency modes as compared to other techniques, so they are recommended for estimation of low frequency modes. Further investigations were also carried out to estimate low frequency oscillatory mode with another case study of Eastern Interconnect Phasor Project

  16. An oscillation phenomenon of low frequency reverberation in the shallow water and its physical explanation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Fenghua; LIU; Jianjun; LI; Zhenglin; ZHANG; Renhe

    2005-01-01

    An oscillation phenomenon of the low frequency reverberation intensity was observed in several shallow water reverberation experiments. This phenomenon cannot be explained by the widely used incoherent reverberation theory. In this paper, to explain the observed oscillation phenomenon, a normal mode based coherent reverberation theory is presented. The theoretical analysis and numerical results show that modal interference can cause the regular oscillation phenomenon of the low frequency reverberation intensity, and the oscillation frequency is determined by the normal mode eigen-values. A new method to estimate the bottom sound speed based on the oscillation frequency of reverberation intensity was presented in this paper. The experimental results at three different sites indicate that the bottom sound speed estimated from the oscillation frequency of reverberation intensity agrees with that inverted from Matched Field Processing (MFP) well.

  17. Static and low frequency noise characterization of ultra-thin body InAs MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsori, T. A.; Pastorek, M.; Theodorou, C. G.; Fadjie, A.; Wichmann, N.; Desplanque, L.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Dimitriadis, C. A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2018-05-01

    A complete static and low frequency noise characterization of ultra-thin body InAs MOSFETs is presented. Characterization techniques, such as the well-known Y-function method established for Si MOSFETs, are applied in order to extract the electrical parameters and study the behavior of these research grade devices. Additionally, the Lambert-W function parameter extraction methodology valid from weak to strong inversion is also used in order to verify its applicability in these experimental level devices. Moreover, a low-frequency noise characterization of the UTB InAs MOSFETs is presented, revealing carrier trapping/detrapping in slow oxide traps and remote Coulomb scattering as origin of 1/f noise, which allowed for the extraction of the oxide trap areal density. Finally, Lorentzian-like noise is also observed in the sub-micron area devices and attributed to both Random Telegraph Noise from oxide individual traps and g-r noise from the semiconductor interface.

  18. Low frequency phononic band structures in two-dimensional arc-shaped phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Wu, Fugen; Guo, Zhongning

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency phononic band structures of two-dimensional arc-shaped phononic crystals (APCs) were studied by the transfer matrix method in cylindrical coordinates. The results showed the first phononic band gaps (PBGs) of APCs from zero Hz with low modes. Locally resonant (LR) gaps were obtained with higher-order rotation symmetry, due to LR frequencies corresponding to the speeds of acoustic waves in the materials. These properties can be efficiently used in a structure for low frequencies that are forbidden, or in a device that permits a narrow window of frequencies. -- Highlights: ► We report a new class of quasi-periodic hetero-structures, arc-shaped phononic crystals (APCs). ► The results show the first PBGs start with zero Hz with low modes. ► Locally resonant (LR) gaps were obtained with higher-order rotation symmetry, due to LR frequencies corresponding to the speeds of acoustic waves in the materials.

  19. Low frequency RFQ linacs for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, A.; Watson, J.M.; Martin, R.L.; Lari, R.J.; Stockley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Low frequency, radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structures are under study at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as the low-velocity portion of an rf linac driver for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion. Besides offering a direct comparison with the present ANL front end, it would provide a second low-velocity Xe +1 linac for funneling experiments at 22.9 MeV. Heavy ion RFQ accelerators are characterized by their low rf operating frequency of about 10 MHz. The large size of a manifold-fed four-vane, 10 MHz RFQ resonator structure (about 6 m in diameter) makes it unacceptable for heavy ions; therefore, alternate structures are under study at Argonne. The structures under study are: (1) a Wideroe-type structure with external stub lines, (2) a Wideroe-type structure with the stub lines internal to the structure, (3) a split coaxial line resonator with modulated vanes, and (4) a interdigital line resonator with modulated cylindrical rods. The split coaxial line resonator seems best at this low frequency. It is compact and very efficient. About 15.5 m of linac structure excited with 560 kW of rf power is sufficient to accelerate 30 mA of Xe +1 with 97% transmission efficiency from 250 keV to 3 MeV

  20. Gravitational dynamos and the low-frequency geomagnetic secular variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P

    2007-12-18

    Self-sustaining numerical dynamos are used to infer the sources of low-frequency secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Gravitational dynamo models powered by compositional convection in an electrically conducting, rotating fluid shell exhibit several regimes of magnetic field behavior with an increasing Rayleigh number of the convection, including nearly steady dipoles, chaotic nonreversing dipoles, and chaotic reversing dipoles. The time average dipole strength and dipolarity of the magnetic field decrease, whereas the dipole variability, average dipole tilt angle, and frequency of polarity reversals increase with Rayleigh number. Chaotic gravitational dynamos have large-amplitude dipole secular variation with maximum power at frequencies corresponding to a few cycles per million years on Earth. Their external magnetic field structure, dipole statistics, low-frequency power spectra, and polarity reversal frequency are comparable to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic variability is driven by the Lorentz force and is characterized by an inverse correlation between dynamo magnetic and kinetic energy fluctuations. A constant energy dissipation theory accounts for this inverse energy correlation, which is shown to produce conditions favorable for dipole drift, polarity reversals, and excursions.

  1. Current Status of The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartez, Louis; Creighton, Teviet; Jenet, Fredrick; Dolch, Timothy; Boehler, Keith; Bres, Luis; Cole, Brent; Luo, Jing; Miller, Rossina; Murray, James; Reyes, Alex; Rivera, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a distributed array of cross-dipole antennas that are sensitive to radio frequencies from 10 to 88 MHz. LoFASM consists of antennas and front end electronics that were originally developed for the Long Wavelength Array by the U.S. Naval Research Lab, the University of New Mexico, Virginia Tech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. LoFASM, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, will initially consist of 4 stations, each consisting of 12 dual- polarization dipole antenna stands. The primary science goals of LoFASM will be the detection and study of low-frequency radio transients, a high priority science goal as deemed by the National Research Council’s ASTRO2010 decadal survey. The data acquisition system for the LoFASM antenna array uses Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to implement a real time full Stokes spectrometer and data recorder. This poster presents an overview of the LoFASM Radio Telescope as well as the status of data analysis of initial commissioning observations.

  2. Low-Frequency Temporal Variability in Mira and Semiregular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Karovska, M.; Waagen, E. O.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate low-frequency variability in a large sample of Mira and semiregular variables with long-term visual light curves from the AAVSO International Database. Our aim is to determine whether we can detect and measure long-timescale variable phenomena in these stars, for example photometric variations that might be associated with supergranular convection. We analyzed the long-term light curves of 522 variable stars of the Mira and SRa, b, c, and d classes. We calculated their low-frequency time-series spectra to characterize rednoise with the power density spectrum index, and then correlate this index with other observable characteristics such as spectral type and primary pulsation period. In our initial analysis of the sample, we see that the semiregular variables have a much broader range of spectral index than the Mira types, with the SRb subtype having the broadest range. Among Mira variables we see that the M- and S-type Miras have similarly wide ranges of index, while the C-types have the narrowest with generally shallower slopes. There is also a trend of steeper slope with larger amplitude, but at a given amplitude, a wide range of slopes are seen. The ultimate goal of the project is to identify stars with strong intrinsic red noise components as possible targets for resolved surface imaging with interferometry.

  3. Transient eddy feedback and low-frequency variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Superposed on any externally driven secular climatic change are fluctuations that arise from the internal nonlinear dynamics of the climate system. These internally generated variations may involve interactions between the atmosphere and the ocean, as in the case of El Nino, or they may arise from the dynamics of the atmosphere alone. Here we discuss the dynamics of interactions between transient eddies and lower-frequency motions in the atmosphere. The interactions between more transient and more persistent motions can be divided into two types. Nonlinear interactions among the transient motions can act as an essentially random source of low-frequency motion. The idea that the low-frequencies respond in a linear way to stochastic forcing from higher frequencies has been applied to the generation of planetary waves and to the forcing of changes in global angular momentum. In addition to stochastic coupling, there are systematic interactions, denoted feedbacks, through which the persistent motions modulate their own forcing by the transient eddies. This paper discusses the dynamics of these feedbacks

  4. Zinc oxide piezoelectric nano-generators for low frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, E. S.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2017-06-01

    Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanogenerators (NGs) have been fabricated for low frequency (wireless system using footstep pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self- powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on a PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate using a one-sided growth and double-sided growth technique. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for an acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique works as an anisotropic direction sensor. This fabricated configuration showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-Mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic elements (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges is also presented.

  5. Low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-08-01

    Low-frequency noise with a spectral density that depends inversely on frequency has been observed in a wide variety of systems including current fluctuations in resistors, intensity fluctuations in music and signals in human cognition. In electronics, the phenomenon, which is known as 1/f noise, flicker noise or excess noise, hampers the operation of numerous devices and circuits, and can be a significant impediment to the development of practical applications from new materials. Graphene offers unique opportunities for studying 1/f noise because of its two-dimensional structure and widely tunable two-dimensional carrier concentration. The creation of practical graphene-based devices will also depend on our ability to understand and control the low-frequency noise in this material system. Here, the characteristic features of 1/f noise in graphene and few-layer graphene are reviewed, and the implications of such noise for the development of graphene-based electronics including high-frequency devices and sensors are examined.

  6. Functional subdivisions in low-frequency primary auditory cortex (AI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M N; Palmer, A R

    2009-04-01

    We wished to test the hypothesis that there are modules in low-frequency AI that can be identified by their responsiveness to communication calls or particular regions of space. Units were recorded in anaesthetised guinea pig AI and stimulated with conspecific vocalizations and a virtual motion stimulus (binaural beats) presented via a closed sound system. Recording tracks were mainly oriented orthogonally to the cortical surface. Some of these contained units that were all time-locked to the structure of the chutter call (14/22 tracks) and/or the purr call (12/22 tracks) and/or that had a preference for stimuli from a particular region of space (8/20 tracks with four contralateral, two ipsilateral and two midline), or where there was a strong asymmetry in the response to beats of different direction (two tracks). We conclude that about half of low-frequency AI is organized into modules that are consistent with separate "what" and "where" pathways.

  7. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    maximize the energy of the seismic source in order to reach a sufficient exploration range. The next step for focusing is to use the method of phased array. Dependent of the seismic wave velocities of the surrounding rock, the distance of the actuators to each other and the used frequencies the signal phases for each actuator can be determined. Since one year several measurements with the prototype have been realized under defined conditions at a test site in a mine. The test site consists of a rock block surrounded from three galleries with a dimension of about 100 by 200 meters. For testing the prototype two horizontal boreholes were drilled. They are directed to one of the gallery to get a strong reflector. The quality of the data of the borehole seismics in amplitude and frequency spectra show overall a good signal-to-noise ratio and correlate strongly with the fracture density along the borehole and are associated with a lower signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, the geophones of the prototype show reflections from ahead and rearward in the seismic data. In particular, the reflections from the gallery ahead are used for the calibration of focusing. The direct seismic wave field indicates distinct compression and shear waves. The analysis of several seismic measurements with a focus on the direct seismic waves shows that the phased array technology explicit can influence the directional characteristics of the radiated seimic waves. The amplitudes of the seismic waves can be enhanced up to three times more in the desired direction and simultaneously be attenuated in the reverse direction. A major step for the directional investigation in boreholes has accomplished. But the focusing of the seismic waves has to be improved to maximize the energy in the desired direction in more measurements by calibrating the initiating seismic signals of the sources. A next step this year is the development of a wireline prototype for application in vertical boreholes with depths not

  8. New Cloud and Precipitation Research Avenues Enabled by low-cost Phased-array Radar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, P.; Oue, M.; Fridlind, A. M.; Matsui, T.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    For over half a century, radars operating in a wide range of frequencies have been the primary source of observational insights of clouds and precipitation microphysics and dynamics and contributed to numerous significant advancements in the field of cloud and precipitation physics. The development of multi-wavelength and polarization diversity techniques has further strengthened the quality of microphysical and dynamical retrievals from radars and has assisted in overcoming some of the limitations imposed by the physics of scattering. Atmospheric radars have historically employed a mechanically-scanning dish antenna and their ability to point to, survey, and revisit specific points or regions in the atmosphere is limited by mechanical inertia. Electronically scanned, or phased-array, radars capable of high-speed, inertialess beam steering, have been available for several decades, but the cost of this technology has limited its use to military applications. During the last 10 years, lower power and lower-cost versions of electronically scanning radars have been developed, and this presents an attractive and affordable new tool for the atmospheric sciences. The operational and research communities are currently exploring phased array advantages in signal processing (i.e. beam multiplexing, improved clutter rejection, cross beam wind estimation, adaptive sensing) and science applications (i.e. tornadic storm morphology studies). Here, we will present some areas of atmospheric research where inertia-less radars with ability to provide rapid volume imaging offers the potential to advance cloud and precipitation research. We will discuss the added value of single phased-array radars as well as networks of these radars for several problems including: multi-Doppler wind retrieval techniques, cloud lifetime studies and aerosol-convection interactions. The performance of current (dish) and future (e-scan) radar systems for these atmospheric studies will be evaluated using

  9. Development of measurement technique for crack depth in weld zone of thick stainless steel pipe with ultrasonic phased array TOFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Phased array TOFD (time of flight diffraction) method which makes possible to detect tip diffraction echoes and measure crack depth in an austenitic stainless steel weld zone with a thickness of more than 25 mm to which region it was difficult to apply ultrasonic test due to scattering of ultrasonic waves has been developed. The developed method uses a single array transducer to have a short distance between incident points of transmitter and receiver in order to propagate waves in shorter pass in the weld region. Transmitting and receiving ultrasonic beams from a single array probe can be set a crossing point and a focal point at desired depth. This method makes possible to scan with 16 kinds of combination of crossing points and focal pints of ultrasonic beam at a time. We have examined fundamental characteristics of depth measurement with electric discharge machining slits on base metal of a stainless steel with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could measure the slit depth with 0.2mm error from the slit depth with a estimating method of a lateral wave propagation time with back wall echo. (2) The largest error of the depth measurement from the slit depth with the ultrasonic beam crossing point set at the 4mm different point from the tip of the slit was 0.3 mm. (3) The largest error of the depth measurements due to the difference of focal point depth of ultrasonic beam was 0.2 mm. (4) The highest tip diffraction echo could be observed with the ultrasonic beam cross point set at the tip of the slit. The difference of 4 mm between the cross point and the tip of the slit caused attenuation of tip diffraction echo height in -6.8 dB. Furthermore we have measured a depth of electric discharge machining slits, fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on stainless steel welded pipe specimens with a thickness of 35 mm. As the results: (1) We could detect the tip diffraction echoes which have a signal noise ratio with more than 2.4 from the fatigue

  10. Phased arrays techniques and split spectrum processing for inspection of thick titanium casting components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Chahbaz, A.; Sicard, R.; Zellouf, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    In aircraft structures, titanium parts and engine members are critical structural components, and their inspection crucial. However, these structures are very difficult to inspect ultrasonically because of their large grain structure that increases noise drastically. In this work, phased array inspection setups were developed to detected small defects such as simulated inclusions and porosity contained in thick titanium casting blocks, which are frequently used in the aerospace industry. A Cut Spectrum Processing (CSP)-based algorithm was then implemented on the acquired data by employing a set of parallel bandpass filters with different center frequencies. This process led in substantial improvement of the signal to noise ratio and thus, of detectability

  11. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  12. Basic Principles and Utilization Possibilities’ of Ultrasonic Phased Array in Material Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Faktorova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the basic principles of operation and with the utilization possibilities of phased array (PA in materials nondestructive testing (NDT. The first part deals with description of PA arrangement modes, which enable to generate, focus and steer the ultrasonic beem. The second part deals with the description of electromagnetic acoustic transducer PA operation. The last part deals with the description of the utilization of PA in nondestructive testing of conductive materials and the advantages of PA utilization in inhomogeneous materials NDT.

  13. Assessment of Microphone Phased Array for Measuring Launch Vehicle Lift-off Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The specific purpose of the present work was to demonstrate the suitability of a microphone phased array for launch acoustics applications via participation in selected firings of the Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test. The Ares I Scale Model Acoustics Test is a part of the discontinued Constellation Program Ares I Project, but the basic understanding gained from this test is expected to help development of the Space Launch System vehicles. Correct identification of sources not only improves the predictive ability, but provides guidance for a quieter design of the launch pad and optimization of the water suppression system. This document contains the results of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center assessment.

  14. Bit error rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.

  15. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  16. Low-Frequency Loudspeaker-Room Simulation Using Finite Differences in the Time Domain-Part 1: Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    Small- and medium-size rectangular rooms have a strong influence on the low-frequency performance of loudspeakers. A simulation program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is introduced to analyze the sound field produced by loudspeakers in rectangular rooms at low frequencies...

  17. Multi-cavity locally resonant structure with the low frequency and broad band-gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulong Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-cavity periodic structure with the characteristic of local resonance was proposed in the paper. The low frequency band-gap structure was comparatively analyzed by the finite element method (FEM and electric circuit analogy (ECA. Low frequency band-gap can be opened through the dual influence of the coupling’s resonance in the cavity and the interaction among the couplings between structures. Finally, the influence of the structural factors on the band-gap was analyzed. The results show that the structure, which is divided into three parts equally, has a broader effective band-gap below the frequency of 200 Hz. It is also proved that reducing the interval between unit structures can increase the intensity of the couplings among the structures. And in this way, the width of band-gap would be expanded significantly. Through the parameters adjustment, the structure enjoys a satisfied sound insulation effect below the frequency of 500Hz. In the area of low frequency noise reduction, the structure has a lot of potential applications.

  18. The application of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rehabilitation of Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Zhuo-hua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the application value of low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS in Parkinson's disease (PD patients and electrophysiological research. Methods Fifty-six PD patients treated in the Department of Neurology of our hospital from September 2010 to September 2012 were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A (N = 28 and group B (N = 28. Patients in group A were given conventional drug treatment and rehabilitation training, while patients in group B were given low frequency rTMS on the basis of conventional drug treatment and rehabilitation training. After 3 weeks, the scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, resting threshold (RT, cortical latent period, nerve root latent period, central motor conduction time (CMCT and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between 2 groups. Results After intervention, the emotion, ability of daily living and motor function of patients in group B was obviously improved, and the scores of UPDRS in group B were significantly lower than that in group A (P 0.05. Conclusion The effect of low frequency rTMS in the treatment for PD is evident, safe and reliable, and with less adverse reaction. It can be used as a noninvasive physical treatment measure for PD.

  19. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  20. Ultrawide low frequency band gap of phononic crystal in nacreous composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, J.; Huang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, H.W.; Chen, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    The band structure of a nacreous composite material is studied by two proposed models, where an ultrawide low frequency band gap is observed. The first model (tension-shear chain model) with two phases including brick and mortar is investigated to describe the wave propagation in the nacreous composite material, and the dispersion relation is calculated by transfer matrix method and Bloch theorem. The results show that the frequency ranges of the pass bands are quite narrow, because a special tension-shear chain motion in the nacreous composite material is formed by some very slow modes. Furthermore, the second model (two-dimensional finite element model) is presented to investigate its band gap by a multi-level substructure scheme. Our findings will be of great value to the design and synthesis of vibration isolation materials in a wide and low frequency range. Finally, the transmission characteristics are calculated to verify the results. - Highlights: • A Brick-and-Mortar structure is used to discuss wave propagation through nacreous materials. • A 1D Bloch wave solution of nacreous materials with a tension-shear chain model is obtained. • The band structure and transmission characteristics of nacreous materials with the FE model are examined. • An ultrawide low frequency band gap is found in nacreous materials with both theory and FE model

  1. LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOON WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinley, B.; Briggs, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Greenhill, L. J.; Bernardi, G.; De Oliveira-Costa, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Tingay, S. J.; Gaensler, B. M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Oberoi, D. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune (India); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Arcus, W.; Emrich, D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Barnes, D. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Bunton, J. D. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Canberra (Australia); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA (United States); Deshpande, A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore (India); DeSouza, L. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Goeke, R. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); and others

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of low-frequency radio telescopes is seeking to observe the redshifted 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR), requiring innovative methods of calibration and imaging to overcome the difficulties of wide-field low-frequency radio interferometry. Precise calibration will be required to separate the expected small EoR signal from the strong foreground emission at the frequencies of interest between 80 and 300 MHz. The Moon may be useful as a calibration source for detection of the EoR signature, as it should have a smooth and predictable thermal spectrum across the frequency band of interest. Initial observations of the Moon with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 tile prototype show that the Moon does exhibit a similar trend to that expected for a cool thermally emitting body in the observed frequency range, but that the spectrum is corrupted by reflected radio emission from Earth. In particular, there is an abrupt increase in the observed flux density of the Moon within the internationally recognized frequency modulated (FM) radio band. The observations have implications for future low-frequency surveys and EoR detection experiments that will need to take this reflected emission from the Moon into account. The results also allow us to estimate the equivalent isotropic power emitted by the Earth in the FM band and to determine how bright the Earth might appear at meter wavelengths to an observer beyond our own solar system.

  2. Characterization of low-frequency acoustic wave propagation through a periodic corrugated waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changyong; Huang, Lixi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a periodic corrugated waveguide structure is proposed, and its unit-cell is analyzed by the wave finite element method. In low-frequency range, the unit-cell is treated as an equivalent fluid through a homogenization process, and the equivalent acoustic parameters are obtained, which are validated by finite structure simulations and experiments. The proposed structure is shown to add tortuosity to the waveguide, hence higher equivalent fluid density is achieved, while the system elastic modulus remains unchanged. As a result, the equivalent speed of sound is smaller than normal air. The application of such change of speed of sound is demonstrated in the classic quarter-wavelength resonator based on the corrugated waveguide, which gives a lower resonance frequency with the same side branch length. When the waveguide is filled with porous materials, the added tortuosity enhances the broadband, low-frequency sound absorption by increasing the equivalent mass without bringing in excess damping, the latter being partly responsible for the poor performance of usual porous materials in the low-frequency region. Therefore, the proposed structure provides another dimension for the design and optimization of porous sound absorption materials.

  3. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  4. Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1991-07-01

    At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level. Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies. There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. 24 refs

  5. Planck 2013 results. II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Lindholm, V; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44 and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data, starting from telemetry packets through to the production of cleaned, calibrated timelines and calibrated frequency maps. Data are continuously calibrated using the modulation induced on the mean temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation by the proper motion of the spacecraft. Sky signals other than the dipole are removed by an iterative procedure based on simultaneous fitting of calibration parameters and sky maps. Noise properties are estimated from time-ordered data after the sky signal has been removed, using a generalized least square map-making algorithm. A destriping code (Madam) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated...

  6. Characteristics of low frequency MHD fluctuations in the PRETEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochanski, T.P.

    1981-05-01

    The temporal and spectral characteristics of low frequency (< 100KHz) MHD fluctuations, which are commonly associated with disruptions, have been investigated in the PRETEXT tokamak. There exists rigid phase coherence between the internal m = 1, and externally detected m = 2 modes indicative of strong mode coupling. A parametric study of the frequency of the mode, in the saturated state, indicates that the frequency scales with the toroidal magnetic field, and is inversely proportional to the plasma current. The frequency is observed to decrease abruptly as the mode amplitude rapidly increases prior to a plasma disruption. The burst type growth of the m = 2 mode appears to be inextricably linked to the occurrence of the disruptive instability

  7. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  8. WHO's health risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), WHOs scientific collaborating centres (including the UKs National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and over 50 participating Member States are participants of WHOs International EMF Project. As part of WHOs health risk assessment process for extremely low frequency fields (ELFs), this workshop was convened by NRPB to assist WHO in evaluating potential health impacts of electrical currents and fields induced by ELF in molecules, cells, tissues and organs of the body. This paper describes the process by which WHO will conduct its health risk assessment. WHO is also trying to provide information on why exposure to ELF magnetic fields seems to be associated with an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia. Are there mechanisms that could lead to this health outcome or does the epidemiological evidence incorporate biases or other factors that need to be further explored? (author)

  9. Membrane-constrained acoustic metamaterials for low frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaole; Zhao, Hui; Luo, Xudong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    We present a constrained membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (CMAM) that employs constraint sticks to add out-of-plane dimensions in the design space of MAM. A CMAM sample, which adopts constraint sticks to suppress vibrations at the membrane center, was fabricated to achieve a sound transmission loss (STL) peak of 26 dB at 140 Hz, with the static areal density of 6.0 kg/m2. The working mechanism of the CMAM as an acoustic metamaterial is elucidated by calculating the averaged normal displacement, the equivalent areal density, and the effective dynamic mass of a unit cell through finite element simulations. Furthermore, the vibration modes of the CMAM indicate that the eigenmodes related to STL dips are shifted into high frequencies, thus broadening its effective bandwidth significantly. Three samples possessing the same geometry and material but different constraint areas were fabricated to illustrate the tunability of STL peaks at low frequencies.

  10. Dissipative elastic metamaterial with a low-frequency passband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We design and experimentally demonstrate a dissipative elastic metamaterial structure that functions as a bandpass filter with a low-frequency passband. The mechanism of dissipation in this structure is well described by a mass-spring-damper model that reveals that the imaginary part of the wavenumber is non-zero, even in the passband of dissipative metamaterials. This indicates that transmittance in this range can be low. A prototype for this viscoelastic metamaterial model is fabricated by 3D printing techniques using soft and hard acrylics as constituent materials. The transmittance of the printed metamaterial is measured and shows good agreement with theoretical predictions, demonstrating its potential in the design of compact waveguides, filters and other advanced devices for controlling mechanical waves.

  11. Offshore windfarm connection with low frequency AC transmission technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Xu, Zhao; You, Shi

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using the low frequency AC transmission (LFAC) system, e.g. fraction of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, for connecting the large offshore wind farm to the grid by modelling and simulation. The LFAC system improves the transmission capacity and distance compared...... to the conventional AC solution at the nominal frequency, e.g. 50 Hz or 60 Hz. and reduces the investment cost compared to the HVDC solution. It is estimated that the LFAC system is competitive in the transmission distance of about 30-150 km. The simulation model of the wind integration using the LFAC system has been...... developed, which consists of three parts, the fixed-speed wind turbine representing a wind farm, the transmission line and the frequency converter. Although the transmission capability is greatly improved by the LFAC system, simulation shows it gives negative influences on the wind turbine operation due...

  12. Observation of low frequency electromagnetic activity at 1000 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ivchenko

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study of low frequency fluctuations of electric and magnetic fields, commonly interpreted as Alfvénic activity. The data base consists of six months of electric and magnetic field measurements by the Astrid-2 microsatellite. The occurrence of the events is studied with respect to the location and general activity. Large regions of broadband Alfvénic activity are persistently observed in the cusp/cleft and, during the periods of high geo-magnetic activity, also in the pre-midnight sector of the auroral oval.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  13. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    at a distance of similar to 550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur similar to 4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from similar to 50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical...... electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.......The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which...

  14. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blednykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.

  15. Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions for resonant wave amplification in a plasma with a ring-beam distribution which is intended to model pick-up ions in a cometary environment are investigated. The inclination between the interplanetary field and the solar wind is found to play a crucial role in governing both the resonant frequency and the growth rate of any unstable mode. It is suggested that the low-frequency MHD mode should experience the most rapid amplification for intermediate inclination. In the frame of the solar wind, such waves should propagate along the field in the direction upstream toward the sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. This mechanism may account for the presence of the interior MHD waves noted by satellites over a region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley.

  16. Nonlinear beat excitation of low frequency wave in degenerate plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Zahid; Shahid, M.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Shahbaz, A.

    2018-03-01

    The beat phenomenon due to the coupling of two signals at slightly different frequencies that generates the low frequency signal is studied. The linear dispersive properties of the pump and sideband are analyzed. The modified nonlinear dispersion relation through the field coupling of linear modes against the beat frequency is derived in the homogeneous quantum dusty magnetoplasmas. The dispersion relation is used to derive the modified growth rate of three wave parametric instability. Moreover, significant quantum effects of electrons through the exchange-correlation potential, the Bohm potential, and the Fermi pressure evolved in macroscopic three wave interaction are presented. The analytical results are interpreted graphically describing the significance of the work. The applications of this study are pointed out at the end of introduction.

  17. Biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cell culture studies have shown that low-frequency electromagnetic fields may affect cell behaviour. The fact that the corresponding field strengths are too weak to affect membrane potential, suggests that these fields trigger enzymatic reactions at the outer face of the membrane, i.e. cell-intrinsic reaction cascades and a biological modification of the affected biological system take place. These are working models and hypotheses which need to substantiated by further studies in this field. Epidemiological studies suggest that electromagnetic fields influence cancer development in man. However there is no action model indicating exposure to fields to be a genotoxic agent possible triggering a direct genetic modification which precludesr any initialization. (orig.) [de

  18. Clamped seismic metamaterials: ultra-low frequency stop bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achaoui, Y; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S; Antonakakis, T; Brûlé, S; Craster, R V

    2017-01-01

    The regularity of earthquakes, their destructive power, and the nuisance of ground vibration in urban environments, all motivate designs of defence structures to lessen the impact of seismic and ground vibration waves on buildings. Low frequency waves, in the range 1–10 Hz for earthquakes and up to a few tens of Hz for vibrations generated by human activities, cause a large amount of damage, or inconvenience; depending on the geological conditions they can travel considerable distances and may match the resonant fundamental frequency of buildings. The ultimate aim of any seismic metamaterial, or any other seismic shield, is to protect over this entire range of frequencies; the long wavelengths involved, and low frequency, have meant this has been unachievable to date. Notably this is scalable and the effects also hold for smaller devices in ultrasonics. There are three approaches to obtaining shielding effects: bragg scattering, locally resonant sub-wavelength inclusions and zero-frequency stop-band media. The former two have been explored, but the latter has not and is examined here. Elastic flexural waves, applicable in the mechanical vibrations of thin elastic plates, can be designed to have a broad zero-frequency stop-band using a periodic array of very small clamped circles. Inspired by this experimental and theoretical observation, all be it in a situation far removed from seismic waves, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve elastic surface (Rayleigh) wave reflectors at very large wavelengths in structured soils modelled as a fully elastic layer periodically clamped to bedrock. We identify zero frequency stop-bands that only exist in the limit of columns of concrete clamped at their base to the bedrock. In a realistic configuration of a sedimentary basin 15 m deep we observe a zero frequency stop-band covering a broad frequency range of 0–30 Hz. (paper)

  19. A Tutorial on Optical Feeding of Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antennas for Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aldaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the interference avoidance capacity, high gain, and dynamical reconfigurability, phased array antennas (PAAs have emerged as a key enabling technology for future broadband mobile applications. This is especially important at millimeter-wave (mm-wave frequencies, where the high power consumption and significant path loss impose serious range constraints. However, at mm-wave frequencies the phase and amplitude control of the feeding currents of the PAA elements is not a trivial issue because electrical beamforming requires bulky devices and exhibits relatively narrow bandwidth. In order to overcome these limitations, different optical beamforming architectures have been presented. In this paper we review the basic principles of phased arrays and identify the main challenges, that is, integration of high-speed photodetectors with antenna elements and the efficient optical control of both amplitude and phase of the feeding current. After presenting the most important solutions found in the literature, we analyze the impact of the different noise sources on the PAA performance, giving some guidelines for the design of optically fed PAAs.

  20. Limitations of Phased Array Beamforming in Open Rotor Noise Source Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    Phased array beamforming results of the F31/A31 historical baseline counter-rotating open rotor blade set were investigated for measurement data taken on the NASA Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Propulsion Rig in the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel of NASA Glenn Research Center as well as data produced using the LINPROP open rotor tone noise code. The planar microphone array was positioned broadside and parallel to the axis of the open rotor, roughly 2.3 rotor diameters away. The results provide insight as to why the apparent noise sources of the blade passing frequency tones and interaction tones appear at their nominal Mach radii instead of at the actual noise sources, even if those locations are not on the blades. Contour maps corresponding to the sound fields produced by the radiating sound waves, taken from the simulations, are used to illustrate how the interaction patterns of circumferential spinning modes of rotating coherent noise sources interact with the phased array, often giving misleading results, as the apparent sources do not always show where the actual noise sources are located. This suggests that a more sophisticated source model would be required to accurately locate the sources of each tone. The results of this study also have implications with regard to the shielding of open rotor sources by airframe empennages.

  1. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.

  2. A Small Ku-Band Polarization Tracking Active Phased Array for Mobile Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact polarization tracking active phased array for Ku-band mobile satellite signal reception is presented. In contrast with conventional mechanically tracking antennas, the approach presented here meets the requirements of beam tracking and polarization tracking simultaneously without any servo components. The two-layer stacked square patch fed by two probes is used as antenna element. The impedance bandwidth of 16% for the element covers the operating frequency range from 12.25 GHz to 12.75 GHz. In the presence of mutual coupling, the dimensional parameters for each element of the small 7 × 7 array are optimized during beam scanning and polarization tracking. The compact polarization tracking modules based on the low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC system-in-package (SiP technology are proposed. A small active phased array prototype with the size of 120 mm (length × 120 mm (width × 55 mm (height is developed. The measured polarization tracking patterns of the prototype are given. The polarization tracking beam can be steered in the elevation up to 50°. The gain of no less than 16.0 dBi and the aperture efficiency of more than 50% are obtained. The measured and simulated polarization tracking patterns agreed well.

  3. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilu; Li, Xinghua; Li, Haopeng; Su, Zhikun; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-10-12

    In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter's pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA). In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  4. Multilevel photonic modules for millimeter-wave phased-array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Arthur C.; Bauerle, Athena; Joshi, Abhay M.; Wright, James G.; Coryell, Louis A.

    2000-09-01

    Millimeter wave phased array systems have antenna element sizes and spacings similar to MMIC chip dimensions by virtue of the operating wavelength. Designing modules in traditional planar packaing techniques are therefore difficult to implement. An advantageous way to maintain a small module footprint compatible with Ka-Band and high frequency systems is to take advantage of two leading edge technologies, opto- electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and multilevel packaging technology. Under a Phase II SBIR these technologies are combined to form photonic modules for optically controlled millimeter wave phased array antennas. The proposed module, consisting of an OEIC integrated with a planar antenna array will operate on the 40GHz region. The OEIC consists of an InP based dual-depletion PIN photodetector and distributed amplifier. The multi-level module will be fabricated using an enhanced circuit processing thick film process. Since the modules are batch fabricated using an enhanced circuit processing thick film process. Since the modules are batch fabricated, using standard commercial processes, it has the potential to be low cost while maintaining high performance, impacting both military and commercial communications systems.

  5. A random phased array device for delivery of high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, J W; Shaw, A; Sadhoo, N; Rajagopal, S; Dickinson, R J; Gavrilov, L R

    2009-01-01

    Randomized phased arrays can offer electronic steering of a single focus and simultaneous multiple foci concomitant with low levels of secondary maxima and are potentially useful as sources of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This work describes laboratory testing of a 1 MHz random phased array consisting of 254 elements on a spherical shell of radius of curvature 130 mm and diameter 170 mm. Acoustic output power and efficiency are measured for a range of input electrical powers, and field distributions for various single- and multiple-focus conditions are evaluated by a novel technique using an infrared camera to provide rapid imaging of temperature changes on the surface of an absorbing target. Experimental results show that the array can steer a single focus laterally to at least ±15 mm off axis and axially to more than ±15 mm from the centre of curvature of the array and patterns of four and five simultaneous foci ±10 mm laterally and axially whilst maintaining low intensity levels in secondary maxima away from the targeted area in good agreement with linear theoretical predictions. Experiments in which pork meat was thermally ablated indicate that contiguous lesions several cm 3 in volume can be produced using the patterns of multiple foci.

  6. A random phased array device for delivery of high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, J W; Shaw, A; Sadhoo, N; Rajagopal, S; Dickinson, R J; Gavrilov, L R

    2009-10-07

    Randomized phased arrays can offer electronic steering of a single focus and simultaneous multiple foci concomitant with low levels of secondary maxima and are potentially useful as sources of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This work describes laboratory testing of a 1 MHz random phased array consisting of 254 elements on a spherical shell of radius of curvature 130 mm and diameter 170 mm. Acoustic output power and efficiency are measured for a range of input electrical powers, and field distributions for various single- and multiple-focus conditions are evaluated by a novel technique using an infrared camera to provide rapid imaging of temperature changes on the surface of an absorbing target. Experimental results show that the array can steer a single focus laterally to at least +/-15 mm off axis and axially to more than +/-15 mm from the centre of curvature of the array and patterns of four and five simultaneous foci +/-10 mm laterally and axially whilst maintaining low intensity levels in secondary maxima away from the targeted area in good agreement with linear theoretical predictions. Experiments in which pork meat was thermally ablated indicate that contiguous lesions several cm(3) in volume can be produced using the patterns of multiple foci.

  7. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of pieces of complex geometry with a flexible phased array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon; Cattiaux; Serre; Roy

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components of complex geometry in the nuclear industry faces several difficulties: sensitivity variations due to unmatched contact, inaccurate localization of defects due to variations of transducer orientation, and uncovered area of the component. To improve the performances of such testing and defect characterization, we propose a new concept of ultrasonic contact phased array transducer. The phased array transducer has a flexible radiating surface able to fit the actual surface of the piece to optimize the contact and thus the sensitivity of the test. To control the transmitted field, and therefore to improve the defect characterization, a delay law optimizing algorithm is developed. To assess the capability of such a transducer, the Champ-Sons model, developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission for predicting field radiated by arbitrary transducers into pieces, has to be extended to sources directly in contact with pieces of complex geometry. The good behavior of this new type of probe predicted by computations is experimentally validated with a jointed transducer positioned on pieces of various profiles.

  8. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  9. Phased-array antenna system for electron Bernstein wave heating and current drive experiments in QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Sakaguchi, M.; Kalinnikova, E.I.

    2010-11-01

    The phased-array antenna system for Electron Bernstein Wave Heating and Current Drive (EBWH/CD) experiments has been developed in the QUEST. The antenna was designed to excite a pure O-mode wave in the oblique injection for the EBWH/CD experiments, and was tested at a low power level. The measured two orthogonal fields were in excellent agreements with the fields evaluated by a developed Kirchhoff code. The heat load and thermal stress in CW 200 kW operation were analyzed with finite element codes. The phased array has been fast scanned [∼10 4 degree/s] to control the incident polarization and angle to follow time evolutions of the plasma current and density. The RF startup and sustainment experiments were conducted using the developed antenna system. The plasma current (< ∼15 kA) with an aspect ratio of 1.5 was started up and sustained by only RF injection. The long pulse discharge of 10 kA was attained for 40 s with the 30 kW injection. (author)

  10. MEMS based monolithic Phased array using 3-bit Switched-line Phase Shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmakr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article details the design of an electronically scanning phased array antenna with proposed fabrication process steps. Structure is based upon RF micro-electromechanical system (MEMS technology. Capacitive type shunt switches have been implemented here to cater high frequency operation. The architecture, which is deigned at 30 GHz, consists of 3-bit (11.25º, 22.5º and 45º integrated Switched-line phase shifter and a linearly polarized microstrip patch antenna. Detailed design tricks of the Ka-band phase shifter is outlined here. The whole design is targeted for future monolithic integration. So, the substrate of choice is High Resistive Silicon (ρ > 8kΩ-cm, tan δ =0.01 and ϵr =11.8. The overall circuit occupies an cross-sectional area of 20 × 5 mm2. The simulated results show that the phase shifter can provide nearly 11.25º/22.5º/45º phase shifts and their combinations at the expense of 1dB average insertion loss at 30 GHz for eight combinations. Practical fabrication process flow using surface micromachining is proposed here. Critical dimensions of the phased array structure is governed by the deign rules of the standard CMOS/MEMS foundry.

  11. Research on Wide-field Imaging Technologies for Low-frequency Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, B. Q.; An, T.; Chen, X.; Wu, X. C.; Lu, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Wide-field imaging of low-frequency radio telescopes are subject to a number of difficult problems. One particularly pernicious problem is the non-coplanar baseline effect. It will lead to distortion of the final image when the phase of w direction called w-term is ignored. The image degradation effects are amplified for telescopes with the wide field of view. This paper summarizes and analyzes several w-term correction methods and their technical principles. Their advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed after comparing their computational cost and computational complexity. We conduct simulations with two of these methods, faceting and w-projection, based on the configuration of the first-phase Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low frequency array. The resulted images are also compared with the two-dimensional Fourier transform method. The results show that image quality and correctness derived from both faceting and w-projection are better than the two-dimensional Fourier transform method in wide-field imaging. The image quality and run time affected by the number of facets and w steps have been evaluated. The results indicate that the number of facets and w steps must be reasonable. Finally, we analyze the effect of data size on the run time of faceting and w-projection. The results show that faceting and w-projection need to be optimized before the massive amounts of data processing. The research of the present paper initiates the analysis of wide-field imaging techniques and their application in the existing and future low-frequency array, and fosters the application and promotion to much broader fields.

  12. Observations of a Cold Front at High Spatiotemporal Resolution Using an X-Band Phased Array Imaging Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mahre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While the vertical structure of cold fronts has been studied using various methods, previous research has shown that traditional methods of observing meteorological phenomena (such as pencil-beam radars in PPI/volumetric mode are not well-suited for resolving small-scale cold front phenomena, due to relatively low spatiotemporal resolution. Additionally, non-simultaneous elevation sampling within a vertical cross-section can lead to errors in analysis, as differential vertical advection cannot be distinguished from temporal evolution. In this study, a cold front from 19 September 2015 is analyzed using the Atmospheric Imaging Radar (AIR. The AIR transmits a 20-degree fan beam in elevation, and digital beamforming is used on receive to generate simultaneous receive beams. This mobile, X-band, phased-array radar offers temporal sampling on the order of 1 s (while in RHI mode, range sampling of 30 m (37.5 m native resolution, and continuous, arbitrarily oversampled data in the vertical dimension. Here, 0.5-degree sampling is used in elevation (1-degree native resolution. This study is the first in which a cold front has been studied via imaging radar. The ability of the AIR to obtain simultaneous RHIs at high temporal sampling rates without mechanical steering allows for analysis of features such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and feeder flow.

  13. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  14. Nonlinear low-frequency wave aspect of foreshock density holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have uncovered short-duration density holes in the Earth's foreshock region. There is evidence that the formation of density holes involves non-linear growth of fluctuations in the magnetic field and plasma density, which results in shock-like boundaries followed by a decrease in both density and magnetic field. In this study we examine in detail a few such events focusing on their low frequency wave characteristics. The propagation properties of the waves are studied using Cluster's four point observations. We found that while these density hole-structures were convected with the solar wind, in the plasma rest frame they propagated obliquely and mostly sunward. The wave amplitude grows non-linearly in the process, and the waves are circularly or elliptically polarized in the left hand sense. The phase velocities calculated from four spacecraft timing analysis are compared with the velocity estimated from δEB. Their agreement justifies the plane electromagnetic wave nature of the structures. Plasma conditions are found to favor firehose instabilities. Oblique Alfvén firehose instability is suggested as a possible energy source for the wave growth. Resonant interaction between ions at certain energy and the waves could reduce the ion temperature anisotropy and thus the free energy, thereby playing a stabilizing role.

  15. Nonlinear low-frequency wave aspect of foreshock density holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations have uncovered short-duration density holes in the Earth's foreshock region. There is evidence that the formation of density holes involves non-linear growth of fluctuations in the magnetic field and plasma density, which results in shock-like boundaries followed by a decrease in both density and magnetic field. In this study we examine in detail a few such events focusing on their low frequency wave characteristics. The propagation properties of the waves are studied using Cluster's four point observations. We found that while these density hole-structures were convected with the solar wind, in the plasma rest frame they propagated obliquely and mostly sunward. The wave amplitude grows non-linearly in the process, and the waves are circularly or elliptically polarized in the left hand sense. The phase velocities calculated from four spacecraft timing analysis are compared with the velocity estimated from δE/δB. Their agreement justifies the plane electromagnetic wave nature of the structures. Plasma conditions are found to favor firehose instabilities. Oblique Alfvén firehose instability is suggested as a possible energy source for the wave growth. Resonant interaction between ions at certain energy and the waves could reduce the ion temperature anisotropy and thus the free energy, thereby playing a stabilizing role.

  16. HERA Broadband Feed Design for Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sierra; Trung, Vincent; Ewall-Wice, Aaron Michael; Li, Jianshu; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Riley, Daniel; Bradley, Richard F.; Makhija, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) project, we are designing a broadband low-frequency radio feed to extend the bandwidth from 100-200 MHz to 50-220 MHz. By extending the lower-limit to 50 MHz, we hope to detect the signatures of the first black holes heating the hydrogen gas in the intergalactic medium.The isolation of a very faint signal from vastly brighter foregrounds sets strict requirements on antenna spectral smoothness, polarization purity, forward gain, and internal reflections. We are currently working to meet these requirements with a broad-band sinuous antenna feed suspended over the 14-m parabolic HERA dish, using a combination of measurements and simulations to verify the performance of our design.A sinuous feed has been designed and simulated with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. We will present the construction of a prototype sinuous antenna and measurements of its reflection coefficient, S11, including laboratory characterization of baluns. Our measurements agree well with the CST simulations of the antenna’s performance, giving us confidence in our ability to model the feed and ensure that it meets the requirements of a 21cm cosmology measurement.

  17. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency ``Madden-Julian oscillation`` observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.

  18. Low-frequency oscillations in radiative-convective models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qi; Randall, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Although eastward propagation is usually regarded as an essential feature of the low-frequency Madden-Julian oscillation'' observed in the tropical atmosphere, many observations indicate that there is an important stationary or quasi-stationary component of the oscillation. Yasunari (1979), for example, investigated the stationary 30--60 day variation in upper tropospheric cloudiness in the Asian summer monsoon region. In a case study of the 30--60 day oscillation. Hsu et al. (1990) found a strong stationary oscillation of the divergence, outgoing longwave mdiadon and other fields. A recent observational study by Weickmann and Khalsa (1990) offers further evidence that the Madden-Julian oscillation has an important stationary component. In this paper, we present evidence that intraseasonal oscillations can be produced by local radiative and convective processes. This suggests that the observed propagating Madden-Julian wave is produced by interactions between these local processes and the large scale motion field, and is not essential for the existence of the observed oscillation.

  19. DC response of dust to low frequency AC signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Michael; Konopka, Uwe; Thomas, Edward

    2017-10-01

    Macroscopic changes in the shape and equilibrium position of clouds of charged microparticles suspended in a plasma have been observed in response to low frequency AC signals. In these experiments, dusty plasmas consisting of 2-micron diameter silica microspheres suspended between an anode and cathode in an argon, DC glow discharge plasma are produced in a grounded, 6-way cross vacuum chamber. An AC signal, produced by a function generator and amplified by a bipolar op-amp, is superimposed onto the potential from the cathode. The frequencies of the applied AC signals, ranging from tens to hundreds of kHz, are comparable to the ion-neutral collision frequency; well below the ion/electron plasma frequencies, but also considerably higher than the dust plasma frequency. This presentation will detail the experimental setup, present documentation and categorization of observations of the dust response, and present an initial model of the response. This work is supported by funding from the US Dept. of Energy, Grant Number DE-SC0016330, and by the National Science Foundation, Grant Number PHY-1613087.

  20. Low-frequency elastic vibrations localized near fracture in solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosevich, Yu.A.; Syrkin, E.S.

    1994-11-01

    We propose a consistent macroscopic description of the thermodynamic and dynamical properties of two-dimensional surface layers on the interface between two crystals or between different media. Such description enables one to elucidate the effect of two-dimensional defects (fracture) on the frequency, dispersion and polarization characteristics of surface waves and scattered on two-dimensional defects bulk waves of various nature, starting from rather general assumptions and without using of the microscopic models of surface or interface layers. A new thermodynamic variable for two-dimensional defect with an internal dynamical degree of freedom is introduced. The coupled long-wavelength and low-frequency equations of motion of the defect layer are obtained as a set of nontraditional boundary conditions for the bulk equations of the theory of elasticity. New types of surface and pseudo-surface (resonance) waves caused by two-dimensional absorbed or segregated layers with different strength of bonding with elastic substrate are analyzed. (author). 31 refs, 4 figs