WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-energy beta emitters

  1. Analysis of low energy beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    A survey was made of the instruments used for the determination of low energy beta radioactivity. Techniques commonly used are gas flow proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, solid scintillation counting, and internal ionization chamber counting, solid state detector counting, and radiochemical separation followed by counting using one of the preceeding techniques. The first four techniques were examined and compared with each other. The sensitivities of the techniques were compared on the basis of the detection limits quoted for instruments described in the technical and reviewed literature. The detection limits were then related to the occupational and public individual maximum levels for air and water. Attention is focused primarily on the continuous monitoring of air for 3 H and 85 Kr, a medium energy β-emitter. It is clear that several continuous air monitoring instruments are readily available for measuring low energy β concentrations, even in presence of certain other activity, at occupational levels. However, these instruments do not typically have sensitivities comparable to the public individual levels. Moreover, their capabilities for giving results in real time and for differentiating among the radionuclides actually present is limited

  2. Standardization of low energy beta and beta-gamma complex emitters by the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute standardization of radioactive solutions of low energy beta emitters and beta-gamma emitters with a high probability of disintegration to the ground state is described; the tracer and the efficiency extrapolation methods were used. Both types of radionuclides were mathematically and physically treated in an unified manner. The theoretical relations between different beta spectra were calculated according to Williams' model and experimentally verified for: 35 S + 60 Co, 35 S + 95 Nb, 147 Pm + 60 Co, 14 C + 95 Nb and two beta branches of 99 Mo. The optimum range of beta efficiency variation was indicated. The basic supposition that all beta efficieny tend to unity in the same time was experimentally verified, using two 192 Ir beta branches. Four computer programs, written in the FORTRAN IV language, were elaborated, for the adequate processing of the experimental data. Good precision coefficients according to international standards were obtained in the absolute standardization of 35 S, 147 Pm, 99 Mo solutions. (author)

  3. Emittance measurements in low energy ion storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Carli, C.; Resta-López, J.; Welsch, C. P.

    2018-07-01

    The development of the next generation of ultra-low energy antiproton and ion facilities requires precise information about the beam emittance to guarantee optimum performance. In the Extra-Low ENergy Antiproton storage ring (ELENA) the transverse emittances will be measured by scraping. However, this diagnostic measurement faces several challenges: non-zero dispersion, non-Gaussian beam distributions due to effects of the electron cooler and various systematic errors such as closed orbit offsets and inaccurate rms momentum spread estimation. In addition, diffusion processes, such as intra-beam scattering might lead to emittance overestimates. Here, we present algorithms to efficiently address the emittance reconstruction in presence of the above effects, and present simulation results for the case of ELENA.

  4. Emittance scanner for intense low-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, P.W.; Sherman, J.D.; Holtkamp, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    An emittance scanner has been developed for use with low-energy H - ion beams to satisfy the following requirements: (1) angular resolution of +-1/2 mrad, (2) small errors from beam space charge, and (3) compact and simple design. The scanner consists of a 10-cm-long analyzer containing two slits and a pair of electric deflection plates driven by a +-500-V linear ramp generator. As the analyzer is mechanically driven across the beam, the front slit passes a thin ribbon of beam through the plates. The ion transit time is short compared with the ramp speed; therefore, the initial angle of the ions that pass through the rear slit is proportional to the instantaneous ramp voltage. The current through the rear slit then is proportional to the phase-space density d 2 i/dxdx'. The data are computer-analyzed to give, for example, rms emittance and phase-space density contours. Comparison of measured data with those calculated from a prepared (collimated) phase space is in good agreement

  5. RF emittance in a low energy electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaye Hajari, Sh.; Haghtalab, S.; Shaker, H.; Kelisani, M. Dayyani

    2018-04-01

    Transverse beam dynamics of an 8 MeV low current (10 mA) S-band traveling wave electron linear accelerator has been studied and optimized. The main issue is to limit the beam emittance, mainly induced by the transverse RF forces. The linac is being constructed at Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), Tehran Iran Labeled as Iran's First Linac, nearly all components of this accelerator are designed and constructed within the country. This paper discusses the RF coupler induced field asymmetry and the corresponding emittance at different focusing levels, introduces a detailed beam dynamics design of a solenoid focusing channel aiming to reduce the emittance growth and studies the solenoid misalignment tolerances. In addition it has been demonstrated that a prebuncher cavity with appropriate parameters can help improving the beam quality in the transverse plane.

  6. Pepper-pot diagnostic method to define emittance and Twiss parameters on low energies accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dolinska, M E

    2002-01-01

    The new complex mathematical algorithm to determine beam transverse emittance data and the Twiss parameters from intensity measured with pepper-por diagnostic device on rf low energies accelerators is described.

  7. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy β radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were β spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy β radiation field a moderated spectrum from a 14 C source (E β , max =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 μm in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for 147 Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for β radiation from 14 C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to β radiation for radiation fields with maximum β energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum β energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a β dose higher than about 10 μGy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the βenergy for E β , max values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs

  8. A detection system for very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-11-20

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the {beta}-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to {approx}80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  9. Beta and low energy photon response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; Yoder, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    This study quantifies the observed dosimeter response for a variety of beta and photon energies. The reportable skin dose is also included in the discussion. Presently, the reportable skin dose is determined by adding the nonpenetrating and penetrating dose components together. The scheme presently used to estimate the nonpenetrating dose component for personnel at Hanford utilizes the difference in light outputs of a TLD-700 chip filtered only by the security credential (total of 88 mg/cm 2 ) and a TLD-700 chip filtered by a 0.064 cm thick aluminum filter as well as the credential. The study indicates that a maximum chip response occurs in the range of photon energies between 30 keV and 40 keV and results in an overestimation of the calculated nonpenetrating dose by a factor of approximately 2. The reportable skin dose is overestimated by a factor of approximately 2.5 following adding the nonpenetrating and penetrating dose components. The effect of removing the security credential is slight and tends to increase the steepness of slope in the photon response curve

  10. Evaluation and application of the low energy electron emitter 161Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehenberger, Silvia M.

    2010-01-01

    The low energy electron emitter 161 Tb was produced n.c.a. in quantities sufficient for therapeutic applications and successfully used for labeling of peptides and antibodies. Furthermore, these compounds have been compared to n.c.a. 177 Lu labeled mAbs via cell experiments, a radionuclide that is already used in clinical nuclear oncology.

  11. Revealing low-energy part of the beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An effective method is proposed to separate electronic noise from the beta-particle spectra revealing lower energy part of the spectra. The available methods for reducing the noise problem cut the noise along with the low-energy part of the beta spectra by using a discriminator. Our setup eliminates this undesirable effect by shifting the noise toward the lowest energy scale leaving the low-energy part of spectra undisturbed. We achieved this noise-pulse-separation by treating the noise as a pulse so that we can exploit the application of the pulse-shape analyzer equipment used for pulse shape identification of particles and rejection of defective pulses. To the best of our knowledge this method of the noise separation is a novel approach

  12. A critical study of emittance measurements of intense low-energy proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1972-01-01

    The measurement of emittance in low energy proton beams suffers from two perturbing effects: 1) the neutralisation of the beam by backstreaming secondary electrons and 2) the space charge blowup of the beam sample between defining and analysing apparatus. An experimental study shows a significant change of the emittance orientation when bias is used to eliminate the secondary electrons. Biased and non-biased cases are also compared with computed dynamics including space charge. Criteria for the slit size and drift distance which make the space charge blow-up negligible are derived. In addition a transverse coherent oscillation of the proton beam, which was revealed the measurements, is discussed briefly. (11 refs).

  13. Beta-delayed proton emitter $^{113}Xe$

    CERN Document Server

    Hagberg, E; Jonson, B; Jørgensen, B; Kugler, E; Mowinckel, T

    1973-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at the CERN synchrocyclotron has been used for extending the series of beta -delayed proton emitters in xenon to masses lighter than those previously observed (/sup 115,117/Xe). Owing to the rapid decrease of the yields, experiments with solid-state counters were inconclusive, and instead a new and much more sensitive method based on nuclear emulsions was developed. The mass range 111-114 showed one new activity, /sup 113/Xe, with a half-life of 2.8+or-0.2 sec. From measurements of the track lengths for a total of 1130 protons from /sup 113/Xe it was possible to determine the energy spectrum. The results extend the systematics of beta -strength functions in the light xenon isotopes. (19 refs).

  14. International Standardization of Pure Beta Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, Jose Maria; Rodriguez, Leonor

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the traditional methods of standardization of Pure Beta Emitters, their principal characteristics, advantage and drawbacks. It does comparisons between two metrological LSC methods: Triple to double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and the CIEMAT/NIST method and presents the result obtained with several Key Comparisons serving as practical test of both methods. Both of them represent the siferrit of methods of standardization of pure (and mixed decay) radionuclides. ESIR WG of CCRI(II) is to implement a reference exchange system for the permanent equivalence of β, α and electron capture nuclides, similar to traditional SIR gamma. ESIR project is currently testing a new XAN scintillator and operational tests of the whole system at BIPM are expected by the end of 2006 (test restricted to ESIR NMI members)

  15. The low-energy β(-) and electron emitter (161)Tb as an alternative to (177)Lu for targeted radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenberger, Silvia; Barkhausen, Christoph; Cohrs, Susan; Fischer, Eliane; Grünberg, Jürgen; Hohn, Alexander; Köster, Ulli; Schibli, Roger; Türler, Andreas; Zhernosekov, Konstantin

    2011-08-01

    The low-energy β(-) emitter (161)Tb is very similar to (177)Lu with respect to half-life, beta energy and chemical properties. However, (161)Tb also emits a significant amount of conversion and Auger electrons. Greater therapeutic effect can therefore be expected in comparison to (177)Lu. It also emits low-energy photons that are useful for gamma camera imaging. The (160)Gd(n,γ)(161)Gd→(161)Tb production route was used to produce (161)Tb by neutron irradiation of massive (160)Gd targets (up to 40 mg) in nuclear reactors. A semiautomated procedure based on cation exchange chromatography was developed and applied to isolate no carrier added (n.c.a.) (161)Tb from the bulk of the (160)Gd target and from its stable decay product (161)Dy. (161)Tb was used for radiolabeling DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate; the radiolabeling profile was compared to the commercially available n.c.a. (177)Lu. A (161)Tb Derenzo phantom was imaged using a small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography camera. Up to 15 GBq of (161)Tb was produced by long-term irradiation of Gd targets. Using a cation exchange resin, we obtained 80%-90% of the available (161)Tb with high specific activity, radionuclide and chemical purity and in quantities sufficient for therapeutic applications. The (161)Tb obtained was of the quality required to prepare (161)Tb-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotate. We were able to produce (161)Tb in n.c.a. form by irradiating highly enriched (160)Gd targets; it can be obtained in the quantity and quality required for the preparation of (161)Tb-labeled therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of new microencapsulated beta emitters for internal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisot, R.; Monteil, J.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Pouliquen, D.; Jallet, P.; Beau, P.; Lepape, A.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed new microencapsulated beta emitter radiotracers which could be used in nuclear medicine for selective internal radiotherapy. Their efficacy was evaluated on B16 melanoma tumor model in mice, using phosphorus 31 spectroscopy. This kind of tracer would allow a precise targetting of beta irradiation

  17. Low-energy electron emitters for targeted radiotherapy of small tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, Peter; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Jacobsson, Lars; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of using electron emitters to cure a cancer with metastatic spread depends on the energy of the emitted electrons. Electrons with high energy will give a high, absorbed dose to large tumours, but the absorbed dose to small tumours or single tumour cells will be low, because the range of the electrons is too long. The fraction of energy absorbed within the tumour decreases with increasing electron energy and decreasing tumour size. For tumours smaller than 1 g, the tumour-to-normal-tissue mean absorbed dose-rate ratio, TND, will be low, e.g. for 131 I and 90 Y, because of the high energy of the emitted electrons. For radiotherapy of small tumours, radionuclides emitting charged particles with short ranges (a few m u m ) are required. A mathematical model was constructed to evaluate the relation between TND and electron energy, photon-to-electron energy ratio, p/e, and tumour size. Criteria for the selection of suitable radionuclides for the treatment of small tumours were defined based on the results of the TND model. In addition, the possibility of producing such radionuclides and their physical and chemical properties were evaluated. Based on the mathematical model, the energy of the emitted electrons should be = 40 keV for small tumours ( 58m Co, 103m Rh, 119 Sb, 161 Ho, and 189m Os. All of these nuclides by internal transition or electron capture, which yields conversion and Auger electrons, and it should be possible to produce most of them in therapeutic amounts. The five low-energy electron-emitting radionuclides identified may be relevant in the radiation treatment of small tumours, especially if bound to internalizing radiopharmaceuticals

  18. Simulations of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell emittance compensated photocathode RF gun low energy beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, D.T.; Miller, R.H.; Winick, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dedicated low energy (2 to 10 MeV) experimental beam line is now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratories Accelerator Test Facility (BNL/ATF) for photocathode RF gun testing and photoemission experiments. The design of the experimental line, using the 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA RF gun collaboration is presented. Detailed beam dynamics simulations were performed for the 1.6 cell RF gun injector using a solenoidal emittance compensation technique. An experimental program for testing the 1.6 cell RF gun is presented. This program includes beam loading caused by dark current, higher order mode field measurements, integrated and slice emittance measurements using a pepper-pot and RF kicker cavity

  19. Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treado, Colleen J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst

    2012-09-07

    The goal of any particle accelerator is to optimize the transport of a charged particle beam along a set path by confining the beam to a small region close to the design trajectory and directing it accurately along the beamline. To do so in the simplest fashion, accelerators use a system of magnets that exert approximately linear electromagnetic forces on the charged beam. These electromagnets bend the beam along the desired path, in the case of bending magnets, and constrain the beam to the desired area through alternating focusing and defocusing effects, in the case of quadrupole magnets. We can model the transport of such a beam through transfer matrices representing the actions of the various beamline elements. However, space charge effects, produced from self electric fields within the beam, defocus the beam and must be accounted for in the calculation of beam emittance. We present below the preliminary results of a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the emittance of a beam under space charge effects using a least square fit to determine the initial properties of the beam given the beam size measured at a specific point after transport.

  20. An analysis of MCNP cross-sections and tally methods for low-energy photon emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, John J; Wallace, Robert E; Boedeker, Kirsten

    2002-04-21

    Monte Carlo calculations are frequently used to analyse a variety of radiological science applications using low-energy (10-1000 keV) photon sources. This study seeks to create a low-energy benchmark for the MCNP Monte Carlo code by simulating the absolute dose rate in water and the air-kerma rate for monoenergetic point sources with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The analysis compares four cross-section datasets as well as the tally method for collision kerma versus absorbed dose. The total photon attenuation coefficient cross-section for low atomic number elements has changed significantly as cross-section data have changed between 1967 and 1989. Differences of up to 10% are observed in the photoelectric cross-section for water at 30 keV between the standard MCNP cross-section dataset (DLC-200) and the most recent XCOM/NIST tabulation. At 30 keV, the absolute dose rate in water at 1.0 cm from the source increases by 7.8% after replacing the DLC-200 photoelectric cross-sections for water with those from the XCOM/NIST tabulation. The differences in the absolute dose rate are analysed when calculated with either the MCNP absorbed dose tally or the collision kerma tally. Significant differences between the collision kerma tally and the absorbed dose tally can occur when using the DLC-200 attenuation coefficients in conjunction with a modern tabulation of mass energy-absorption coefficients.

  1. Nonstochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Wells, J.; Charles, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    Circular areas of pig skin from 1- to 40-mm diameter were irradiated with β emitters of high, medium, and low energies, 90 Sr, 170 Tm, and 147 Pm, respectively. The study provides information for radiological protection problems of localized skin exposures. During the first 16 weeks after irradiation 90 Sr produced a first reaction due to epithelial cell death followed by a second reaction attributable to damage to the dermal blood vessels. 170 Tm and 147 Pm produced the epithelial reaction only. The epithelial dose response varied as a function of β energy. The doses required to produce moist desquamation in 50% of 15- to 22.5-mm fields (ED 50 ) were 30-45 Gy from 90 Sr, approx.80 Gy from 170 Tm, and approx.500 Gy from 147 Pm. An area effect was observed in the epithelial response to 90 Sr irradiation. The ED 50 for moist desquamation ranged from approx.25 Gy for a 40-mm source to approx.450 Gy for a 1-mm source. It is also suggested that the area effects could be explained by different modes of epithelial repopulation after irradiation

  2. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...

  3. Personal monitoring for external sources of beta and low energy photon radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.; Herbaut, Y.; Marshall, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    In general, the dosemeters currently used for personal monitoring of beta and low energy photon doses suffer from an energy threshold problem because the detector and/or filter is too thick. Furthermore, current non-tissue-equivalent dosemeters, e.g. film dosemeters, are not provided with the filters needed to evaluate beta ray and low energy photon doses separately. To improve the present state of film dosemeters the thickness of the film wrapping paper should be reduced significantly and the badge should be provided with a number of pairs of thin filters. The dose evaluation from such a dosemeter is, however, complex and inaccurate and it seems unlikely that the required improvement is achievable at a reasonable cost. Improvement of tissue-equivalent dosemeters is possible by further development of multi-element dosemeters and thin detectors. The multi-element method has the advantage of using existing detectors, however the dose estimation is encumbered with high random error and the dosemeter design may become prohibitively expensive. The use of thin tissue-equivalent detectors implies a very simple badge design and an inherently accurate and uncomplicated dose evaluation. The development of adequate, thin, tissue-equivalent detectors suited for automated processing should therefore be encouraged.

  4. Personal monitoring for external sources of beta and low energy photon radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.; Herbaut, Y.; Marshall, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    In general, the dosemeters currently used for personal monitoring of beta and low energy photon doses suffer from an energy threshold problem because the detector and/or filter is too thick. Furthermore, current non-tissue-equivalent dosemeters, e.g. film dosemeters, are not provided with the filters needed to evaluate beta ray and low energy photon doses separately. To improve the present state of film dosemeters the thickness of the film wrapping paper should be reduced significantly and the badge should be provided with a number of pairs of thin filters. The dose evaluation from such a dosemeter is, however, complex and inaccurate and it seems unlikely that the required improvement is achievable at a reasonable cost. Improvement of tissue-equivalent dosemeters is possible by further development of multi-element dosemeters and thin detectors. The multi-element method has the advantage of using existing detectors, however the dose estimation is encumbered with high random error and the dosemeter design may become prohibitively expensive. The use of thin tissue-equivalent detectors implies a very simple badge design and an inherently accurate and uncomplicated dose evaluation. The development of adequate, thin, tissue-equivalent detectors suited for automated processing should therefore be encouraged. (author)

  5. Depth determination of low-energy photon emitter deposits in tissue by means of high-resolution X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, W.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed for ascertaining the depth of low-energy photon emitters deposited in wounds. It is based on the determination of the energy-dependent absorption of the emitted photons by the tissue separating source and detector. The method is applicable to counting for low-energy photon-emitting nuclides that can be characterized by more than one quantum energy. Attenuation coefficients were given for lard, beef, and five tissue- equivalent materials. For spectrometry, a planar Ge(Li) detector proved most suitable. (author)

  6. Guidelines for the calibration of low energy photon sources at beta-ray brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Kerma Rate. In this document the latter recommendation is adopted. Both of the quantities give the same numerical value for the source strength and differ only in the units they are expressed. The recommended dose calculation method is discussed further in the text. Sealed beta-ray sources for brachytherapy treatments have been in use for few decades already. An example is application of 90 Sr/ 90 Y planar sources for ophthalmic brachytherapy treatments. For these types of treatments, a precise dose distribution within the eye globe is needed. Modern diagnostic techniques permit the determination of all volumes of interest in the eye, i.e. tumor and critical structures such as optic disc and iris with a high precision. It is therefore of importance to optimize the treatment by limiting the dose to these critical structures. A relatively new and rapidly developing field in brachytherapy is the use of beta-ray sources for prevention of restenosis, i.e. re-closing of artery, following coronary and peripheral artery interventional procedures such as angioplasty, atherectomy and stent implantation. The dosimetry of beta-ray sources for therapeutic applications is particularly difficult due to the short distances involved, being at the millimeter range, and the high dose gradients at such short distances. Further difficulties are caused by the non-uniform distribution of activity in the source itself, causing a highly irregular dose distribution. The aim of this report is to recommend methods for calibration of low energy photon sources and beta-ray sources used in brachytherapy treatments and to propose suitable detectors for this purpose. Dose calculation methods are given both for the photon sources and beta-ray sources covered in this report. The present report has been developed in close collaboration with the ICRU Report Committee on this subject. The ICRU is planning to publish a report on the calibration of the type of sources discussed here. The present report is to

  7. Measurement of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of a 89Sr beta emitter in the 1–100 keV photon energy regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amrit; Dhaliwal, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectrum of 89 Sr, which is a unique first forbidden beta emitter, is studied in the 1–100 keV photon energy regime. The IB spectrum is experimentally measured using a Si(Li) detector, which is efficient in this photon energy regime, and is compared with the IB distributions that are predicted by the Knipp, Uhlenbeck and Bloch (KUB), Nilsson, and Lewis and Ford theories. In the soft energy regime up to 15 keV, the measured results are in agreement with all the aforementioned theories. However, from 16–30 keV, the experimental results are in agreement with the Lewis and Ford theory, which applies to forbidden transitions, and at higher photon energies, the Nilsson theory best describes the measured results. The differences among the different theories also increase with the photon energy. The effect of the electrostatic Coulomb field on the IB process for beta emitters with different end-point energies is investigated by comparing the ratio of the IB probabilities predicted using the KUB and Nilsson theories for 35 S and 89 Sr, i.e., soft and hard beta emitters, respectively. The Coulomb effect is shown to be significant in the high photon energy regime and for beta emitters with low end-point energies. - Highlights: • Internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 89 Sr, a unique first forbidden beta emitter, is studied. • The measurements are taken in the photon energy regions of 1–100 keV with Si(Li) detector. • The measured results are deviating from Lewis and Ford theory and are close to the Nilsson theory. • The effect of Coulomb field on the IB process for different end point energy sources is investigated. • Effect of Coulomb field is more for low energy beta emitter towards the high energy end

  8. Low-energy. beta. -function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-02-14

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass ..mu... The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of ..mu.. leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing ..beta..-function.

  9. Method validation to determine total alpha beta emitters in water samples using LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Nashawati, A.; Al-akel, B.; Saaid, S.

    2006-06-01

    In this work a method was validated to determine gross alpha and beta emitters in water samples using liquid scintillation counter. 200 ml of water from each sample were evaporated to 20 ml and 8 ml of them were mixed with 12 ml of the suitable cocktail to be measured by liquid scintillation counter Wallac Winspectral 1414. The lower detection limit by this method (LDL) was 0.33 DPM for total alpha emitters and 1.3 DPM for total beta emitters. and the reproducibility limit was (± 2.32 DPM) and (±1.41 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively, and the repeatability limit was (±2.19 DPM) and (±1.11 DPM) for total alpha and beta emitters respectively. The method is easy and fast because of the simple preparation steps and the large number of samples that can be measured at the same time. In addition, many real samples and standard samples were analyzed by the method and showed accurate results so it was concluded that the method can be used with various water samples. (author)

  10. Non-stochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig and mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Hansen, L.S.; Coggle, J.E.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this collaborative study skin areas of various sizes were irradiated with different energy beta emitters. In the post-irradiation period fields were examined for erythema, desquamation, ulceration and dermal necrosis. The aim of the study is to determine the threshold doses for the different biological reactions as a function of the energy of the radiation and the size of skin field irradiated. At St. Bartholomew's Hospital and Oxford the irradiation of mouse and pig skin was carried out using strontium-90 and thulium-170 sources. In addition, mice were irradiated with thallium-204, a slightly lower energy beta emitter than thulium. (author)

  11. Hyperfine interactions of {beta}-emitter {sup 12}N in TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yukiko [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Izumikawa, Takuji; Tanigaki, Minoru [and others

    1997-03-01

    Hyperfine interactions of {beta}-emitter {sup 12}N (I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup -}, T{sub 1/2} 11ms) in TiO{sub 2} has been studied. A {beta}-NMR spectrum on the polarized {sup 12}N implanted in TiO{sub 2} shows that {sup 12}N are located at two different sites and maintain about 100% of initial polarization. These are the first phenomena observed in ionic crystals. (author)

  12. Methodology to determine the efficiency of a beta emitter gases monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Marcos Rodrigues de

    1995-01-01

    This work presents a methodology developed to determinate the efficiency of air monitors used to measure the concentration of beta emitters noble gases in nuclear power stations. Efficiency values, obtained by means of theoretical computation are compared with experimental values. The experimental part of the work was performed using three different point beta source, to simulate small amounts of gas uniformly distributed in small volume. The comparison shows that theoretical an experimental values agree within 4,2 % for 90 Sr + 90 Y, 204 Tl and 45 Ca beta sources. (author)

  13. Development of a pepper-pot emittance meter for diagnostics of low-energy multiply charged heavy ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, T., E-mail: nagatomo@riken.jp; Kase, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Nakagawa, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tzoganis, V. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Several fluorescent materials were tested for use in the imaging screen of a pepper-pot emittance meter that is suitable for investigating the beam dynamics of multiply charged heavy ions extracted from an ECR ion source. SiO{sub 2} (quartz), KBr, Eu-doped CaF{sub 2}, and Tl-doped CsI crystals were first irradiated with 6.52-keV protons to determine the effects of radiation damage on their fluorescence emission properties. For such a low-energy proton beam, only the quartz was found to be a suitable fluorescent material, since the other materials suffered a decay in fluorescence intensity with irradiation time. Subsequently, quartz was irradiated with heavy {sup 12}C{sup 4+}, {sup 16}O{sup 4+}, and {sup 40}Ar{sup 11+} ions, but it was found that the fluorescence intensity decreased too rapidly to measure the emittance of these heavy-ion beams. These results suggest that a different energy loss mechanism occurs for heavier ions and for protons.

  14. On the importance of low-energy beta-beams for supernova neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachowicz, N.; McLaughlin, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    Beta beams, which are neutrino beams produced by the beta decay of nuclei that have been accelerated to high gamma factor, were original proposed for high energy applications, such as the measurement of the third neutrino mixing angle θ 13 . Volpe suggested that a beta beam run at lower gamma factor, would be useful for neutrino measurements in the tens of MeV range. We suggest to exploit the flexibility these beta beam facilities offer, combined with the fact that beta-beam neutrino energies overlap with supernova-neutrino energies, to construct 'synthetic' spectra that approximate an incoming supernova-neutrino energy-distribution. Using these constructed spectra we are able to reproduce total and differential folded supernova-neutrino cross-sections very accurately. We illustrate this technique using Deuterium, 16 O, and 208 Pb. This technique provides an easy and straightforward way to apply the results of a beta-beam neutrino-nucleus measurement to the corresponding supernova-neutrino detector, virtually eliminating potential uncertainties due to nuclear-structure calculations. (author)

  15. Validation the quantification of beta emitters activity in urine by scintillation spectrometry in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, I.; Hernandez, C.; Benito, P.; Lopez, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the methodology used in the validation of the technique for quantifying activity of some beta emitters in urine ( 3 H, 1 4C, 3 5S, 3 2P and 9 0Sr) by scintillation spectrometry Liquid Phase (Liquid Scintillation Counting, LSC) is described in bio elimination Laboratory Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry accredited since last year for carrying out assays measure radiation dose based on ISO forth above. (Author)

  16. An analytical model to calculate absorbed fractions for internal dosimetry with alpha, beta and gamma emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a general model for the calculation of absorbed fractions in ellipsoidal volumes of soft tissue uniformly filled with alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides. The approach exploited Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 code to determine absorbed fractions in ellipsoids characterized by a wide range of dimensions and ellipticities, for monoenergetic emissions of each radiation type. The so-obtained absorbed fractions were put in an analytical relationship with the 'generalized radius', calculated as 3V/S, where V is the ellipsoid volume and S its surface. Radiation-specific parametric functions were obtained in order to calculate the absorbed fraction of a given radiation in a generic ellipsoidal volume. The dose from a generic radionuclide can be calculated through a process of summation and integration over the whole radionuclide emission spectrum, profitably implemented in an electronic spreadsheet. We compared the results of our analytical calculation approach with those obtained from the OLINDA/EXM computer software, finding a good agreement in a wide range of sphere radii, for the high-energy pure beta emitter 90Y, the commonly employed beta-gamma emitter 131I, and the pure alpha emitter 213Po. The generality of our approach makes it useful an easy to implement in clinical dosimetry calculations as well as in radiation safety estimations when doses from internal radionuclide uptake are to be taken into account.

  17. Analysis of the surface technology of silicon detectors for imaging of low-energy beta tracers in biological material

    CERN Document Server

    Tykva, R

    2000-01-01

    Using silicon surface barrier detectors, the counting sensitivity of low-energy beta tracers is considerably influenced by surface technology applied in detector manufacturing. Original diagnostic procedure, using a mixture of uranium fission products, is described to trace the behaviors of different admixtures as in the etching bath as in the water used during development of the detector surface. In combination with some other described analyses, the detectors produced with the developed surface control are used in a PC - controlled scanning equipment reaching at room temperature an FWHM of 3.4 keV for sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am. Such detectors make it possible to image distribution, of e.g., sup 3 H, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 3 H+ sup 1 sup 4 C and other beta tracer combinations applied in life and environmental sciences.

  18. Magnetic moment of short lived {beta}-emitter {sup 24m}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, D., E-mail: daiki@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Komurasaki, J.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Matsumiya, R. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Momota, S. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Ohtsubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, RI Center (Japan); Hirano, H. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Ishikawa, D. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan); Watanabe, R.; Kubo, T. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nojiri, Y. [Kochi University of Technology (Japan); Alonso, J. R. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The magnetic moment of short lived {beta}-emitter {sup 24m}Al (426 keV, I{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}, T{sub 1/2} = 131 ms) has been measured by means of {beta}-NMR technique, for the first time. From the {beta}-NMR spectrum, the magnetic moment was determined as |{mu}({sup 24m}Al)|=(2.99{+-}0.09){mu}{sub N}. Combined with the known magnetic moment of the mirror partner {sup 24m}Na, the expectation value of < S{sub z} > is obtained to be (0.08 {+-} 0.12). These values are reproduced well by the shell model calculation.

  19. Monitoring tritium in air containing other beta-emitters using ion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A flow-through ionization chamber instrument is described which is capable of measuring tritium in air containing high concentrations of other beta emitters. The instrument employs a separate concentric chamber with a thin common wall opaque only to tritium betas. Currents produced in the two chambers are subtracted leaving only the current due to tritium. With a 1.6-l sampling chamber and an 18-s time constant, tritium concentrations of 10 -6 μCi/ml to 10 -4 μCi/ml are measured with 2 sigma confidence in background beta concentrations of 4 x 10 -5 μCi/ml to 0.4 muCi/ml, respectively. (auth)

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of the spectral response of beta-particle emitters in LSC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, F.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Grau, A.; Rodriguez, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to evaluate the counting efficiency and the effective spectra at the output of any dynodic stage, for any pure beta-particle emitter, measured in a liquid scintillation counting system with two photomultipliers working in sum-coincidence mode. The process is carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation procedure that gives the electron distribution, and consequently the counting efficiency, at any dynode, in response to the beta particles emitted, as a function of the figure of merit of the system and the dynodic gains. The spectral outputs for 3 H and 14 C have been computed and compared with experimental data obtained with two sets of quenched radioactive standards of these nuclides. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) of two different designs for beta particle and low energy photon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.J.; Ahmed, A.B.; Groer, P.G.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the response of the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) currently used at Martin Marietta Energy Systems with that of a newly designed TLD which is now under consideration. The new TLD consists of a thicker chip in element No. 3 and a thinner, more opaque mylar filter over this same element. The goals were to determine if the new (proposed) TLD would perform significantly different from the old (current) TLD when measuring dose equivalents from beta particles and low energy photons (x-rays) and to find out if changing from the old to the new design would require that modifications be made to the calibration factors currently used in the dose calculation algorithm. To accomplish these objectives, tests were performed using both types of dosimeters placed under identical conditions. Their responses were then compared and analyzed. It was concluded that the new TLDs would allow for the detection of lower levels of radiation and give more precise readouts at very low (i.e., background) levels in addition to the obvious advantages of the new design, such as, a thicker, more durable chip and a more opaque mylar. It was also determined that no adjustments to the calibration factors would be necessary in switching to the new design

  2. Volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid samples from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. Estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitter using the imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Okada, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    We want to establish a system of volume reduction by the incineration of the combustible radioactive solid wastes from radioisotope usage at the utilization facility. We have been performing experiments using an experimental incineration system to examine the distribution of radionuclides during incineration and to collect basic data. To reproduce the realistic conditions of incineration of low-level radioactive wastes in an experimental system, we adopted new incineration methods in this study. Low level radioactive samples (LLRS) were set up in a mesh container of stainless steel and incinerated at high temperature (over 800 degC) generated by two sets of high calorie gas burners. Low energy β-emitters 35 S, 45 Ca, 33 P, and a high energy β-emitter 32 P were used for the experiment. Their translocation percentages in exhaust air and dust were estimated using the Imaging Plate. Distribution of radionuclides during the incineration was similar to that estimated by conventional methods by our study or to that reported in incineration of liquid scintillation cocktail waste. We concluded that the use of the Imaging Plates is a simple and reliable method for estimation of the distribution of low energy β-emitters in incineration gas and ash. (author)

  3. Cherenkov radiation imaging of beta emitters: in vitro and in vivo results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Boschi, Federico; D'Ambrosio, Daniela; Calderan, Laura; Marengo, Mario; Fenzi, Alberto; Menegazzi, Marta; Sbarbati, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Antonella; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate both in vitro and in vivo Cherenkov radiation (CR) emission coming from 18 F and 32 P. The main difference between 18 F and 32 P is mainly the number of the emitted light photons, more precisely the same activity of 32 P emits more CR photons with respect to 18 F. In vitro results obtained by comparing beta counter measurements with photons average radiance showed that Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) allows quantitative tracer activity measurements. In order to investigate in vivo the CLI approach, we studied an experimental xenograft tumor model of mammary carcinoma (BB1 tumor cells). Cherenkov in vivo dynamic whole body images of tumor bearing mice were acquired and the tumor tissue time activity curves reflected the well-known physiological accumulation of 18 F-FDG in malignant tissues with respect to normal tissues. The results presented here show that it is possible to use conventional optical imaging devices for in vitro or in vivo study of beta emitters.

  4. Cherenkov radiation imaging of beta emitters: in vitro and in vivo results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Antonello E., E-mail: spinelli.antonello@hsr.it [Medical Physics Department, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina N. 60, Milan (Italy); Boschi, Federico [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); D' Ambrosio, Daniela [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, via Massarenti N. 9, Bologna (Italy); Calderan, Laura [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Marengo, Mario [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, via Massarenti N. 9, Bologna (Italy); Fenzi, Alberto [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Menegazzi, Marta [Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Morphological-Biomedical Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie N. 8, Verona (Italy); Del Vecchio, Antonella; Calandrino, Riccardo [Medical Physics Department, S. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina N. 60, Milan (Italy)

    2011-08-21

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate both in vitro and in vivo Cherenkov radiation (CR) emission coming from {sup 18}F and {sup 32}P. The main difference between {sup 18}F and {sup 32}P is mainly the number of the emitted light photons, more precisely the same activity of {sup 32}P emits more CR photons with respect to {sup 18}F. In vitro results obtained by comparing beta counter measurements with photons average radiance showed that Cherenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) allows quantitative tracer activity measurements. In order to investigate in vivo the CLI approach, we studied an experimental xenograft tumor model of mammary carcinoma (BB1 tumor cells). Cherenkov in vivo dynamic whole body images of tumor bearing mice were acquired and the tumor tissue time activity curves reflected the well-known physiological accumulation of {sup 18}F-FDG in malignant tissues with respect to normal tissues. The results presented here show that it is possible to use conventional optical imaging devices for in vitro or in vivo study of beta emitters.

  5. Discriminator setting and cocktail preparation for analysis of alpha and beta emitters in aqueous solution using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Masitah Alias; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is not only being used to measure pure beta emitters, but it can be used to measure both alpha and beta emitters simultaneously. Measurement of alpha and beta emitters in aqueous solution is done using a single sample. For the sample preparation, colorless detergent or emulsifier was used to incorporate the water into an organic based scintillator to produce a clear homogeneous solution, since this is the best form to give the highest count rate and detection efficiency. The instrument also need some attention, where after calibration, the LSC was set for the discriminator level which is suitable for measurement of both alpha and beta radiations. In this study, the focus is on the development of the best scintillation cocktail and establishes the best discriminator setting. From this study the best proportion of scintillation cocktail is 2:4:4 for water, toluene, and Triton-N101 (emulsifier) respectively and the best discriminator setting for alpha and beta counting are 120. (author)

  6. Methodology to determine the efficiency of a beta emitter gases monitor; Metodologia para determinacao da eficiencia de um monitor de gases emissores de particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Marcos Rodrigues de

    1995-07-01

    This work presents a methodology developed to determinate the efficiency of air monitors used to measure the concentration of beta emitters noble gases in nuclear power stations. Efficiency values, obtained by means of theoretical computation are compared with experimental values. The experimental part of the work was performed using three different point beta source, to simulate small amounts of gas uniformly distributed in small volume. The comparison shows that theoretical an experimental values agree within 4,2 % for {sup 90}Sr + {sup 90}Y, {sup 204}Tl and {sup 45}Ca beta sources. (author)

  7. Dry-boxes for manipulation of high-energy {beta} emitters; Bottes pour manipulation d'emetteurs {beta} energiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, K; Laurent, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Because of the thinners of latex or neoprene gloves and the high intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation, manipulation of pure high-energy {beta}{sup -} emitters is impossible in ordinary dry-boxes. There are many types of box equipped with heavy lead or steel protection, but their use for radioelements such as {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y is not justified. We have devised units known as 'tong boxes' which, while retaining much of the flexibility of operation found in dry-boxes, provide adequate protection. 1 curie of {sup 32}P placed in the centre of the enclosure gives about 15 mR/ 8 h. at the part of the wall closest to the source. (author) [French] La faible epaisseur des gants de latex ou de neoprene et l'importance du rayonnement de freinage rendent impossible la manipulation des emetteurs {beta}{sup -} purs energiques dans des boites a gants normales. Il existe de nombreux types d'enceintes dotees d'une forte protection de plomb ou d'acier dont l'emploi n'est pas justifie pour des radioelements tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y. Nous avons realise des ensembles appeles 'Boites a Pinces', qui tout en conservant une grande partie de la souplesse d'utilisation des boites a gants sont dotees d'une protection suffisante. 1 curie de {sup 32}P place au centre de l'enceinte donne environ 15 mR/ 8 h au contact de la paroi la plus rapprochee de la source. (auteur)

  8. Measurement of the most exotic beta-delayed neutron emitters at N=50 and N=126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillmann, Iris

    2017-09-01

    Beta-delayed neutron (βn)-emission will be the dominant decay mechanism of neutron-rich nuclei and plays an important role in the stellar nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the ``r process''. It leads to a detour of the material β-decaying back to stability and the released neutrons increase the neutron-to-seed ratio, and are re-captured during the freeze-out phase and thus influence the final solar r-abundance curve. Thus the neutron branching ratio of very neutron-rich isotopes is a crucial parameter in astrophysical simulations. In addition, β-decay half-lives can be deduced from the time-dependent detection of βn's. I will talk about two recent experimental campaigns. The neutron detector BELEN was used at GSI Darmstadt to measure half-lives and neutron-branching ratios of the heaviest presently accessible βn-emitters at N=126. For isotopes between 204Au and 220Bi nine half-lives and eight neutron-branching ratios were measured for the first time and provide an important input for benchmarking theoretical models in this mass region. Its successor is the BRIKEN detector (``Beta-delayed neutron measurements at RIKEN for nuclear structure, astrophysics, and applications''), the most efficient neutron detector used so far for nuclear structure studies. In conjunction with two clover detectors and the ``Advanced Implantation Detector Array'' (AIDA) the setup has been used a few months ago to measure the most neutron-rich isotopes around 78Ni, 132Sn, and the Rare Earth Region. Some preliminary results are shown from the campaign covering the 78Ni region where the neutron-branching ratio of 78Ni and 28 more isotopes were measured for the first time, as well as the half-lives of 20 isotopes. The BRIKEN campaign aims to (re-)measure almost all βn-emitters between 76Co and 167Eu, many of them for the first time. An extension of the campaign to lighter masses is planned. This work has been supported by the NSERC and NRC in Canada, the US DOE, the Spanish

  9. Reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors - Beta-emitters (maximum beta energy greater than MeV) and alpha-emitters (International Standard Publication ISO 8769:1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the characteristics of reference sources of radioactive surface contamination, traceable to national measurement standards, for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. This International Standard relates to alpha-emitters and to beta-emitters of maximum beta energy greater than 0,15 MeV. It does not describe the procedures involved in the use of these reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Such procedures are specified in IEC Publication 325 and other documents. This International Standard specifies reference radiations for the calibration of surface contamination monitors which take the form of adequately characterized large area sources specified, without exception, in terms of activity and surface emission rate, the evaluation of these quantities being traceable to national standards

  10. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of 90Sr/90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D w ; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of 90 Sr / 90 Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  11. Scintillation detector for dosing unknown {beta} emitters deposited on large-surface filters (1963); Detecteur a scintillation pour la dosimetrie d'emetteurs beta inconnus deposes sur filtre de grande surface (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudain, G; Cercy, J; Geoffre, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The apparatus described has been specially studied for direct counting, using a plastic scintillator, of unknown emitters occurring in atmospheric samples collected on large-surface filters (10 cm diameter). In view of the fairly large contribution of low-energy fission products to the overall {beta}-activity of radio-active fallout, the adjustments have been chosen so as to obtain the best yield in an energy range as wide as possible. This has led to the acceptance of a certain background noise which is later reduced by the anti-coincidence method. The quality of the apparatus depends largely on the uniformity of the photocathode in the photomultiplier used. The counter which was built had a counting efficiency for a 10 cm diameter source of 30 per cent for S-35, 88 per cent for P-32, 45 per cent for unknown emitters and a background noise of 56 cpm. (authors) [French] L'appareil decrit a ete specialement etudie pour le comptage direct, a l'aide d'un scintillateur plastique d'emetteurs inconnus recueillis dans les prelevements atmospheriques sur des filtres de grande surface (10 cm de diametre). Etant donne la participation assez importante des produits de fission de faible energie a l'activite globale {beta} des retombees radioactives, les reglages ont ete choisis de maniere a obtenir le meilleur rendement dans une gamme d'energie aussi etendue que possible. Cela a conduit a admettre un certain bruit de fond que l'on reduit ensuite par la methode d'anticoincidence. La qualite de l'appareil depend en grande partie de l'uniformite de la photocathode du photomultiplicateur utilise. Le compteur que l'on a construit possede une efficacite de comptage pour une source de 10 cm de diametre de 30 pour cent pour {sup 35}S, 88 pour cent pour {sup 32}P, 45 pour des emetteurs {beta} inconnus et un bruit de fond de 56 cpm. (auteurs)

  12. Energy Calibration of a Silicon Detector Using Pure Beta-Emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Arcos, J. M. los

    1992-01-01

    Energy calibration of SI detectors used in electron spectroscopy 13 commonly performed with conversion electron sources or monoenergetic electrons beams, which are preferred against beta emitters due to the problems arising from their continuous spectra. This paper presents a simple calibration procedure for a PIP-type silicon detector, using 14C, 147Pm, 99 T c and 45Ca sources, that is based on the correspondence between the average channel observed in the experimental spectrum and the mean energy evaluated from the theoretical Fermi distribution for each nuclide. First, a method for evaluating the average channel in the experimental spectrum distorted by the electronic noise is described and its uncertainty estimated. Then, the channel-energy relation ship is established by least squares fitting modified to account for uncertainties in both variables.The calibration has been successfully verified with 147Pm and '09cd sources, showing discrepaneles not greater than 2.5%, within the uncertainties due to the detector resolution and the sources features. (Author)

  13. Energy calibration of a silicon detector using pure beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Los Arcos, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Energy calibration of Si detectors used in electron spectroscopy is commonly performed with conversion electron sources or monoenergetic electrons beams, which are preferred against beta emitters due to the problems arising from their continuous spectra. This paper presents a simple calibration procedure for a PIP-type silicon detector, using 1 4C, 1 47m, 9 9Tc and 4 5Ca, that is based on the correspondence between the average channel observed in the experimental spectrum and the mean energy evaluated from the theoretical Fermi distribution for each nuclide. First, a method for evaluating the average channel in the experimental spectrum distorted by the electronic noise is described and its uncertainty estimated. Then, the channel-energy relation ship is established by least squares fitting modified to account for uncertainties in both variables. The calibration has been successfully verified with 147Pm and 109Cs source, showing discrepancies not greater than 2.5%, within the uncertainties due to the detector resolution and the sources features. (author)

  14. Rapid method of identification of {beta}-ray emitters and of {beta}-radioactive impurity dosage (1961); Methode rapide d'identification des emetteurs-{beta} et de dosage d'impuretes radioactives-{beta} (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y; Legrand, J; Grinberg, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We describe a simple method of radioactive analysis, which allows an accurate determination of maximal energies of {beta}-emitters, and detection and titration of radioactive impurities in radionuclides as well. The method described, which uses a plastic scintillator, is based on the fact that the curve obtained by plotting the number of pulses measured against the threshold is a straight line, in the case of pure {beta}-emitters. We then derive a simple relation between the data of this straight line and the maximal energy of the {beta}-spectrum of the radionuclide under consideration. (authors) [French] Description d'une methode simple d'analyse radioactive, permettant de determiner avec precision l'energie maximum des emetteurs-{beta}, ainsi que de deceler et de doser les impuretes radioactives dans un radionuclide. La technique decrite utilise un scintillateur plastique. On exploite le fait que la courbe du nombre d'impulsions mesurees, en fonction du seuil de discrimination, est une droite, pour un emetteur-{beta} pur. Une relation simple entre les caracteristiques de cette droite et l'energie maximum du spectre-{beta} du radionuclide, correspondant, a ete etablie. (auteurs)

  15. Internal bremsstrahlung spectra of the allowed. beta. emitters /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S and /sup 45/Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powar, M S; Singh, M [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-01-01

    A study of Coulomb field effects in internal bremsstrahlung (IB) has been undertaken by measuring the IB spectra for the allowed beta emitters /sup 32/P, /sup 35/S and /sup 45/Ca in the photon energy intervals of 50 to 1600 keV, 25 to 150 keV and 30 to 240 keV respectively. The experimental results show increasing positive departures from the KUB and Coulomb-corrected theories of Lewis and Ford, and Nilsson, with decreasing beta end-point energy. In the case of /sup 35/S the experimental results are 40 % higher than the more exact theory of Struzynski and Pollock for this isotope.

  16. A note on the relationship between the emittance, the beta function and the energy in a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1986-11-01

    Scaling laws for linear colliders are considered for the case of laterally round Gaussian beams and for the case that mutual pinching of the beams can be ignored. Based on these assumptions, the relationship is found between the interaction area, beta function, beam emittance, and energy for a linear collider in order to show the need for substantial improvements in the feasible values of accelerator parameters to reach a center of mass energy of 0.7 TeV. Pinch is then taken into account

  17. Studies of internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 35S beta emitter in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amrit; Dhaliwal, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The internal bremsstrahlung (IB) spectral photon distribution, produced by soft beta particles of 35 S (W max =164 keV), in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV, is measured by using a Si(Li) detector, having high energy resolution and efficiency at low energy region. The measured spectral IB photon distribution is compared with KUB theory and Coulomb corrected IB theories given by Nilsson, and Lewis and Ford. After applying the necessary corrections, the experimental and theoretical IB spectral photon distributions are compared in terms of the number of IB photon of energy k per m o c 2 per unit photon yield. In the low energy region (below 10 keV), the experimental results are in agreement with all the theories. However, in photon energy region of 10–50 keV, experimental results are in agreement with Coulomb corrected Nilsson theory only, within the experimental errors. Further, beyond 50 keV, the Nilsson theory is more close to the experimental results than the KUB, and the Lewis and Ford theories. Hence, the Nilsson theory is more accurate than the other theories given by KUB and Lewis and Ford, particularly at a high energy end. The experimental results reported here with Si(Li) detector are free from number of ambiguities in earlier measurements reported with NaI(Tl) and HPGe detectors. The present results are indicating a relook into the theoretical considerations, given by different theories, while taking into account the Coulomb corrections for predicting the IB spectrum, particularly at high photon energy region. - Highlights: • The internal bremsstrahlung spectrum of 35 S beta emitter, in the photon energy region of 1–100 keV. • These measurement are taken by using a Si(Li) detector. • Theoretical and experimental results are reported in terms of number of photons of energy k per m 0 c 2 per unit photon yield. • The Nilsson theory for IB is more accurate than KUB and Lewis and Ford, particularly at high photon energy region

  18. Study of the time and space distribution of {beta}{sup +} emitters from 80MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agodi, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Collamati, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Napoli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Di Domenico, A.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Fiore, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Iarocci, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M., E-mail: michela.marafini@roma1.infn.it [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma Tre Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Paoloni, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2012-07-15

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear 511keV photons produced by positrons annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the 511keV photons emitted after the interactions of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the {beta}{sup +} rate was parametrized and the dominance of {sup 11}C emitters over the other species ({sup 13}N, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating {beta}{sup +} emitters to be (10.3{+-}0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters was also measured, D{sub {beta}{sup +}}=5.3{+-}1.1mm, to be compared to the expected Bragg peak depth D{sub Bragg}=11.0{+-}0.5mm obtained from simulations.

  19. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestling, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.wuestling@kit.ed [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P. [Universitaet Karlsruhe - TH, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Steidl, M [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-11

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement ({Delta}E/E=5x10{sup -5}) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay (E{sub max}=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area ({approx}80 cm{sup 2}), a certain energy resolution ({Delta}E=600 eV - 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution ({approx}3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm{sup 2}) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. , this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement . The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3x10{sup -3} cps/cm{sup 2} in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10{sup 5} and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  20. Results from a 64-pixel PIN-diode detector system for low-energy beta-electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuestling, Sascha; Fraenkle, F.; Habermehl, F.; Renschler, P.; Steidl, M.

    2010-12-01

    The KATRIN neutrino mass experiment is based on a precise energy measurement (Δ E/ E=5×10 -5) of electrons emerging from tritium beta decay ( Emax=18.6 keV). This is done by a large electrostatic retarding spectrometer (MAC-E Filter), which is followed by an electron detector. Key requirements for this detector are a large sensitive area (˜80 cm 2), a certain energy resolution (Δ E=600 eV @ 18.6 keV) but also a certain spatial resolution (˜3 mm), which leads to a multi-pixel design. As a tentative design on the way to the final detector, but also for operational service on the so-called pre-spectrometer experiment, a detector system with a reduced size (16 cm 2) and a reduced pixel number (64), making use of a monolithic segmented silicon PIN diode, was designed and built. While the design and very first measurements have been presented in Wuestling et al. [6], this publication shows the operational performance of the detector system. The robust concept of the electronics allowed adaptation to mechanically different experimental setups. The spacial resolution of the detector system proved to be essential in examining Penning trap induced background and other effects in the pre-spectrometer experiment. The detector performance test runs include energy resolution and calibration, background rates, correlation between pixels (crosstalk), spatially resolved rate analysis, and a dead-layer measurement [7]. The detector allows for background searches with a sensitivity as low as 1.3×10 -3 cps/cm 2 in the energy range of 20 keV. This allows the pre-spectrometer to be characterized with e-gun illumination with a signal to background ratio of better than 10 5 and the search for ultra low Penning discharge emissions.

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of techniques for measuring lung burdens of low-energy X-ray emitters. Part of a coordinated programme on the calibration of burdens of inhaled plutonium by external counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.; Fry, F.A.; Taylor, B.T.; Eagle, M.C.; Sharma, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    An interlaboratory exercise has been conducted to assess techniques of detection and calibration in the direct measurement of lung contamination with plutonium and other nuclides emitting only low-energy X-rays. Three volunteers, of small, intermediate and large physique, inhaled an aerosol incorporating Pd-103, a 20-keV X-ray emitter, and visited 13 other laboratories in the UK, Europe and North America. Participants in the exercise were asked to estimate each subject's lung content, using their procedures for assessing burdens of plutonium, and their estimates were compared with values derived independently from measurements of Cr-51, also incorporated in the inhaled particles, by gamma-ray spectrometry. Laboratories' calibration procedures were in most cases based on elaborate thorax phantoms, and these generally led to underestimates of the subjects' contents, in some instances by a factor of three or more; only one such laboratory produced estimates in satisfactory agreement with the independently-known values. The ''phoswich'' detectors, employed by most participants, appeared to be more sensitive than gas counters. If a standard configuration were required, offering the highest sensitivity in most situations, the choice would be a pair of 12-cm diameter phoswich detectors viewing the left and right anterior surfaces of the upper thorax. No improvement in sensitivity would result from increasing the size, although larger units may offer other advantages

  2. Few remarks on the absolute counting of {beta} emitters using 4 {pi} counter; Quelques remarques sur la mesure absolue des emetteurs {beta} au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, B; Le Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This study looks to determinate the optimum experimental conditions which allow the best accuracy possible for the absolute counting of {beta} emitters when using a 4 {pi} counter. The study has been done with a 4 {pi} counter using source supports of 30 {mu}m thickness. The associated electronic circuit includes: high-voltage, a 1000 scale and a dead time preafier of 4x10{sup -4} {mu}s. In addition, a coincidence preamplifier - with 1 {mu}s resolution time - was added which permits to count the coincidence between the measuring channels. It compares the measurement accuracy and the absorption correction needed for different source supports including polymers thin films with and without metal coating. (M.P.)

  3. Further development of semiconductography for low energy beta nuclides and its application for standard radioactive sources and in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.

    1975-05-01

    A method called semiconductography has been developed and applied to determine distribution of radionuclides emitting corpuscular radiation. This method is fully automated and is based on a programmed detection of the distribution of radionuclides by means of a special surface barrier silicon detector. Simultaneously with the record of the distribution of activity the contour of the sample can also be determined. A special technology has been developed for production of semiconductor detectors permitting detection of low-energy electrons at room temperature and under normal pressure. In comparison to the detectors from Ortec, U.S.A. and diffused silicon detectors from General Electric, U.S.A., the detectors developed by investigators under the research contract are superior in performance in determining the distribution of radionuclides including the low-energy beta-nuclides in tracer experiments in the life sciences. Compared to current ionisation, scintillation, spark chamber, and autoradiographic methods, semiconductography exhibits several special features. It has a high energy resolution permitting discrimination between radionuclides of energies close to each other (e.g., 14 C and 35 S) and determination of the volume distribution of radionuclides in a non-destructive manner. The results obtained under the contract show that in various life-sciences (biochemistry, molecular biology, embryology, teratology, botany, pharmacology), semiconductography with radionuclide-labelled compounds can offer better means to solve such problems which are difficult to approach by usual isotopic methods. The semiconductography has also been successfully used in the determination of non-homogeneity of planar reference sources and in production of labelled substances

  4. Electric quadrupole moments of {beta}-emitter {sup 21}F and {sup 23}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Takashi; Matsuta, Kensaku; Fukuda, Mitsunori [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Science] [and others

    1997-03-01

    For the systematic study of nuclear electromagnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments Q of {beta}-emitting nuclei {sup 21}F and {sup 23}Mg have been measured for the first time through combined technique of the polarized nuclear beams and {beta}-NMR technique. From the quadrupole coupling constants of {sup 21}F and {sup 23}Mg in MgF{sub 2} single crystal, the ratios of the Q`s with the known Q were determined as |Q({sup 21}F)|/|Q({sup 19}F{sup *})|=1.001{+-}0.034 and |Q({sup 23}Mg)|/|Q({sup 25}Mg)|=0.571{+-}0.017. (author)

  5. Calibration of thermoluminescence skin dosemeter response to beta emitters found in Ontario Hydro nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.L.; Agnew, D.A.; Donnelly, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The response of the Ontario Hydro Thermoluminescence Dosimetry System to beta radiation in nuclear power station environments was evaluated. Synthetic beta spectra were constructed, based on activity samples from heat transport systems and fuelling machine contamination smears at nuclear power stations. Using these spectra and dosemeter energy response functions, an overall response factor for the skin dosemeter relative to skin dose at 7 mg.cm -2 was calculated. This calculation was done assuming three specific geometries: (1) an infinite uniformly contaminated plane source at a distance of 33 cm (50 mg.cm -2 total shielding) from the receptor; (2) an infinite cloud surrounding the receptor; (3) a point source at 33 cm. Based on these calculations, a conservative response factor of 0.7 has been chosen. This provides an equation for skin dose assignment, i.e. Skin Dose = 1.4 x Skin Dosemeter Reading when the skin dosemeter is directly calibrated in mGy(gamma). (author)

  6. An analytical model to calculate absorbed fractions for internal dosimetry with alpha, beta and gamma emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We developed a general model for the calculation of absorbed fractions in ellipsoidal volumes of soft tissue uniformly filled with alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides. The approach exploited Monte Carlo simulations with the Geant4 code to determine absorbed fractions in ellipsoids characterized by a wide range of dimensions and ellipticities, for monoenergetic emissions of each radiation type. The so-obtained absorbed fractions were put in an analytical relationship with the 'general...

  7. Calculation of low-energy reactor neutrino spectra reactor for reactor neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyana, Eka Sapta; Suda, Shoya; Ishibashi, Kenji; Matsuura, Hideaki [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Katakura, Junichi [Dept. of Nuclear System Safety Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear reactors produce a great number of antielectron neutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may take part in special weak interactions. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectrum from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor core. To calculate neutrino spectra, we need information about all generated nuclides that emit neutrinos. They are mainly fission fragments, reaction products and trans-uranium nuclides that undergo negative beta decay. Information in relation to trans-uranium nuclide compositions and its evolution in time (burn-up process) were provided by a reactor code MVP-BURN. We used typical PWR parameter input for MVP-BURN code and assumed the reactor to be operated continuously for 1 year (12 months) in a steady thermal power (3.4 GWth). The PWR has three fuel compositions of 2.0, 3.5 and 4.1 wt% {sup 235}U contents. For preliminary calculation we adopted a standard burn-up chain model provided by MVP-BURN. The chain model treated 21 heavy nuclides and 50 fission products. The MVB-BURN code utilized JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. We confirm that the antielectron neutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel. The antielectron-neutrino spectrum in low energy region is influenced by beta emitter nuclides with low Q value in beta decay (e.g. {sup 241}Pu) which is influenced by burp-up level: Low energy antielectron-neutrino spectra or emission rates increase when beta emitters with low Q value in beta decay accumulate. Our result shows the flux of low energy reactor neutrinos increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel.

  8. Basic leaching tests for pure beta long-lived emitters in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo, R.; Almodovar, A.; Gonzalez de la Huebra, A.

    1995-09-01

    Specimens for the two first leaching stages were manufactured using samples of virgin resins saturated in simulated conditions. EPIFLOC 21H resin was 50% saturated with NaCl and DUOLITE ARM-9381 resin was 100% saturated with NaCl+H 3 BO 3 . Previously both resins were doped with Ni-63 and Sr-90. As far as the third leaching stage is concerning, samples of real resins from two Spanish nuclear power plants were used for manufacturing of leaching specimens. Because Sr-90 and Ni-63 radioactivity in these samples was not high enough to be detectable in leachate, samples were additionally loaded with Sr-90 and Ni-63 before mixing with cement. Leaching procedure was adapted to the French one (the same duration of leaching renewal steps and cumulative leaching time and also the same analytical preparation for chemical and radiochemical analysis). Specimens were hanged into leachant with nylon yarn and were surrounded by a leachant layer of 3 cm thickness. Additionally to Sr-90 and Ni-63, the main chemical elements present in cements used for manufacturing of specimens were analyzed in leachates from the two first leaching stages and the main gamma emitters present in the samples of real resins were analyzed in leachates from the third leaching stages. (Author)

  9. Absolute measurement of {beta} emitters with a 4 {pi} counter; Mesure absolue des emetteurs {beta} au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    The object of this work is to investigate the conditions under which the activity of {beta}-emitting radionuclides may be measured with a maximum of precision, and as a result to study the relevant corrections. The various problems relating to activity measurements with a 4 {pi} counter have been examined successively: - comparison of 4 {pi}, GM and proportional counters; - study of the preparation of sources; - corrections on the counting of sources; - self-absorption; - correction for absorption. The precision obtained on these measurements varies from 1.2 to 3 per cent, with the result that the 4 {pi} counter can be considered a very satisfactory calibration instrument. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de rechercher les conditions permettant d'obtenir avec le maximum de precision, la mesure de l'activite des radionuclides se desintegrant par emission et par consequent d'etudier les corrections qui s'y rapportent. Nous avons examine successivement les differents problemes se rapportant aux mesures d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}: - Comparaison des compteurs 4 {pi}, GM et proportionnel; - etude de la preparation des sources; - corrections sur la numeration des sources; - auto-absorption; - correction d'absorption. La precision obtenue dans ces mesures, variant de 1,2 a 3 pour cent, on peut donc considerer le compteur 4 {pi} comme un instrument d'etalonnage tres satisfaisant. (auteur)

  10. Absolute measurement of {beta} emitters with a 4 {pi} counter; Mesure absolue des emetteurs {beta} au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-06-15

    The object of this work is to investigate the conditions under which the activity of {beta}-emitting radionuclides may be measured with a maximum of precision, and as a result to study the relevant corrections. The various problems relating to activity measurements with a 4 {pi} counter have been examined successively: - comparison of 4 {pi}, GM and proportional counters; - study of the preparation of sources; - corrections on the counting of sources; - self-absorption; - correction for absorption. The precision obtained on these measurements varies from 1.2 to 3 per cent, with the result that the 4 {pi} counter can be considered a very satisfactory calibration instrument. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de rechercher les conditions permettant d'obtenir avec le maximum de precision, la mesure de l'activite des radionuclides se desintegrant par emission et par consequent d'etudier les corrections qui s'y rapportent. Nous avons examine successivement les differents problemes se rapportant aux mesures d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}: - Comparaison des compteurs 4 {pi}, GM et proportionnel; - etude de la preparation des sources; - corrections sur la numeration des sources; - auto-absorption; - correction d'absorption. La precision obtenue dans ces mesures, variant de 1,2 a 3 pour cent, on peut donc considerer le compteur 4 {pi} comme un instrument d'etalonnage tres satisfaisant. (auteur)

  11. An interspecies comparison of the biological effects of an inhaled, relatively insoluble beta emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, and beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to graded levels of 144 Ce in relatively insoluble forms to demonstrate species similarities and differences regarding patterns of deposition, fate, dosimetry, and dose-response relationships. All animals were serially evaluated to determine lung burdens, held for life-span observation, necropsied at death, and examined histopathologically to characterize the lesions present and to determine the cause of death. The primary malignant lung tumors observed in rodents were predominantly squamous-cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, whereas those in dogs at earlier times were primarily hemangiosarcomas and those in dogs that died at later times were pulmonary carcinomas. The relationship between the incidence of lung cancer and absorbed beta dose to the lung differed among species. The results of modeling these data provide a better understanding of how the choice of species can influence the outcome of a life-span study. The data are used to estimate the risk of lung cancer in man from an inhaled beta-emitting radionuclide. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Extra Low ENergy Antiproton

    CERN Multimedia

    To produce dense antiproton beams at very low energies (110 keV), it has been proposed to install a small decelerator ring between the existing AD ring and the experimental area. Phase-space blowup during deceleration is compensated by electron cooling such that the final emittances are comparable to the 5MeV beam presently delivered by the AD. An immediate consequence is a significant increase in the number of trapped antiprotons at the experiments as outlined in the proposal CERN/SPSC-2009-026; SPCS-P-338. This report describes the machine parameters and layout of the proposal ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton)ring also gives an approximate estimate of cost and manpower needs. Since the initial estimate, published in 2007 (CERN-AB-2007-079), the ELENA design has evolved considerably. This is due to a new location in the AD hall to acommodate for the possibility of another experimental zone, as suggested by the SPCS, and also due to improvements in the ring optics and layout. The cost estimate that is prese...

  13. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cepero, Janet; Colom, Camila; Rodriguez, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  14. Energy Calibration of a Silicon Detector Using Pure Beta-Emitters; Calibracion Energetica de un Detector de Silicio Mediante Emisores Beta Puros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, C; Arcos, J M. los

    1992-07-01

    Energy calibration of SI detectors used in electron spectroscopy 13 commonly performed with conversion electron sources or monoenergetic electrons beams, which are preferred against beta emitters due to the problems arising from their continuous spectra. This paper presents a simple calibration procedure for a PIP-type silicon detector, using 14C, 147Pm, 99{sup T}c and 45Ca sources, that is based on the correspondence between the average channel observed in the experimental spectrum and the mean energy evaluated from the theoretical Fermi distribution for each nuclide. First, a method for evaluating the average channel in the experimental spectrum distorted by the electronic noise is described and its uncertainty estimated. Then, the channel-energy relation ship is established by least squares fitting modified to account for uncertainties in both variables.The calibration has been successfully verified with 147Pm and '09cd sources, showing discrepaneles not greater than 2.5%, within the uncertainties due to the detector resolution and the sources features. (Author)

  15. Energy Calibration of a Silicon Detector Using Pure Beta-Emitters; Calibracion Energetica de un Detector de Silicio Mediante Emisores Beta Puros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, C.; Arcos, J. M. los

    1992-07-01

    Energy calibration of SI detectors used in electron spectroscopy 13 commonly performed with conversion electron sources or monoenergetic electrons beams, which are preferred against beta emitters due to the problems arising from their continuous spectra. This paper presents a simple calibration procedure for a PIP-type silicon detector, using 14C, 147Pm, 99{sup T}c and 45Ca sources, that is based on the correspondence between the average channel observed in the experimental spectrum and the mean energy evaluated from the theoretical Fermi distribution for each nuclide. First, a method for evaluating the average channel in the experimental spectrum distorted by the electronic noise is described and its uncertainty estimated. Then, the channel-energy relation ship is established by least squares fitting modified to account for uncertainties in both variables.The calibration has been successfully verified with 147Pm and '09cd sources, showing discrepaneles not greater than 2.5%, within the uncertainties due to the detector resolution and the sources features. (Author)

  16. Validation the quantification of beta emitters activity in urine by scintillation spectrometry in the liquid phase; Validacion de la cuantificacion de actividad de emisores beta en orina mediante espectrometria de centelleo en fase liquida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, I.; Hernandez, C.; Benito, P.; Lopez, C.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the methodology used in the validation of the technique for quantifying activity of some beta emitters in urine ({sup 3}H, {sup 1}4C, {sup 3}5S, {sup 3}2P and {sup 9}0Sr) by scintillation spectrometry Liquid Phase (Liquid Scintillation Counting, LSC) is described in bio elimination Laboratory Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry accredited since last year for carrying out assays measure radiation dose based on ISO forth above. (Author)

  17. A detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from β-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the β-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to ∼80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  18. Measurement of the absolute activity of alpha or beta emitters by measuring product nuclei (daughter) activity increase or by studing its radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.C. de.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for determining absolute activity of alpha or beta emitters by measuring daughter product radioactive decay is presented. The separation method of UX from hexahydrated uranyl nitrate UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O based on its dissolution in ethyl ether is described and the accuracy of this method is shown. The factors which accuate on total efficiency of a Geiger Mueller detector for beta particles are determined. The possibility to determine the mass of precursor element by daughter nuclei activity is shown. The results are compared with the one obtained by direct measurement of the mass (or number of atoms) of precursor radioactive substance and with theoretical values calculated for isotopes in secular equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  19. Blood flow measurements in the irradiated pig skin using {beta} emitters radionuclides; Mesure de la circulation sanguine cutanee chez le porc irradie a l`aide de radioisotopes emetteurs {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F; Lefaix, J L; Leplat, J J; Fayart, G; Delacroix, D; Le Thanh, P

    1997-01-01

    Non invasive methods of study of the skin blood flow are numerous, but generally do not give any indication on the cutaneous micro-circulatory flow, except for cutaneous laser Doppler. The isotopic exploration of the skin with injected {gamma} radionuclides, even of weak energy, doe snot allow to characterize the skin blood flow, because of the important contribution of the subcutaneous tissues. The use of {beta} emitters energy spectrum, analyzed by different quantitative methods, are proportional to the thickness of the screen localized between the radioactive source and detector. Using simple and complex phantoms composed of tissue equivalent screens, with {sup 32}P sources placed at different depths, it was possible to study the degradation of {beta} spectra, simulating respectively the sub-epidermis and sub-dermis vascular levels. A modelization and an experimental study in-vivo are proposed in this work, with {sup 32}P phosphate administered intravenously in pigs. (author).

  20. Development of methodology for detection of long lived alpha emitters in air based on simultaneous alpha and beta activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Vivek; Rath, D.P.; Vinayagami, Bhakti; Ashokkumar, P.; Umashankar, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Interference of the radon and thoron progeny co-deposited on the filtration media is the long-standing problem related to prompt analyses in continuous air sampling or monitoring of any potential suspect radionuclides. The solutions to this problem have been quite diverse, and included, for example, simple gross-alpha counting, the use of beta-to-alpha ratios, and the use of alpha spectrum analyses. The techniques based on beta to alpha disintegration ratios make use of the naturally occurring alpha to beta disintegration ratios and departures therefrom. This ratio is found empirically to be relatively constant. With the help of the solution of differential equation, which govern the deposition of radionuclide on filter paper, one can easily estimate theoretically the behavior of the radon progeny alpha to beta disintegration (or count) rate ratio

  1. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, I.; Delgado, A.; Navarro, T.; Macias, M. T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs

  2. Final Report for DUSEL R&D: BetaCage: A Screener of Ultra-Low-Level Radioactive Surface Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golwala, Sunil R. [California Institute of Technology

    2013-12-20

    The eventual full-size, radiopure BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. We expect that the prototype BetaCage already developed will be an excellent screener of alpha particles. Both the prototype and final BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science.

  3. Development of a low-energy and high-current pulsed neutral beam injector with a washer-gun plasma source for high-beta plasma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Toru; Gi, Keii; Umezawa, Toshiyuki; Asai, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a novel and economical neutral-beam injection system by employing a washer-gun plasma source. It provides a low-cost and maintenance-free ion beam, thus eliminating the need for the filaments and water-cooling systems employed conventionally. In our primary experiments, the washer gun produced a source plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 5 eV and an electron density of 5 × 10(17) m(-3), i.e., conditions suitable for ion-beam extraction. The dependence of the extracted beam current on the acceleration voltage is consistent with space-charge current limitation, because the observed current density is almost proportional to the 3/2 power of the acceleration voltage below approximately 8 kV. By optimizing plasma formation, we successfully achieved beam extraction of up to 40 A at 15 kV and a pulse length in excess of 0.25 ms. Its low-voltage and high-current pulsed-beam properties enable us to apply this high-power neutral beam injection into a high-beta compact torus plasma characterized by a low magnetic field.

  4. 4{pi} proportional counter for absolute measurement of {beta}-emitters; Compteur 4{pi} proportionnel destine a la mesure absolue d'emetteurs {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perolat, J P; Laine, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The 4{pi} counter is commonly used to measure the activity of {beta} sources, the one we describe does not advance a new conception but the issue of several years of investigations. The apparatus presents good performances about the qualities commonly required in that kind of counter: detection efficiency, plateau and dead time. Moreover technical characteristics give a great flexibility in use, particularly a possibility of adaptation in a {beta},{gamma} coincidence unit. (authors) [French] Le compteur 4{pi} proportionnel est couramment, utilise pour mesurer l'activite de sources {beta}, celui que nous decrivons ne represente pas une conception nouvelle, mais plutot l'aboutissement de plusieurs annees d'etudes. Cette installation presente des performances satisfaisantes en ce qui concerne les qualites habituellement requises dans ce type de compteur: l'efficacite de detection, le palier et le temps mort. En outre, certaines caracteristiques techniques qui lui sont propres lui conferent une grande souplesse d'utilisation, en particulier la possibilite d'adaptation a un ensemble de mesures par coincidences 4{pi} {beta} {gamma}. (auteurs)

  5. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  6. Basic leaching tests for pure beta long-lived emitters in radioactive wastes; Ensayos de lixiviacion de emisores beta puros de larga vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, R; Almodovar, A; Gonzalez de la Huebra, A.

    1995-09-01

    Specimens for the two first leaching stages were manufactured using samples of virgin resins saturated in simulated conditions. EPIFLOC 21H resin was 50% saturated with NaCl and DUOLITE ARM-9381 resin was 100% saturated with NaCl+H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}. Previously both resins were doped with Ni-63 and Sr-90. As far as the third leaching stage is concerning, samples of real resins from two Spanish nuclear power plants were used for manufacturing of leaching specimens. Because Sr-90 and Ni-63 radioactivity in these samples was not high enough to be detectable in leachate, samples were additionally loaded with Sr-90 and Ni-63 before mixing with cement. Leaching procedure was adapted to the French one (the same duration of leaching renewal steps and cumulative leaching time and also the same analytical preparation for chemical and radiochemical analysis). Specimens were hanged into leachant with nylon yarn and were surrounded by a leachant layer of 3 cm thickness. Additionally to Sr-90 and Ni-63, the main chemical elements present in cements used for manufacturing of specimens were analyzed in leachates from the two first leaching stages and the main gamma emitters present in the samples of real resins were analyzed in leachates from the third leaching stages. (Author)

  7. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  8. Determination of beta-ray emitter concentrations in bioassay samples of the victims in JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Yoshito

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of neutron-induced β-ray emitters in the hair, blood, urine and bone of three workers severely exposed to neutrons in JCO criticality accident were measured with a low background β-ray spectrometer (Pico β) and liquid scintillation counter for the purpose of neutron dose estimation. 32 P is generated by the fast neutron of 2.5 MeV and over in sulfur with (n, p) reaction. Since content of sulfur in hair is high as compared with the other human tissues, we tried to estimate fast neutron fluence to the body surface of the victims using concentrations of 32 P and stable sulfur in their hair. The result shows that two workers, who were exposed to the higher neutron radiation than another worker, received higher doses of irradiation to the frontal side of their trunks than to the heads. For a more detailed mapping of neutron fluence in the body, the measurements of 32 P and 45 Ca induced by (n, γ) reaction in bone were carried out. The results show that one worker (worker A) received a higher dose of neutrons at the frontal right side of the trunk, and that the dose decreased with the distance from the central part of the body. The other (worker B) seems to have gotten a higher dose of irradiation in the face, hands and waist. High amount of 32 P was detected in urine of the workers, and the concentration gradient among three workers showed a similar tendency to the estimated neutron dose from 24 Na in blood. Therefore, radioactivity of 32 P in urine could be used for estimating the neutron exposure dose. Moreover, the activity can be easily determined by scintillation counting, and urine is less invading bioassay sample that can be collected by non-medical stuffs. (author)

  9. Low energy supersymmetry phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Chen, C.H.; Gunion, J.; Kamon, T.; Lopez, J.L.; Kao, C.

    1995-04-01

    The authors summarize the current status and future prospects for low energy (weak scale) supersymmetry. In particular, they evaluate the capabilities of various e + e - , p bar p and pp colliders to discover evidence for supersymmetric particles. Furthermore, assuming supersymmetry is discovered, they discuss capabilities of future facilities to disentangle the anticipated spectrum of super-particles, and, via precision measurements, to test mass and coupling parameters for comparison with various theoretical expectations. The authors then comment upon the complementarity of proposed hadron and e + e - machines for a comprehensive study of low energy supersymmetry

  10. Low energy supersymmetry phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, H.; Chen, C.H.; Eberl, H.; Feng, J.L.; Fujii, K.; Gunion, John F.; Kamon, T.; Kao, C.; Lopez, J.L.; Majerotto, W.; McIntyre, P.; Munroe, Ray B.; Murayama, H.; Paige, F.; Porod, W.; Sender, J.; Sopczak, A.; Tata, X.; Tsukamoto, T.; White, J.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the current status and future prospects for low energy (weak scale) supersymmetry. In particular, we evaluate the capabilities of various e^+e^-, p\\bar p and pp colliders to discover evidence for supersymmetric particles. Furthermore, assuming supersymmetry is discovered, we discuss capabilities of future facilities to dis-entangle the anticipated spectrum of super-particles and, via precision measurements, to test mass and coupling parameters for comparison with various theoretical expectations. We comment upon the complementarity of proposed hadron and e^+e^- machines for a comprehensive study of low energy supersymmetry.

  11. Hith resolution {beta}-spectroscopy of the isotope {sup 36}Cl using magnetic calorimeters; Entwicklung magnetischer Mikrokalorimeter fuer die hochaufloesende Spektroskopie des {beta}-Emitters {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotzinger, H.

    2006-12-13

    This thesis describes the development of a high resolution magnetic calorimeter for the detection of the {beta}-spectrum of the isotope {sup 36}Cl with endpoint energy of 709.6 keV. The temperature rise of a metallic paramagnetic sensor due to an energy deposition is sensed by measuring its magnetization using a sensitive DC-SQUID magnetometer. For a high detection efficiency an 4{pi} gold absorber was used. The heat capacity and the geometry of the absorber is optimally matched by a flat sensor and an optimized meander shaped readout coil. The fabrication of the superconducting structures and the detector setup are described. In addition, the relevant noise sources, the energy resolution and the quantum efficiency are discussed. A measured {sup 36}Cl-spectrum with an energy resolution of {delta}E{sub FWHM}=750 eV is presented and compared with existing experimental and theoretical data. (orig.)

  12. Low-energy QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1995-11-01

    After a brief introduction to chiral perturbation theory, the effective field theory of the standard model at low energies, two recent applications are reviewed: elastic pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy and the complete renormalized pion-nucleon Lagrangian to O(P 3 ) in the chiral expansion. (author)

  13. MetroBeta: Beta Spectrometry with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters in the Framework of the European Program of Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, M.; Beyer, J.; Bockhorn, L.; Enss, C.; Györi, D.; Kempf, S.; Kossert, K.; Mariam, R.; Nähle, O.; Paulsen, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2018-05-01

    MetroBeta is a European project aiming at the improvement of the knowledge of the shapes of beta spectra, both in terms of theoretical calculations and measurements. It is part of a common European program of ionizing radiation metrology. Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with the beta emitter embedded in the absorber have in the past proven to be among the best beta spectrometers, in particular for low-energy beta transitions. Within this project, new designs of MMCs optimized for five different beta energy ranges were developed. A new detector module with thermal decoupling of MMC and SQUID chips was designed. An important aspect of the research and development concerns the source/absorber preparation techniques. Four beta spectra with maximum energies ranging from 76 to 709 keV will be measured. Improved theoretical calculation methods and complementary measurement techniques complete the project.

  14. Low energy particle composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    More than 50 papers presented at this Conference dealt with the composition of low energy particles. The topics can be divided roughly into two broad categories. The first is the study of the energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is at this time unknown. The second category includes the study of particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun. (orig.) [de

  15. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  16. Low Energy Conference 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    11 of the 19 presentations have been indexed for the database. The following national organisations jointly organised the Low-energy Conference 2009: The Norwegian Society for the Conservation of Nature, the Norwegian Society of Engineers and Technologists, Norwegian Technology, the Federation of Norwegian Industries and the Low-Energy Program. Energy efficiency is often given little attention in the ongoing debates concerning different initiatives in order to reduce greenhouse emissions. The aim of the conference was to set energy efficiency on the agenda as an important environmental instrument. Both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC and the International Energy Agency - IEA regard energy efficiency as one of the fastest and most effective ways of reducing greenhouse emissions. Despite of this little is done. Many countries are ahead of Norway - why are we lagging behind? The Low-Energy conference has a broad approach: Nigel Jollands from the International Energy Agency -IEA puts energy efficiency in a global perspective. Soeren Rise from Teqniq in Denmark informs about the Danes' energy saving agreement, which appears to have been a success. The conference increased the competencies on concrete energy efficiency solutions, how to speed up the marketing of energy-friendly buildings and technologies, possibilities through industry and the impact of EU-directives and other instruments in order to trigger the potential. The conference closed with a discussion panel of leading energy politicians. The conference contributed to raise the debate in advance of the General election in Norway and the climate negotiations in Copenhagen during the autumn 2009. (EW)

  17. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  18. Workshop on low energy neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The main topics of the workshop are: the determination of the neutrino mixing angle theta-13, the experiments concerning the monitoring of reactors based on the measurement of neutrino spectra, solar neutrinos, supernovae neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, neutrino properties, neutrinoless double beta decay and future low energy neutrino detectors. This document gathers together the program of the workshop, the slides of the presentations, some abstracts and some posters

  19. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead...

  20. Procedure to carry out leakage test in beta radiation sealed sources emitters of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y; Procedimiento para realizar prueba de fuga en fuentes selladas de radiacion beta emisoras de {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    In the alpha-beta room of the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of Ionizing Radiations ophthalmic applicators are calibrated in absorbed dose terms in water D{sub w}; these applicators, basically are emitter sealed sources of pure beta radiation of {sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y. Concretely, the laboratory quality system indicates to use the established procedure for the calibration of these sources, which establishes the requirement of to carry out a leakage test, before to calibrate the source. However, in the Laboratory leakage test certificates sent by specialized companies in radiological protection services have been received, in which are used gamma spectrometry equipment s for beta radiation leakage tests, since it is not reliable to detect pure beta radiation with a scintillating detector with NaI crystal, (because it could detect the braking radiation produced in the detector). Therefore the Laboratory has had to verify the results of the tests with a correct technique, with the purpose of determining the presence of sources with their altered integrity and radioactive material leakage. The objective of this work is to describe a technique for beta activity measurement - of the standard ISO 7503, part 1 (1988) - and its application with a detector Gm plane (type pankage) in the realization of leakage tests in emitter sources of pure beta radiation, inside the mark of quality assurance indicated by the report ICRU 76. (Author)

  1. Production of alpha emitters for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.; Orlic, M.; Lukic, D.

    2006-01-01

    The basis for the introduction of alpha emitters into nuclear medical practice are their radiobiological properties. High LET values and short ranges in biological tissues are advantageous in comparison with nowadays most often used beta emitters, primarily 90 Y and 131 I. Given are the most important criteria for the introduction of a given radionuclide in the routine use. Shown are the procedures for the production of the most important alpha emitters 211 At, 212 Bi and 213 Bi. (author)

  2. Inside bluetooth low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (LE) is one of the latest enhancement to Bluetooth technology and, as the name suggests, it is aimed at ultra low power devices, such as heart rate monitors, thermometers, and sensors. Due to very low power consumption, devices compliant with this standard can operate for several years on coin cell batteries without the need for recharging. This cutting-edge book helps you understand the whats , whys , and hows of Bluetooth LE. It includes a broad view of the technology, identifies the various building blocks, and explains how they come together. You also find discussions on Bluetooth basics, providing the background information needed to master Bluetooth LE.The book explains the architecture of Bluetooth LE stack and the functionality provided by each of the layers. You find expert guidance in setting up your own system in a quick and efficient manner with inexpensive, easily available hardware and just a couple of PCs running Linux. This unique volume features two chapters that are dedi...

  3. Solar low energy dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2000-01-01

    By now, a lot has been learnt about how to reduce energy use in dwellings using solar and low energy technologies, and many good examples can be found throughout Europe. Still, they are not quite the common feature we would expect them to be, i.e. they have not really penetrated the market. The reason for this is in part a result of the fact that the designers and developers of these buildings have not looked at what the market wants and needs, but rather at how to use a set of given technologies. The buildings are the result of a technology push rather than a market pull and have therefore, often, been detached or semidetached dwellings with different solar technologies added on in less than optimal ways. In order to increase market penetration, it is time to look at the market trends and relate to these. Fortunately, quite a few European architects have realized this and have started designing somewhat different residential buildings. The paper focuses on examples of the new trends in solar residential architecture and by that, hopefully, it shows that we are on the right track. (au)

  4. Very low energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy geothermics correspond to temperatures below 30 C and has been developed to cover heating and cooling needs of recent individual houses or tertiary industries using heat pumps and low depth aquifers (<100 m). Geothermal heat pumps industry has made great strides in European Northern countries, China, Japan and the United States of America. Geothermal heat pumps are less energy consuming than air heat pumps and require less cooling fluid and maintenance. The Aquapac procedure has been developed in France in 1983 by the AFME (French Energy Control Agency), EdF and the BRGM (Geologic and Mining Research Office) to encourage the use of geothermal heat pump for domestic and sanitary water heating and to make a survey of low-depth aquifers in the whole french territory. The decay of energy costs that started in 1986 has led to a loss of interest for the Aquapac procedure, even in the tertiary industries for which the air-conditioning demand is growing up. (J.S.). 1 tab

  5. Compounds Labelled with Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Emitters for Medical Isotope Scanning; Gammagraphie au Moyen de Composes Marques avec des Emetteurs Gamma de Faible Energie; Soedineniya, ispol'zuemye pri meditsinskom izotopnom skennirovanii, mechennye s pomoshch'yu gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj ehnergii; Compuestos Marcados con Emisores Gamma de Baja Energia para la Exploracion Medica Mediante Isotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, K. E.; Zum Winkel, K.; Georgi, M. [Czerny-Krankenhaus der Universitat Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-10-15

    Low-energy gamma emitters have a special merit for medical scintillation scanning for the following reasons: (1) The lead shielding of the collimators is much more effective. Multiple focusing thin-walled hole collimators can therefore be used, making a higher geometrical resolution possible and, therefore, the detection of smaller lesions. (2) The absorption of the radiation within the body tissue limits the depth of visibility of lesions. In extended organs like the liver, the superposition of radiation originating from the back of the organ is avoided. This allows a better detection of more superficial lesions. The most important low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide is I{sup 125}. For thyroid scanning, it is used in the form of iodide. A suitable compound for liver scanning is I{sup 125}-labelled Rose Bengal. An alternative compound is I{sup 125} -CAI (heat denatured albumin). For kidney scanning I{sup 125}-Hippuran was found to be suitable when injected intramuscularly with hyaluronidase to ensure a uniform level of radioactivity in the kidneys. Another useful low-energy gamma-emitting nuclide for medical scanning is Hg{sup 197} which may be used as chloride for kidney and spleen scanning. Special precautions must be taken to avoid overlying of kidney and spleen. A higher quality scan is obtained with Hg{sup 197}-labelled Neohydrin. This compound is also useful for brain-tumour localization. Typical scans of thyroid, liver, spleen, kidney and brain tumours obtained with low-energy gamma emitters and conventional nuclides and compounds are presented and the merits of the former are discussed. (author) [French] Les emetteurs gamma de faible energie presentent un interet particulier en gammagraphie, pour les raisons suivantes: 1. L'ecran en plomb des collimateurs est beaucoup plus efficace. On peut donc utiliser des collimateurs a focalisation a canaux multiples, et a parois minces, qui permettent d'avoir un excellent pouvoir de resolution et, par consequent, de

  6. Low energy analysis techniques for CUORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); D' Aguanno, D.; Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Drobizhev, A.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Freedman, S.J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Moggi, N.; Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (US); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (US); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2017-12-15

    CUORE is a tonne-scale cryogenic detector operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) that uses tellurium dioxide bolometers to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te. CUORE is also suitable to search for low energy rare events such as solar axions or WIMP scattering, thanks to its ultra-low background and large target mass. However, to conduct such sensitive searches requires improving the energy threshold to 10 keV. In this paper, we describe the analysis techniques developed for the low energy analysis of CUORE-like detectors, using the data acquired from November 2013 to March 2015 by CUORE-0, a single-tower prototype designed to validate the assembly procedure and new cleaning techniques of CUORE. We explain the energy threshold optimization, continuous monitoring of the trigger efficiency, data and event selection, and energy calibration at low energies in detail. We also present the low energy background spectrum of CUORE-0 below 60 keV. Finally, we report the sensitivity of CUORE to WIMP annual modulation using the CUORE-0 energy threshold and background, as well as an estimate of the uncertainty on the nuclear quenching factor from nuclear recoils in CUORE-0. (orig.)

  7. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  8. Asymmetrical field emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J.G.; Smith, B.K.

    1995-10-10

    A method is disclosed for providing a field emitter with an asymmetrical emitter structure having a very sharp tip in close proximity to its gate. One preferred embodiment of the present invention includes an asymmetrical emitter and a gate. The emitter having a tip and a side is coupled to a substrate. The gate is connected to a step in the substrate. The step has a top surface and a side wall that is substantially parallel to the side of the emitter. The tip of the emitter is in close proximity to the gate. The emitter is at an emitter potential, and the gate is at a gate potential such that with the two potentials at appropriate values, electrons are emitted from the emitter. In one embodiment, the gate is separated from the emitter by an oxide layer, and the emitter is etched anisotropically to form its tip and its asymmetrical structure. 17 figs.

  9. Low energy beam transport for HIDIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusel, O.; Pozimski, J.; Jakob, A.; Lakatos, A.

    2001-01-01

    Low energy beam transport (LEBT) for a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIDIF, I. Hofmann and G. Plass, Report of the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion for the Period 1995-1998) facility suffers from high space charge forces and high ion mass. Space charge compensation reduces the necessary focusing force of the lenses and the radius of the beam in the LEBT, and therefrom the emittance growth due to aberrations and self fields is reduced. Gabor lenses (D. Gabor, Nature 160 (1947)) providing a stable space charge cloud for focusing and combine strong cylinder symmetric focusing with partly space charge compensation and low emittance growth. A high tolerance against source noise and current fluctuations and reduced investment costs could be other possible advantages. The proof of principle has already been demonstrated (J.A. Palkovic, Measurements on a Gabor lens for Neutralizing and Focusing a 30 keV Proton beam, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989; J. Pozimski, P. Gross, R. Doelling and T. Weis, First experimental studies of a Gabor plasma-lens in Frankfurt, Proceedings of the 3rd EPAC Conference, Berlin, 1992). To broaden the experiences and to investigate the realisation of a LEBT concept for the HIDIF injector an experimental program using two Gabor lenses for independent variation of beam radius and envelope angel at RFQ injection was started. Therefrom the first experimental results using a double Gabor lens (DGPL) LEBT system for transporting an high perveance Xe + beam are presented and the results of numerical simulations are shown

  10. Low energy beam transport for HIDIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusel, O. E-mail: o.meusel@iap.uni-frankfurt.de; Pozimski, J.; Jakob, A.; Lakatos, A

    2001-05-21

    Low energy beam transport (LEBT) for a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIDIF, I. Hofmann and G. Plass, Report of the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion for the Period 1995-1998) facility suffers from high space charge forces and high ion mass. Space charge compensation reduces the necessary focusing force of the lenses and the radius of the beam in the LEBT, and therefrom the emittance growth due to aberrations and self fields is reduced. Gabor lenses (D. Gabor, Nature 160 (1947)) providing a stable space charge cloud for focusing and combine strong cylinder symmetric focusing with partly space charge compensation and low emittance growth. A high tolerance against source noise and current fluctuations and reduced investment costs could be other possible advantages. The proof of principle has already been demonstrated (J.A. Palkovic, Measurements on a Gabor lens for Neutralizing and Focusing a 30 keV Proton beam, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989; J. Pozimski, P. Gross, R. Doelling and T. Weis, First experimental studies of a Gabor plasma-lens in Frankfurt, Proceedings of the 3rd EPAC Conference, Berlin, 1992). To broaden the experiences and to investigate the realisation of a LEBT concept for the HIDIF injector an experimental program using two Gabor lenses for independent variation of beam radius and envelope angel at RFQ injection was started. Therefrom the first experimental results using a double Gabor lens (DGPL) LEBT system for transporting an high perveance Xe{sup +} beam are presented and the results of numerical simulations are shown.

  11. A background free double beta decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I

    2011-01-01

    We present a new detection scheme for rejecting backgrounds in neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. It relies on the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by electrons in the MeV region. The momentum threshold is tuned to reach a good discrimination between background and good events. We consider many detector concepts and a range of target materials. The most promising is the high-pressure 136 Xe emitter where the required energy threshold is easily adjusted. Combination of this concept and a high pressure Time Projection Chamber could provide an optimal solution. A simple and low cost effective solution is the use of the Spherical Proportional Counter that provides, using a single read-out channel, two delayed signals from ionization and Cherenkov light. In solid-state double beta decay emitters, because of its higher density, the considered process is out of energy range. An escape will be the fabrication of double decay emitters having lower density by using for instance the aerogel technique. It is surprising that a technology used for particle identification in high-energy physics becomes a powerful tool for rejecting backgrounds in such low-energy experiments.

  12. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abstract. Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in ... the experimental point of view, there are multiple ways to shed light among the different .... compared to the two metallicity expectations [16]. ..... from the Earth; solar neutrinos; indirect dark matter searches) and GeV physics (pro-.

  13. Low-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 annual report of the Schuster Laboratory, Manchester University, England, on low-energy nuclear physics, is presented. The report includes experiments involving: high spin states, nuclei far from stability, reactions and fission, spectroscopy and related subjects. Technical developments are also described. (U.K.)

  14. Low-energy neutrino measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-energy solar neutrino detection plays a fundamental role in understanding both solar astrophysics and particle physics. After introducing the open questions on both fields, we review here the major results of the last two years and expectations for the near future from Borexino, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND ...

  15. Nuclear Computational Low Energy Initiative (NUCLEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Sanjay K. [University of Washington

    2017-08-14

    This is the final report for University of Washington for the NUCLEI SciDAC-3. The NUCLEI -project, as defined by the scope of work, will develop, implement and run codes for large-scale computations of many topics in low-energy nuclear physics. Physics to be studied include the properties of nuclei and nuclear decays, nuclear structure and reactions, and the properties of nuclear matter. The computational techniques to be used include Quantum Monte Carlo, Configuration Interaction, Coupled Cluster, and Density Functional methods. The research program will emphasize areas of high interest to current and possible future DOE nuclear physics facilities, including ATLAS and FRIB (nuclear structure and reactions, and nuclear astrophysics), TJNAF (neutron distributions in nuclei, few body systems, and electroweak processes), NIF (thermonuclear reactions), MAJORANA and FNPB (neutrino-less double-beta decay and physics beyond the Standard Model), and LANSCE (fission studies).

  16. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  17. Linac4 low energy beam measurements with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivens, R., E-mail: richard.scrivens@cern.ch; Bellodi, G.; Crettiez, O.; Dimov, V.; Gerard, D.; Granemann Souza, E.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Lallement, J.-B.; Lettry, J.; Lombardi, A.; Midttun, Ø.; Pasquino, C.; Raich, U.; Riffaud, B.; Roncarolo, F.; Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A.; Wallner, J.; Yarmohammadi Satri, M.; Zickler, T. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H{sup −} linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ (Radiofrequency Quadrupole) has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H{sup −} beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  18. Low emittance configuration for spear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Harris, J.; Stege, R.; Cerino, J.; Hettel, R.; Hofmann, A.; Liu, R.Z.; Wiedemann, H.; Winick, H.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of synchrotron radiation beams from SPEAR, in particular the brilliance of undulator radiation, can be improved significantly by reducing the emittance of the stored electron beam. A reduction of the horizontal emittance by a factor of 3.5 to a value of 130 nanometer-radians (nm-r) at 3 GeV has been achieved by using stronger focussing, mainly in the horizontal plane. The low emittance configuration also reduces the dispersion and vertical beta functions in the straight sections, making them more suitable for wigglers. The higher betatron tunes lead to a larger phase advance between the two kickers, which has to be corrected during injection by shunting current from some quadrupoles. The configuration was optimized within SPEAR hardware limitations and tested for dynamic aperture with the tracking program PATRICIA. After implementation of this scheme, beam was successfully injected and accumulated. The measured emittance of the stored beam was in agreement with calculations. Presently the configuration is being made operational

  19. Low-energy electron microdosimetry of CS-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1980-09-01

    The mass of tissue irradiated by an internal emitter depends upon the distribution of the radionuclide within the organism and the type of radiation emitted. The range (95% absorption) of low-energy electron effectively defines the sensitive volume in which the energy of the emitted electron is deposited. Accordingly, in the case of Auger electron microdosimetry of internal emitters the correct definition of the sensitive volume is of paramount importance. The amount of energy delivered by the monoenergetic electrons emitted by the decay system 137 Cs → sup(137m)Ba to spherical volumes of water-like tissue media of radii equivalent to the estimated ranges of those electrons in water is calculated and discussed as far as the variations of the estimated ranges of electrons as a function of the initial energy of emission are concerned. Although there are still many uncertainties on the actual ranges of low-energy electrons, one can state confidently that the ranges of the Auger electrons of the decay system 137 Cs → 137 sup(m) Ba → 137 Ba can be considered to be in the same order of magnitude of the diameter of a cell. The energy deposition in spherical volumes of water-like tissue media, considered equivalent to the sensitive volumes for the Auger electrons of the decay system 137 Cs → 137 sub(m) Ba → 137 Ba, range for several orders of magnitude from 10 2 to about 10 10 times higher than the energy deposition in similar media by the internal conversion electrons of this decay system. If equivalent variations of energy deposition per unit mass occur when the masses considered are cellular, and subcellular structures, then the effects into the sensitive volume should be taken into biological consideration as far as the microdosimetry of low-energy electrons (approximately equal to 10 keV) is considered, whenever there is internal localization of Auger emitters. (Author) [pt

  20. Low Energy Neutrino Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Present atmospheric and accelerator based neutrino oscillation experiments operate at low neutrino energies (Ev ∼ 1 GeV) to access the relevant regions of oscillation parameter space. As such, they require precise knowledge of the cross sections for neutrino-nucleon interactions in the sub-to-few GeV range. At these energies, neutrinos predominantly interact via quasi-elastic (QE) or single pion production processes, which historically have not been as well studied as the deep inelastic scattering reactions that dominate at higher energies.Data on low energy neutrino cross sections come mainly from bubble chamber, spark chamber, and emulsion experiments that collected their data decades ago. Despite relatively poor statistics and large neutrino flux uncertainties, these measurements provide an important and necessary constraint on Monte Carlo models in present use. The following sections discuss the current status of QE, resonant single pion, coherent pion, and single kaon production cross section measurements at low energy

  1. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  2. A low energy solar town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  3. A low energy solar town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m 2 /year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs

  4. Total bremsstrahlung spectra of thick lead compounds produced by {sup 90}Sr beta emitter in photon energy region of 10–100 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Suhansar Jit [Department of Physics, B.B.S.B Polytechnic, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Tajinder, E-mail: tajindersingh2k9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Doordarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.B.S.B Engineering College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India); Singh, Amrit [Department of Physics, Baba Ajay Singh Khalsa College, Gurdas Nangal, Gurdaspur, Punjab (India); Dhaliwal, A.S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal (Sangrur), Punjab (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Total bremsstrahlung spectra in thick targets of Pb compounds by {sup 90}Sr in energy range 10–100 keV. • Experimental results show better agreement with the model which includes PB in SA up to 30 keV. • At higher photon energy region 30–100 keV the model which describes OB is more accurate. • Experimental results show positive deviations from the entire models at higher energy end spectrum. - Abstract: The total bremsstrahlung spectra in the thick targets of lead acetate trihydrate (Pb(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O), lead nitrate Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) produced by {sup 90}Sr beta particles have been investigated in the photon energy region of 10–100 keV. The experimental bremsstrahlung spectra have been compared with the theoretical models Elwert corrected (non relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory, modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory for ordinary bremsstrahlung and modified Elwert factor (relativistic) Bethe Heitler theory which includes polarization bremsstrahlung in the stripped atom approximation. The experimental results show better agreement with theoretical model that includes polarization bremsstrahlung in stripped approximation in the photon energy region below 30 keV. However, at higher photon energy region 30–100 keV, the theoretical model which describes ordinary bremsstrahlung is more accurate to describe the experimental bremsstrahlung spectra. The experimental results show positive deviations from the entire theoretical models at higher energy end of the spectrum. The results indicate that polarization bremsstrahlung plays important role in the formation of total bremsstrahlung spectra in lead compounds produced by continuous beta particles at low photon energy region of 10–30 keV.

  5. Low energy bar pp physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, C.; Crowe, K.

    1989-02-01

    A detailed investigation of proton-antiproton interactions at low energy has become feasible with the commissioning of the LEAR facility in 1983. We shall shortly review the status of bar pp annihilation at rest and the physics motivations for second generation experiments with the Crystal Barrel detector. This type of detector would be adequate for the study of both Kp and bar pp interactions on an extracted beam of the KAON Factory. We shall conclude with a few remarks on the physics opportunities with bar p's at the KAON Factory which, in our opinion, will not be covered by the present LEAR facility. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques; Evaluacion en muestras biologicas de radionucleidos emisores beta mediante espectrometria de centelleo en fase liquida. Aplicaciones al estudio de dosis internas en tecnicas de investigacion de biologia molecular y celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, I.; Delgado, A.; Navarro, T.; Macias, M. T.

    2007-07-01

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs.

  7. The low-energy geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Low-energy geothermal resources are characterized by temperatures ranging from 30 to 100 C. The principal worldwide applications are: towns and greenhouses heating, spa bathing, agriculture products drying, etc.. Sources depth ranges from 1500 to 2500 m in porous and permeable formations (sandstones, sands, conglomerates, limestones..) carrying aquifers. The worldwide installed power was of about 11500 MWth in 1990, with an annual production of about 36000 GWh (about 1% of worldwide energy consumption). The annual production rate is estimated to 10% and would represent a 30000 and 80000 MWth power in 2000 and 2010, respectively. In France, low-energy geothermal resources are encountered principally in Mesozoic sediments of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. French geothermics has developed during the last 30 years and principally between 1980 and 1985 after the second petroleum crack. After 1985, the decay of fossil fuel costs and the development of corrosion problems in the geothermal wells have led to the abandonment of the less productive fields and to the study of technical solutions to solve the corrosion problems. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  8. Simulation at the SSCL low energy booster and coupled cavity linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourianoff, G.

    1991-01-01

    During the past year, the SSC has made significant use of the MFE computer center for simulating the low energy accelerators in the SSC complex. There are two primary supercomputer applications reported here. They are the calculation of emittance growth in the LEB due to space charge effects and simulation of the side coupled cavities used in the linac. The SSC is designed to have a luminosity of 10 33 interactions per second per square centimeter. It directly determines the amount of physics which can be done with the collider and is therefore of critical importance. The luminosity is inversely proportional to the emittance of the two colliding beams. Since emittance increases monotonically through the chain of accelerators, an emittance budget has been set up defining what the allowable emittance increase is in each individual component of the accelerator. The emittance budget for the LEB calls for the emittance to enter the LEB at .4π mm - mrad and leave the LEB at .6π mm -mrad. Therefore, a set of simulations was done to determine the actual emittance growth. The linac is designed to accelerate 25 MA of H - ions from 70 MEV to 600 MEV. There are several possible cavity designs which might be used but the side coupled cavity design operating in the π/2 mode has a number of advantages concerning operating stability and ease of manufacture. It has therefore been chosen for the linac accelerator

  9. Low-energy mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Wessel; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2014-01-01

    and with as little energy consumption as 41.1 kWh/m2/year including heating and all building services with no use of renewable energy such as PVcells or solar heating. One of the key means of reaching the objectives was to implement mechanical ventilation with low pressure loss and therefore low energy consumption....... The project consists of two buildings, building one is 6 stories high, and building two is 4 stories high. The buildings have a gross area of 50,500 m2 including underground parking. The ventilation and indoor climate concept was to use mechanical ventilation together with mechanical cooling and fanassisted......, with an average of 1.1 kJ/m3. The yearly mean SFP based on estimated runtime is approx. 0.8 kJ/m3. The case shows the unlocked potential that lies within mechanical ventilation for nearzero energy consuming buildings....

  10. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including with , we study the quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using modifiers of the Isozaki--Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the {\\it whole} continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian......, including the energy . We show that the --matrices are well-defined and strongly continuous down to the zero energy threshold. Similarly, we prove that the wave matrices and generalized eigenfunctions are norm continuous down to the zero energy if we use appropriate weighted spaces. These results are used...... from positive energies to the limiting energy . This change corresponds to the behaviour of the classical orbits. Under stronger conditions we extract the leading term of the asymptotics of the kernel of at its singularities; this leading term defines a Fourier integral operator in the sense...

  11. Quantum scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derezinski, Jan; Skibsted, Erik

    2009-01-01

    For a class of negative slowly decaying potentials, including V(x):=−γ|x|−μ with 0quantum mechanical scattering theory in the low-energy regime. Using appropriate modifiers of the Isozaki–Kitada type we show that scattering theory is well behaved on the whole continuous spectrum...... of the Hamiltonian, including the energy 0. We show that the modified scattering matrices S(λ) are well-defined and strongly continuous down to the zero energy threshold. Similarly, we prove that the modified wave matrices and generalized eigenfunctions are norm continuous down to the zero energy if we use...... of the kernel of S(λ) experiences an abrupt change from passing from positive energies λ to the limiting energy λ=0 . This change corresponds to the behaviour of the classical orbits. Under stronger conditions one can extract the leading term of the asymptotics of the kernel of S(λ) at its singularities....

  12. Theory of low energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The basic notions of low-energy quantum scattering theory are introduced (cross sections, phase shifts, resonances,... ), in particular for positively-charged particles, in view of nuclear physics applications. An introduction to the reaction-matrix (or R-matrix) method is then proposed, as a tool to both solve the Schroedinger equation describing collisions and fit experimental data phenomenologically. Most results are established without proof but with a particular emphasis on their intuitive understanding and their possible analogs in classical mechanics. Several choices are made consequently: (i) the text starts with a detailed reminder of classical scattering theory, (ii) the concepts are first introduced in ideal theoretical cases before going to the more complicated formalism allowing the description of realistic experimental situations, (iii) a single example is used throughout nearly the whole text, (iv) all concepts are established for the elastic scattering of spinless particles, with only a brief mention of their multichannel generalization at the end of the text. (author)

  13. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  14. Experimental Study of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in the Emittance Exchange Line at the A0-Photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, Jayakar C. T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Edwards, H.; Ruan, J.; Santucci, J.; Sun, Y. E.; Church, M.; Piot, P.

    2010-11-01

    Next generation accelerators will require a high current, low emittance beam with a low energy spread. Such accelerators will employ advanced beam conditioning systems such as emittance exchangers to manipulate high brightness beams. One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation could limit high current operation of the emittance exchanger. In this paper, we report on the preliminary experimental and simulation study of the coherent synchroton radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector.

  15. SU-G-201-12: Investigation of Beta-Emitter 90Sr-90Y Dose Distribution Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film for Application On Conformal Skin Brachytherapy Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C; Johnson, D; Ahmad, S; Rasmussen, K; Jung, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate 90 Sr- 90 Y as a high dose rate (HDR) source for application in a conformal skin brachytherapy (CSBT) device. The CSBT device has been previously developed to provide patient specific treatment for small inoperable lesions and irregular surfaces. Methods: A popular beta emitter, 90 Sr- 90 Y was tested for feasibility in a CSBT device. A 1 cm diameter plaque was used to deliver dose to a solid water phantom containing EBT3 Gafchromic films arranged at the surface and perpendicular to it. Additionally, a 1 cm diameter 6 MeV electron beam was used to irradiate EBT3 film at 100 cm SSD with a 0.5 cm bolus. Films were digitized with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner and calibrated with a 6 MeV electron specific dose curve. Normalized percent depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles for both techniques were analyzed using ImageJ. Results: Dose distributions achieved with the 90 Sr- 90 Y sources were compared with those of external electron beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Penumbra (20%- 80%) for EBRT and 90Sr-90Y were 4.3 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively. PDD values of 50% (normalized to 2 mm) were 10.1 mm and 2.8 mm for electron and 90 Sr- 90 Y, respectively. Flatness (80% of the central beam profile) was 14.1% at a 5 mm depth for EBRT and 4.0% at surface for the 90 Sr- 90 Y. Conclusion: As expected, the PDDs of 90 Sr- 90 Y in water are shallower than that of external electron beams for the same field size. 90 Sr- 90 Y can be used in CSBT to provide patient specific treatment where shallower depth doses than that provided by electron external beams may be required: e.g. eyelids, nose, lips, ears, etc. The customizability of EBRT could be replicated by using multiple adjacent 90 Sr- 90 Y plaque placements.

  16. Measurement of {beta} Emitters by the Radiated Charge; Mesure des Emetteurs {beta} par la Charge Rayonnee. Mesure de l'activite des emetteurs {beta} a partir de la charge rayonnee; Izmerenie aktivnosti izluchatelya {beta}-chaetits na osnove izluchaemogo zaryada; Medicion de la actividad de los emisores {beta} a partir de la carga irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, J J [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-06-15

    The method is based on the principle recently described by Failla and his associates: Two plane electrodes of the same material are mounted parallel to, and close beside, each other in a vacuum container and the source which is to be measured is laid on one of them. The back-scattering on this electrode is offset by the reflections on the other electrode. A magnetic or electrical field makes it possible to eliminate the effect of low-energy secondary electrons. In the case of magnetic deflection, the apparatus includes an extrapolation chamber and, in the case of electrical deflection, a chamber with a very fine grille. In the case of Sr{sup 90}-Y{sup 90} and P{sup 32} the results obtained tally very well with the measurements made with the 4 {pi} counter (better than {+-} 2%) In the case of S{sup 35} the results are seen to be affected by the atomic number of the substance of which the electrode whereon the source is placed consists; this must therefore be chosen with care. The theories on back-scattering provide an explanation of these results. (author) [French] Le principe de la methode est celui decrit recemment par Failla et ses collaborateurs: Deux electrodes planes paralleles, de meme substance et tres voisines, sont disposees dans une enceinte videe. Sur une des electrodes est deposee la source a mesurer. La retrodiffusion sur l'electrode porte-source est compensee par les reflexions sur l'autre electrode. Un champ magnetique ou electrique permet d'eliminer l'effet des electrons secondaires de faible energie. Le dispositif experimental comporte, dans le cas de la deflexion magnetique, une chambre a extrapolation et dans le cas de la deflexion electrique, une chambre a grille tres fine. L'accord avec des mesures effectuees au compteur 4 {pi} est excellent dans le cas du Sr{sup 90}-Y{sup 90} et du P{sup 32} (mieux que {+-}2%). Dans le cas du S{sup 35}, les experiences mettent en evidence l'influence du nombre atomique du support de source et en imposent le

  17. Intense low energy positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-01-01

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e + beams exist producing of the order of 10 8 - 10 9 e + /sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e + beams with intensities greater than 10 9 e + /sec and current densities of the order of 10 13 - 10 14 e + sec - 1 cm -2 . Intense e + beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B + moderators or by increasing the available activity of B + particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e + collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e + beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e + microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e + diffraction and other fields. Intense e + beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies

  18. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  19. Low energy physics from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The developments of the past year have resulted in growing interest in the theory of superstrings, a subject which is on the one hand extraordinarily exciting in the promise it holds for solutions of many of the outstanding problems of particle physics and on the other hand rather forbidding in the amount of new knowledge which needs to be acquired by the average theorist to understand the papers that are now being published on the recent developments. In a sense the term low energy superstrings is misleading: the work of the past fifteen years in string theory, culminating in last summer's stunning developments by Green and Schwartz have led theorists to believe a finite, consistent superstring theory can be formulated. An enormous amount of work is going on in this subject, the premise that an effective field theory in ten space-time dimensions can be obtained from the superstring theory is the start of the lectures. The lectures will cover this later stage, namely how does one proceed from the effective ten dimensional theory to an effective four dimensional theory, describing the world as we see it. 87 references, 2 tables

  20. Energy response of graphite-mixed magnesium borate TLDs to low energy x-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelliccioni, M.; Prokic, M.; Esposito, A.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite-mixed sintered magnesium borate TL dosemeters are attractive for beta/gamma dosimetry because they combine a low energy dependence to beta-rays with near tissue or air equivalence to photon irradiations and a high sensitivity. In this paper results from the experimental measurements...

  1. Measurements of {beta} or {alpha} emitter long lived radionuclides using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Dosage a tres bas niveau de radionucleides a longue periode emetteurs {beta} ou {alpha} par spectrometrie de masse a couplage plasma inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provitina, O

    1993-10-18

    The measurement of long-lived radionuclides is highly important for characterizing nuclear wastes for their later storage. The main techniques are {alpha} spectrometry, {beta} counting and {gamma} spectrometry. The large period of these isotopes leads to low specific activity needing time consuming measurements. Moreover, the radiometric techniques are often limited by problems of interferences involving several steps of pretreatments. Among these steps, the specific extraction with crown ethers is highly selective for the separation of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs. The radiometric techniques are here replaced by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) the advantages of which are: few interferences, sensitivity which does not depend on the radiologic period as compared to radiochemistry. ICP-MS can then measure {sup 237}Np in enriched uranium matrix and reduce by a factor of 4 the sample pretreatment and the duration of the analysis usually performed by {alpha} spectrometry. Another technique, electrothermal vaporization (ETV), is consequently used. Crown ether extraction-ETV-ICP-MS is employed for measuring the long lived radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I. The conditions of the extraction and the parameters of the ETV and the ICP-MS are studied and optimized. The methods optimized (extraction, electrothermal vaporization) are validated in the case of {sup 99}Tc, in real samples. The spike method is required to quantify technetium, the quantification with calibration leading to bad results. The results obtained are in good agreement with the expected values. Extraction of technetium on anionic resin and its measurement by the spike method with pneumatic nebulization-ICP-MS is also performed on other samples. Measured values are also in agreement with expected values, but the method of extraction is more time consuming (half a day) than the extraction with crown ether (one hour). (author). 54 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Towards Low Energy Atrial Defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Walsh

    2015-09-01

    . Efficient transcutaneous power transfer and sensing of ICI during cardioversion are evidenced as key to the advancement of low-energy atrial defibrillation.

  3. A Quick Method of Measuring and Analyzing {beta} Emitters in Solution of Very Low-Level Specific Activity; Remarques sur une technique rapide de mesure et d'analyse d'emetteurs {beta} en solution de tres faible activite specifique; Zamechaniya o bystroj tekhnike izmereniya i analize izluchatelej {beta}-chastits v rastvore s ochen' slaboj spetsificheskoj aktivnost'yu; Observaciones sobre un metodo rapido de medicion y analisis de emisores {beta} en soluciones de muy baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y; Grinberg, B; Thenard, M [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-06-15

    1. Description of a measuring instrument with a low-level background, for measuring radioactive materials in liquid form. Essentially the instrument consists of two flat counters, each with one hole, and one flat counter with two holes, mounted parallel to each other and enclosed in a casing of counters mounted in anti-coincidence with the inner counter. 2. Possible applications of the method: a) To measure much lower-level specific activities than with liquid counters, and particularly soft {beta} emitters; b) To detect radioactive impurities within a radionuclide (e. g. 2/10,000 of P{sup 32} in S{sup 35}); c) For most radionuclides, to measure, without previous concentration, specific activities corresponding to the tolerance limits permitted at present. (author) [French] 1. Description d'un dispositif de mesure a faible mouvement propre, destine a la mesure de produits radioactifs sous forme liquide, et qui comprend essentiellement 2 compteurs plats a une fenetre, et un compteur plat a deux fenetres, disposes parallelement et enfermes a l'interieur d'une gaine de comp- teurs montes en anticoincidence avec les premiers. 2. Possibilites et domaines d'utilisation de la methode: a) permet de mesurer des activites specifiques beaucoup plus faibles qu'avec les compteurs a liquides, particulieremen t avec les emetteurs {beta} mous; b) permet de deceler des impuretes radioactives au sein d'un radioelement (ex. 2/10.000 de P{sup 32} dans S{sup 35}); c) permet, pour la plupart des radioelements, de mesurer, sans concentration prealable, des activites specifiques egales respectivement aux limites de tolerance aujourd'hui admises. (author) [Spanish] 1. Los autores describen un dispositivo de medicion poco sensible a la actividad de fondo, destinado a medir la radiactividad de sustancias liquidas. El dispositivo consta fundamentalment e de dos contadores planos provistos de una ventana y de un contador plano con dos ventanas, disquestos paralelamente en el interior de una

  4. SU-G-201-12: Investigation of Beta-Emitter 90Sr-90Y Dose Distribution Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film for Application On Conformal Skin Brachytherapy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C; Johnson, D; Ahmad, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Rasmussen, K [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Jung, J [East Carolina University Greenville, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y as a high dose rate (HDR) source for application in a conformal skin brachytherapy (CSBT) device. The CSBT device has been previously developed to provide patient specific treatment for small inoperable lesions and irregular surfaces. Methods: A popular beta emitter, {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y was tested for feasibility in a CSBT device. A 1 cm diameter plaque was used to deliver dose to a solid water phantom containing EBT3 Gafchromic films arranged at the surface and perpendicular to it. Additionally, a 1 cm diameter 6 MeV electron beam was used to irradiate EBT3 film at 100 cm SSD with a 0.5 cm bolus. Films were digitized with an Epson Expression 10000 XL scanner and calibrated with a 6 MeV electron specific dose curve. Normalized percent depth doses (PDD) and dose profiles for both techniques were analyzed using ImageJ. Results: Dose distributions achieved with the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y sources were compared with those of external electron beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Penumbra (20%- 80%) for EBRT and 90Sr-90Y were 4.3 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively. PDD values of 50% (normalized to 2 mm) were 10.1 mm and 2.8 mm for electron and {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y, respectively. Flatness (80% of the central beam profile) was 14.1% at a 5 mm depth for EBRT and 4.0% at surface for the {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y. Conclusion: As expected, the PDDs of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in water are shallower than that of external electron beams for the same field size. {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y can be used in CSBT to provide patient specific treatment where shallower depth doses than that provided by electron external beams may be required: e.g. eyelids, nose, lips, ears, etc. The customizability of EBRT could be replicated by using multiple adjacent {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y plaque placements.

  5. Simulation of a low energy beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yao; Liu Zhanwen; Zhang Wenhui; Ma Hongyi; Zhang Xuezhen; Zhao Hongwei; Yao Ze'en

    2012-01-01

    A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance intense proton source and a low energy beam transport line with dual-Glaser lens were designed and fabricated by Institute of Modern Physics for a compact pulsed hadron source at Tsinghua. The intense proton beams extracted from the ion source are transported through the transport line to match the downstream radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH was used to carry out the beam transport simulations and optimize the magnetic field structures of the transport line. Emittance growth due to space charge and spherical aberrations of the Glaser lens were studied in both theory and simulation. The results show that narrow beam has smaller aberrations and better beam quality through the transport line. To better match the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a shorter transport line is desired with sufficient space charge neutralization. (authors)

  6. Space Charge Compensation in the Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport Line with Negative Hydrogen Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Valerio-Lizarraga, C; Leon-Monzon, I; Lettry, J; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Tranport (LEBT) using the package IBSimu1, which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H- beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  7. Ghost signals in Allison emittance scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Moehs, D.P.; Keller, R.; Welton, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  8. Ghost Signals In Allison Emittance Scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Leitner, M.; Keller, R.; Moehs, D.P.; Welton, R. F.

    2005-01-01

    For over 20 years, Allison scanners have been used to measure emittances of low-energy ion beams. We show that scanning large trajectory angles produces ghost signals caused by the sampled beamlet impacting on an electric deflection plate. The ghost signal strength is proportional to the amount of beam entering the scanner. Depending on the ions, and their velocity, the ghost signals can have the opposite or the same polarity as the main beam signals. The ghost signals cause significant errors in the emittance estimates because they appear at large trajectory angles. These ghost signals often go undetected because they partly overlap with the real signals, are mostly below the 1% level, and often hide in the noise. A simple deflection plate modification is shown to reduce the ghost signal strength by over 99%

  9. Transverse Emittance Measurement and Preservation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082907

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a high energy storage ring that provides proton and heavy ion collisions to study fundamental particle physics. The luminosity production is closely linked to emittance preservation in the accelerator. The transverse emittance is the phase space density of the beam and should be conserved when the particle beam is transformed through the accelerator. Perturbing effects, however, can lead to emittance increase and hence luminosity degradation. Measuring the emittance growth is a complex task with high intensity beams and changing energies. The machine optics and the transverse beam size have to be measured as accurately as possible. Beta function measurements with k-modulation will be discussed. With this method the quadrupole focussing strength is varied and the resulting tune change is traced to determine the beta function at the quadrupole. A new k-modulation measurement tool was developed for the LHC. The fully automatic and online measurement system takes constra...

  10. Low-energy Electro-weak Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Chiral effective field theory (EFT) provides a systematic and controlled approach to low-energy nuclear physics. Here, we use chiral EFT to calculate low-energy weak Gamow-Teller transitions. We put special emphasis on the role of two-body (2b) weak currents within the nucleus and discuss their applications in predicting physical observables.

  11. Theorems of low energy in Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, J.

    1984-01-01

    We have obtained the low energy theorems in Compton scattering to third and fouth order in the frequency of the incident photon. Next we calculated the polarized cross section to third order and the unpolarized to fourth order in terms of partial amplitudes not covered by the low energy theorems, what will permit the experimental determination of these partial amplitudes. (Author) [pt

  12. Internal Auger emitters: effects on spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The in vivo biological effects of Auger emitters are investigated using [A] spermatogenesis in mouse testis, and [B] oogenesis in mouse ovary as experimental models. Spermhead survival and induction of abnormal sperm, following intratesticular administration of radiopharmaceuticals, were the end points in Model A. Of interest in Model B is primary oocyte survival after intraperitoneal injection of the radiochemicals. The effectiveness of the Auger emitter is determined relative to its beta emitting companion or external X-rays in the absence of such an analogue. Results reveal pronounced effects of Auger emitters on all end points, not dependent on mode of administration. The efficacy of the Auger emitter is related intimately to its subcellular distribution, which, is governed by the chemical form of the carrier molecule. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate and biophysically meaningful dosimetric approaches are needed to understand in vivo effects of Auger emitters. (author)

  13. The Low Energy Level Structure of {sup 191}lr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S G; Berg, V [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); [Inst. of Physics, U niv. of Stockholm (Sweden); Baecklin, A; Hedin, G [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Upp sala (Sweden)

    1970-02-15

    The decay of {sup 191}Pt to {sup 191}Ir has been investigated using Ge(Li)-detectors and a double focusing beta spectrometer. 35 transitions were observed and most of them were placed in a level scheme. Special attention was given to the low energy level band structure. Several multipolarity mixing ratios were determined from L-subshell ratio measurements. Using the delayed coincidence technique the half-life of the 179.05 keV level was measured to 40 {+-} 12 psec. The low level decay properties are discussed in terms of the Nilsson model with the inclusion of Coriolis coupling.

  14. Effect of the space-charge force on tracking at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present tracking results for the SSC's Low Energy Booster at injection energy, including the effect of the space-charge force. The bunches are assumed to be gaussian with elliptical cross-section. Magnet errors and sextupoles are not included, but an RF cavity is. The authors compare the phase space with and without synchrotron oscillations, with and without space-charge. The effective emittance is not significantly altered. They also present results on tune shifts with amplitude

  15. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  16. Fundamental physics with low-energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy neutrons are playing a prominent role in a growing number of fundamental physics studies. This paper provides a brief description of the physics that some of the experiments in the area are addressing. (paper)

  17. Pion nucleon interaction at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.

    1979-03-01

    A theory of the πN interaction at low energy is described. An analogy is made with an unusual approach to potential scattering theory. Phase shifts, cross sections, and scattering amplitudes and lengths are calculated. 28 references

  18. Current status of low energy EB machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiro Nishikimi; Shuichi Taniguchi; Kenichi Mizusawa

    1999-01-01

    Electron beam processing systems have been in use in a variety of applications such as curing of paints and printing inks, crosslinking of PE products, treating of rubber tire and so on. Low energy electron processing systems have become popular as self-shielded machines, which are compact and easy to use and do not require special facility as an irradiation room. This manuscript introduces the status of low energy EB (electron beam) machine through Nissin's products current

  19. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2005-01-01

    The review of possible stimulation mechanisms of LENR (low energy nuclear reaction) is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - the universal resonance synchronization principle [1] and based on its different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes [2]. The excitation and ionization of atoms may play role as a trigger for LENR. Superlow energy o...

  20. Exploring the Hidden Sector @ Low Energies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Over the years we have accumulated a large number of indications for physics beyond the standard model. This new physics is often sought-after at high masses and energies. Here collider experiments can bring decisive insights. However, over recent years it has become increasingly clear that new physics can also appear at low energy, but extremely weak coupling. Experiments and observations at this `low energy frontier' therefore provide a powerful tool to gain insight into fundamental physics, which is complementary to accelerators.

  1. LEBIT - a low-energy beam and ion trap facility at NSCL/MSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Davies, D.; Lawton, D.; Lofy, P.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ottarson, J.; Ringle, R.; Schury, P.; Sun, T.; VanWasshenova, D.; Sun, T.; Weissman, L.; Wiggins, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) Project aims to convert the high-energy exotic beams produced at NSCL/MSU into low-energy low-emittance beams. A combination of a high-pressure gas stopping cell and a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion accumulator and buncher will be used to manipulate the beam accordingly. High-accuracy mass measurements on very short-lived isotopes with a 9.4 T Penning trap system will be the first experimental program to profit from the low-energy beams. The status of the project is presented with a focus on recent stopping tests of 100-140 MeV/A Ar18+ ions in a gas cell

  2. The low-energy-beam and ion-trap facility at NSCL/MSU

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, S; Lawton, D; Lofy, P; Morrissey, D J; Ottarson, J; Ringle, R; Schury, P; Sun, T; Varentsov, V; Weissman, L

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the low-energy-beam and ion-trap (LEBIT) project is to convert the high-energy exotic beams produced at NSCL/MSU into low-energy low-emittance beams. This beam manipulation will be done by a combination of a high-pressure gas stopping cell and a radio-frequency quadrupole ion accumulator and buncher. The first experimental program to profit from the low-energy beams produced will be high-accuracy mass measurements on very short-lived isotopes with a 9.4 T Penning trap system. The status of the project is presented with an emphasis on recent stopping tests range of 100 MeV/A sup 4 sup 0 Ar sup 1 sup 8 sup + ions in a gas cell.

  3. The low-energy-beam and ion-trap facility at NSCL/MSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, S. E-mail: schwarz@nscl.msu.edu; Bollen, G.; Lawton, D.; Lofy, P.; Morrissey, D.J.; Ottarson, J.; Ringle, R.; Schury, P.; Sun, T.; Varentsov, V.; Weissman, L

    2003-05-01

    The goal of the low-energy-beam and ion-trap (LEBIT) project is to convert the high-energy exotic beams produced at NSCL/MSU into low-energy low-emittance beams. This beam manipulation will be done by a combination of a high-pressure gas stopping cell and a radio-frequency quadrupole ion accumulator and buncher. The first experimental program to profit from the low-energy beams produced will be high-accuracy mass measurements on very short-lived isotopes with a 9.4 T Penning trap system. The status of the project is presented with an emphasis on recent stopping tests range of 100 MeV/A {sup 40}Ar{sup 18+} ions in a gas cell.

  4. The low-energy-beam and ion-trap facility at NSCL/MSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.; Bollen, G.; Lawton, D.; Lofy, P.; Morrissey, D.J.; Ottarson, J.; Ringle, R.; Schury, P.; Sun, T.; Varentsov, V.; Weissman, L.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the low-energy-beam and ion-trap (LEBIT) project is to convert the high-energy exotic beams produced at NSCL/MSU into low-energy low-emittance beams. This beam manipulation will be done by a combination of a high-pressure gas stopping cell and a radio-frequency quadrupole ion accumulator and buncher. The first experimental program to profit from the low-energy beams produced will be high-accuracy mass measurements on very short-lived isotopes with a 9.4 T Penning trap system. The status of the project is presented with an emphasis on recent stopping tests range of 100 MeV/A 40 Ar 18+ ions in a gas cell

  5. A low emittance configuration for spear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.N.; Cerino, J.; Harris, J.; Hettel, R.; Hofmann, A.; Liu, R.Z.; Stego, R.; Wiedemann, H.; Winick, H.

    1985-01-01

    The quality of synchrotron radiation beams from SPEAR, in particular the brilliance of undulator radiation, can be improved significantly by reducing the emittance of the stored electron beam. A reduction of the horizontal emittance by a factor of 3.5 to a value of 130 nanometer-radians (nm-r) at 3 GeV has been achieved by using stronger focussing, mainly in the horizontal plane. The low emittance configuration also reduces the dispersion and vertical beta functions in the straight sections, making them more suitable for wigglers. The higher betatron tunes lead to a larger phase advance between the two kickers, which has to be corrected during injection by shunting current from some quadrupoles. The configuration was optimized within SPEAR hardware limitations and tested for dynamic aperture with the tracking program PATRICIA. After implementation of this scheme, beam was successfully injected and accumulated. The measured emittance of the stored beam was in agreement with calculations. Presently the configuration is being made operational

  6. Cancer from internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Irradiation from internal emitters, or internally deposited radionuclides, is an important component of radiation exposures encountered in the workplace, home, or general environment. Long-term studies of human populations exposed to various internal emitters by different routes of exposure are producing critical information for the protection of workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to examine recent developments and discuss their potential importance for understanding lifetime cancer risks from internal emitters. The major populations of persons being studied for lifetime health effects from internally deposited radionuclides are well known: Lung cancer in underground miners who inhaled Rn progeny, liver cancer from persons injected with the Th-containing radiographic contrast medium Thorotrast, bone cancer from occupational or medical intakes of 226 Ra or medical injections of 224 Ra, and thyroid cancer from exposures to iodine radionuclides in the environment or for medical purposes

  7. Low emittance photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    Photon colliders require high charge polarized electron beams with very low normalized emittances, possibly lower than the actual damping rings design goals. Recent analytical and numerical efforts in understanding beam dynamics in RF photoinjectors have raised again the question as to whether the performances of an RF electron gun based injector could be competitive with respect to a damping ring. As a matter of discussion we report in this paper the most recent results concerning low emittance photoinjector designs: the production of polarized electron beams by DC and/or RF guns is illustrated together with space charge compensation techniques and thermal emittance effects. New ideas concerning multi-gun injection system and generation of flat beams by RF gun are also discussed

  8. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  9. Surface sterilization by low energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tabei, Masae

    1989-01-01

    The germicidal effectiveness of low energy electron beams (175 KV) against bacterial cells was investigated. The dry spores of Bacillus pumilus ATCC 27142 and Bacillus globigii ATCC 9372 inoculated on carrier materials and irradiated by gamma rays showed the exponential type of survival curves whereas they showed sigmoidal ones when exposed to low energy electron beams. When similarly irradiated, the wet spores inoculated on membrane filter showed the same survival curves as the dry spores inoculated on carrier materials. The wet vegetative cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 showed exponential curves when exposed to gamma and electron beam irradiation. Low energy electron beams in air showed little differences from nitrogen stream in their germicidal effectiveness against dry spores of B. pumilus. The D values of B. pumilus spores inoculated on metal plates decreased as the amounts of backscattering electrons from the plates increased. There was adequate correlation between the D value (linear region of survival curve), average D value (6D/6) and 1% survival dose and backscattering factor. Depth dose profile and backscatterig dose of low energy electron beams were measured by radiochromic dye film dosimeter (RCD). These figures were not always in accord with the observed germicidal effectiveness against B. pumilus spores because of varying thickness of RCD and spores inoculated on carrier material. The dry spores were very thin and this thinness was useful in evaluating the behavior of low energy electrons. (author)

  10. FACET Emittance Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  11. FACET Emittance Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, Joel

    2011-01-01

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to ∼20 (micro)m long and ∼10 (micro)m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  12. Low energy plasma observations at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasoner, D.L.; Lennartsson, W.

    1977-08-01

    The University of California at San Diego Auroral Particles Experiment on the ATS-6 Satellite in synchronous orbit has detected a low-energy plasma population which is separate and distinct from both the ring current and plasma sheet populations. These observations suggest that this plasma is the outer zone of the plasmasphere. During magnetically active periods, this low energy plasma is often observed flowing sunward. In the dusk sector, enhanced plasma flow is often observed for 1-2 hours prior to the onset of a substorm-associated particle injection. (author)

  13. Low-energy meson physics (chiral theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum chiral theory which allows to obtain low-energy expansions of various hadron processes without introducing arbitrary parameters into the theory with the exception of hadron masses and interaction constants is presented. A hypothesis about the dynamic symmetry of strong interactions is suggested. The interaction lagrangian is derived which satisfies conditions of the dynamic symmetry. Examples of the use of the quantum chiral theory for describing low-energy processes of meson interaction are given. It is noted that the results obtained reproduce the actual qualitative pattern of various physical processes and in most cases result in good quantitative agreement with experiments

  14. Interstellar propagation of low energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Wave particles interactions prevent low energy cosmic rays from propagating at velocities much faster than the Alfven velocity, reducing their range by a factor of order 50. Therefore, supernovae remnants cannot fill the neutral portions of the interstellar medium with 2 MeV cosmic rays [fr

  15. Virtual compton scattering at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    1997-09-01

    The work described in this PhD is a study of the Virtual Compton scattering (VCS) off the proton at low energy, below pion production threshold. Our experiment has been carried out at MAMI in the collaboration with the help of two high resolution spectrometers. Experimentally, the VCS process is the electroproduction of photons off a liquid hydrogen target. First results of data analysis including radiative corrections are presented and compared with low energy theorem prediction. VCS is an extension of the Real Compton Scattering. The virtuality of the incoming photon allows us to access new observables of the nucleon internal structure which are complementarity to the elastic form factors: the generalized polarizabilities (GP). They are function of the squared invariant mass of the virtual photo. The mass limit of these observables restore the usual electric and magnetic polarizabilities. Our experiment is the first measurement of the VCS process at a virtual photon mass equals 0.33 Ge V square. The experimental development presents the analysis method. The high precision needed in the absolute cross-section measurement required an accurate estimate of radiative corrections to the VCS. This new calculation, which has been performed in the dimensional regulation scheme, composes the theoretical part of this thesis. At low q', preliminary results agree with low energy theorem prediction. At higher q', substraction of low energy theorem contribution to extract GP is discussed. (author)

  16. Physics with low energy pions and muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.

    1981-01-01

    This document is a collection of texts used for a course of lectures given by the author at the Technical University of Delft (NL) in 1981. It is therefore a comprehensive, Dutch language, review article starting with the discovery of pions and muons, describing their properties and finally discussing their applications in low energy physics. (C.F.)

  17. Cooking exhaust systems for low energy dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Especially in airtight low energy dwellings exhaust systems are of utmost importance as cooking can be a major source of PM2.5 exposure. Dwellings should be designed including facilities enabling extraction of at least 83 dm3/s (300 m3/h) directly to outside. Residents should be able to select an

  18. Low energy antiproton experiments - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, KP; Yamazaki, Y; Wada, M

    2005-01-01

    Low energy antiprotons offer excellent opportunities to study properties of fundamental forces and symmetries in nature. Experiments with them can contribute substantially to deepen our fundamental knowledge in atomic, nuclear and particle physics. Searches for new interactions can be carried out by

  19. The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    For the Low Energy Detector of Simbol-X a new type of active pixel sensor based on the integrated amplifier DEPFET has been developed. This concept combines large area, scalable pixel size, low noise, and ultra-fast readout. Flight representative prototypes have been processed with a performance matching the Simbol-X specifications and demonstrating the technology readiness.

  20. The Simbol-X Low Energy Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Peter

    2009-05-01

    For the Low Energy Detector of Simbol-X a new type of active pixel sensor based on the integrated amplifier DEPFET has been developed. This concept combines large area, scalable pixel size, low noise, and ultra-fast readout. Flight representative prototypes have been processed with a performance matching the Simbol-X specifications and demonstrating the technology readiness.

  1. Large solid angle detectors (low energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Hote, D.

    1988-01-01

    This lecture deals with large solid angle detectors used in low energy experiments (mainly in Nuclear Physics). The reasons for using such detectors are discussed, and several basic principles of their design are presented. Finally, two examples of data analysis from such detectors are given [fr

  2. Heavy ion reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Some general features of the heavy ion reactions at low energies are presented. Some kinds of processes are studied, such as: elastic scattering, peripherical reactions, deep inelastic collisions and fusion. Both, theoretical and experimental perspectives on this field are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  4. AGS vertical beta function measurements for Run 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ahrens, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-07

    One key parameter for running the AGS efficiently is by maintaining a low emittance. To measure emittance, one needs to measure the beta function throughout the cycle. This can be done by measuring the beta function at the ionization profile monitors (IPM) in the AGS. This tech note delves into the motivation, the measurement, and some strides that were made throughout Run15.

  5. The reactor antineutrino anomaly and low energy threshold neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, B. C.; Garcés, E. A.; Miranda, O. G.; Parada, A.

    2018-01-01

    Short distance reactor antineutrino experiments measure an antineutrino spectrum a few percent lower than expected from theoretical predictions. In this work we study the potential of low energy threshold reactor experiments in the context of a light sterile neutrino signal. We discuss the perspectives of the recently detected coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering in future reactor antineutrino experiments. We find that the expectations to improve the current constraints on the mixing with sterile neutrinos are promising. We also analyze the measurements of antineutrino scattering off electrons from short distance reactor experiments. In this case, the statistics is not competitive with inverse beta decay experiments, although future experiments might play a role when compare it with the Gallium anomaly.

  6. Manipulation of rare isotope beams - from high to low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)], E-mail: bollen@nscl.msu.edu; Campbell, C.; Chouhan, S.; Guenaut, C.; Lawton, D.; Marti, F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Morrissey, D.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Ottarson, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Pang, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Schwarz, S.; Zeller, A.F.; Zavodszky, P. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Projectile fragmentation above 50 MeV/u and in-flight separation is a powerful technique for the production and delivery of rare isotopes. The production is fast and chemistry independent, providing nuclides far away from the valley of beta stability and for a very large range of elements. These benefits can be maximized if the produced rare isotopes are made available also as low-energy beams (<15 MeV/u) and at rest. For this purpose the fast beams need to be slowed down and thermalized before being re-accelerated to the desired energy. This can be achieved with gas stopping techniques. This paper discusses various aspects of stopping fast rare isotope beams, including the development of a 'cyclotron gas stopper' that promises to overcome the limitations of present linear gas stopping schemes.

  7. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  8. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  9. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014

    2004-01-01

    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  11. Colorado School of Mines low energy nuclear physics project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the project ''Studies of nuclear reactions at very low energies''. This project was undertaken in 1987 and completed in 1993. All but one of the major objectives of this study have been accomplished. Specifically the authors have completed their investigation of the (p,γ) on light nuclei, a study of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect, a measurements of the astrophysically interesting reaction D(α,γ) 6 Li at low energies and an extension of the reaction D(d,γ) 4 He to lower energies than previously observed. Preliminary investigation of te reaction 7 Li( 3 He,p) 9 Be was begun and is continuing under a separate DOE grant. In addition to these tasks, they have completed some very interesting projects which were not included in the original proposal. These include a study of the (d,γ) reactions on 6 Li, 7 Li and 10 B and an investigation of the possibility of observing terrestrial antineutrinos from the beta decay chains of U and Th as a diagnostic of terrestrial heat flow

  12. Dosimetry of internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Dosimetry of Internal Emitter Program endeavors to refine the correlation between radiation dose and observed biological effects. The program is presently engaged in the development of studies that will demonstrate the applicability of microdosimetry models developed under the Microdosimetry of Internal Sources Program. The program also provides guidance and assistance to Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Biology Department in the dosimetric analysis of internally deposited radionuclides. This report deals with alpha particle dosimetry plutonium 239 inhalation, and in vitro studies of chromosomal observations

  13. Nonintercepting emittance monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Clendenin, J.E.; James, M.B.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    A nonintercepting emittance monitor is a helpful device for measuring and improving particle beams in accelerators and storage rings as it allows continuous monitoring of the beam's distribution in phase space, and perhaps closed loop computer control of the distributions. Stripline position monitors are being investigated for use as nonintercepting emittance monitors for a beam focused by a FODO array in the first 100 meters of our linear accelerator. The technique described here uses the signal from the four stripline probes of a single position monitor to measure the quadrupole mode of the wall current in the beam pipe. This current is a function of the quadrupole moment of the beam, sigma 2 /sub x/ - sigma 2 /sub y/. In general, six independent measurements of the quadrupole moment are necessary to determine the beam emittance. This technique is dependent on the characteristically large variations of sigma 2 /sub x/ - sigma 2 /sub y/ in a FODO array. It will not work in a focusing system where the beam is round at each focusing element

  14. Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring ELENA : from the conception to the implementation phase

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Breuker, H; Butin, F; Carli, C; Eriksson, T; Maury, S; Pasinelli, S; Tranquille, G; Oelert, W

    2014-01-01

    The Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring (ELENA) is a CERN project aiming at constructing a small 30 m circumference synchrotron to further decelerate antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator AD from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV. Controlled deceleration in a synchrotron equipped with an electron cooler to reduce emittances in all three planes will allow the existing AD experiments to increase substantially their antiproton capture efficiencies and render new experiments possible. The ELENA design is now well advanced and the project is moving to the implementation phase. Component design and construction are taking place at present for installation foreseen during the second half of 2015 and beginning of 2016 followed by ring commissioning until the end of 2016. New electrostatic transfer lines to the experiments will be installed and commissioned during the first half of 2017 followed by the first physics operation with ELENA. Basic limitations like Intra Beam Scattering limiting the emittances obtained under electron ...

  15. H/sup /minus// injection into the low-energy booster of the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Protons are accumulated into the low-energy booster of the SSC by utilizing H/sup /minus// → H + conversion in a 225- μg/cm 2 carbon stripping foil. Synchronous injection is performed for 26 turns into stationary rf buckets, thereby allowing operation with variable bunch spacing. By injecting the beam offset in x and y we obtain the required rms normalized transverse emittance area of 0.75 π mm-mr. Similarly the required rms longitudinal emittance area of 1.75π /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eVs is obtained by injecting single linac micropulses, centered at /phi/ = 0, and dp/p = +0.12%, into each 49.9-MHz rf bucket formed with an rf voltage of 350 kV. The transverse space-charge tune shift is -0.17 for 10 10 protons/bunch accumulated at 600 MeV. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. Redesign of the low energy section of the Fermilab linac to improve beam brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.; Noble, R.; Palkovic, J.; Mills, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    The critical parameters which limit the luminosity of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are the beam emittances, both longitudinal and transverse, at each stage in the acceleration sequence. Improvements to reduce invariant emittance growth at earlier acceleration stages necessarily encourage improvements in all downstream stages. Recent advances in linac technology should permit a significant increase in the beam brightness of the Fermilab linac. A redesign of the low energy section of the linac is envisioned to include a circular aperture H/sup /minus// source, a short 30-keV transport line (solenoids, Gabor lenses or einzel lenses) for matching to a radio frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ), and injection at approximately 2 MeV into a new 200 MHz Alvarez linac tank for acceleration to 10 MeV. 9 refs., 1 fig

  17. Low energy intense electron beams with extra-low energy spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.V.; Calabrese, R.; Ciullo, G.; Dikansky, N.S.; Guidi, V.; Kot, N.C.; Kudelainen, V.I.; Lamanna, G.; Lebedev, V.A.; Logachov, P.V.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.

    1994-01-01

    Maximum achievable intensity for low energy electron beams is a feature that is not very often compatible with low energy spread. We show that a proper choice of the source and the acceleration optics allows one to match them together. In this scheme, a GaAs photocathode excited by a single-mode infrared laser and adiabatic acceleration in fully magnetised optics enables the production of a low-energy-spread electron beam with relatively high intensity. The technological problems associated with the method are discussed together with its limitations. (orig.)

  18. Transverse emittance measurement and preservation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Maria

    2016-06-20

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a high energy storage ring that provides proton and heavy ion collisions to study fundamental particle physics. The luminosity production is closely linked to emittance preservation in the accelerator. The transverse emittance is the phase space density of the beam and should be conserved when the particle beam is transformed through the accelerator. Perturbing effects, however, can lead to emittance increase and hence luminosity degradation. Measuring the emittance growth is a complex task with high intensity beams and changing energies. The machine optics and the transverse beam size have to be measured as accurately as possible. Beta function measurements with k-modulation are discussed. With this method the quadrupole focussing strength is varied and the resulting tune change is traced to determine the beta function at the quadrupole. A new k-modulation measurement tool was developed for the LHC. The fully automatic and online measurement system takes constraints of various systems such as tune measurement precision and powering limitations of the LHC superconducting circuits into account. With sinusoidal k-modulation record low beta function measurement uncertainties in the LHC have been reached. 2015 LHC beta function and β*, which is the beta function at the collision point, measurements with k-modulation will be presented. Wire scanners and synchrotron light monitors are presently used in the LHC to measure the transverse beam size. Accuracy and limitations of the LHC transverse profile monitors are discussed. During the 2012 LHC proton run it was found that wire scanner photomultiplier saturation added significant uncertainty on all measurements. A large discrepancy between emittances from wire scanners and luminosity was discovered but not solved. During Long Shutdown 1 the wire scanner system was upgraded with new photomultipliers. A thorough study of LHC wire scanner measurement precision in 2015 is presented

  19. Experimentation with low-energy positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The capability of studying the interactions of positrons with surfaces has recently been exploited by using ultra-high-vacuum techniques. The result has been a new understanding of how positrons interact with surfaces and because of this we are now able to make much stronger fluxes of slow positrons. The higher beam strengths in turn are opening up new possibilities for experimentation on surfaces and solids and for studying the atomic physics of positronium and positron-molecule scattering at low energies. The lectures are intended to review some of the history of this subject and to outline the present state of our knowledge of experimentation with low-energy positron beams. (orig./TW)

  20. Natural gas in low energy house Zittau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maertens, L.; Koschack, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a low-energy house in Zittau, Germany. The house consists of two parts A and B. Part A is heated by means of gas boilers and condensed boilers, while part B is solar heated. Energy for heating and warming of tap water is an important part of the primary energy consumption in Germany. Therefore, one way of reducing the CO2 emissions is to reduce the heat losses of buildings through outer facades and air ventilation, to use regenerative energy sources, to use fuels with low CO2 emissivity like natural gas, and to install efficient heating- and hot water preparation systems. The low-energy house in Zittau is used for energy research

  1. Enhancement mechanisms of low energy nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; Ratis, Yu.L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, 6 Joliot Curie Street, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The full review of Russian low energy nuclear reactors is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies, LENR, is possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - excitation and ionization of atoms and universal resonance synchronization principle are responsible for it. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics. The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor reproducibility of experimental data is due to the fact that LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical reproducibility principle should be reconsidered for LENR experiments. Poor reproducibility and unexplained results do not means that the experiment is wrong.

  2. Enhancement mechanisms of low energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; Ratis, Yu.L.

    2006-01-01

    The full review of Russian low energy nuclear reactors is represented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies, LENR, is possible in the framework of the modern physical theory - excitation and ionization of atoms and universal resonance synchronization principle are responsible for it. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics. The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies. The puzzle of poor reproducibility of experimental data is due to the fact that LENR occurs in open systems and it is extremely sensitive to parameters of external fields and systems. Classical reproducibility principle should be reconsidered for LENR experiments. Poor reproducibility and unexplained results do not means that the experiment is wrong

  3. A Low-Energy Ring Lattice Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2002-01-01

    The PEP-N project at SLAC [1] consists of a Very Low-Energy small electron Ring (VLER) that will collide with the low-energy 3.1 GeV positron beam (LER) of PEP-II, producing center-of-mass energies between the 1.1 GeV and the J/ψ. The beams will collide head-on and will be separated in the detector magnetic field which is part of the Interaction Region [2]. The IP β functions were chosen such as to optimize both luminosity and beam-beam tune shifts, while keeping the LER tune shifts small. This paper describes the lattice design of the VLER for the ''baseline'' at 500 MeV

  4. Food irradiation by low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    For some special cases, the use of low energy electrons has advantages over the use of gamma-rays or higher energy electrons for the direct irradiation of food. These advantages arise from details of the interaction processes which are responsible for the production of physical, chemical and biological effects. Factors involved include depth of penetration, dose distribution, irradiation geometry, the possible production of radioactivity and costs

  5. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance....... The purpose is to provide a useful tool for communication and argumentation in order to further integrated design of houses with good architecture and good environmental performance. ...

  6. Physics with ultra-low energy antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtkamp, D.B.; Holzscheiter, M.H.; Hughes, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental observation that all forms of matter experience the same gravitational acceleration is embodied in the weak equivalence principle of gravitational physics. However no experiment has tested this principle for particles of antimatter such as the antiproton or the antihydrogen atom. Clearly the question of whether antimatter is in compliance with weak equivalence is a fundamental experimental issue, which can best be addressed at an ultra-low energy antiproton facility. This paper addresses the issue. 20 refs

  7. PHYSICS WITH ULTRA-LOW ENERGY ANTIPROTONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. HOLZSCHEITER

    2001-02-01

    In this report the author describes the current status of the antiproton deceleration (AD) facility at CERN, and highlights the physics program with ultra-low energy antiproton at this installation. He also comments on future possibilities provided higher intensity antiproton beams become available at Fermilab, and review possibilities for initial experiments using direct degrading of high energy antiprotons in material has been developed and proven at CERN.

  8. The low-energy experiment on EXOSAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The present concept of the Low-Energy-Experiment (LEE) for EXOSAT was proposed by a collaboration of the X-ray astronomy groups at Mullard Space Science Laboratories at University College London, the Space Research Laboratory at Utrecht and the Cosmic Ray Working Group at Leiden. In the following paragraphs the major characteristics of the instrumentation and the expected scientific return will be discussed. The summary comprises both the approved baseline configuration and the proposed option of a small imaging telescope

  9. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiebing, K.E.; Alexandrov, V.; Doerner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N.Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Boecking, H.; Voelp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-01-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut fuer Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  10. Low-energy scattering data for oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A survey of literature data of the scattering lengths of oxygen is performed, and these values are compared to low-energy precise total cross-section data. To check the quality of the data and the correctness of the relation between coherent scattering lengths and low-energy total cross-sections the situation is examined first for carbon. A value and uncertainty for the coherent scattering length of oxygen is recommended for use in future evaluations of 16 O. This coherent scattering length is fully consistent with the high-precision, low-energy total cross-section data. The consistency requires the use of a larger uncertainty than claimed in the most accurate cross-section papers. This larger uncertainty is nevertheless very small and well within the requirements of applications of this cross-section. The recommended value is b c ( 16 O) = 5.816±0.015 fm and the associated total cross-section for the neutron-energy range 0.5 to 2 000 eV is 3.765±0.025 b. The stated uncertainties are one standard deviation total uncertainty. (authors)

  11. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  12. The Low-Energy Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    To date most studies of Neutrino Factories have focused on facilities where the energy of the muon in the storage ring has been in the range of 25-50 GeV. In this paper we present a concept for a Low-Energy (∼ 4 GeV) neutrino factory. For baselines of O(1000 km), the rich oscillation pattern at low neutrino interaction energy (0.5 - ∼3 GeV) provides the unique performance of this facility with regard to its sensitivity to CP violation and the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. A unique neutrino detector is needed, however, in order to exploit this oscillation pattern. We will describe the basic accelerator facility, demonstrate the methodology of the analysis and give an estimate on how well the Low-Energy neutrino factory can measure θ 13 , CP violation and the mass hierarchy. We will also describe the detector concept that is used, show a preliminary analysis regarding its performance and indicate what R and D is still needed. Finally we will show how the Low-Energy neutrino factory could be a step towards an energy frontier muon collider.

  13. An RF driven H- source and a low energy beam injection system for RFQ operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; Chan, C.F.; McDonald, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    An RF driven H - source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H - current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diam aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 m Torr and 50 kW of RF power. In order to match the accelerated H - beam into the SSC RFQ, a low-energy H - injection system has been designed. This injector produces an outgoing H - beam free of electron contamination, with small radius, large convergent angle and small projectional emittance

  14. The effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on the induction of DNA strand breaks in plasmid DNA and colony formation of PC Cl3 mammalian cells by alpha-, beta-, and Auger electron emitters (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Roswitha; Oehme, Liane; Kotzerke, Jörg; Freudenberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    DNA damage occurs as a consequence of both direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. The severity of DNA damage depends on the physical characteristics of the radiation quality, e.g., the linear energy transfer (LET). There are still contrary findings regarding direct or indirect interactions of high-LET emitters with DNA. Our aim is to determine DNA damage and the effect on cellular survival induced by (223)Ra compared to (188)Re and (99m)Tc modulated by the radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Radioactive solutions of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc were added to either plasmid DNA or to PC Cl3 cells in the absence or presence of DMSO. Following irradiation, single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. To determine the radiosensitivity of the rat thyroid cell line (PC Cl3), survival curves were performed using the colony formation assay. Exposure to 120 Gy of (223)Ra, (188)Re, or (99m)Tc leads to maximal yields of SSB (80 %) in plasmid DNA. Irradiation with 540 Gy (223)Ra and 500 Gy (188)Re or (99m)Tc induced 40, 28, and 64 % linear plasmid conformations, respectively. DMSO prevented the SSB and DSB in a similar way for all radionuclides. However, with the α-emitter (223)Ra, a low level of DSB could not be prevented by DMSO. Irradiation of PC Cl3 cells with (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc pre-incubated with DMSO revealed enhanced survival fractions (SF) in comparison to treatment without DMSO. Protection factors (PF) were calculated using the fitted survival curves. These factors are 1.23 ± 0.04, 1.20 ± 0.19, and 1.34 ± 0.05 for (223)Ra, (188)Re, and (99m)Tc, respectively. For (223)Ra, as well as for (188)Re and (99m)Tc, dose-dependent radiation effects were found applicable for plasmid DNA and PC Cl3 cells. The radioprotection by DMSO was in the same range for high- and low-LET emitter. Overall, the results indicate the contribution of mainly indirect radiation

  15. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing [Daly City, CA; Yang, Peidong [Kensington, CA; Kim, Woong [Seoul, KR; Fan, Rong [Pasadena, CA

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  16. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  17. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  18. Low emittance electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levichev, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    Low-emittance electron (positron) beams are essential for synchrotron light sources, linear collider damping rings, and circular Crab Waist colliders. In this review, the principles and methods of emittance minimization are discussed, prospects for developing relativistic electron storage rings with small beam phase volume are assessed, and problems related to emittance minimization are examined together with their possible solutions. The special features and engineering implementation aspects of various facilities are briefly reviewed.

  19. Hydrogen-antihydrogen interactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Carr, J.M.; Zeman, V.

    1999-01-01

    The main cause of loss of trapped AH is due to collisions with H 2 and He. As a first step towards treating these reactions we are studying the interaction of AH with H. We have carried out variational calculations to determine an upper bound to the smallest internuclear distance at which the light particles are still bound to the nuclei. We are currently in the process of taking into account the motion of the nuclei. This will enable us to calculate cross-sections for low energy H-AH scattering

  20. The low energy booster project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, G.W.

    1993-05-01

    In order to achieve the required injection momentum, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) has an accelerator chain comprised of a Linear Accelerator and three synchrotrons. The Low Energy Booster (LEB) is the first synchrotron in this chain. The LEB project has made significant progress in the development of major subsystems and conventional construction. This paper briefly reviews the performance requirements of the LEB and describes significant achievements in each of the major subsystem areas. Highlighted among these achievements are the LEB foreign collaborations with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) located in Novosibirsk, Russia

  1. Low energy constraints and scalar leptoquarks⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfer Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a colored weak doublet scalar state with mass below 1 TeV can provide an explanation of the observed branching ratios in B → D(∗τντ decays. Constraints coming from Z → bb̄, muon g − 2, lepton flavor violating decays are derived. The colored scalar is accommodated within 45 representation of SU(5 group of unification. We show that presence of color scalar can improve mass relations in the up-type quark sector mass. Impact of the colored scalar embedding in 45-dimensional representation of SU(5 on low-energy phenomenology is also presented.

  2. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things....... Additionally, we discuss how to needed gating wave can be generated. Experimental results show that our technique is able to reduce the energy consumption in most block ciphers by over 60% while incurring only a minimal overhead in hardware....

  3. Low-energy phenomenological chiral Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavopol, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    We develop a phenomenological Lagrangian that satisfies the requirements of the so called alternative schemes designed to model low energy meson phenomenology. Linear and nonlinear σ type Lagrangians and symmetry breaking schemes are used to describe pions that exhibit masses proportional to the square of the symmetry breaking term's coefficient, ε. (m π 2 ∼ 0(ε 2 )). The invariance of the theory under coordinate dependent transformations is achieved by introducing gauge fields for both linear and nonlinear Lagrangians. Finally, analogies between the minimal symmetry breaking terms in Quantum Electrodynamics and in our phenomenological lagrangians are used to generate a discussion of the quark-pion mass dependence indicated by the model

  4. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiebing, K. E.; Alexandrov, V.; Dörner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Böcking, H.; Völp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-02-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut für Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  5. Semi-empirical model to determine pure β--emitters in closed waste packages using Bremsstrahlung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Hermanne, A.

    2001-01-01

    Medical establishments and research laboratories use many different type of radionuclides for diagnostic, therapeutic and research purposes. As a final by product large amount of medical waste are produced. This waste represents both biological and radiation hazards, therefore it requires special treatments in both point of view. Biomedical waste is usually best managed on site by decay storage, with minimal transport risk and ALARA (as low as reasonably achieved) exposure levels. The nuclear medical waste has characteristics fundamentally different from the nuclear fuel cycle waste. In medical practice radioactive material is used both in sealed and unsealed form, but major part of the medical waste is produced by using unsealed isotopes of relatively short half-life in most cases less than 100 days and of low specific activity. There are gamma-emitter, position-emitter and pure beta-knitter among these isotopes. The positron-emitter isotopes have usually less than 2 hours half-life; therefore they do not contribute too much to the volume of the radioactive waste since they decay rapidly. Among the γ- and pure β - - emitters there are isotopes with half-life from seconds to several hundred days. Waste containing isotopes with longer half-life contributes mainly to that large volume of waste produced regularly at biomedical sites. On site decay storage requires accurate determination of activity levels. Since quantitative estimation of isotope activity can be difficult where waste packages contain a mixed combination of β - -γ-emitters, segregation at the time of waste production is essential. Accurate identification and quantitative measurement of γ-emitter isotopes is possible with a large volume, reverse electrode, high purity germanium detector even those cases when the isotope emits only low energy gamma photons. However, there is problem with the pure β - emitting isotopes to measure. In biological health care and pharmaceutical research a range of

  6. Low-energy QCD and ultraviolet renormalons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peris, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of ultraviolet (UV) renormalons in QCD to two-point functions of quark current operators. This explicitly includes effects due to the exchange of one renormalon chain as well as two chains. It is shown that, when the external Euclidean momentum of the two-point functions becomes smaller than the scale Λ L associated with the Landau singularity of the QCD one-loop running coupling constant, the positions of the UV renormalons in the Borel plane become true singularities in the integration range of the Borel transform. This introduces ambiguities in the evaluation of the corresponding two-point functions. The ambiguities associated with the leading UV renormalon singularity are of the same type as the contribution due to the inclusion of dimension d=6 local operators in a low-energy effective Lagrangian valid at scales smaller than Λ L . We then discuss the inclusion of an infinite number of renormalon chains and argue that the previous ambiguity hints at a plausible approximation scheme for low-energy QCD, resulting in an effective Lagrangian similar to the one of the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (ENJL) model of QCD at large N c . (orig.)

  7. Low energy accelerators for research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle accelerators are instruments for producing a variety of radiations under controlled conditions for basic and applied research as well as applications. They have helped enormously to study the matter, atoms, nuclei, sub-nuclear particles and their constituents, forces involved in the related phenomena etc. No other man-made instrument has been so effective in such studies as the accelerator. The large accelerator constructed so far is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) housed in a tunnel of 27 km circumference, while a small accelerator can fit inside a room. Small accelerators accelerate charged particles such as electrons, protons, deuterons, alphas and, in general ions to low energy, generally, below several MeV. These particle beams are used for studies in nuclear astrophysics, atomic physics, material science, surface physics, bio sciences etc. They are used for ion beam analysis such as RBS, PIXE, NRA, AMS, CPAA etc. More importantly, the ion beams have important industrial applications like ion implantation, surface modification, isotope production etc. while electron beams are used for material processing, material modification, sterilization, food preservation, non destructive testing etc. In this talk, role of low energy accelerators in research and industry as well as medicine will be discussed. (author)

  8. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, Carl R.; Grimes, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187. We describe here research into low-energy nuclear reactions and structure. The statistical properties of nuclei have been studied by measuring level densities and also calculating them theoretically. Our approach of measuring level densities via evaporation spectra is able to reach a very wide range of nuclei by using heavy ion beams (we expect to develop experiments using radioactive beams in the near future). Another focus of the program has been on γ-ray strength functions. These clearly impact nuclear reactions, but they are much less understood than corresponding transmission coefficients for nucleons. We have begun investigations of a new approach, using γ-γ coincidences following radiative capture. Finally, we have undertaken several measurements of cross sections involving light nuclei which are important in various applications. The 9 Be(α,n) and B(d,n) reactions have been measured at Ohio University, while neutron-induced reactions have been measured at Los Alamos (LANSCE).

  9. Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masayasu; Kugo, Taichiro; Yamawaki, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)

  10. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: 2007 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of low energy nuclear reactions, a subset of the field of condensed matter nuclear science. Condensed matter nuclear science studies nuclear effects in and/or on condensed matter, including low energy nuclear reactions, an entirely new branch of science that gained widespread attention and notoriety beginning in 1989 with the announcement of a previously unrecognized source of energy by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that came to be known as cold fusion. Two branches of LENR are recognized. The first includes a set of reactions like those observed by Fleischmann and Pons that use palladium and deuterium and yield excess heat and helium-4. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain these reactions, however there is no consensus for, or general acceptance of, any of the theories. The claim of fusion is still considered speculative and, as such, is not an ideal term for this work. The other branch is a wide assortment of nuclear reactions that may occur with either hydrogen or deuterium. Anomalous nuclear transmutations are reported that involve light as well as heavy elements. The significant questions that face this field of research are: 1) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? 2) If so, is there a release of excess energy? 3) If there is, is the energy release cost-effective?

  11. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  12. Experimental perspectives in low energy lepton physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, E.

    1986-01-01

    Low energy nuclear physics has been and is going to be an essential tool for the study of weak interaction and neutrino physics. The use of the atomic nucleus as a ''microlaboratory'' with well defined quantum numbers is undoubtedly going to yield important and sometimes perhaps unexpected results on the symmetry laws governing the subnuclear world. These searches are however very hard experimentally and the bottleneck on obtaining more stringent results only rarely depends on the need of large and expensive apparatuses as those used in high energy physics: more limiting are technical difficulties. The author believes therefore that a real break-through to overcome the present experimental limitations can only be obtained with totally new and sometime ''non canonical'' technical approaches. This paper is an admittedly incomplete discussion of some of them. The author considers separately searches for rare decays, detection of low energy neutrinos and measurements of the neutrino mass, even if some of these new techniques are common to more than one of these subjects

  13. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  14. Occupant satisfaction with new low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael; Kristensen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The development and the erection of low-energy buildings have been intensified in recent years. Still, there are only few studies of the energy performance and occupant satisfaction with living in low-energy houses. A questionnaire survey was therefore carried out among occupants of low-energy ho......The development and the erection of low-energy buildings have been intensified in recent years. Still, there are only few studies of the energy performance and occupant satisfaction with living in low-energy houses. A questionnaire survey was therefore carried out among occupants of low......-energy houses. The purpose was to study occupant satisfaction with new low-energy houses concerning i.a. the perceived indoor climate and the technical installations for heating and ventilation. The survey showed an overall satisfaction with the new low-energy houses, but also that there were problems...... occupant satisfaction in existing and future low-energy houses are given....

  15. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  16. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1990-12-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation and to treat two particular examples

  17. LENS spectroscopy of low energy solar neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Schönert, S

    2001-01-01

    The LENS experiments will measure energy resolved sub-MeV solar electron-neutrinos ( nu /sub e/) in real time via inverse beta - transition populating an isomeric state in the daughter nuclei. The subsequent de-excitation provides a delayed coincidence tag which discriminates against background. A liquid scintillation detector loaded with 20 t of Yb would yield an event rate of 190 pp- and 175 /sup 7/Be neutrinos per year. Essential information on neutrino mixing and masses can be derived.

  18. Redesign of a Low Energy Probe Head

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Yi-Nong; Ries, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present situation of the low energy probe LE2 in TRIUMF cyclotron is that the thickness of the finger 5 is uniform over a radial length of 3.25 inch and its weight which amounts to ~447 g is affecting its re-circulating ball mechanism and causing it to fall below the median plane over its range of movement. We therefore re-design it in order to reduce its weight. First, we made simulations and determined the optimum thickness of the probe head vs its radial length. These simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements made. Finally, we calculated the temperature rise caused by the beam power dumped on the probe, and figured out the maximum current of beam that can be dumped on the finger.

  19. Particle Settling in Low Energy Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachel; MacVean, Lissa; Tse, Ian; Mazzaro, Laura; Stacey, Mark; Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Particle settling velocities can be altered by turbulence. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, and falling particles may be swept towards the downward side of turbulent eddies, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. The degree of velocity enhancement may depend on the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the turbulent Reynolds number. In a homogeneous, isotropic turbulence tank, we tested the effects of particle size and type, suspended sediment concentration, and level of turbulence on the settling velocities of particles typically found in muddy estuaries. Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), separated vertically, measured turbulent velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, which yield condition dependent settling velocities, via ∂/á C ñ ∂ t = -∂/∂ z (ws á C ñ + á w ' C ' ñ) . These results are pertinent to fine sediment transport in estuaries, where high concentrations of suspended material are transported and impacted by low energy turbulence.

  20. Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Ai, L.; Kaufmann, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent π ± p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f 2 =0.0756±0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P 31 and P 13 partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the Σ term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Low energy ion-molecule reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, J.M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with elucidating the dynamics of elementary ion-molecule reactions at collision energies near and below 1 eV. From measurements of the angular and energy distributions of the reaction products, one can infer intimathe details about the nature of collisions leading to chemical reaction, the geometries and lifetimes of intermediate complexes that govern the reaction dynamics, and the collision energy dependence of these dynamical features. The author employs crossed-beam low energy mass spectrometry technology developed over the last several years, with the focus of current research on proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of te O{sup {minus}} ion with species such as HF, H{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3}.

  2. Knowledge from the low energy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1988-01-01

    Before being used at very high energies, in order to search for the quark-gluon plasma, nucleus-nucleus central collisions have been studied at low energy, between about 20 MeV per nucleon and 10 GeV per nucleon, with the same objective to explore the phase diagram of nuclear matter, but in a regime where both temperature and energy are too small for plasma formation. Approaching this very complicated problem of nuclear physics led to many difficulties. They are first reviewed, and various means developed in order to solve them are considered. These difficulties are then detailed along discussions about temperature and nuclear collective flow. Temperature is a concept which is commonly used but also a quantity which is difficult to measure. Nuclear collective flow is a very interesting compression effect; it has been observed experimentally after being predicted theoretically, but its interpretation in terms of the nuclear matter equation of state remains quite difficult [fr

  3. Design of low energy ring(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, Antoine

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times [1], [2], [3].General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 [4]. More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS [5], [6], [7].Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitate injectio...

  4. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  5. Low energy demonstration accelerator technical area 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) need to maintain the capability of producing tritium in support of its historic and near-term stewardship of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, the agency has recently completed a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling. The resulting Record of Decision (ROD) determined that over the next three years the DOE would follow a dual-track acquisition strategy that assures tritium production for the nuclear weapon stockpile in a rapid, cost effective, and safe manner. Under this strategy the DOE will further investigate and compare two options for producing tritium: (1) purchase of an existing commercial light-water reactor or irradiation services with an option to purchase the reactor for conversion to a defense facility; and (2) design, build, and test critical components of a system for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The final decision to select the primary production option will be made by the Secretary of Energy in the October 1998 time frame. The alternative not chosen as the primary production method, if feasible, would be developed as a back-up tritium supply source. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to design, build, and test critical prototypical components of the accelerator system for tritium production, specifically the front-end low-energy section of the accelerator, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) would be incrementally developed and tested in five separate stages over the next seven years. The following issues were evaluated for the proposed action: utility demands, air, human health, environmental restoration, waste management, transportation, water, threatened and endangered species, wetlands, cultural resources, and environmental justice

  6. P.I.A.F.E project: long distance transport of low energy exotic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibart, V.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the PIAFE project is the long distance (400 m) transport of a low energy radioactive ion beam from the ILL (Institut Laue Langevin) to the ISN (Institut des Sciences Nucleaires) of Grenoble (France). The production, extraction, ionization and mass separation of ions is performed by the ILL, while the transformation of ions into multicharged ions, their stripping and acceleration is carried out at the ISN. Theoretical and experimental studies for a simple an original guidance solution have shown that such a long transport, even delicate, should not encounter any major difficulty. The main objectives of this thesis is the technical realization of a 18 m section of this transport line. The problem of supports and focalizing elements alignment has been solved together with the other problems such as: the central trajectory deviation due to alignment defects and to the Earth's magnetic field; the particle losses due to charge exchange with the residual gas and the emittance increase by Coulomb scattering. It has been demonstrated that a 90% transmission can be obtained using a 25 keV energy and a 10 -7 mbar vacuum. Experimental measurements using a rubidium ion source have allowed to validate a theoretical model of emittance increase due to the residual gas-ions interactions. The increase of emittance with respect to the pressure has been measured using four residual gases of different mass. (J.S.). 29 refs., 61 figs., 19 tabs., 8 photos., 4 appends

  7. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  8. Beam emittance of the Stony Brook Tandem-LINAC booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholldorf, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is primarily a study of the longitudinal and transverse beam emittance of the Stony Brook Heavy Ion Tandem LINAC Accelerator Facility, with a secondary emphasis on the beam dynamical design of two key elements of the system: a low energy double-drift buncher, and an achromatic double-90 0 LINAC injection system. A transverse emittance measuring system consisting of two translation stages controlled by stepper motors is described. Each stage carried a pair of beam defining slits mounted so that both horizontal and vertical emittances could be measured with only linear motion of the stage assembly. Beam currents were measured directly by a low-noise, high-sensitivity electrometer circuit integrated with the second slit-stage assembly. A mini-computer controlled the motors and acquired and displayed the data. Transverse emittance areas of beams of 12 C, 16 O, 32 S, and 58 Ni were measured at ion source extraction potential, after ion source acceleration, after tandem acceleration, and after LINAC acceleration. The results were analyzed in terms of source sputter-cone geometry, angle straggling in gas and foil strippers, and a variety of other factors

  9. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  10. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Yates, Brent; Hong, Ling; Khakoo, Murtadha A. [California State University at Fullerton, CA (US). Physics Department; Bettega, Marcio H.F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Costa, Romarly F. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Lima, Marco A.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE/CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  11. Measuring Beam Sizes and Ultra-Small Electron Emittances Using an X-ray Pinhole Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleaume, P; Fortgang, C; Penel, C; Tarazona, E

    1995-09-01

    A very simple pinhole camera set-up has been built to diagnose the electron beam emittance of the ESRF. The pinhole is placed in the air next to an Al window. An image is obtained with a CCD camera imaging a fluorescent screen. The emittance is deduced from the size of the image. The relationship between the measured beam size and the electron beam emittance depends upon the lattice functions alpha, beta and eta, the screen resolution, pinhole size and photon beam divergence. The set-up is capable of measuring emittances as low as 5 pm rad and is presently routinely used as both an electron beam imaging device and an emittance diagnostic.

  12. Bent solenoids for spectrometers and emittance exchange sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1999-01-01

    Bent solenoids can be used to transport low energy beams as they provide both confinement and dispersion of particle orbits. Solenoids are being considered both as emittance exchange sections and spectrometers in the muon cooling system as part of the study of the muon collider. They present the results of a study of bent solenoids which considers the design of coupling sections between bent solenoids to straight solenoids, drift compensation fields, aberrations, and factors relating to the construction, such as field ripple, stored energy, coil forces and field errors

  13. Calculation of the detection efficiency in liquid scintillators. I.- Single negatrons emitters; Calculo de la eficiencia de deteccion en liquidos centelleadores. I. Nucleidos que se desintegran por emision simple de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-torano, E.

    1981-07-01

    Counting efficiency for 62 single beta emitters has been computed from the beta energy distribution, the figure of merit and the ionization quenching. Efficiency v.s. figure of merit is plotted and tabulated. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Low energy atom-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    The semiclassical theory of atom-atom potential scattering and of low energy inelastic atom-atom scattering is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the origin and interpretation of rainbow structure, diffraction oscillations and exchange oscillations in the potential scattering differential cross-section, and to the glory structure and symmetry oscillations in the integral cross-section. Available methods for direct inversion of the cross-section data to recover the potential are reviewed in some detail. The theory of non-adiabatic transitions is introduced by a short discussion of interaction mechanisms and of diabetic and adiabatic representations. Analytical S matrix elements are presented for two state curve-crossing (Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg), Demkov and Nikitin models. The relation between Stuckelberg oscillations in the S matrix and in the differential cross-section is discussed in terms of interference between trajectories belonging to two different classical deflection functions. The energy dependences of the inelastic integral cross-section for curve-crossing and Demkov type transitions are also discussed. Finally the theory is reviewed in relation to a recent close-coupled study of fine structure transitions in F( 2 P) + Xe( 2 S) scattering

  15. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, Carl R.; Grimes, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 and supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG03-03NA00074. Cross sections measured with high resolution have been subjected to an Ericson theory analysis to infer information about the nuclear level density. Other measurements were made of the spectral shape of particles produced in evaporation processes; these also yield level density information. A major project was the development of a new Hauser-Feshbach code for analyzing such spectra. Other measurements produced information on the spectra of gamma rays emitted in reactions on heavy nuclei and gave a means of refining our understanding of gamma-ray strength functions. Finally,reactions on light nuclei were studied and subjected to an R-matrix analysis. Cross sections fora network of nuclear reactions proceedingthrough a given compound nucleus shouldgreatly constrain the family of allowed parameters. Modifications to the formalism andcomputer code are also discussed.

  16. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  17. Operating Characteristics of the low energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Baki, M.M.; Abd El-Rahman, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the construction and operation of low energy accelerator with energy in the range from (zero to 100 KeV.). This accelerator includes an ion source of the cold cathode penning type (with pierce geometry for ion beam extraction), an accelerating tube (with 8 electrodes) and faraday cup for measuring ion current. A vacuum system which gives vacuum of the order 3.0 x 10 8 torr is used. A palladium tube is used to supply the source with pure hydrogen atoms. It was possible to operate this accelerator with an energy 50 KeV. at minimum hydrogen pressure. 6.3 x 10 6 torr. The total resistance applied between the accelerating electrodes R T = 31.5 M OMEGA. These data includes the influence of the pressure in the accelerating tube, the magnetic field of the ion source, the extraction potential and the accelerating potential on the collector ion current. It was possible to accelerate protons with an energy 50 KeV with current about 100 MU A at pressure 6.3 x 10 6 Torr, the source magnetic field + 1100 gauss (I B = 2A), the current = 0.4 A and the extraction potential = 10 K. V

  18. Low energy spin excitations in chromium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Azuah, R.T.; Stirling, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments with full polarization analysis have been performed with a single crystal of chromium to study the low-energy spin fluctuations in the transverse spin density wave (TSDW) state. A number of remarkable results have been found. Inelastic scattering observed close to the TSDW satellite positions at (1 ± δ,0,0) does not behave as expected for magnon scattering. In particular, the scattering corresponds to almost equally strong magnetization fluctuations both parallel and perpendicular to the ordered moments of the TSDW phase. As the Neel temperature is approached from below, scattering at the commensurate wavevector (1,0,0) increases in intensity as a result of critical scattering at silent satellites (1,0, ± δ) being included within the spectrometer resolution function. This effect, first observed by Sternlieb et al, does not account for all of the inelastic scattering around the (1,0,0) position, however, Rather, there are further collective excitations, apparently emanating from the TSDW satellites, which correspond to magnetic fluctuations parallel to the ordered TSDW moments. These branches have a group velocity that is close to that of (1,0,0) longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons, but assigning their origin to magneto-elastic scattering raises other unanswered questions

  19. Low energy pion-16O scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelbakker, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of some outward appearances, the modern microscopic theories of the pion-nucleus (πA) interaction are not fundamentally very different from each other. They can all be derived from the same source, multiple-scattering theory. They all treat the first-order optical potential in a comparatively detailed way and in all of them it is necessary to incorporate higher-order effects in general and pion-annihilation in particular phenomenologically. Basically the same physical features can be embodied in all of them. The presentation of the theoretical scheme underlying the present thesis is designed to stress this conceptual unity of current πA theory. In this thesis the methods developed by De Kam to incorporate Pauli- and binding-corrections to the impulse-approximation first-order optical potential for 4 He are extended to a more complicated nucleus, 16 O, for the first time. In concreto two situations are considered: π- 16 O scattering at energies below nucleon-knockout threshold (13.5 MeV) - 7 and 12 MeV - and at energies 40 and 49.7 MeV, above nucleon-knockout threshold but still well within the low-energy region. (Auth.)

  20. Low energy scattering with a nontrivial pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    An earlier calculation in a generalized linear sigma model showed that the well-known current algebra formula for low energy pion-pion scattering held even though the massless Nambu Goldstone pion contained a small admixture of a two-quark two-antiquark field. Here we turn on the pion mass and note that the current algebra formula no longer holds exactly. We discuss this small deviation and also study the effects of a SU(3) symmetric quark mass type term on the masses and mixings of the eight SU(3) multiplets in the model. We calculate the s-wave scattering lengths, including the beyond current algebra theorem corrections due to the scalar mesons, and observe that the effect of the scalar mesons is to improve the agreement with experiment. In the process, we uncover the way in which linear sigma models give controlled corrections (due to the presence of scalar mesons) to the current algebra scattering formula. Such a feature is commonly thought to exist only in the nonlinear sigma model approach

  1. DOD low energy model installation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Model Low Energy Installation Program is a demonstration of an installation-wide, comprehensive energy conservation program that meets the Department of Defense (DoD) energy management goals of reducing energy usage and costs by at least 20%. It employs the required strategies for meeting these goals, quantifies the environmental compliance benefits resulting from energy conservation and serves as a prototype for DoD wide application. This project will develop both analysis tools and implementation procedures as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, coordinated energy conservation program based on state-of-the-art technologies. A military installation is in reality a small to medium sized city. It generally has a complete utilities infrastructure including water supply and distribution, sewage collection and treatment, electrical supply and distribution, central heating and cooling plants with thermal distribution, and a natural gas distribution system. These utilities are quite extensive and actually consume about 10-15% of the energy on the facility not counting the energy going into the central plants

  2. The distribution of a pure beta-emitter in the human body. Problems and preliminary results of Bremsstrahlung measurements in vivo; La repartition d'un emetteur beta pur dans l'organisme humain. Problemes poses par les mesures in vivo du rayonnement de freinage et premiers resultats obtenus; Raspredelenie chistogo beta-izluchatel ya v chelovecheskom organizme Problemy i predvaritel'ny e rezul'taty izmerenij tormoznogo izlucheniya v zhivom organizme; Distribucion de un emisor beta puro en el organisme humano. Problemas planteados por las mediciones in vivo de la radiacion de frenado y resultados preliminares obtenidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, H G [Strahleninstitut der Freien Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    1959-07-01

    In vivo measurements of the distribution of a pure beta-emitter in the human body were previously limited to the localization of radioactivity in superficial tissues only, owing to the short range of the beta particles in tissue. During die last few years the analysis has been extended by means of bremsstrahlung measurements to activities in deep-lying tissues. The present paper deals with problems and results of this new technique. On the basis of an analysis of the physical nature of this radiation, the construction of suitable detection devices is discussed. The theoretical and experimental work done in this field are reviewed. In order to make a proper interpretation of the results obtained, it is necessary to analyse the various factors involved. These include particularly the area ''seen'' by the detector, the specific activity of the tissue seen and the depth of the organ under consideration, A discussion of the results of such measurements already published will permit an assessment of the present situation and of the nature of the problems still unsolved. (author) [French] Les mesures in vivo de la repartition d'un emetteur beta pur dans l'organisme humain se limitaient autrefois a la localisation de la radioactivite dans les tissus superficiels, en raison du faible parcours des particules beta dans l'organisme. Depuis quelques armees, il est possible, grace aux mesures du rayonnement de freinage, d'etudier egalement la radioactivite dans les tissus profonds. L'auteur examine les problemes poses par cette technique nouvelle et les resultats qu'elle permet d'obtenir. Il indique des procedes de detection fondes sur les caracteristiques physiques de ce rayonnement. Il decrit les recherches theoriques et experimentales qui ont ete faites dans ce domaine. Pour interpreter correctement les resultats obtenus, il importe d'analyser les differents facteurs qui interviennent, notamment la surface par le detecteur, l'activite specifique du tissu observe et

  3. Study on the application of low energy U-window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Binghai; Liu Shikai; Chen Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    For using the low energy U-window information, based on the theory and experiment, the advantage of identifying the subtle anomaly that the low energy U-window information has given is discussed, the method of drawing the low energy U-window information is stated; a method of calibration and obtaining the calibration parameters was developed which was applied to Dongsheng region. The result indicated that the anomaly of low energy U-window information upon known field is more easy identified by comparing with the standard three windows U-window information, which proved the practicability of the method of low energy U-windows information. (authors)

  4. Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.

  5. Electrohydrodynamic emitters of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, V.G.; Shabalin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Physical processes determining generation of ion beams with high emission current density in electrohydrodynamic emitters are considered. Electrohydrodynamic effects developing in ion emission features and kinetics of ion interaction in beams with high density are discussed. Factors determining the size of the emission zone, emission stability at high and low currents, cluster generation, increase of energy spread and decrease of brightness are analyzed. Problems on practical provision of stable EHD emitter functioning are considered. 94 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli [El Cerrito, CA; Fabbri, Jason D [San Francisco, CA; Melosh, Nicholas A [Menlo Park, CA; Hussain, Zahid [Orinda, CA; Shen, Zhi-Xun [Stanford, CA

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  7. Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov I.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.

  8. A device for electron gun emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, B.; Corveller, P.; Jablonka, M.; Joly, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    In order to improve the final emittance of the beam delivered by the ALS electron linac a new gun is going to be installed. To measure its emittance and evaluate the contribution of different factors to emittance growth we have developed an emittance measurement device. We describe the experimental and mathematical procedure we have followed, and give some results of measurements

  9. New cooperative mechanisms of low-energy nuclear reactions using super low-energy external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system, nuclei + atoms + condensed matter, can occur at a smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by low-energy external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy and transmutations at LENR are the result of redistribution of inner energy of the whole system. (author)

  10. New Cooperative Mechanisms of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Super Low-Energy External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    We propose a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system, nuclei + atoms + condensed matter, can occur at a smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by low-energy external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy and transmutations at LENR are the result of redistribution of inner energy of the whole system.

  11. Low energy nuclear reactions: 2007 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivit, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an overview of the field of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR), a branch of condensed matter nuclear science. It explains some of the various terminologies that have been used to describe this field since it debuted as 'cold fusion' in 1989. The paper also reviews some of the most interesting news and developments regarding low energy nuclear reaction experiments and theory, and some of the sociological and political trends that have affected the field over the last 18 years. It concludes with a list of resources and information for scientists, journalists and decision makers. Understanding the Nature of the Reactions The worldwide LENR research effort includes 200 researchers in 13 nations. Over the last 18 years, 12 international conferences have been held, as well as 7 regional conferences in Italy, 14 in Russia and 7 in Japan. The significant questions that face this field of research are: a) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? b) If so, is there a release of excess energy? and c) Are transmutations possible? If the answers to these questions turn out to be positive, the next questions will be: d) Is the energy release cost-effective? and e) Are the transmutations useful? Despite the fact that repeatability and reproducibility are challenging, the required parameters for achieving the excess heat effect are well understood. First, a high atomic loading ratio of D into Pd is required. In most conditions, 0.90 is the minimum threshold required to produce an excess heat effect. Second, a high electrical current density in the cathode is needed, 250 mA/cm 2 under most conditions. The third requirement is for some kind of dynamic trigger to impose a deuterium flux in, on or around the cathode. The challenge that researchers face is how to achieve these conditions. Some of the Most Interesting Research Developments Work by Stanislaw Szpak, Pamela Boss and Frank Gordon at the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center in San Diego has

  12. Low-energy scattering on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour Bour, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we present precision benchmark calculations for two-component fermions in the unitarity limit using an ab initio method, namely Hamiltonian lattice formalism. We calculate the ground state energy for unpolarized four particles (Fermi gas) in a periodic cube as a fraction of the ground state energy of the non-interacting system for two independent representations of the lattice Hamiltonians. We obtain the values 0.211(2) and 0.210(2). These results are in full agreement with the Euclidean lattice and fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. We also give an expression for the energy corrections to the binding energy of a bound state in a moving frame. These corrections contain information about the mass and number of the constituents and are topological in origin and will have a broad applications to the lattice calculations of nucleons, nuclei, hadronic molecules and cold atoms. As one of its applications we use this expression and determine the low-energy parameters for the fermion dimer elastic scattering in shallow binding limit. For our lattice calculations we use Luescher's finite volume method. From the lattice calculations we find κa fd =1.174(9) and κr fd =-0.029(13), where κ represents the binding momentum of dimer and a fd (r fd ) denotes the scattering length (effective-range). These results are confirmed by the continuum calculations using the Skorniakov-Ter-Martirosian integral equation which gives 1.17907(1) and -0.0383(3) for the scattering length and effective range, respectively.

  13. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni Lα 1 2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures

  14. An online low energy gaseous ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shuoxue; Guo Liping; Peng Guoliang; Zhang Jiaolong; Yang Zheng; Li Ming; Liu Chuansheng; Ju Xin; Liu Shi

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of helium and/or hydrogen in nuclear materials may cause performance deterioration of the materials. In order to provide a unique tool to investigate the He-and/or H-caused problems, such as interaction of helium with hydrogen and defects, formation of gas bubbles and its evolution, and the related effects, we designed a low energy (≤ 20 keV) cold cathode Penning ion source, which will be interfaced to a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM), for monitoring continuously the evolution of micro-structure during the He + or H + ion implantation. Studies on discharge voltage-current characteristics of the ion source, and extraction and focusing of the ion beam were performed. The ion source works stably with 15-60 mA of the discharge current.Under the gas pressure of 5 x 10 -3 Pa and 1.5 x 10 -2 Pa, the discharge voltage are about 380 V and 320 V, respectively. The extracted ion current under lower gas pressure is greater than that under higher gas pressure, and it increases with the discharge current and extraction voltage. The ion lens consisting of three equal-diameter metal cylinder focus the ion beam effectively, so that the beam density at the 150 cm away from the lens exit increases by a over one order of magnitude. For ion beams of around 10 keV, the measured beam density is about 200 nA · cm -2 , which is applicable for ion implantation and in situ TEM observation for many kinds of nuclear materials. (authors)

  15. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  16. Development of the low energy linac systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, H. J.; Kim, Y. H.

    2005-08-01

    The project 'Development of the Low Energy Linac System' is aiming to develop the 20 MeV proton linac system. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV RFQ, and a 20 MeV DTL. We obtained the first beam signal after the 20 MeV linac. The high power switch installed in the ion source supplies the pulsed beam into the following LEBT. The pulse operation was successfully tested. The main role of the LEBT is to match the beam into the 3 MeV RFQ. The total length of the four-vane type RFQ is about 3.26m. For the field stabilization, we used the resonant coupling scheme and dipole stabilizer rods. An 1 MW klystron supplies the RF power into the RFQ. After tuning, the field deviation of the quadrupole mode is less than 2% of the design value and the dipole fraction is less than 5% of the operating mode. The following accelerating structure is DTL which accelerate 20 mA proton beams up to 20 MeV. It consists of 4 tanks and the length of each tank is less than 5 m. The lattice is FFDD type and the integrated fields of the quadrupole magnets are 1.75 T. The inner walls of the tanks are copper-plated by PR plating method. The thickness is 100m with the roughness of 0.3m. Each drift tube consists of 6 parts and assembled by e-beam welding. The tanks and drift tubes are aligned under the installation limit of 50m by using the laser-tracker. The tuning by the slug tuners and post couplers results in the field uniformity of 2% and field sensitivity of 100%/MHz. In order to detect the beam signal, we installed the Faraday cup after the RFQ or the DTL. For the RFQ, we observed the beam of 12 A under the forward RF power of 450 kW. The beam current after DTL is about 0.5 A when RF power of 150 kW was fed into each tank

  17. Leptogenesis and low energy CP-violation in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoli, S.; Petcov, S.T.; Riotto, A.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the recent progress in the understanding of the lepton flavor effects in leptogenesis, we investigate in detail the possibility that the CP-violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phases in the PMNS neutrino mixing matrix U, and thus is directly related to the low energy CP-violation in the lepton sector (e.g., in neutrino oscillations, etc.). We first derive the conditions of CP-invariance of the neutrino Yukawa couplings λ in the see-saw Lagrangian, and of the complex orthogonal matrix R in the 'orthogonal' parametrization of λ. We show, e.g. that under certain conditions (i) real R and specific CP-conserving values of the Majorana and Dirac phases can imply CP-violation, and (ii) purely imaginary R does not necessarily imply breaking of CP-symmetry. We study in detail the case of hierarchical heavy Majorana neutrino mass spectrum, presenting results for three possible types of light neutrino mass spectrum: (i) normal hierarchical, (ii) inverted hierarchical, and (iii) quasi-degenerate. Results in the alternative case of quasi-degenerate in mass heavy Majorana neutrinos, are also derived. The minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard theory with right-handed Majorana neutrinos and see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation is discussed as well. We illustrate the possible correlations between the baryon asymmetry of the Universe and (i) the rephasing invariant J CP controlling the magnitude of CP-violation in neutrino oscillations, or (ii) the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay, in the cases when the only source of CP-violation is respectively the Dirac or the Majorana phases in the neutrino mixing matrix

  18. H/sup /minus// injection into the low-energy booster of the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Protons are accumulated into the low-energy booster of the SSC by utilizing H/sup /minus// → H + conversion in a 225-μg/cm 2 carbon stripping foil. Synchronous injection is performed for 26 turns into stationary rf buckets, thereby allowing operation with variable bunch spacing. By injecting the beam offset in x and y we obtain the required rms normalized transverse emittance area of 0.75 π mm-mr. Similarly the required rms longitudinal emittance area of 1.75π /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eVs is obtained by injecting single linac micropulses, centered at /phi/ = 0, and dp/p = +0.12%, into each 49.9-MHz rf bucket formed with an rf voltage of 350 kV. The transverse space-charge tune shift is /minus/0.17 for 10 10 protons/bunch accumulated at 600 MeV. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  20. Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, R; Yadav, R S [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Naqvi, T H [Z.H. Engineering Coll., Aligarh (India); Ahmed, Rais [National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India)

    1975-12-01

    A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described.

  1. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  2. Radiation emitter-detector package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.T.; Limm, A.C.; Nyul, P.; Tassia, V.S. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Mounted on the metallic base of a radiation emitter-detector is a mounting block is a first projection, and a second projection. A radiation detector is on the first projection and a semiconductor electroluminescent device, i.e., a radiation emitter, is on the second projection such that the plane of the recombination region of the electroluminescent device is perpendicular to the radiation incident surface of the radiation detector. The electroluminescent device has a primary emission and a secondary emission in a direction different from the primary emission. A radiation emitter-detector package as described is ideally suited to those applications wherein the secondary radiation of the electroluminescent device is fed into a feedback circuit regulating the biasing current of the electroluminescent device

  3. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  4. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-02-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation, with three particular examples, and to introduce a beam envelope-ellipse and the β-function, emphasing the statistical features of its properties. (author) 14 refs.; 11 figs

  5. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, R.S. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  6. Study of tracking detector of NEMO3 experiment - simulation of the measurement of the ultra low {sup 208}Tl radioactivity in the source foils used as neutrinoless double beta decay emitters in NEMO3 experiment; Etude du detecteur de traces de l'experience NEMO3. Simulation de la mesure de l'ultra-faible radioactivite en {sup 208}Tl des sources de l'experience NEMO3 candidates a la double desintegration {beta} sans emission de neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errahmane, K

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of NEMO3 experiment is the research of the neutrinoless double beta decay. This low energy process can sign the massive and Majorana nature of neutrino. This experiment, with a very low radioactive background and containing 10 kg of enriched isotopes, studies mainly {sup 100}Mo. Installed at the Frejus underground laboratory, NEMO3 is a cylindrical detector, which consists in very thin central source foils, in a tracking detector made up of vertical drift cells operating in Geiger mode, in a calorimeter and in a suitable shielding. This thesis is divided in two different parts. The first part is a full study of the features of the tracking detector. With a prototype composed of 9 drift cells, we characterised the longitudinal and transverse reconstruction of position of the ionisation created by a LASER. With the first 3 modules under operation, we used radioactive external neutron sources to measure the transverse resolution of ionisation position in a drift cell for high energy electrons. To study the vertex reconstruction on the source foil, sources of {sup 207}Bi, which produced conversion electrons, were used inside the 3 modules. The second part of this thesis, we show, with simulations, that we can measure, with NEMO3 detector itself, the ultra low level of contamination in {sup 208}Tl of the source foil, which comes from the natural radioactive chain of thorium. Using electron-photons channels, we can obtain the {sup 208}Tl activity in the sources. With an analysis on the energy and on the time of flight of particles, NEMO3 is able to reach a sensitivity of 20{mu}Bq/kg after only 2 months of measurement. This sensitivity is the maximum {sup 208}Tl activity, which we accepted for the sources in the NEMO3 proposal. (author)

  7. Effect of low-energy hydrogen ion implantation on dendritic web silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, A.; Meier, D. L.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Fonash, S. J.; Singh, R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of a low-energy (0.4 keV), short-time (2-min), heavy-dose (10 to the 18th/sq cm) hydrogen ion implant on dendritic web silicon solar cells and material was investigated. Such an implant was observed to improve the cell open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current appreciably for a number of cells. In spite of the low implant energy, measurements of internal quantum efficiency indicate that it is the base of the cell, rather than the emitter, which benefits from the hydrogen implant. This is supported by the observation that the measured minority-carrier diffusion length in the base did not change when the emitter was removed. In some cases, a threefold increase of the base diffusion length was observed after implantation. The effects of the hydrogen implantation were not changed by a thermal stress test at 250 C for 111 h in nitrogen. It is speculated that hydrogen enters the bulk by traveling along dislocations, as proposed recently for edge-defined film-fed growth silicon ribbon.

  8. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent...

  9. Passive and low energy cooling techniques for the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lain, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Santamouris, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the applicability of passive and low energy cooling technologies in the Czech Republic. The work includes climate analysis as well as buildings and systems analysis in order to estimate the potential of passive and low energy cooling technologies. The latter is based on case

  10. Low-energy antiprotons physics and the FLAIR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, E

    2015-01-01

    FLAIR, the Facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research has been proposed in 2004 as an extension of the planned FAIR facility at Darmstadt, Germany. FLAIR was not included into the modularized start version of FAIR, but the recent installation of the CRYRING storage ring at GSI Darmstadt has opened new perspectives for physics with low-energy antiprotons at FAIR. (paper)

  11. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of low energy ionization of atomic hydrogen has undergone a rapid ... Three distinct theories for describing low energy ionization can now .... clear evidence that the backward peak for ΘЅѕ = 180° is due to positron-nucleus scat-.

  12. Low-energy-consumption hybrid lasers for silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Ran, Qijiang; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed.......Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed....

  13. Low-energy heavy-ion reactions: Some recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    We address three areas: behavior of the optical model at low energies and associated phenomena, fusion at near- and sub-barrier energies; where does fusion occur?, and recent examples of explicit coupled-channels effects at low energies. 74 refs., 18 figs

  14. Low energy dynamics of self-dual A1 strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    We examine the interrelation between the (2,0) supersymmetric six-dimensional effective action for the A 1 theory, and the corresponding low-energy theory for the collective coordinates associated to selfdual BPS strings. We argue that this low energy theory is a two-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric sigma model

  15. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  16. Low emittance optics of photon factory storage ring at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Y.; Katoh, M.; Honjo, I.; Araki, A.; Kihara, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new optics is being successfully tested at the Photon Factory Storage Ring (PF-RING) in order to reduce the emittance to 0.13 mm mrad, about one third of the present value. This optics with four additional quadrupole magnets is a modified version of one of the optics designed as an option at the early period of PF construction. One advantage of this new optics is that the beta-function at RF-sections is smaller than that of the old option. The other advantage is that the dispersion function is zero at the long straight sections for insertion devices and RF cavities. The aim of this paper is to describe the new low-emittance optics as well as the parameters of the new quadrupole magnets and power supplies. Some preliminary results of machine study are also presented

  17. What is a low-energy house and who cares?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litt, B.R.

    1994-12-01

    Most energy analysts view low-energy houses as good things, yet differ in their expectations of what exactly a low energy house is. There are two intertwining threads to this report. The first is an evaluation of 50 buildings that have been claimed to be low-energy residences, for which monitored energy performance data have been collected. These data represent the preliminary effort in the ongoing update of the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base for new residences. The second thread concerns the definition of a low-energy house. After the elements of a definition are presented, their implications for actors involved in providing housing are identified. Several more tractable definitions are applied to the houses in this compilation. The outcomes illustrate ways in which different interests are served by various definitions. Different definitions can yield very different energy rankings. No single definition of a low-energy house is universally applicable.

  18. Thermoluminescence of films of metal oxides and its application to the low energy ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.; Furetta, C.; Falcony G, C.; Martinez S, E.; Garcia H, M.

    2002-01-01

    The obtained results from 1997 to date in the project S tudy of the thermoluminescence of metal oxides and their application to the ionizing radiation as regards to the development of ZrO 2 and of Al 2 O 3 doped and without doped films with rare earths are presented. The obtained results irradiating ZrO 2 and of Al 2 O 3 films with ultraviolet light and visible light have been satisfactory; whereas these materials have resulted promising to measure beta particles, X-rays and low energy gamma rays. (Author)

  19. Measuring emittances and sigma matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.; Rivkin, L.

    1984-03-01

    The method used for measuring emittance at the SLAC Linac and the linear collider damping ring is described. The basis of the method is derived using one two-by-two matrix to specify the state of the input beam (sigma matrix) and another to describe the lens-drift transport system (R-matrix)

  20. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy of suspended graphene, the ultimate 'microscope slide'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutus, J Y; Livadaru, L; Urban, R; Salomons, M H; Cloutier, M; Wolkow, R A; Robinson, J T

    2011-01-01

    Point projection microscopy (PPM) is used to image suspended graphene by using low-energy electrons (100-205 eV). Because of the low energies used, the graphene is neither damaged nor contaminated by the electron beam for doses of the order of 10 7 electrons per nm 2 . The transparency of graphene is measured to be 74%, equivalent to electron transmission through a sheet twice as thick as the covalent radius of sp 2 -bonded carbon. Also observed is rippling in the structure of the suspended graphene, with a wavelength of approximately 26 nm. The interference of the electron beam due to diffraction off the edge of a graphene knife edge is observed and is used to calculate a virtual source size of 4.7±0.6 A for the electron emitter. It is demonstrated that graphene can serve as both the anode and the substrate in PPM, thereby avoiding distortions due to strong field gradients around nanoscale objects. Graphene can be used to image objects suspended on the sheet using PPM and, in the future, electron holography.

  1. Shielding in ungated field emitter arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R. [U.S. Navy Reserve, Navy Operational Support Center New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70143 (United States); Jensen, K. L. [Code 6854, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Shiffler, D. A. [Directed Energy Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Petillo, J. J. [Leidos, Billerica, Massachusetts 01821 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Cathodes consisting of arrays of high aspect ratio field emitters are of great interest as sources of electron beams for vacuum electronic devices. The desire for high currents and current densities drives the cathode designer towards a denser array, but for ungated emitters, denser arrays also lead to increased shielding, in which the field enhancement factor β of each emitter is reduced due to the presence of the other emitters in the array. To facilitate the study of these arrays, we have developed a method for modeling high aspect ratio emitters using tapered dipole line charges. This method can be used to investigate proximity effects from similar emitters an arbitrary distance away and is much less computationally demanding than competing simulation approaches. Here, we introduce this method and use it to study shielding as a function of array geometry. Emitters with aspect ratios of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} are modeled, and the shielding-induced reduction in β is considered as a function of tip-to-tip spacing for emitter pairs and for large arrays with triangular and square unit cells. Shielding is found to be negligible when the emitter spacing is greater than the emitter height for the two-emitter array, or about 2.5 times the emitter height in the large arrays, in agreement with previously published results. Because the onset of shielding occurs at virtually the same emitter spacing in the square and triangular arrays, the triangular array is preferred for its higher emitter density at a given emitter spacing. The primary contribution to shielding in large arrays is found to come from emitters within a distance of three times the unit cell spacing for both square and triangular arrays.

  2. Accounting for beta-particle energy loss to cortical bone via paired-image radiation transport (PIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Rajon, Didier A.; Patton, Phillip W.; Jokisch, Derek W.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods of skeletal dose assessment in both medical physics (radionuclide therapy) and health physics (dose reconstruction and risk assessment) rely heavily on a single set of bone and marrow cavity chord-length distributions in which particle energy deposition is tracked within an infinite extent of trabecular spongiosa, with no allowance for particle escape to cortical bone. In the present study, we introduce a paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model which provides a more realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry for particle transport in the skeletal site at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of its histology. Ex vivo CT scans were acquired of the pelvis, cranial cap, and individual ribs excised from a 66-year male cadaver (BMI of 22.7 kg m -2 ). For the three skeletal sites, regions of trabecular spongiosa and cortical bone were identified and segmented. Physical sections of interior spongiosa were taken and subjected to microCT imaging. Voxels within the resulting microCT images were then segmented and labeled as regions of bone trabeculae, endosteum, active marrow, and inactive marrow through application of image processing algorithms. The PIRT methodology was then implemented within the EGSNRC radiation transport code whereby electrons of various initial energies are simultaneously tracked within both the ex vivo CT macroimage and the CT microimage of the skeletal site. At initial electron energies greater than 50-200 keV, a divergence in absorbed fractions to active marrow are noted between PIRT model simulations and those estimated under existing techniques of infinite spongiosa transport. Calculations of radionuclide S values under both methodologies imply that current chord-based models may overestimate the absorbed dose to active bone marrow in these skeletal sites by 0% to 27% for low-energy beta emitters ( 33 P, 169 Er, and 177 Lu), by ∼4% to 49% for intermediate-energy beta emitters ( 153 Sm, 186 Re, and 89 Sr), and by ∼14% to

  3. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  4. Low Emittance Growth in a LEBT with Un-Neutralized Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In a Low Energy Beam Transport line (LEBT), the emittance growth due to the beam's own space charge is typically suppressed by way of neutralization from either electrons or ions, which originate from ionization of the background gas. In cases where the beam is chopped, the neutralization pattern changes throughout the beginning of the pulse, causing the Twiss parameters to differ significantly from their steady state values, which, in turn, may result in beam losses downstream. For a modest beam perveance, there is an alternative solution, in which the beam is kept un-neutralized in the portion of the LEBT that contains the chopper. The emittance can be nearly preserved if the transition to the un-neutralized section occurs where the beam exhibits low transverse tails. This report discusses the experimental realization of such a scheme at Fermilab's PXIE, where low beam emittance dilution was demonstrated

  5. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  6. States of low energy on Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbermann, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    We construct a new class of physical states of the free Klein-Gordon field in Robertson-Walker spacetimes. This is done by minimizing the expectation value of smeared stress-energy. We get an explicit expression for the state depending on the smearing function. We call it a state of low energy. States of low energy are an improvement of the concept of adiabatic vacua on Robertson-Walker spacetimes. The latter are approximations of the former. It is shown that states of low energy are Hadamard states

  7. Low-energy effective action for the superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.P.; Font, A.; Quevedo, F.

    1986-01-01

    We construct the low-energy D=4, N=1 supergravity that arises in superstring theories for an arbitrary number of generations. The coupling of all massless modes that carry low-energy gauge quantum numbers are calculated by truncating the heavy Kaluza-Klein modes of the ten-dimensional effective field theory. The resulting action is compared to the most general effective action compatible with the symmetries of the underlying ten-dimensional field (and string) theories. This comparison indicates which features of the truncation correctly approximate the exact low-energy action. (orig.)

  8. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  9. Low-energy hadronic interactions beyond the current algebra approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.; Nagy, M.

    1993-06-01

    The new low-energy AP 3 -interaction, which is produced by convergent box-constituent-quark-loop diagrams, is obtained within chiral perturbation theory at the quark level (CHPT) q with linear realization of chiral U(3) x U(3) symmetry. Its contributions to processes of low-energy interactions of low-lying mesons are investigated. The new interaction goes beyond the framework of the low-energy current algebra approach and of the effective chiral Lagrangians with linear realization of chiral symmetry, constructed at the hadronic level. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  10. A primer on Higgs boson low-energy theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.; Haber, H.E.; California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA

    1989-05-01

    We give a pedagogical review of Higgs boson low-energy theorems and their applications in the study of light Higgs boson interactions with mesons and baryons. In particular, it is shown how to combine the chiral Lagrangian method with the Higgs low-energy theorems to obtain predictions for the interaction of Higgs bosons and pseudoscalar mesons. Finally, we discuss the relation between the low-energy theorems and a technique which makes use of the trace of the QCD energy-momentum tensor. 35 refs

  11. Analysis of Urine for Pure Beta Emitters: Methods and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay for individual radionuclides is an essential and first step in estimation of radiation risk to nuclear facilities workers and people who are exposed to the contaminated environment in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological attack. Urine is a frequently used biological sample for...

  12. The assessment and management of risks associated with exposures to short-range Auger- and beta-emitting radionuclides. State of the art and proposals for lines of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquet, F; Biau, A; Barbey, P; Bardiès, M; Blanchardon, E; Chetioui, A; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Pasquier, J L

    2013-01-01

    dosimetry directly. The imperfections of the alternative approaches proposed so far should not discourage efforts. Protection against exposure to Auger and low-energy beta emitters would benefit from mechanistic studies, dedicated to the study of energy depositions of the radionuclides in various cellular structures, but also from radiotoxicological studies to define the relative biological effectiveness of the various Auger emitters used in medicine and of certain low-energy beta emitters, whose behaviour may depend greatly on their chemical form during intake. The scientific expertise, as well as the human and physical resources needed to conduct these studies, is available. They could be now mobilised into international low-dose research programmes, in order to ultimately improve the protection of people exposed to these specific radionuclides. (review)

  13. Low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    implementation of strict energy performance requirements in mainstream building. The paper describes how the municipality of Egedal experienced a collapse in regulation for low-energy buildings and what struggles it had to take on in order to convince the mainstream building industry and their customers......This paper looks into the challenge of actually implementing energy efficient technologies and concepts in mainstream new build. The aim of the paper is to point out some of the provisos of promoting low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms, emphasising the need to understand forces working...... against implementation of low-energy buildings. The study is based on actor-network theory, emphasising the relations and struggles that form the basis for pushing for low-energy buildings. The paper is based on a case study of the proactive attempt of a Danish municipality to force through an actual...

  14. Classification of low energy houses in Danish Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The new Danish Building Regulations (Building Regulations, 2005) introduces the total energy consumption, i.e. energy use for heating, ventilation, cooling and domestic hot water, for buildings as a measure for the energy efficiency of new buildings, i.e. moving away from the former U-value demands....... In addition to the minimum requirements for new buildings, the new Building Regulations also specify requirements for characterizing a building as either low energy building class 1 or low energy building class 2. This paper describes a type-house that is presently being built in Denmark. The type......-house easily meets the requirements for being categorized as a low energy building class 1, and the paper investigates how much U-values can be increased if the type-house were to fulfil the requirements for a low energy building class 2 or a building that just fulfils the minimum demands....

  15. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1997-03-01

    This report discusses the biological impact to the area around the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator. In particular the impact to the soils, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife are discussed.

  16. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid- based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems the ... For many years, the disadvantage in these investigations ... fusion or breakup reaction, preferred with large forward-peaked cross-sections. To transfer the ...

  17. Low energy effective Lagrangians in open superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The low energy effective Lagrangian describes the interactions of the massless modes of String Theory. Present work is being done to obtain all alpha' 3 terms (bosonic and fermionic) by means of the known 5-point amplitudes and SUSY

  18. Bag-model quantum chromodynamics for hyperons at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Maslow, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    In a non-perturbative bag model framework, gluon exchange which mediates quark exchange scattering in conjunction with quark interchange is shown to be the basis of the OBE interactions of hyperons at low energy. (orig.)

  19. Low-energy photo- and electroproduction for physical pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMullen, J.T.

    1979-02-01

    The Ward identities of current algebra are combined with gauge invariance constraints, on-shell PCAC and the Bjorken limit to obtain the low-energy expressions of the pion photo- and electroproduction invariant amplitudes for physical pions

  20. Instrumentation for continuous monitoring of low energy cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Prasad, R.; Yadav, R.S.; Ahmed, Rais

    1975-01-01

    A high counting rate neutron monitor developed at Aligarh for continuous monitoring of low energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays is described. Transistorized electronic circuits used are described. (author)

  1. Surface Passivation and Junction Formation Using Low Energy Hydrogen Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    New applications for high current, low energy hydrogen ion implants on single crystal and polycrystal silicon grain boundaries are discussed. The effects of low energy hydrogen ion beams on crystalline Si surfaces are considered. The effect of these beams on bulk defects in crystalline Si is addressed. Specific applications of H+ implants to crystalline Si processing are discussed. In all of the situations reported on, the hydrogen beams were produced using a high current Kaufman ion source.

  2. Low-energy limit of two-scale field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, J.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    We present a full and self-contained discussion of the decoupling theorem applied to several general models in four-dimensional field theory. We compute in each case the low-energy effective action and show the explicit one-loop expressions for each of the effective parameters. We find that for suitable conditions one can always build an effective low-energy theory where the conditions of the decoupling theorem are satisfied

  3. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  4. Background reduction at low energies with BEGe detector operated in liquid argon using the GERDA-LArGe facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjas, Dusan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    LArGe is a low background test facility used for proving innovative approaches to background reduction in support of the neutrinoless double beta decay experiment Gerda. These approaches include an anti-Compton veto using scintillation light detection from liquid argon, as well as a novel pulse shape discrimination method exploiting the characteristic electrical field distribution inside BEGe detectors. The latter technique can identify single-site events (typical for double beta decays) and efficiently reject multi-site events (typical for backgrounds from gamma-ray interactions), as well as different types of background events from detector surfaces. While the main focus of the LArGe facility is to assist with reaching the goal of Gerda - improving the sensitivity for {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay search, reducing the background at low energies and lowering the energy threshold is also of interest. In particular such efforts can be potentially relevant for search of dark matter or low energy neutrino interactions. In this talk I present the experimental measurement of the low energy region with a BEGe detector operated in LArGe with the application of powerful background suppression methods. The performance will be compared to that of some dedicated dark matter detection experiments.

  5. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  6. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Internal defibrillation: pain perception of low energy shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David M; Cardinal, Debbie S; Mongeon, Luc; Musley, Shailesh Kumar; Foley, Laura; Corrigan, Susie

    2002-07-01

    Recently, device-based low energy cardoversion shocks have been used as therapy for AF. However, discomfort from internal low energy electrical shocks is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate pain perception with low energy internal discharges. Eighteen patients with ICD devices for malignant ventricular arrhythmias were recruited to receive shocks of 0.4 and 2 J in the nonsedated state. Discharges were delivered in a blinded, random order and questionnaires were used to determine discomfort levels and tolerability. Patients perceived discharges at these energies as relatively uncomfortable, averaging a score of 7.3 on a discomfort scale of 0-10, and could not distinguish 0.4-J shocks from 2-J shocks. Second shocks were perceived as more uncomfortable than initial discharges, regardless of the order in which the shocks were delivered. Despite the perceived discomfort, 83% of patients stated that they would tolerate discharges of this magnitude once per month, and 44% would tolerate weekly discharges. Patients perceive low energy discharges as painful and cannot distinguish between shocks of 0.4 and 2 J. The results suggest that ICD systems developed to treat atrial tachyarrhythmias should minimize the number of shocks delivered to terminate an atrial tachyarrhythmia episode. The majority of the patients tolerated low energy shocks provided the discharges are infrequent (once per month).

  8. Half-life calculation of one-proton emitters with a shell model potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M. M.; Duarte, S. B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas-CBPF/MCT Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Teruya, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba - UFPB Campus de Joao Pessoa, 58051-970, Joao Pessoa - PB (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    The accumulated amount of data for half-lives of proton emitters still remains a challenge to the ability of nuclear models to reproduce them consistently. These nuclei are far from beta stability line in a region where the validity of current nuclear models is not guaranteed. A nuclear shell model is introduced to the calculation of the nuclear barrier of less deformed proton emitters. The predictions using the proposed model are in good agreement with the data, with the advantage of have used only a single parameter in the model.

  9. Inverted end-Hall-type low-energy high-current gaseous ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Grishin, D. M.; Anders, A.; Baldwin, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to low-energy, high-current, gaseous ion beam generation was explored and an ion source based on this technique has been developed. The source utilizes a dc high-current (up to 20 A) gaseous discharge with electron injection into the region of ion generation. Compared to the conventional end-Hall ion source, the locations of the discharge anode and cathode are inverted: the cathode is placed inside the source and the anode outside, and correspondingly, the discharge current is in the opposite direction. The discharge operates in a diverging axial magnetic field, similar to the end-Hall source. Electron generation and injection is accomplished by using an additional arc discharge with a ''cold'' (filamentless) hollow cathode. Low plasma contamination is achieved by using a low discharge voltage (avoidance of sputtering), as well as by a special geometric configuration of the emitter discharge electrodes, thereby filtering (removing) the erosion products stemming from the emitter cathode. The device produces a dc ion flow with energy below 20 eV and current up to 2.5 A onto a collector of 500 cm 2 at 25 cm from the source edge, at a pressure ≥0.02 Pa and gas flow rate ≥14 SCCM. The ion energy spread is 2 to 3 eV (rms). The source is characterized by high reliability, low maintenance, and long lifetime. The beam contains less than 0.1% of metallic ions. The specific electric energy consumption is 400 eV per ion registered at the collector. The source operates with noble gases, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbons. Utilizing biasing, it can be used for plasma sputtering, etching, and other ion technologies

  10. Coherent properties of a tunable low-energy electron-matter-wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooch, A.; Seidling, M.; Kerker, N.; Röpke, R.; Rembold, A.; Chang, W. T.; Hwang, I. S.; Stibor, A.

    2018-01-01

    A general challenge in various quantum experiments and applications is to develop suitable sources for coherent particles. In particular, recent progress in microscopy, interferometry, metrology, decoherence measurements, and chip-based applications rely on intensive, tunable, coherent sources for free low-energy electron-matter waves. In most cases, the electrons get field emitted from a metal nanotip, where its radius and geometry toward a counter electrode determines the field distribution and the emission voltage. A higher emission is often connected to faster electrons with smaller de Broglie wavelengths, requiring larger pattern magnification after matter-wave diffraction or interferometry. This can be prevented with a well-known setup consisting of two counter electrodes that allow independent setting of the beam intensity and velocity. However, it needs to be tested if the coherent properties of such a source are preserved after the acceleration and deceleration of the electrons. Here, we study the coherence of the beam in a biprism interferometer with a single atom tip electron field emitter if the particle velocity and wavelength varies after emission. With a Wien filter measurement and a contrast correlation analysis we demonstrate that the intensity of the source at a certain particle wavelength can be enhanced up to a factor of 6.4 without changing the transverse and longitudinal coherence of the electron beam. In addition, the energy width of the single atom tip emitter was measured to be 377 meV, corresponding to a longitudinal coherence length of 82 nm. The design has potential applications in interferometry, microscopy, and sensor technology.

  11. Emittance control in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Before completing a realistic design of a next-generation linear collider, the authors must first learn the lessons taught by the first generation, the SLC. Given that, they must make designs fault tolerant by including correction and compensation in the basic design. They must also try to eliminate these faults by improved alignment and stability of components. When these two efforts cross, they have a realistic design. The techniques of generation and control of emittance reviewed here provide a foundation for a design which can obtain the necessary luminosity in a next-generation linear collider

  12. Sensitivity of a low energy Ge detector system for in vivo monitoring in the framework of ICRP 78 applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M A; Navarro, T

    2003-01-01

    In in vivo detection of internal contamination by actinides the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) correspond to significant doses, so the sensitivity of the detection system is the key to establishing adequate individual monitoring programmes for internal exposure to these radionuclides. The whole body counting (WBC) faculty at CIEMAT uses a low-energy Ge detector system with different available counting geometries to estimate the retention of actinides in the lungs and evaluate 125I in thyroid and 241Am in bone (skull and knee). A study of the factors and uncertainties involved in estimations of MDA is presented for lung and thyroid monitoring. The dependence of detection limits on counting efficiency in the measurement of low-energy emitters in the lungs has been carefully studied, carrying out a comparison among different biometric equations obtained by ultrasound techniques for estimations of chest wall thickness. Dosimetric implications of the estimated MDAs are taken into account in the framework of ICRP 78 application and considering Spanish regulations. The main interest in lung measurements is for the assessment of occupational exposure. This work confirms the low-energy Ge detector system to be an adequate in vivo technique for the routine monitoring of internal exposure to most insoluble uranium compounds (detection of 3% enriched uranium in lungs), and also to be useful in special monitoring programmes or in the case of incidents when the detection of 241Am is required.

  13. Emittance Growth in the NLCTA First Chicane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the emittance growth in the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator) first chicane region is evaluated by simulation studies. It is demonstrated that the higher order fields of the chicane dipole magnet and the dipole corrector magnet (which is attached on the quadrupoles) are the main contributions for the emittance growth, especially for the case with a large initial emittance (γε 0 = 5 (micro)m for instance). These simulation results agree with the experimental observations.

  14. Emittance measurements by variable quadrupole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, D.

    2005-01-01

    The beam emittance is a measure of both the beam size and beam divergence, we cannot directly measure its value. If the beam size is measured at different locations or under different focusing conditions such that different parts of the phase space ellipse will be probed by the beam size monitor, the beam emittance can be determined. An emittance measurement can be performed by different methods. Here we will consider the varying quadrupole setting method.

  15. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei

    2015-03-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.

  16. Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei

    2015-01-01

    For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)

  17. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  18. Emittance investigation of RF photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Mao Rong; Li Zheng; Li Ming; Xu Zhou

    2002-01-01

    A high-power laser beam illuminates a photocathode surface placed on an end wall of an RF cavity. The emitted electrons are accelerated immediately to a relativistic energy by the strong RF find in the cavity. But space charge effect induces beam emittance growth especially near the cathode where the electrons are still nonrelativistic. The author analyzes the factors which lead the transverse emittance growth and method how to resolve this problem. After introducing solenoidal focusing near the photocathode, the beam emittance growth is suppressed dramatically. The beam emittance is given also after compensation and simulation results. The measurements show these results are coincident

  19. Coulomb effects in low-energy nuclear fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Francis F.; John, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    Early versions of the Langley nuclear fragmentation code NUCFRAG (and a publicly released version called HZEFRG1) assumed straight-line trajectories throughout the interaction. As a consequence, NUCFRAG and HZEFRG1 give unrealistic cross sections for large mass removal from the projectile and target at low energies. A correction for the distortion of the trajectory by the nuclear Coulomb fields is used to derive fragmentation cross sections. A simple energy-loss term is applied to estimate the energy downshifts that greatly alter the Coulomb trajectory at low energy. The results, which are far more realistic than prior versions of the code, should provide the data base for future transport calculations. The systematic behavior of charge-removal cross sections compares favorably with results from low-energy experiments.

  20. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    high energy performance. It is important to stress the need for MS to introduce a national or regional definition of very low energy buildings in their building regulation and to develop a national strategy towards this level of energy performance to become the standard. This market transformation...... the ambition in the EU Action plan - to develop an EU strategy towards very low energy houses. The current recast of the EPBD is an opportunity, which must not be missed to introduce the requirement to MS to define very low energy buildings and a national strategy towards this level of energy performance....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...

  1. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

  2. Low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divotgey, Florian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kovacs, Peter [Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, ExtreMe Matter Institute, Darmstadt (Germany); Giacosa, Francesco [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Jan-Kochanowski University, Institute of Physics, Kielce (Poland); Rischke, Dirk H. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University of Science and Technology of China, Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study and Department of Modern Physics, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2018-01-15

    The extended Linear Sigma Model is an effective hadronic model based on the linear realization of chiral symmetry SU(N{sub f}){sub L} x SU(N{sub f}){sub R}, with (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons as degrees of freedom. In this paper, we study the low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM) for N{sub f} = flavors by integrating out all fields except for the pions, the (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone bosons of chiral symmetry breaking. The resulting low-energy effective action is identical to Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) after choosing a representative for the coset space generated by chiral symmetry breaking and expanding it in powers of (derivatives of) the pion fields. The tree-level values of the coupling constants of the effective low-energy action agree remarkably well with those of ChPT. (orig.)

  3. Low-energy physics of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the low-energy properties of high temperature superconductors are dominated by the interaction between the mobile holes and a particular class of collective modes, corresponding to local large-amplitude low-energy fluctuations in the hole density. The latter are a consequence of the competition between the effects of long-range Coulomb interactions and the tendency of a low concentration of holes in an antiferromagnet to phase separate. The low-energy behavior of the system is governed by the same fixed point as the two-channel Kondo problem, which accounts for the ''universality'' of the properties of the cuprate superconductors. Predictions of the optical properties and the spin dynamics are compared with experiment. The pairing resonance of the two Kondo problem gives a mechanism of high temperature superconductivity with an unconventional symmetry of the order parameter

  4. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Strength at Low Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieja, K.

    2017-08-01

    A low-energy enhancement of radiative strength functions was deduced from recent experiments in several mass regions of nuclei, which is believed to impact considerably the calculated neutron capture rates. In this Letter we investigate the behavior of the low-energy γ -ray strength of the Sc 44 isotope, for the first time taking into account both electric and magnetic dipole contributions obtained coherently in the same theoretical approach. The calculations are performed using the large-scale shell-model framework in a full 1 ℏω s d -p f -g d s model space. Our results corroborate previous theoretical findings for the low-energy enhancement of the M 1 strength but show quite different behavior for the E 1 strength.

  5. Electron polarimetry at low energies in Hall C at JLab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskell, D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the majority of Jefferson Lab experiments require multi-GeV electron beams, there have been a few opportunities to make electron beam polarization measurements at rather low energies. This proceedings will discuss some of the practical difficulties encountered in performing electron polarimetry via Mo/ller scattering at energies on the order of a few hundred MeV. Prospects for Compton polarimetry at very low energies will also be discussed. While Mo/ller scattering is likely the preferred method for electron polarimetry at energies below 500 MeV, there are certain aspects of the polarimeter and experiment design that must be carefully considered

  6. A facility for low energy charged particle induced reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Singkarat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Intarasiri, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2000-01-01

    In Chiang Mai, a highly stable low energy ion accelerator (0 - 350 kV) facility is being established. A subnano-second pulsing system will be incorporated into the beam transport line. The detecting system will consist of a time-of-flight charged particle spectrometer and a high resolution gamma-ray system. The new facility will be used in the studies of low energy heavy ion backscattering and charged particle induced cross section measurement in the interests of material characterization and nucleosynthesis. (author)

  7. Scattering of polarized low-energy electrons by ferromagnetic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    A source of spin polarized electrons with remarkable characteristics based on negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs has recently been developed. It constitutes a unique tool to investigate spin dependent interactions in electron scattering processes. The characteristics and working principles of the source are briefly described. Some theoretical aspects of the scattering of polarized low-energy electrons by ferromagnetic metals are discussed. Finally, the results of the first polarized low-energy electron diffraction experiment using the NEA GaAs source are reviewed; they give information about the surface magnetization of ferromagnetic Ni (110). (Author) [pt

  8. Very low energy scanning electron microscopy in nanotechnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Ilona; Hovorka, Miloš; Mika, Filip; Mikmeková, Eliška; Mikmeková, Šárka; Pokorná, Zuzana; Frank, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, 8/9 (2012), s. 695-716 ISSN 1475-7435 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE08012; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA AV ČR IAA100650902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : scanning electron microscopy * very low energy electrons * cathode lens * grain contrast * strain contrast * imaging of participates * dopant contrast * very low energy STEM * graphene Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2012

  9. Obervations of low energy magnetospheric plasma outside the plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1985-01-01

    After some introductory discussions about morphological concepts and limitations of various measurement techniques, existing low energy plasma data, orginating primarily from the GEOS, Dynamics Explorer, and Prognoz spacecraft, is described and discussed. The plasmasphere measurements are not included (but for some observations of plasmasphere refilling). It is finally concluded that we are very far from a complete picture of the low-energy plasma component in the magnetosphere and that this problem has to be given high priority in planning payloads of future space plasma physics missions. (Author)

  10. Progress on a spherical TPC for low energy neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, S; Colas, P; Deschamps, H; Dolbeau, J; Fanourakis, G; Ribas, E Ferrer; Enqvist, T; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Y; Gorodetzky, P; Gounaris, G J; Gros, M; Irastorza, I G; Kousouris, K; Lepeltier, V; Morales, J; Patzak, T; Paschos, E A; Salin, P; Savvidis, I; Vergados, J D

    2006-01-01

    The new concept of the spherical TPC aims at relatively large target masses with low threshold and background, keeping an extremely simple and robust operation. Such a device would open the way to detect the neutrino-nucleus interaction, which, although a standard process, remains undetected due to the low energy of the neutrino-induced nuclear recoils. The progress in the development of the first 1 m 3 prototype at Saclay is presented. Other physics goals of such a device could include supernova detection, low energy neutrino oscillations and study of non-standard properties of the neutrino, among others

  11. Universality in low energy three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A.E.A.; Tomio, L; Frederico, T.

    1997-01-01

    The renormalizability of the quantum theory of non-relativistic three-body system with zero range interaction, warranties that all the low-energy three-body properties are well defined and the low-energy two-body and only one three-body physical information are known. Considering this observation, we have shown that the conditions for the occurrence of Efimov states can be easily reached with any model of short range potential where the three-body ground state and the corresponding binding energy of the subsystems are kept fixed. This approach was applied to the recently discovered halo nuclei. (author)

  12. Ultra-low-energy wide electron exposure unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonago, Akinobu; Oono, Yukihiko; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Kishimoto, Junichi; Wakamoto, Ikuo

    2001-01-01

    Heat and ultraviolet ray processes are used in surface dryness of paint, surface treatment of construction materials and surface sterilization of food containers. A process using a low-energy wide-area electron beam (EB) has been developed that features high speed and low drive cost. EB processing is not widespread in general industry, however, due to high equipment cost and difficult maintenance. We developed an ultra-low-energy wide-area electron beam exposure unit, the Mitsubishi Wide Electron Exposure Unit (MIWEL) to solve these problems. (author)

  13. Track structure for low energy ions including charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2002-01-01

    The model and development is described of a new generation of Monte Carlo track structure codes. The code LEAHIST simulates full slowing down of low-energy proton history tracks in the range 1 keV-1 MeV and the code LEAHIST simulates low-energy alpha particle history tracks in the range 1 keV-8 MeV in water. All primary ion interactions are followed down to 1 keV and all electrons to 1 eV. Tracks of secondary electrons ejected by ions were traced using the electron code KURBUC. Microdosimetric parameters derived by analysis of generated tracks are presented. (author)

  14. Occupant Experiences and Satisfaction with New Low-Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    -energy houses that meet the future lower energy requirements of the planned Danish Building Regulations 2015. The purpose was to study experiences and satisfaction among occupants living in new low-energy houses. It included i.a. overall satisfaction, perceived indoor climate and experiences and satisfaction...... be addressed in order to make low-energy houses attractive to ordinary people. Occupants experienced among other things noise from the technical installations and that it was too hot in summer and too cold in winter, that there were a series of problems with the technical installations and that their use...

  15. Emittance control in linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, R.D.

    1991-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the generation and control of the emittance in a next-generation linear collider. The beams are extracted from a damping ring and compressed in length by the first bunch compressor. They are then accelerated in a preaccelerator linac up to an energy appropriate for injection into a high gradient linac. In many designs this pre-acceleration is followed by another bunch compression to reach a short bunch. After acceleration in the linac, the bunches are finally focused transversely to a small spot. The proposed vertical beam sizes at the interaction point are the order of a few nanometers while the horizontal sizes are about a factor of 100 larger. This cross-sectional area is about a factor of 10 4 smaller than the SLC. However, the main question is: what are the tolerances to achieve such a small size, and how do they compare to present techniques for alignment and stability? These tolerances are very design dependent. Alignment tolerances in the linac can vary from 1 μm to 100 μm depending upon the basic approach. In this paper we discuss techniques of emittance generation and control which move alignment tolerances to the 100 μm range

  16. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  17. Utilization of low-energy electron accelerators in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    There are more than 20 electron accelerators in Korea. Most of those are installed in factories for heat-resistant cables, heat-shrinkable cables, radial tires, foams, tube/ films, curing, etc. Four low-energy electron accelerators are in operation for research purposes such as polymer modification, purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, modification of semiconductor characteristics, etc. (author)

  18. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 304 stainless steel. M GHORANNEVISS1, A SHOKOUHY1,∗, M M LARIJANI1,2,. S H HAJI HOSSEINI 1, M YARI1, A ANVARI4, M GHOLIPUR SHAHRAKI1,3,. A H SARI1 and M R HANTEHZADEH1. 1Plasma Physics Research Center, Science ...

  19. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyatzis, G. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: voyatzis@auth.gr; Vlahos, L. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ichtiaroglou, S. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2006-04-03

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  20. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2006-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state

  1. Low energy supersymmetric models for several generations and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, B.B.; Sarkar, U.

    1983-08-01

    It is found that by invoking additional horizontal gauge symmetries required to explain the generational structure the low energy standard supersymmetric unified theories avoid the renormalizable unsuppressed baryon number violating interactions in a natural way. Theories considered here are anomaly-free by construction. (author)

  2. Low energy house in existing buildings; Niedrigenergiehaus im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahner, G. [BDA, Stuttgart/Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Presented is an energetic sanitation of residential units in the frame of a German pilot program (''low energy houses in the existing building sector'') initiated by the ministry of traffic, civil engineering and city development. (GL)

  3. Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure: Low energy aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, W.

    1989-01-01

    The symmetries and currents of QCD at low energy and long wavelength are realized in the form of mesons, rather than quarks and gluons. In this talk I summarize the merits, but also the limits, of chiral non-linear meson theories and their soliton solutions, in descriptions of nucleon structure and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. (orig.)

  4. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...

  5. Overview of the low energy accelerator scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Mohd Rizal Ibrahim; Mohd Rizal Chulan Md Chulan; Azaman Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Rokiah Mohd Sabri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the specification of the low energy accelerator (Baby-EBM; Electron Beam Machine) scanning system. It comprises a discussion of coil inductance measurement, power supply design and the test results. The scanning horn system was completely assembled and tested; it was found that the system is able to scan the beam across the scanning window with a required beam profile. (Author)

  6. Low-energy nuclear reactions with double-solenoid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The University of Notre Dame, USA (Becchetti et al, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Res. A505, 377 (2003)) and later the University of São Paulo, Brazil (Lichtenthaler et al, Eur. Phys. J. A25, S-01, 733 (2005)) adopted a system based on superconducting solenoids to produce low-energy radioactive nuclear beams. In these systems ...

  7. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  8. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  9. Low-energy properties of fractional helical Luttinger liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, T.; Fritz, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371569559; Schuricht, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284690; Loss, D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the low-energy properties of (quasi) helical and fractional helical Luttinger liquids. In particular, we calculate the Drude peak of the optical conductivity, the density of states, as well as charge transport properties of the interacting system with and without attached Fermi liquid

  10. Utilization of low-energy electron accelerators in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Cheol

    2003-01-01

    There are more than 20 electron accelerators in Korea. Most of those are installed in factories for heat-resistant cables, heat-shrinkable cables, radial tires, foams, tube/ films, curing, etc. Four low-energy electron accelerators are in operation for research purposes such as polymer modification, purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, modification of semiconductor characteristics, etc. (author)

  11. Elastic scattering of low energy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittingham, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the theory of the elastic scattering of low energy γ rays is reviewed and a detailed analysis of the theoretical background to the recent calculation of Rayleigh scattering by W.R.Johnson and co-workers is presented

  12. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...

  13. Low-energy positron beams - origins, developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Charlton, M.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last 15 years there have been rapid advances in the technology associated with low-energy positron beams. The origins of these advances, and some of the major developments, are discussed. Some applications from the diverse fields of surface physics, atomic scattering and positronium studies are highlighted. (author)

  14. Performance of the Low-energy House in Sisimiut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Kragh, Jesper; Borchersen, Egil

    2009-01-01

    A low-energy house was built in Sisimiut, Greenland in 2004-05 and since its inauguration in April 2005, its performance and operation have been object of study for researchers and students. The house is characterised by a highly insulated building envelope, advanced windows and a ventilation sys...

  15. QCD at low energy: a many-body approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yépez-Martínez, T; Hess, P O; Lerma, S; Szczepaniak, A; Civitarese, O

    2011-01-01

    A review is given on recent results in the treatment of an arbitrary number of orbital levels in low energy QCD. For the pure quark part, analytic results for the dominant part of the Hamiltonian are presented. Possible extensions, including dynamic gluons, are discussed.

  16. Layout of the LER [Low Energy Ring] Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently been trying to accumulate all of the information necessary to decide on the layout of the regular curved arcs of the Low Energy Ring (LER) and there have been several ABC Notes published on different aspects of the problem. This note will describe the layout that has been derived from these considerations

  17. Low energy quasi free scattering on nuclear surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, S.

    1983-05-01

    The result of RGM calculation of low energy /sup 3/He(n, n)/sup 3/ He total elastic cross section does not agree well with experimental data for E/sub n/<1 MeV. This discrepancy can be improved by assuming lwo energy quasi-free scattering of particles beyond the nuclear surface.

  18. Working group report: Low energy and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is a report of the low energy and flavour physics working group at ... that calculates the non-leptonic decay amplitudes including the long-distance con- tributions. There were three lectures that lasted for over seven hours, and were.

  19. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion ...

  20. Low energy p anti p strong interactions: theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Several of the frontier problems in low energy nucleon-antinucleon phenomenology are addressed. Spin observables and dynamical selection rules in N anti N annihilation are used as examples of phenomena which offer particularly strong constraints on theoretical models, formulated either in terms of meson and baryon exchange or as effective operators in a non-perturbative quark-gluon picture. 24 refs

  1. Lower Emittance Lattice for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Using Reverse Bending Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.; Berenc, T.; Sun, Y.; Sajaev, V.

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is pursuing an upgrade to the storage ring to a hybrid seven-bend-achromat design [1]. The nominal design provides a natural emittance of 67 pm [2]. By adding reverse dipole fields to several quadrupoles [3, 4] we can reduce the natural emittance to 41 pm while simultaneously providing more optimal beta functions in the insertion devices and increasing the dispersion function at the chromaticity sextupole magnets. The improved emittance results from a combination of increased energy loss per turn and a change in the damping partition. At the same time, the nonlinear dynamics performance is very similar, thanks in part to increased dispersion in the sextupoles. This paper describes the properties, optimization, and performance of the new lattice.

  2. Coupling single emitters to quantum plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the controlled coupling of single-photon emitters to propagating surface plasmons has been intensely studied, which is fueled by the prospect of a giant photonic nonlinearity on a nanoscaled platform. In this article, we will review the recent progress on coupling single emitters...

  3. Low energy ring lattice of the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Ritson, D.M.; Yan, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Developing a lattice that contains a very low beta value at the interaction point (IP) and has adequate dynamic aperture is one of the major challenges in designing the PEP-II asymmetric B-factory. For the Low Energy Ring (LER) the authors have studied several different chromatic correction schemes since the conceptual design report (CDR). Based on these studies, a hybrid solution with local and semi-local chromatic sextupoles has been selected as the new baseline lattice to replace the local scheme in the CDR. The new design simplifies the interaction region (IR) and reduces the number of sextupoles in the arcs. Arc sextupoles are paired at π phase difference and are not interleaved. In this paper the authors describe the baseline lattice with the emphasis on the lattice changes made since the CDR

  4. Emittance measurements of the CLIO electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, R.; Devanz, G.; Joly, P.; Kergosien, B.; Lesrel, J.

    1997-02-01

    We have designed a setup to measure the transverse emittance at the CLIO accelerator exit, based on the "3 gradients" method. The beam transverse size is measured simply by scanning it with a steering coil across a fixed jaw and recording the transmitted current, at various quadrupole strengths. A code then performs a complete calculation of the emittance using the transfer matrix of the quadrupole instead of the usual classical lens approximation. We have studied the influence of various parameters on the emittance: Magnetic field on the e-gun and the peak current. We have also improved a little the emittance by replacing a mismatched pipe between the buncher and accelerating section to avoid wake-field effects; The resulting improvements of the emittance have led to an increase in the FEL emitted power.

  5. GaAs low-energy X-ray radioluminescence nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Rong; Liu, Yun-Peng; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Yuan, Zi-Cheng; Liu, Kai; Chen, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The output properties of X-ray radioluminescence (RL) nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers were investigated by using low-energy X-ray. Results indicated that the values of electrical parameters increased as the X-ray energy increased, and the output power of nuclear battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer was greater than those of batteries with ZnS:Ag, (Zn,Cd)S:Cu or Y2O3:Eu phosphor layers under the same excitation conditions. To analyze the RL effects of the phosphor layers under X-ray excitation, we measured the RL spectra of the different phosphor layers. Their fluorescence emissions were absorbed by the GaAs device. In addition, considering luminescence utilization in batteries, we introduced an aluminum (Al) film between the X-ray emitter and phosphor layer. Al film is a high performance reflective material and can increase the fluorescence reaching the GaAs photovoltaic device. This approach significantly improved the output power of the battery.

  6. Space charge compensation on the low energy beam transport of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)733270; Scrivens, Richard; Jesus Castillo, Santos

    Part of the upgrade program in the injector chains of the CERN accelerator complex is the replacement of the the proton accelerator Linac2 for the brand new Linac4 which will accelerate H$^-$ and its main goal is to increase the beam intensity in the next sections of the LHC accelerator chain. The Linac4 is now under commissioning and will use several ion sources to produce high intensity unbunched H$^-$ beams with different properties, and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) is the system in charge of match all these different beams to the Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The space charge forces that spread the beam ions apart of each other and cause emittance growth limits the maximum intensity that can be transported in the LEBT, but the space charge of intense unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the generated ions by the impact ionization of the residual gas, which creates a source of secondary particles inside the beam pipe. For negative ion beams, the effect of the beam electric field is to ex...

  7. Design study of low-energy beam transport for multi-charge beams at RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Qiang, Ji; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-12-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) is being designed to simultaneously accelerate beams with multiple charge states. It includes a driver superconducting (SC) linac for producing 200 MeV/u and 400 kW continuous wave (CW) heavy ion beams from protons to uranium. The RAON consists of a few electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, a CW 81.25 MHz, 500 keV/u radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport system, the SC linac, and a charge-stripper system. The LEBT system for the RISP accelerator facility consists of a high-voltage platform, two 90° dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles, a velocity equalizer, and a diagnostic system. The ECR ion sources are located on a high-voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 10 keV/u. After extraction, the ion beam is transported through the LEBT system to the RFQ accelerator. The generated charge states are selected by an achromatic bending system and then bunched by the MHB in the LEBT system. The MHB is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ by generating a sawtooth wave with three harmonics. In this paper, we present the results and issues of the beam dynamics of the LEBT system.

  8. Design study of low-energy beam transport for multi-charge beams at RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Qiang, Ji [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Graduate School, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 30019 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-21

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) is being designed to simultaneously accelerate beams with multiple charge states. It includes a driver superconducting (SC) linac for producing 200 MeV/u and 400 kW continuous wave (CW) heavy ion beams from protons to uranium. The RAON consists of a few electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, a CW 81.25 MHz, 500 keV/u radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport system, the SC linac, and a charge-stripper system. The LEBT system for the RISP accelerator facility consists of a high-voltage platform, two 90° dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles, a velocity equalizer, and a diagnostic system. The ECR ion sources are located on a high-voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 10 keV/u. After extraction, the ion beam is transported through the LEBT system to the RFQ accelerator. The generated charge states are selected by an achromatic bending system and then bunched by the MHB in the LEBT system. The MHB is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ by generating a sawtooth wave with three harmonics. In this paper, we present the results and issues of the beam dynamics of the LEBT system.

  9. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delferriere, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-01-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D + extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D + ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H + beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements

  10. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  11. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  12. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  13. Assessing sample attenuation parameters for use in low-energy efficiency transfer in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, M.; Verheyen, L.; Vidmar, T.; Liu, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical fitting method for transmission data that outputs an equivalent sample composition. This output is used as input to a generalised efficiency transfer model based on the EFFTRAN software integrated in a LIMS. The procedural concept allows choosing between efficiency transfer with a predefined sample composition or with an experimentally determined composition based on a transmission measurement. The method can be used for simultaneous quantification of low-energy gamma emitters like "2"1"0Pb, "2"4"1Am, "2"3"4Th in typical environmental samples. - Highlights: • New fitting method for experimentally determined attenuation coefficients. • Generalised efficiency transfer with EFFTRAN based on transmission measurements. • Method of generalized efficiency transfer integrated in LIMS. • Method applicable to gamma-ray spectrometry of environmental samples.

  14. Low energy proton irradiation effects on InP/InGaAs DHBTs and InP-base frequency dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyao; Li, Yudong; Guo, Qi; Feng, Jie

    2018-03-01

    InP/InGaAs DHBTs and frequency dividers are irradiated by low energy proton, and displacement damage effect of the devices are analyzed. InP/InGaAs DHBTs has been made DC characteristics measurements, and the function measurement for frequency dividers has been done both before and after proton irradiation. The breakdown voltage of InP DHBTs drop to 3.7V When the fluence up to 5x1013 protons/cm2. Meanwhile, the function of frequency dividers get out of order. Degradation of DC characteristics of DHBTs are due to the radiation-induced defects in the quasi neutral base and the space charge region of base-collector and base-emitter junctions. The performance deterioration of DHBTs induce the fault of frequency dividers, and prescaler may be the most sensitive circuit.

  15. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  16. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F; Kruppi, T; Müller, J; Dörner, R; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Stiebing, K E

    2015-01-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections. (paper)

  17. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by γ-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with γ-ray should be carried out. (author)

  18. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by {gamma}-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with {gamma}-ray should be carried out. (author)

  19. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  20. Low-energy restoration of parity and maximal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.; Sarkar, U.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal symmetry of fermions of one generation, SU(16), which includes the left-right-symmetric Pati-Salam group, SU(4)/sub c/ x SU(2) /sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/, as a subgroup, allows the possibility of a low-energy (M/sub R/approx.100 GeV) breaking of the left-right symmetry. It is known that such a low-energy restoration of parity can be consistent with weak-interaction phenomenology. We examine different chains of descent of SU(16) that admit a low value of M/sub R/ and determine the other intermediate symmetry-breaking mass scales associated with each of these chains. These additional mass scales provide an alternative to the ''great desert'' expected in some grand unifying models. The contributions of the Higgs fields in the renormalization-group equations are retained and are found to be important

  1. Experimental nuclear physics research challenges at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E.; Morales G, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Murillo O, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Experimental research with low energy beams of ions (a few MeV) in nuclear physics has gone through a phase transition along its evolution in fifty years because of the increasing complexity (and cost) of the equipment required to conduct meaningful investigations. Many of the small cyclotrons and Van de Graaff (single ended and tandem) accelerators have been used for the last three decades mostly in applications related to the characterization and modification of materials. Specific experimental investigations in nuclear physics with low energy accelerators are proposed in this work. Specifically we discuss the topic of nuclear radii measurements of radioactive species produced via (d,n) reactions. Some emphasis is given to the instrumentation required. (Author)

  2. Si etching with reactive neutral beams of very low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuhiro [Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-chou, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwata, Naotaka; Hara, Tamio [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    A Si etching process has been investigated with reactive neutral beams (NBs) extracted using a low acceleration voltage of less than 100 V from CF{sub 4} and Ar mixed plasmas. The etched Si profile shows that the etching process is predominantly anisotropic. The reactive NB has a constant Si etching rate in the acceleration voltage range from 20 V to 80 V. It is considered that low-energy NBs can trigger Si etching because F radicals adsorb onto the Si surface and weaken Si–Si bonds. The etching rate per unit beam flux is 33 times higher than that with Ar NB. These results show that the low-energy reactive NB is useful for damage-free high speed Si etching.

  3. Diagnosis and dynamics of low energy electron beams using DIADYN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghitu, S.; Oproiu, C.; Toader, D.; Ruset, C.; Grigore, E.; Marghitu, O.; Vasiliu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents original results concerning electron beam diagnosis and dynamics using DIADYN, a low energy (10 - 50 kV), medium intensity (0.1 - 1 A) laboratory equipment. A key stage in the operation of DIADYN is the beam diagnosis, performed by the non-destructive, modified three-gradient method (MTGM). We concentrate on the better use of experimental and computational techniques, in order to improve the consistency of the results. At present, DIADYN is equipped with a hot filament vacuum electron source (VES), consisting of a convergent Pierce diode, working in a pulse mode. Since the plasma electron sources (PES) have a longer lifetime and produce higher beam currents, we discuss the possibility to replace the VES with a PES. Special attention is given to VES results in a functioning regime typical for a low energy glow discharge PES. (authors)

  4. Diagnosis and dynamics of low energy electron beams using DIADYN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marghitu, S [Electrostatica, ICPE-CA S.A., Spaiul Unirii 313, Sector 3, RO-74204 Bucharest (Romania); Oproiu, C; Toader, D; Ruset, C; Grigore, E [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-36, 409 Atomistilor Street, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Marghitu, O [Institute for Space Sciences, INCDLPFR, PO Box MG-23, RO-76911 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Vasiliu, M [Politehnica University, 313 Splaiul Independentei, RO-060032, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents original results concerning electron beam diagnosis and dynamics using DIADYN, a low energy (10 - 50 kV), medium intensity (0.1 - 1 A) laboratory equipment. A key stage in the operation of DIADYN is the beam diagnosis, performed by the non-destructive, modified three-gradient method (MTGM). We concentrate on the better use of experimental and computational techniques, in order to improve the consistency of the results. At present, DIADYN is equipped with a hot filament vacuum electron source (VES), consisting of a convergent Pierce diode, working in a pulse mode. Since the plasma electron sources (PES) have a longer lifetime and produce higher beam currents, we discuss the possibility to replace the VES with a PES. Special attention is given to VES results in a functioning regime typical for a low energy glow discharge PES. (authors)

  5. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  6. Energy performance of the low-energy house in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    by ventilation heat recovery (90% efficiency) specially designed for arctic conditions, by using thicker insulation in walls (300 mm) and roof/floor (350 mm), and by using solar hot water heating (3250 kWh/year). The building is intended to enhance sustainability in the building sector in Greenland....... energy gain, efficient ventilation system with heat recovery and solar heating. In this paper the results of a calculation of the energy consumption of low-energy house is presented. The calculation was done using the program BSim2002 [1] and a new weather test reference year based on climatic data......The object of the low-energy house in Sisimiut in Greenland was to build a house with an energy consumption less than 80 kWh/m² corresponding to half the energy frame of the coming building code. Therefore the focus in this project has been on large insulation thicknesses, windows with high net...

  7. Challenges in validating radiation sterilization with low energy electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.; Helt-Hansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Low energy electron irradiation (80-300 keV) is used increasingly for sterilization or decontamination in connection with isolators for aseptic filling lines in the pharmaceutical industry. It is not defined how validation for this process shall be carried out. A method can be derived from the medical device standard for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137, because the principles described in this standard can be applied to almost any industrial irradiation process. The validations elements are: Process definition, concerning specification of the dose required for the process and the maximum acceptable dose for the product. Installation qualification, concerning acceptance the irradiation facility. Operational qualification, concerning characterization of the facility. Performance qualification, concerning setting up the process. Process control, concerning routine monitoring. The limited penetration of the low energy electrons leads to problems with respect to executing these validation steps. This paper discusses these problems, and shows with examples how they can be solved.

  8. Consumer Unit for Low Energy District Heating Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Otto; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    to reduce heat loss in the network. The consumer’s installation is a unit type with an accumulation tank for smoothing the heat load related to the domestic hot water. The building heat load is delivered by an under-floor heating system. The heavy under-floor heating system is assumed to smooth the room...... heat load on a daily basis, having a flow temperature control based on outdoor climate. The unit is designed for a near constant district heating water flow. The paper describes two concepts. The analyses are based on TRNSYS (Klein et al., 2006) simulation, supplied with laboratory verification......A low energy/ low temperature consumer installation is designed and analyzed. The consumer type is a low energy single family house 145 m2 with annual energy consumption in the range of 7000 kWh, incl. domestic hot water in a 2800 degree day climate. The network is an extreme low temperature system...

  9. Low-energy neutral current phenomenology and grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Aguila, F.; Mendez, A.

    1981-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by any expanded electroweak gauge model in order to reproduce the standard model low-energy neutral current predictions. These conditions imply several constraints on the neutral gauge boson masses and the quantum number assignments for the ordinary fermions. Using these conditions, we prove that the popular grand unified theories based on the gauge groups SO(10) and E6 can only accommodate trivial extensions of the standard model. As a consequence, if any of these grand unified models works at some energy scale, present low-energy neutral current phenomenology implies that the Z-boson must be produced with the expected mass and couplings to the ordinary fermions. Any additional neutral gauge boson (with the possible exception of very heavy ones) could only be produced in hadronic collisions and it would not decay in e + e - . (orig.)

  10. The Phobos low energy telescope charged particle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, R.G.; Henrion, J.P.G.; Wenzel, K.P. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Space Science Dept.); Afonin, V.V. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij); Balazs, A.; Erdoes, G.; Rusznyak, P.; Somogyi, A.; Szalai, S.; Varga, A.; Varhalmi, L. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics); Richter, A.K.; Witte, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-05-01

    The Low Energy Telescope (LET) experiment on board the Phobos 1 and 2 spacecraft measures the flux, energy spectra and elemental composition of solar energetic particles and cosmic ray nuclei from hydrogen up to iron in the energy range {proportional to}1 to {proportional to}75 MeV/n. The LET sensor system comprises a double dE/dX vs E solid-state detector telescope surrounded by a cylindrical plastic scintillator anticoincidence shield, and the instrument is equipped with a comprehensive particle identifier and event priority system that enables rare nuclei to be analysed in preference to the more common species. Isotope separation for light nuclei such as He is also achieved. The sensor is mounted on a rotating platform to enable coarse anisotropy measurements of low energy protons to be made. (orig.).

  11. Luminescence model with quantum impact parameter for low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, H.S.; Michaelian, K.; Galindo U, S.; Martinez D, A.; Belmont M, E.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical model of induced light production in scintillator materials by energetic ions proposed by Michaelian and Menchaca (M-M) adjusts very well the luminescence substance data in a wide energy interval of the incident ions (10-100 MeV). However at low energies, that is, under to 10 MeV, the experimental deviations of the predictions of M-M model, show that the causes may be certain physical effects, all they important at low energies, which were not considered. We have modified lightly the M-M model using the basic fact that the Quantum mechanics gives to a different limit for the quantum impact parameter instead of the classic approximation. (Author)

  12. Comparison Study on Low Energy Physics Model of GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, So Hyun; Jung, Won Gyun; Suh, Tae Suk

    2010-01-01

    The Geant4 simulation toolkit provides improved or renewed physics model according to the version. The latest Geant4.9.3 which has been recoded by developers applies inserted Livermore data and renewed physics model to the low energy electromagnetic physics model. And also, Geant4.9.3 improved the physics factors by modified code. In this study, the stopping power and CSDA(Continuously Slowing Down Approximation) range data of electron or particles were acquired in various material and then, these data were compared with NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology) data. Through comparison between data of Geant4 simulation and NIST, the improvement of physics model on low energy electromagnetic of Geant4.9.3 was evaluated by comparing the Geant4.9.2

  13. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, F.; Kruppi, T.; Müller, J.; Dörner, R.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections.

  14. Beam diagnostics using an emittance measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Becker, R.; Klein, H.; Maaser, A.; Mueller, J.; Thomae, R.; Weber, M.

    1995-01-01

    For beam diagnostics aside from Faraday cups for current measurements and analysing magnets for the determination of beam composition and energy the most important tool is an emittance measurement device. With such a system the distribution of the beam particles in phase-space can be determined. This yields information not only on the position of the particles but also on their angle with respect to the beam axis. There are different kinds of emittance measurement devices using either circular holes or slits for separation of part of the beam. The second method (slit-slit measurement), though important for the determination of the rms-emittance, has the disadvantage of integrating over the y- and y'-coordinate (measurement in xx'-plane assumed). This leads to different emittance diagrams than point-point measurements, since in xx'-plane for each two corresponding points of rr'-plane there exists a connecting line. With regard to beam aberrations this makes xx'-emittances harder to interpret. In this paper the two kinds of emittance diagrams are discussed. Additionally the influence of the slit height on the xx'-emittance is considered. The analytical results are compared to experimental measurements in rr'-, rx'- and xx'-phase-space. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Beamstrahlung on Bunch Length and Emittance in Future Circular e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Valdivia Garcia, Marco Alan

    2016-01-01

    In future circular e+e− colliders, beamstrahlung may limit the beam lifetime at high energies, and increase the energy spread and bunch length at low energies. If the dispersion or slope of the dispersion is not zero at the collision point, beamstrahlung will also affect the transverse emittance. In this paper, we first examine the beamstrahlung properties, and show that for the proposed FCC-ee, the radiation is fairly well modelled by the classical formulae describing synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. We then derive a set of equations determining the equilibrium emittances in the presence of a nonzero dispersion at the collision point. An example case from FCC-ee will serve as an illustration.

  16. A linear radiofrequency ion trap for accumulation, bunching, and emittance improvement of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Dilling, J.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2000-05-01

    An ion beam cooler and buncher has been developed for the manipulation of radioactive ion beams. The gas-filled linear radiofrequency ion trap system is installed at the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. Its purpose is to accumulate the 60-keV continuous ISOLDE ion beam with high efficiency and to convert it into low-energy low-emittance ion pulses. The efficiency was found to exceed 10% in agreement with simulations. A more than 10-fold reduction of the ISOLDE beam emittance can be achieved. The system has been used successfully for first on-line experiments. Its principle, setup and performance will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  18. Low energy pion--nucleon and pion--deuteron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    This survey concentrates upon current experiments in the fields of pion-nucleon and pion-deuteron interactions, for low-energy incident pions--below 300 MeV. The discussion is restricted to very recent work. The topics to be covered are: π +- p → π +- p, Elastic Scattering; π +- p → π +- pγ, Bremsstrahlung; π + d → pp, Absorption; π d → π + d, Elastic Scattering; and π + d → π + pn, Breakup. (14 figures) (U.S.)

  19. Low Energy Supersymmetry from the Heterotic String Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, O; Raby, S; Ramos-Sanchez, S; Ratz, M; Vaudrevange, P K S; Wingerter, A; Lebedev, Oleg; Nilles, Hans-Peter; Raby, Stuart; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K. S.; Wingerter, Akin

    2007-01-01

    We study possible correlations between properties of the observable and hidden sectors in heterotic string theory. Specifically, we analyze the case of the Z6-II orbifold compactification which produces a significant number of models with the spectrum of the supersymmetric standard model. We find that requiring realistic features does affect the hidden sector such that hidden sector gauge group factors SU(4) and SO(8) are favoured. In the context of gaugino condensation, this implies low energy supersymmetry breaking.

  20. Low Energy Electron Gun on Board a Scientific Satellite GEOTAIL

    OpenAIRE

    TSUTSUI, Minoru; ONISHI, Yoshiaki; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; KIMURA, Iwane; 筒井, 稔; 大西, 嘉昭; 松本, 紘; 木村, 磐根

    1988-01-01

    A low energy electron gun to be used for beam-plasma interaction experiments by a scientific satellite GEOTAIL has been designed and manufactured. Electrodes of the gun have been modified from the Pierce type gun because of the use of a directly heated cathode. Spatial density distributions of beam electrons emitted from the new gun have been measured in a large vacuum chamber, and characteristic curves of emission currents for some beam energies and cathode powers have been checked repeatedl...

  1. Practical Use of Scanning Low Energy Electron Microscope (SLEEM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Ilona; Mikmeková, Eliška; Mikmeková, Šárka; Konvalina, Ivo; Frank, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1650-1651 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scanning low energy * SLEEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  2. The TRIUMF low energy pion spectrometer and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobie, R.J.; Drake, T.E.; Barnett, B.M.; Erdman, K.L.; Gyles, W.; Johnson, R.R.; Roser, H.W.; Tacik, R.; Blackmore, E.W.; Gill, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    A low energy pion spectrometer has been developed for use with the TRIUMF M13 pion channel. The combined channel and spectrometer resolution is presently 1.1 MeV at T = 50 MeV. This is limited by the amount of gas and detector material in the spectrometer in addition to the inherent resolution of the channel. Improvements to both the spectrometer and channel are discussed

  3. Delayed hot spots in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, R.K.; Shyam, A.

    1991-01-01

    In a low energy Mather-type plasma focus device, hot spots having temperature in the range of few keV have been observed even 1 μs after the pinch disintegration and in regions away from the pinch area. These hot spots are perhaps created by the thermal runaway due to temperature fluctuations in the background gas. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  4. Programs for low-energy nuclear physics data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antuf'ev, Yu.P.; Dejneko, A.S.; Ekhichev, O.I.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Mashkarov, Yu.G.; Nemashkalo, B.A.; Skakun, E.A.; Storizhko, V.E.; Shlyakhov, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose of six computer programs developed in KhPTI of AN USSR for the processing of the experimental data on low energy nuclear physics ia friendly described. The programs are written in Algol-60 language. They are applied to some types of nuclear reactions and permit to process differential cross sections and γ spectra, to compute statistical tensors and excitation functions as well as to analyze some processes by means of theoretical models

  5. Radiation processing of natural polymers using low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing is widely used in Japan and the economic scale of radiation application amounted to about 71 b$ (ratio relative to GDP: 1.7%) in total. It consisted of 60 b$ (85%) in industry, 10 b$ (14%) in medicine and 1 b$ (1%) in agriculture. Irradiation using gamma-ray from 60 Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Utilization of natural polymers by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. Low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation has a variety of applications and good safety. A self-shielded low energy electron accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a 60 Co facility. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective not only for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides but also for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  6. Method of making a low energy gamma ray collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, Gerd.

    1975-01-01

    Described herein is a method for making a low energy gamma ray collimator which involves corrugating lead foil strips by passing them through pinion wire rollers and gluing corrugated strips between straight strips using an adhesive such as epoxy to build up a honeycomb-like structure. A thin aluminum sheet is glued to both edges of the strips to protect them and to provide a more rigid assembly which may be sawed to a desired shape. (Patent Office Record)

  7. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems

  8. Sausage instability threshold in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Nasir, M.; Khattak, F.Y.; Murtaza, G.

    1993-01-01

    Development of sausage instability (m = 0 mode) is studied in a small low energy Mather-type plasma focus. A shadow graphic study of the current sheath has shown that the focused plasma necks off during the radial phase before the maximum compression. This may indicate the lowering of the instability threshold. Three hook-type structures are observed which may not be due to the multifoci formation. The bubble shape structure is observed to be developed in the expansion phase. (author)

  9. Low energy He+ irradiation effect on graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, E.; Nakamura, K.G.; Kitajima, M.; Kawabe, T.

    1992-01-01

    Study on the lattice disordering and the secondary electron emission under low energy (1-5keV) He + irradiation is reported. Real-time Raman measurements show that difference in the observed Raman spectra for different ion energies is due to the difference of the damage depth. The relation between the observed Raman spectrum and the depth profile of lattice damage is discussed. Energy dependence of the secondary electron emission coefficient are also described. (author)

  10. Low-energy phenomenology of a realistic composite model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpa, C.; Ryzak, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The low-energy limit of the strongly coupled standard model (Abbott-Farhi composite model) is analyzed. The effects of the excited W isotriplet and isoscalar bosons are investigated and compared with experimental data. As a result, constraints on parameters (masses, coupling constants, etc.) of these vector bosons are obtained. They are not severe enough (certain cancellations are possible) to exclude the model on experimental basis

  11. Overview of Light Hydrogen-Based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

  12. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons by hydrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, L.C.G.; Mu-Tao, L.; Botelho, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The coherent version of the Renormalized Multiple-Centre Potential Model (RMPM) has been extended to treat the elastic scattering of low energy electrons by H2 molecule. The intramolecular Multiple Scattering (MS) effect has also been included. The comparison against the experimental data shows that the inclusion of the MS improves significantly with experiment. The extension of the present method to study electron-polyatomic molecule interaction is also discussed. (author) [pt

  13. Generation of low-energy muons with laser resonant ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Iwasaki, M.; Matsuzaki, T.; Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Strasser, P.; Shimomura, K.; Makimura, S.; Nagamine, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a low-energy muSR spectrometer at RIKEN-RAL muon facility in ISIS, the UK. With low-background of pulsed muon beam, and short pulse width from laser resonant ionization method, it is hoped this instrument will open new possibilities for studies of material sciences with muon beam. It is enphasized that this method is well suited to the facility where intense pulsed proton beam is available

  14. Low Energy Contrast of Metal Matrix Composite in SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Matsuda, K.; Hrnčiřík, Petr; Müllerová, Ilona

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, Sup. 3 (2003), s. 328 - 329 ISSN 1431-9276. [MC 2003. Dresden, 07.09.2003-12.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1065304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy contrasts * scanning electron microscope * aluminium alloys Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2003

  15. Nuclear reactions video (knowledge base on low energy nuclear physics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Kozhin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The NRV (nuclear reactions video) is an open and permanently extended global system of management and graphical representation of nuclear data and video-graphic computer simulation of low energy nuclear dynamics. It consists of a complete and renewed nuclear database and well known theoretical models of low energy nuclear reactions altogether forming the 'low energy nuclear knowledge base'. The NRV solves two main problems: 1) fast and visualized obtaining and processing experimental data on nuclear structure and nuclear reactions; 2) possibility for any inexperienced user to analyze experimental data within reliable commonly used models of nuclear dynamics. The system is based on the realization of the following principal things: the net and code compatibility with the main existing nuclear databases; maximal simplicity in handling: extended menu, friendly graphical interface, hypertext description of the models, and so on; maximal visualization of input data, dynamics of studied processes and final results by means of real three-dimensional images, plots, tables and formulas and a three-dimensional animation. All the codes are composed as the real Windows applications and work under Windows 95/NT

  16. Low Energy Electrons in the Mars Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The ionosphere of Mars is rather poorly understood. The only direct measurements were performed by the Viking 1 and 2 landers in 1976, both of which carried a Retarding Potential Analyzer. The RPA was designed to measure ion properties during the descent, although electron fluxes were estimated from changes in the ion currents. Using these derived low-energy electron fluxes, Mantas and Hanson studied the photoelectron and the solar wind electron interactions with the atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars. Unanswered questions remain regarding the origin of the low-energy electron fluxes in the vicinity of the Mars plasma boundary. Crider, in an analysis of Mars Global Surveyor Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer measurements, has attributed the formation of the magnetic pile-up boundary to electron impact ionization of exospheric neutral species by solar wind electrons. However, the role of photoelectrons escaping from the lower ionosphere was not determined. In the proposed work, we will examine the role of solar wind and ionospheric photoelectrons in producing ionization in the upper ionosphere of Mars. Low-energy (internal (photoelectron) sources of ionization, and accounts for Auger electron production. The code will be used to analyze Mars Global Surveyor measurements of solar wind and photoelectrons down to altitudes below 200 km in the Mars ionosphere, in order to determine the relative roles of solar wind and escaping photoelectrons in maintaining plasma densities in the region of the Mars plasma boundary.

  17. Colorado School of Mines low energy nuclear physics project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    A major accomplishment of this project in the past year is the completion of a fairly comprehensive paper describing the survey of radiative capture reactions of protons on light nuclei at low energies. In addition we have completed a preliminary set of measurements of (d,p)/(d,α) cross section ratios on the charge symmetric nuclei 6 Li and 10 B as a test of the Oppenheimer-Phillips effect. While the 6 Li data remain inconclusive, the 10 B data show solid evidence for the Oppenheimer-Phillips enhancement of the (d,p) reaction relative to the (d,α) reaction for deuteron bombarding energies below about 100 keV. We have continued our investigation of fusion reaction products from deuterium-metal systems at room temperatures with the startling observation of intense burst of energetic charged particles from deuterium gas loaded thin titaium foils subject to non-equilibrium thermal and electrical conditions. We have completed two projects involving the application of the low energy particle accelerator to material science problems; firstly a study of the transformation of crystalline to amorphous Fe-Zr systems by proton irradiation and secondly the effects of ion bombardment on the critical temperature of YBCO high-temperature superconductors. Finally we have made progress in several instrumentation projects which will be used in some of the up-coming measurements of nuclear cross sections at very low energies

  18. Ultra-low energy storage ring at FLAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Carsten P.; Papash, A. I.; Gorda, O.; Harasimowicz, J.; Karamyshev, O.; Karamysheva, G.; Newton, D.; Panniello, M.; Putignano, M.; Siggel-King, M. R. F.; Smirnov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Ultra-low energy electrostatic Storage Ring (USR) at the future Facility for Low-energy Antiproton and Ion Research (FLAIR) will provide cooled beams of antiprotons in the energy range between 300 keV down to 20 keV and possibly less. The USR has been completely redesigned over the past three years. The ring structure is based on a “split achromat” lattice that allows in-ring experiments with internal gas jet target. Beam parameters might be adjusted in a wide range: from very short pulses in the nanosecond regime to a Coasting beam. In addition, a combined fast and slow extraction scheme was developed that allows for providing external experiments with cooled beams of different time structure. Detailed investigations of the USR, including studies into the ring’s long term beam dynamics, life time, equilibrium momentum spread and equilibrium lateral spread during collisions with an internal target were carried out. New tools and beam handling techniques for diagnostics of ultra-low energy ions at beam intensities less than 10 6 were developed by the QUASAR Group. In this paper, progress on the USR project will be presented with an emphasis on the expected beam parameters available to the experiments at FLAIR.

  19. Energy sharing and sputtering in low-energy collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.A.; Weller, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Using a non-linear transport equation to describe the energy-sharing process in an isotropic collision cascade, we have numerically calculated sputtered particle velocity spectra for several very low energy (=< 10 eV) primary recoil distributions. Our formulation of the sputtering process is essentially that used in the linear model and our equations yield the familiar linear model results in the appropriate limit. Discrepancies between our calculations and the linear model results in other cases may be understood by considering the effects of the linear model assumptions on the sputtering yield at very low energies. Our calculations are also compared with recent experimental results investigating ion-explosion sputtering. The results of this comparison support the conclusion that in insulators sputtering is initiated by very low energy recoil atoms when the energy of the incident beam is high enough that the stopping power is dominated by the electronic contribution. The calculations also suggest that energy spectra similar to those for evaporation may result from non-equilibrium processes but that the apparent temperatures of evaporation are not related in a simple way to any real temperature within the target. (author)

  20. Improving Indoor Localization Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kriz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes basic principles of a radio-based indoor localization and focuses on the improvement of its results with the aid of a new Bluetooth Low Energy technology. The advantage of this technology lies in its support by contemporary mobile devices, especially by smartphones and tablets. We have implemented a distributed system for collecting radio fingerprints by mobile devices with the Android operating system. This system enables volunteers to create radio-maps and update them continuously. New Bluetooth Low Energy transmitters (Apple uses its “iBeacon” brand name for these devices have been installed on the floor of the building in addition to existing WiFi access points. The localization of stationary objects based on WiFi, Bluetooth Low Energy, and their combination has been evaluated using the data measured during the experiment in the building. Several configurations of the transmitters’ arrangement, several ways of combination of the data from both technologies, and other parameters influencing the accuracy of the stationary localization have been tested.

  1. Scanning ion microscopy with low energy lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twedt, Kevin A.; Chen, Lei; McClelland, Jabez J.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms, we have developed a scanning ion microscope with probe sizes of a few tens of nanometers and beam energies from 500 eV to 5 keV. These beam energies are much lower than the typical operating energies of the helium ion microscope or gallium focused ion beam systems. We demonstrate how low energy can be advantageous in ion microscopy when detecting backscattered ions, due to a decreased interaction volume and the potential for surface sensitive composition analysis. As an example application that demonstrates these advantages, we non-destructively image the removal of a thin residual resist layer during plasma etching in a nano-imprint lithography process. - Highlights: • We use an ion source based on photoionization of laser-cooled lithium atoms. • The ion source makes possible a low energy (500 eV to 5 keV) scanning ion microscope. • Low energy is preferred for ion microscopy with backscattered ions. • We use the microscope to image a thin resist used in nano-imprint lithography

  2. Beam emittance measurement from CERN thermionic guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.; Rao, R.; Rinolfi, L.

    1992-01-01

    In the LEP Injector Linacs (LIL) a thermionic gun provides electron beams with different peak intensities at an energy of 80 keV. The beam emittances were estimated from the EGUN programme. Since the gun is of triode type, the main contribution to the emittance comes from the grid. The simulation programme does not model the real geometry by assuming a cylindrical symmetry, while the grid does not have such symmetry. A Gun Test Facility (GTF), allowing emittance measurements, based on the 3-gradients-method was installed. The experimental results are presented. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  3. AstroBox: A novel detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollacco, E., E-mail: epollacco@cea.fr [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trache, L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Roeder, B.T., E-mail: broeder@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Tribble, R.E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Pascovici, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Kebbiri, M.; Mols, J.P.; Raillot, M. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-21

    An instrument, AstroBox, has been developed to perform low energy proton spectroscopy from β-delayed proton emitters of interest to astrophysics studies. Energetic precursor nuclei are identified and stopped in the gas volume of the detector. The subsequent β or β-proton decay traces ionized paths in the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted in an electric field and are amplified with a Micro Pattern Gas Amplifier Detector (MPGAD). The system was tested in-beam using the β-delayed proton-emitter {sup 23}Al, which was produced with the p({sup 24}Mg,{sup 23}Al)2n reaction and separated with the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS) at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University. Off-beam proton spectra have essentially no β background down to ∼100keV and have a resolution of ∼15keV (fwhm) for proton-decay lines at E{sub p}=197 and 255 keV. Lines with βp-branching as low as 0.02% are observed. In addition, the device also gives good mass and charge resolution for energetic heavy ions measured in-beam.

  4. Prolixe-prototype reprocessing unit for irradiating wastes contamined with alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Sontag, R.

    1987-01-01

    A large number of hot cells are employed for research on nuclear fuel reprocessing and the production of isotope of transuranium elements. These activities generate solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters. The Prolixe hot cell was built in order to: 1/ reprocess the solid wastes contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters produced in the Radiochemistry building: 2/ produce package wastes storable in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ develop a process sufficiently flexible to make it applicable to waste produced in other installations. The process is based on waste leaching after grinding. Depending on the type of wastes the leaching reactant will have a different composition 1/ nitric acid solution for cellulose waste: 2/ nitric solutions containing Ag(II) for other material. The complete process should achieve: 1/ a high waste volume reduction factor: 2/ the production of immobilized waste packages storage in shallow-ground disposal sites: 3/ the recycling of transuranium elements: 4/ the generation of a minimal volume of effluents. This process can be considered as an alternative process to incineration for the reprocessing of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha, beta, gamma emitters

  5. Experimental Observations of Nuclear Activity in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Benyo, Theresa L.; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Westmeyer, Paul A.; Chait, Arnon; Becks, Michael D.; Martin, Richard E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of highly deuterated materials to a low-energy (nom. 2 MeV) photon beam resulted in nuclear activity of both the parent metals of hafnium and erbium and a witness material (molybdenum) mixed with the reactants. Gamma spectral analysis of all deuterated materials, ErD2.8+C36D74+Mo and HfD2+C36D74+Mo, showed that nuclear processes had occurred as shown by unique gamma signatures. For the deuterated erbium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of erbium ((163)Er and (171)Er) and of molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo) and by beta decay, technetium (99mTc and 101Tc). For the deuterated hafnium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of hafnium (180mHf and 181Hf) and molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo), and by beta decay, technetium ((99m)Tc and (101)Tc). In contrast, when either the hydrogenated or non-gas-loaded erbium or hafnium materials were exposed to the gamma flux, the gamma spectra revealed no new isotopes. Neutron activation materials showed evidence of thermal and epithermal neutrons. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors showed evidence of fast neutrons with energies between 1.4 and 2.5 MeV and several instances of triple tracks, indicating (is) greater than 10 MeV neutrons. Further study is required to determine the mechanism causing the nuclear activity.

  6. Possibility of coherent hard x-ray production by pumping with synchrotron radiation and low energy photons. Period covered: November 17, 1976--August 16, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csonka, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    Coherent x-rays in the keV range could be produced by pumping a suitable gas with synchrotron radiation in combination with low energy photon beams in the presence of appropriately arranged mirrors. With a wiggler magnet placed in the low beta section of the PEP machine to be constructed at Stanford, 1020 eV coherent photons could be produced from Ne. Appropriate synchrotron radiation will produce a highly ionized cool gas. Low energy photons modify the outer electron structure of ions to enhance lasing: they modify the lifetime of the inverted state, counterbalance unwanted collisionally induced transitions, reduce Stark line broadening

  7. Internal emitter research and standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the use of data from internal emitter research in the derivation of safety standards is reviewed. At first, observed biological effects were correlated with body burdens or exposure levels. This direct approach is illustrated by detailed accounts of the cases of uranium and plutonium. In the 1950's, when it was decided to provide standards for over 200 isotopes, the direct approach was replaced by a system of calculations. This necessitated changes in internal emitter research programs to provide metabolic data, and the development of models such as Reference Man and the Lung and Gastrointestinal Tract models. The continuing contribution of internal emitter research to standard setting can be seen in the references quoted in the metabolic data section of the new ICRP report (ICRP Publication 30). Present trends suggest a possible return to the direct use of internal emitter effects data for obtaining risk estimates. (U.K.)

  8. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  9. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma

  10. Self-powered detectors with thulium emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Klar, E.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to fission chambers, prompt-indicating self-powered (SPN) detectors are used for measuring the neutron flux density in the core of power reactors. Although current SPN detectors with a cobalt emitter give satisfactora results, detectors with other emitter materials have been analyzed and tested. The author describes the properties and decay pattern of the nuclide thulium and presents the results of measurements made while testing thulium detectors. (orig.) [de

  11. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop on ''Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy'' was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference

  12. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  13. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  14. Clinical application of low energy intracardiac cardioversion of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liqun; Gu Gang; Su Kan; Su Renying; Shen Yongchu; Shen Weifeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low energy intracardiac cardioversion in persistent atria fibrillation. Methods: Low energy intracardiac cardioversion was performed by delivering R wave-synchronized biphasic shocks in 7 patients (4 men, 3 women) with persistent atrial fibrillation. Prior to the procedure, all patients underwent transesophageal echocardiographic examinations to rule out the presence of intracardiac thrombus and received subcutaneous injection of low molecular weight heparin for 3-5 days. Two custom-made 6 Fr catheters (Rhythm Technologies of Getz, USA) were used for de-fibrillation shock delivery. One catheter was positioned in the lower right atrium so that the majority of the catheter electrodes had firm contact with the right atrial free wall. The second catheter was placed randomly either in coronary sinus through right internal jugular vein or in the left pulmonary artery through femoral vein. In addition, a standard diagnostic 6-F quadrupolar catheter was placed at the right ventricular apex for ventricular synchronization and postshock ventricular pacing. Shocks were delivered by Implant Support Device (Model 4510, Teleceronics). After conversion, all patients were treated with intravenous amiodarone in the first 24 hours followed by oral administration. Results: In all 7 patients cardioversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm was successfully obtained. A mean of 2 ± 1 shocks per patient has been delivered with a total amount of 13 shocks. The average delivered energy was 7.8 ± 2.2 Joules. No complication occurred. At a mean follow-up of 18 ± 9 months, 4 of the 7 patients treated successfully showed sinus rhythm there after. Atrial fibrillation recurred in 3 patients at the second, fifth day and eighth month after cardioversion. Conclusions: Low energy intracardiac cardioversion is effective and safe, and can be easily performed in patients without general anesthesia. It offers a new option for restoring sinus

  15. Low energy electron beam processing of YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chromik, Š., E-mail: stefan.chromik@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Camerlingo, C. [CNR-SPIN, Istituto Superconduttori, Materiali Innovativi e Dispositivi, via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Sojková, M.; Štrbík, V.; Talacko, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Malka, I.; Bar, I.; Bareli, G. [Department of Physics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Jung, G. [Department of Physics, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of superconducting properties of irradiated bridges under certain conditions. • 30 keV irradiation influence CuO{sub 2} planes as well as oxygen chains. • Direct confirmation of changes in oxygen chains using micro-Raman spectroscopy. • Possibility of electron writing. - Abstract: Effects of low energy 30 keV electron irradiation of superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} thin films have been investigated by means of transport and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. The critical temperature and the critical current of 200 nm thick films initially increase with increasing fluency of the electron irradiation, reach the maximum at fluency 3 − 4 × 10{sup 20} electrons/cm{sup 2}, and then decrease with further fluency increase. In much thinner films (75 nm), the critical temperature increases while the critical current decreases after low energy electron irradiation with fluencies below 10{sup 20} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The Raman investigations suggest that critical temperature increase in irradiated films is due to healing of broken Cu−O chains that results in increased carrier’s concentration in superconducting CuO{sub 2} planes. Changes in the critical current are controlled by changes in the density of oxygen vacancies acting as effective pinning centers for flux vortices. The effects of low energy electron irradiation of YBCO turned out to result from a subtle balance of many processes involving oxygen removal, both by thermal activation and kick-off processes, and ordering of chains environment by incident electrons.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LOW ENERGY FRACTURES IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saakyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Until present no data was available inArmeniain respect of incidence of low energy fractures that are typical of osteoporotic locations which consequently did not allow to evaluate the scope of this problem across the country.Purpose of the study – to identify the incidence of low energy fractures in proximal femur, in distal forearm, in proximal humerus and in distal tibia across population ofArmenia aged 50 years and older.Materials and methods. An observing population study was performed in two regions of Armenia during 2011-2013 where the frequency of selected locations in cases of moderate trauma was identified. During 2011-2012 the information was collected based on traumatology service records adding in 2013 other sources including primary level of healthcare due to observed infrequent applications for medical help in cases of trauma. Results. In 2013 the incidence of proximal femur fractures in men was reported as 136 cases per 100 000 of population aged 50 years and older, in women – 201 cases per 100 000. At the same time only 57.7% of patients with proximal femur fractures were admitted to hospital. Distal forearm fractures incidence in men and women was observed correspondingly 56/100 000 and 176/100 000 cases, proximal humerus fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases and distal tibia fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases. The predicted annual number of proximal femur fracture in Armenia amounts to 2067 cases, distal forearm fractures – 1205, proximal humerus fractures – 640.Conclusion. Epidemiological data that was collected for the first time on low energy fractures incidence confirmed the acute osteoporosis issue inArmenia and revealed the problems in organization of medical care for the group of senior patients with injuries.

  17. Multinozzle emitter arrays for ultrahigh-throughput nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing; Mao, Pan; Wang, Hung-Ta; Yang, Peidong

    2017-10-17

    The present invention provides for a structure comprising a plurality of emitters, wherein a first nozzle of a first emitter and a second nozzle of a second emitter emit in two directions that are not or essentially not in the same direction; wherein the walls of the nozzles and the emitters form a monolithic whole. The present invention also provides for a structure comprising an emitter with a sharpened end from which the emitter emits; wherein the emitters forms a monolithic whole. The present invention also provides for a fully integrated separation of proteins and small molecules on a silicon chip before the electrospray mass spectrometry analysis.

  18. Collisions between low-energy antihydrogen and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Chamberlain, C.W.; Liu, Y.; Martin, G.D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Antihydrogen is currently the subject of great interest as cold H-bar has recently been prepared at CERN by the ATHENA and ATRAP projects. This work is described elsewhere in this volume. In this paper, we describe a calculation that we have carried out recently for very low-energy HH-bar scattering using the Kohn variational method and including three rearrangement channels in addition to the elastic channel. We also consider the He-H-bar system and give a progress report on the calculation that we are currently carrying out for this system

  19. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers.

  20. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers

  1. MITP Workshop on Low-Energy Precision Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The scientific program will be focussed on the theory of low-energy precision physics relevant to the MESA and TRIGA initiatives. Topics include searches for TeV-scale physics beyond the Standard Model via ultra-precise measurements of parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries, determinations of neutron decay parameters via precision measurements of its lifetime and decay asymmetries, and searches for EDMs of nucleons, nuclei and atoms. The necessary high-precision theoretical tools to analyse these experiments, which include advanced calculations of radiative corrections, will be explored and developed.

  2. Energy loss and thermalization of low-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, J.A.; Mozumder, A.; Notre Dame Univ., IN

    1984-01-01

    Various processes involved in the moderation of low-energy electrons (< 10 keV in energy) have been delineated in gaseous and liquid media. The discussion proceeds in two stages. The first stage ends and the second stage begins when the electron energy equals the first excitation potential of the medium. The second stage ends with thermalization. Cross sections for electronic excitation and for the excitation (and de-excitation) of sub-electronic processes have been evaluated and incorporated in suitable stopping power and transport theories. Comparison between experiment and theory and intercomparisons between theories and experiments have been provided where possible. (author)

  3. Shock waves in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results of shock wave formation and propagation in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges are presented. To study the hydrodynamic structure of the shock waves, the direct shadow optical diagnostic device with time resolution of 5 ns and spatial resolution of 0.1 mm was designed and developed. Synchronization of the diagnostic and electrodischarge units by the fast optocouplers was carried out. The dependences of shock wave velocities after breakdown of interelectrode gap for various energy inputs (at range of ≤1 J) into discharge were obtained. Based on the experimental results the recommendations for the adjustment parameters of the power supply and load were suggested.

  4. Interpretation of diffuse low-energy electron diffraction intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, D.K.; Pendry, J.B.; Van Hove, M.A.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the diffuse low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) that occurs between sharp LEED beams can be used to determine the local bonding configuration near disordered surface atoms. Two approaches to the calculation of diffuse LEED intensities are presented for the case of lattice-gas disorder of an adsorbate on a crystalline substrate. The capabilities of this technique are most similar to those of near-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure, but avoid the restrictions due to the use of photons

  5. Low-energy house in Sisimiut - Data overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidthoeft Delff Andersen, P.; Rode, C.; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-08-15

    Experiments with persistently exciting heat inputs are a fundamental tool in identification of heat dynamics in buildings. The Low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, provides an advanced experimental setup with frequent measurements of temperatures, heat inputs, and much more. This paper presents an overview of data collected since the installation of the new measurement and control system. Focus is on heat dynamics so only data related to that will be shown. 5 experiments have been conducted. They are described, and resulting data is shown. (Author)

  6. Degradation of vitamin C by low-energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoul-Carime, Hassan; Illenberger, Eugen

    2004-06-01

    We report on the degradation of gas phase vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) induced by low-energy electrons. In the energy range of (0-12) eV, different negatively charged fragments, attributed to the dehydro-ascorbic acid anion ((AA-H) -), OH -, O - and H -, are observed. The yield functions indicate that these ions are formed via dissociative electron attachment, DEA. While the formation of (AA-H) - is exclusively observed at sub-excitation energies (<1.5 eV), the other fragments arise from resonance features at higher energies. Possible implications of these observations for radiation damage and food treatment by high energy radiation are considered.

  7. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Collisions between low-energy antihydrogen and atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, E.A.G. E-mail: edward.armour@nottingham.ac.uk; Chamberlain, C.W.; Liu, Y.; Martin, G.D.R

    2004-07-01

    Antihydrogen is currently the subject of great interest as cold H-bar has recently been prepared at CERN by the ATHENA and ATRAP projects. This work is described elsewhere in this volume. In this paper, we describe a calculation that we have carried out recently for very low-energy HH-bar scattering using the Kohn variational method and including three rearrangement channels in addition to the elastic channel. We also consider the He-H-bar system and give a progress report on the calculation that we are currently carrying out for this system.

  9. Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H 0 and D 0 efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10 15 cm -2 s -1 MW -1 . This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed

  10. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  11. Treatment of surfaces with low-energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Lejeune, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 407, JUN 15 (2017), s. 105-108 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Low- energy electrons * Electron beam induced release * Graphene * Ultimate cleaning of surfaces Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Nano-processes (applications on nano-scale) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  12. GEANT4 simulations for low energy proton computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhoretto, Edney; Schelin, Hugo R.; Setti, Joao A.P.; Denyak, Valery; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the recent results of computer simulations for the low energy proton beam tomographic scanner installed at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to adjust the parameters of previous simulation within the first experimental results and to understand some specific effects that affected the form of the final proton energy spectra. To do this, the energy and angular spread of the initial proton beam were added, and the virtual phantom geometry was specified more accurately in relation to the real one. As a result, a more realistic view on the measurements was achieved.

  13. GEANT4 simulations for low energy proton computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, Edney [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo R. [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.br; Setti, Joao A.P.; Denyak, Valery; Paschuk, Sergei A. [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, O. [Polytechnic Institute/UERJ, Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, N. Friburgo, RJ, Brazil 28630-050 (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Nuclear Instr. Lab./COPPE/UFRJ, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, Rua Helio de Almeida 75, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents the recent results of computer simulations for the low energy proton beam tomographic scanner installed at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to adjust the parameters of previous simulation within the first experimental results and to understand some specific effects that affected the form of the final proton energy spectra. To do this, the energy and angular spread of the initial proton beam were added, and the virtual phantom geometry was specified more accurately in relation to the real one. As a result, a more realistic view on the measurements was achieved.

  14. A simple model for low energy ion-solid interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohajerzadeh, S.; Selvakumar, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A simple analytical model for ion-solid interactions, suitable for low energy beam depositions, is reported. An approximation for the nuclear stopping power is used to obtain the analytic solution for the deposited energy in the solid. The ratio of the deposited energy in the bulk to the energy deposited in the surface yields a ceiling for the beam energy above which more defects are generated in the bulk resulting in defective films. The numerical evaluations agree with the existing results in the literature. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Low-energy CZT detector array for the ASIM mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Genov, Georgi; Kohfeldt, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce the low-energy CZT (CdZnTe) 16 384-pixel detector array on-board the Atmosphere Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM), funded by the European Space Agency. This detector is a part of the larger Modular X-and Gamma-ray sensor (MXGS). The CZT detector array is sensitive...... to photons with energies between 15 keV and 400 keV. The principal objective of the MXGS instrument is to detect Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs), which are related to thunderstorm activity. The concept of the detector array is presented, together with brief descriptions of its mechanical structure...

  16. The low energy tagger for the KLOE-2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusci, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Bini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' universita Sapienza di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Ciambrone, P.; Corradi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' universita Sapienza di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Fiore, S., E-mail: salvatore.fiore@roma1.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' universita Sapienza di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' universita Sapienza di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Iannarelli, M.; Miscetti, S.; Paglia, C.; Tagnani, D.; Turri, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The KLOE experiment at the upgraded DAFNE e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in Frascati (KLOE-2) is going to start a new data taking at the beginning of 2010 with its detector upgraded with a tagging system for the identification of gamma-gamma interactions. The tagging stations for low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} will consist in two calorimeters placed between the beam-pipe outer support structure and the inner wall of the KLOE drift chamber. This calorimeter will be made of LYSO crystals readout by Silicon Photomultipliers, to achieve an energy resolution better than 8% at 200 MeV.

  17. Nuclear data and low energy nuclear research in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, S.

    1978-07-01

    The Israel Nuclear Data and Low Energy Nuclear Research relevant to the International Nuclear Data Committee was continued in the various institutions listed in previous Progress Reports (LS-270 for 1976). The latest major experimental facility, the 14 UD pelletron, was installed in the Koffler Accelerator Tower at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, and accepted on April 1st 1977. A report in Revue de Physique Appliquee of October 1977 including a description of the facility, acceptance performance, as well as some supplementary devices, is reproduced in the beginning of this report. Brief abstracts of the research work, both published and unpublished, are presented. (author)

  18. The interaction of low-energy electrons with fructose molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, I. V.; Kontrosh, E. E.; Markush, P. P.; Shpenik, O. B.

    2017-11-01

    Using a hypocycloidal electronic spectrometer, the interactions of low energy electrons (0-8.50 eV) with fructose molecules, namely, electron scattering and dissociative attachment, are studied. The results of these studies showed that the fragmentation of fructose molecules occurs effectively even at an electron energy close to zero. In the total electron-scattering cross section by molecules, resonance features (at energies 3.10 and 5.00 eV) were first observed near the formation thresholds of light ion fragments OH- and H-. The correlation of the features observed in the cross sections of electron scattering and dissociative attachment is analyzed.

  19. Selected challenges in low-energy QCD and hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Wolfram [Physik-Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This presentation briefly addresses three basic issues of low-energy QCD: first, whether the Nambu-Goldstone scenario of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is well established; secondly, whether there is a dynamical entanglement of the chiral and deconfinement crossover transitions in QCD; and thirdly, what is the status of knowledge about the phase diagram of QCD at low temperature and non-zero baryon density. These three topics were injected as key words into a panel discussion at the Schladming school on Challenges in QCD. The following exposition reflects the style and character of the discussions, with no claim of completeness.

  20. Qt based control system software for Low Energy Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.; Singh, S.; Nagraju, S.B.V.; Gupta, S.; Singh, P.

    2012-01-01

    Qt based control system software for Low Energy Accelerating Facility (LEAF) is operational at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai. LEAF is a 50 keV negative ion electrostatic accelerator based on SNICS ion source. Control system uses Nokia Trolltech's QT 4.x API for control system software. Ni 6008 USB based multifunction cards has been used for control and read back field equipments such as power supplies, pumps, valves etc. Control system architecture is designed to be client server. Qt is chosen for its excellent GUI capability and platform independent nature. Control system follows client server architecture. The paper will describe the control system. (author)

  1. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  2. Electronuclear amplifiers with low-energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Shelaev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of proton accelerators with energy 200-300 MeV in subcritical electronuclear systems seems more preferable in comparison with more complicated and expensive machines with energy about 1 GeV, which are considered as favourite now. Such an approach allows one to build comparatively simple electronuclear plants in particular, for a safety and profitable incineration of plutonium from power plants and spells, in fact, a new strategy of electronuclear technology. Potentialities of the use of low-energy accelerators are illustrated by an electronuclear arrangements designed now in Dubna

  3. Some advances in medical applications of low energy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valković, V.; Moschini, G.

    1991-05-01

    Medical applications of low energy accelerators include: the use of nuclear analytical methods and procedures for laboratory studies and routine measurements; material productions and modifications to meet special requirements; radioisotope productions and their applications in radiopharmaceuticals as well as in positron emission tomography; and radiotherapy with ions, based on improved understanding of the interaction of charged particles with living tissue. Some of the recent advances in these fields are critically summarized. The plan for an improved charged particle facility in a hospital environment dedicated to applications in biology and medicine is presented.

  4. Combining high-scale inflation with low-energy SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    2011-12-15

    We propose a general scenario for moduli stabilization where low-energy supersymmetry can be accommodated with a high scale of inflation. The key ingredient is that the stabilization of the modulus field during and after inflation is not associated with a single, common scale, but relies on two different mechanisms. We illustrate this general scenario in a simple example, where during inflation the modulus is stabilized with a large mass by a Kaehler potential coupling to the field which provides the inflationary vacuum energy via its F-term. After inflation, the modulus is stabilized, for instance, by a KKLT superpotential. (orig.)

  5. Status of the low energy neutron source at Indiana University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.V.; Cameron, J.M.; Derenchuk, V.P.; Lavelle, C.M.; Leuschner, M.B.; Lone, M.A.; Meyer, H.O.; Rinckel, T.; Snow, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has recently approved funding for LENS (the low energy neutron source) at Indiana University and construction of this facility has begun. LENS represents a new paradigm for economically introducing neutron scattering into a university or industrial setting. In this design, neutrons are produced in a long-pulse (1 ms) mode through (p,n) reactions on a water-cooled Be target and the target is tightly coupled to a cryogenic moderator with a water reflector. This design gives a facility suitable for materials research, the development of new neutron instrumentation, and the education of new neutron scientists

  6. Determination of the low energy spectra in the superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    1990-01-01

    There is one solution to the superstring theory in 10 dimensions (SO(32) ou E8xE8) but in a 4-dimensions space, there are plenty of solutions, so a classification is necessary. The author has used a formulation named fermionic, where the solution is easy to build and he has developed a program in terms of formal calculation (REDUCE). In a first time, this program verifies the constraints induced by the modular invariance and then reproduces the low energy spectra

  7. Introduction to the theory of low-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerland, A.; Tomasek, M.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary introduction to the basic principles of the theory of low-energy electron diffraction is presented. General scattering theory is used to classify the hitherto known approaches to the problem (optical potential and one-electron approximation; formal scattering theory: Born expansion and multiple scattering; translational symmetry: Ewald construction; classification of LEED theories by means of the T matrix; pseudokinematical theory for crystal with clean surface and with an adsorbed monomolecular layer; dynamical theory; inclusion of inelastic collisions; discussion of a simple example by means of the band-structure approach)

  8. Low-energy electron scattering from molecules, biomolecules and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Carsky, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, the field of electron molecule collisions has undergone a renaissance. The importance of such collisions in applications from radiation chemistry to astrochemistry has flowered, and their role in industrial processes such as plasma technology and lighting are vital to the advancement of next generation devices. Furthermore, the development of the scanning tunneling microscope highlights the role of such collisions in the condensed phase, in surface processing, and in the development of nanotechnology.Low-Energy Electron Scattering from Molecules, Biomolecule

  9. Collisions between low-energy antihydrogen and atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Armour, E A G; Liu, Y; Martin, G D R

    2004-01-01

    Antihydrogen is currently the subject of great interest as cold H has recently been prepared at CERN by the ATHENA and ATRAP projects. This work is described elsewhere in this volume. In this paper, we describe a calculation that we have carried out recently for very low-energy HH scattering using the Kohn variational method and including three rearrangement channels in addition to the elastic channel. We also consider the He-H system and give a progress report on the calculation that we are currently carrying out for this system.

  10. The low energy tagger for the KLOE-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusci, D.; Bini, C.; Ciambrone, P.; Corradi, G.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Gauzzi, P.; Iannarelli, M.; Miscetti, S.; Paglia, C.; Tagnani, D.; Turri, E.

    2010-01-01

    The KLOE experiment at the upgraded DAFNE e + e - collider in Frascati (KLOE-2) is going to start a new data taking at the beginning of 2010 with its detector upgraded with a tagging system for the identification of gamma-gamma interactions. The tagging stations for low-energy e + e - will consist in two calorimeters placed between the beam-pipe outer support structure and the inner wall of the KLOE drift chamber. This calorimeter will be made of LYSO crystals readout by Silicon Photomultipliers, to achieve an energy resolution better than 8% at 200 MeV.

  11. Low-energy gamma rays from Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, J.P.; Mandrou, P.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.

    1985-08-01

    Cyg X-1 was observed by the CESR balloon borne telescope OPALE, in June 1976. The high-energy spectrum of the source, which was in its ''superlow state'', was seen to extend well beyond 1 MeV. In this paper, the observed low-energy γ-ray component of Cyg X-1 is compared with the predictions of recent models involving accretion onto a stellar black hole, and including a possible contribution from the pair-annihilation 511 keV γ-ray line

  12. Development of real-time low energy electron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali; Smith, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    A low energy electron beam calorimeter with a thin film window has been fabricated to facilitate a reliable method of dose assessment for electron beam energies down to 200 keV. The system was designed to incorporate a data-logger in order that it could be used on the self-shielded 200 keV facility at MINT. In use, the calorimeter started logging temperature a short time before it passed under the beam and it continued taking data until well after the end of the irradiation. Data could be retrieved at any time after the calorimeter had emerged from the irradiator

  13. Implantation profile of low-energy positrons in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simple form for an implantation profile of monoenergetic, low-energy (1--10 keV) positrons in solids is presented. Materials studied include aluminum, copper, molybdenum, palladium, and gold with atomic number ranging from 13 to 79. A simple set of parameters can describe the currently used Makhov profile in slow positron studies of solids. We provide curves and tables for the parameters that can be used to describe the implantation profiles of positrons in any material with atomic number in between 13 and 79

  14. Mott transition: Low-energy excitations and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, L.B.; Larkin, A.I.

    1988-09-01

    It is possible that metal-dielectric transition does not result in changes of magnetic or crystallographic symmetry. In this case a fermionic spectrum is not changed at the transition, but additional low-energy excitations appear which can be described as a gauge field that has the same symmetry as an electromagnetic one. In the case of a non half-filled band gapless scalar Bose excitations also appear. Due to the presence of additional gauge field the physical conductivity is determined by the lowest conductivity of the Fermi or Bose subsystems. (author). 11 refs

  15. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  16. Measurements of Thermal Emittance for Cesium Telluride Photocathodes at PITZ

    CERN Document Server

    Miltchev, V; Grabosch, H J; Han, J H; Krasilnikov, M; Oppelt, A; Petrosian, B; Staykov, L; Stephan, F

    2005-01-01

    The thermal emittance determines the lower emittance limit and its measurement is of high importance to understand the ultimate injector performance. In this contribution we present results of thermal emittance measurements under rf operation conditions for various Cs2Te cathodes and different accelerating gradients. Measurements of thermal emittance scaling with the cathode laser spot size are presented and analysed. The significance of the Schottky effect in the emittance formation process is discussed.

  17. A low-emittance lattice for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safranek, J.; Wiedemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    The design and implementation of a low emittance lattice for the SPEAR storage ring including measurements of the performance of the lattice are presented (J. Safranek, Ph. D. thesis, Stanford University, 1991). The low emittance lattice is designed to optimize the performance of SPEAR as a synchrotron radiation source while keeping SPEAR hardware changes at a minimum. The horizontal emittance of the electron beam in the low emittance lattice is reduced by a factor of 4 from the previous lattice. This reduces the typical horizontal source size and divergence of the photon beams by a factor of 2 each and increases the photon beam brightness. At 3 GeV the horizontal emittance is 129 π nm rad, which makes the low emittance lattice the lowest emittance, runnning synchroton radiation source in the world in the 1.5 to 4.0 GeV energy range for the emittance scaled to 3 GeV. The measured vertical emittance was reduced to half that typically seen at SPEAR in the past. The brightness of the photon beams was further incrased by reducing β y at the insertion devices to 1.1 m and reducing the energy dispersion at the insertion devices by more than a factor of 2 on average. The horizontal despersion at the rf cavities was reduced by a factor of nearly 4 which gives much less problems with synchrobetatron resonances. The dynamic and physical apertures of the lattice are large, giving long beam lifetimes and easy injection of electrons. The measurements of the linear optics and intensity dependent phenomena gave resonable agreement with the design . The overall performance of the machine was very good. Injection rates of 10 to 20 mA/min and larger were achieved routinely, and 100 mA total current was stored. Repeated ramping of stored beam from the injection energy of 2.3 GeV to the running energy of 3.0 GeV was achieved with very little beam loss. This low emittance configuration is expected to be the operating configuration for SPEAR starting in January 1992. (orig.)

  18. Development of a low energy micro sheet forming machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, A. R.; Ann, C. T.; Shariff, H. M.; Kasim, N. I.; Musa, M. A.; Ahmad, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    It is expected that with the miniaturization of materials being processed, energy consumption is also being `miniaturized' proportionally. The focus of this study was to design a low energy micro-sheet-forming machine for thin sheet metal application and fabricate a low direct current powered micro-sheet-forming machine. A prototype of low energy system for a micro-sheet-forming machine which includes mechanical and electronic elements was developed. The machine was tested for its performance in terms of natural frequency, punching forces, punching speed and capability, energy consumption (single punch and frequency-time based). Based on the experiments, the machine can do 600 stroke per minute and the process is unaffected by the machine's natural frequency. It was also found that sub-Joule of power was required for a single stroke of punching/blanking process. Up to 100micron thick carbon steel shim was successfully tested and punched. It concludes that low power forming machine is feasible to be developed and be used to replace high powered machineries to form micro-products/parts.

  19. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Katsioulas, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Giomataris, I.; Papaevangellou, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present results for the detection of low energy nuclear recoils in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An 241Am-9Be fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the keV energy region was measured by observing the 5.9 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source, with energy resolution of 10% (σ). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an 241Am-9Be source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF), the simulation results are compared with the measurements. The potential of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searches (via coherent elastic scattering).

  20. Development of Low Energy Gap and Fully Regioregular Polythienylenevinylene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M. S. David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low energy gap and fully regioregular conjugated polymers find its wide use in solar energy conversion applications. This paper will first briefly review this type of polymers and also report synthesis and characterization of a specific example new polymer, a low energy gap, fully regioregular, terminal functionalized, and processable conjugated polymer poly-(3-dodecyloxy-2,5-thienylene vinylene or PDDTV. The polymer exhibited an optical energy gap of 1.46 eV based on the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum. The electrochemically measured highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO level is −4.79 eV, resulting in the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO level of −3.33 eV based on optical energy gap. The polymer was synthesized via Horner-Emmons condensation and is fairly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform with gentle heating. DSC showed two endothermic peaks at 67°C and 227°C that can be attributed to transitions between crystalline and liquid states. The polymer is thermally stable up to about 300°C. This polymer appears very promising for cost-effective solar cell applications.