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Sample records for low-dose pulmonary ct

  1. Usefulness of low-dose CT in the detection of pulmonary metastasis of gestational trophoblastic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.J.; Lou, F.L.; Zhang, M.M.; Pan, Z.M.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether a low-dose spiral chest computed tomography (CT) examination could replace standard-dose chest CT in detecting pulmonary metastases in patients with gestational trophoblastic tumour (GTT). Materials and methods: In a prospective investigation, 67 chest CT examinations of 39 GTT patients were undertaken. All the patients underwent CT examinations using standard-dose (150 mAs, pitch 1, standard reconstruction algorithm) and low-dose (40 mAs, pitch 2, bone reconstruction algorithm) protocols. Two radiologists interpreted images independently. A metastasis was defined as a nodule within lung parenchyma that could not be attributed to a pulmonary vessel. The number of metastases detected with each protocol was recorded. The size of each lesion was measured and categorized as <5, 5-9.9, and ≥10 mm. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to assess the difference between the numbers of lesion detected by the two protocols. Results: The CT dose index (CTDI) for the standard-dose and low-dose CT protocols was 10.4 mGy and 1.4 mGy, respectively. One thousand, six hundred, and eighty-two metastases were detected by standard-dose CT, and 1460 lesions by the low-dose protocol. The numbers detected by low-dose CT were significantly less than those detected by standard-dose CT (Z = -3.776, p < 0.001), especially for nodules smaller than 5 mm (Z = -4.167, p < 0.001). However, the disease staging and risk score of the patients were not affected by use of the low-dose protocol. Conclusion: Low-dose chest CT can be used as a staging and follow-up procedure for patients with GTT

  2. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia detected at low-dose CT for lung cancer screening

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    Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Bae, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ho Cheol [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, radiologic findings and clinical significance of the simple pulmonary eosinophilia (SPE) that was diagnosed among the asymptomatic patients who underwent low-dose CT scans for the early detection of lung cancer. From June 2003 to May 2005, 1,239 asymptomatic patients (1,275 examinations) who visited the health promotion center in our hospital and who underwent low-dose CT were enrolled in this study. SPE was defined as the presence of > 500 eosinophils per microliter of peripheral blood and the presence of abnormal parenchymal lesions such as nodules, airspace consolidation or areas of ground-glass attenuation (GGA) on CT, and there was spontaneous resolution or migration of the lesions on the follow-up examination. We analyzed the CT findings of SPE and we investigated the relationship between the occurrence of SPE and the season, smoking and the presence of parasite infestation. 36 patients were finally diagnosed as having SPE; this was 24% of the 153 patients who were diagnosed with parasite infestation and 2.8% of the total low-dose CT scans. These 36 patients consisted of 31 men and 5 women with a mean age 45.7 years. There was no significant relationship between SPE and the presence of parasite infestation, smoking or gender. Among the patients with peripheral blood eosinophilia, the eosinophil count was significantly higher in the patients with SPE than that in the patients without pulmonary infiltration ({rho} < 0.05). SPE more frequently occurred in winter and spring than in summer and autumn ({rho} < 0.05). The CT findings were single or multiple nodules in 18 patients, nodules and focal GGA in 9 patients and GGA only in 9 patients. Most of the nodules were less than 10 mm (88%, 49/56) in diameter and they showed an ill-defined margin (82%, n = 46); 30% of the nodules (n = 17) showed a halo around them. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia can be suggested as the cause if single or multiple ill-defined nodules

  3. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia detected at low-dose CT for lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Bae, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ho Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, radiologic findings and clinical significance of the simple pulmonary eosinophilia (SPE) that was diagnosed among the asymptomatic patients who underwent low-dose CT scans for the early detection of lung cancer. From June 2003 to May 2005, 1,239 asymptomatic patients (1,275 examinations) who visited the health promotion center in our hospital and who underwent low-dose CT were enrolled in this study. SPE was defined as the presence of > 500 eosinophils per microliter of peripheral blood and the presence of abnormal parenchymal lesions such as nodules, airspace consolidation or areas of ground-glass attenuation (GGA) on CT, and there was spontaneous resolution or migration of the lesions on the follow-up examination. We analyzed the CT findings of SPE and we investigated the relationship between the occurrence of SPE and the season, smoking and the presence of parasite infestation. 36 patients were finally diagnosed as having SPE; this was 24% of the 153 patients who were diagnosed with parasite infestation and 2.8% of the total low-dose CT scans. These 36 patients consisted of 31 men and 5 women with a mean age 45.7 years. There was no significant relationship between SPE and the presence of parasite infestation, smoking or gender. Among the patients with peripheral blood eosinophilia, the eosinophil count was significantly higher in the patients with SPE than that in the patients without pulmonary infiltration (ρ < 0.05). SPE more frequently occurred in winter and spring than in summer and autumn (ρ < 0.05). The CT findings were single or multiple nodules in 18 patients, nodules and focal GGA in 9 patients and GGA only in 9 patients. Most of the nodules were less than 10 mm (88%, 49/56) in diameter and they showed an ill-defined margin (82%, n = 46); 30% of the nodules (n = 17) showed a halo around them. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia can be suggested as the cause if single or multiple ill-defined nodules or

  4. Detection of pulmonary metastatic nodules: usefulness of low-dose multidetector CT in comparison with chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Nam; Lee, Ki Nam; Yang, Doo Kyung; Lee, Soo Keol

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of low-dose multidetector CT for the detection and follow-up of pulmonary metastatic nodules in patients suffering with malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed the conventional chest radiographs and low-dose multidetector CT (low-dose CT) scans of 81 patients who had been under the diagnosis of malignancy. We reviewed the detection of pulmonary nodules and we counted the number of nodules detected by each method. The nodules were confirmed by surgical operation and by the radiologic criteria. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of each method for detecting metastatic nodules were compared with χ 2 tests. Low-dose CT depicted more nodules than did chest radiograph, and the indeterminate nodules seen on chest radiograph may be clearly benign on low-dose CT (eg. calcified granulomas or bony lesions). The accuracy of low-dose CT (75.3%) was significantly higher than that of chest radiograph (49.4%) for the detection for metastatic nodules (ρ < 0.05). Low-dose CT may provide better information than does chest radiograph for diagnosing pulmonary metastasis

  5. Inter- and intrascanner variability of pulmonary nodule volumetry on low-dose 64-row CT : an anthropomorphic phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, X.; Willemink, M. J.; Zhao, Y.; de Jong, P. A.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Oudkerk, M.; Greuter, M. J. W.; Vliegenthart, R.

    Objective: To assess inter- and intrascanner variability in volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom using low-dose CT. Methods: Five spherical solid artificial nodules [diameters 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12mm; CT density 1100 Hounsfield units (HU)] were randomly placed

  6. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using low dose thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, S.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Omatsu, H.; Tominaga, K.; Eguchi, K.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to 100 thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  7. Low-dose CT pulmonary angiography on a 15-year-old CT scanner: a feasibility study

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    Moritz Kaup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Computed tomography (CT low-dose (LD imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. Purpose To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Material and Methods CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system. Standard CT (SD settings were 100 kV and 150 mAs, LD settings were 100 kV and 50 mAs. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk, various anatomic landmarks, and image noise were quantitatively measured; contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR were calculated. Three independent blinded radiologists subjectively rated each image series using a 5-point grading scale. Results CT dose index (CTDI in the LD series was 66.46% lower compared to the SD settings (2.49 ± 0.55 mGy versus 7.42 ± 1.17 mGy. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk showed similar results for both series (SD 409.55 ± 91.04 HU; LD 380.43 HU ± 93.11 HU; P = 0.768. Subjective image analysis showed no significant differences between SD and LD settings regarding the suitability for detection of central and peripheral PE (central SD/LD, 4.88; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.894/4.83; ICC, 0.745; peripheral SD/LD, 4.70; ICC, 0.943/4.57; ICC, 0.919; all P > 0.4. Conclusion The LD protocol, on a 15-year-old CT scanner system without current high-end hardware or post-processing tools, led to a dose reduction of approximately 67% with similar subjective image quality and delineation of central and peripheral pulmonary arteries.

  8. The experimental study and clinical application on the detection of pulmonary nodules with low-dose multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaohua; Ma Daqing; Zhang Zhongjia; Ji Jingling; Zhang Yansong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the detection rate of pulmonary nodules ,especially nodules ≤5 mm, in variable low-doses, and to evaluate the imaging quality of low-dose MSCT. Methods: Six postmortem specimens of patients with pneumoconiosis after necropsy were fixed at end-inspiratory volume. The fixed specimens were examined by using MSCT with standard dose (130 mA) and low-dose (50, 30, 10 mA, respectively). Low-dose MSCT scans of 40 asymptomatic volunteers and 60 patients with pulmonary metastasis were also examined with 30 mA. The numbers of pulmonary nodules less than 5 mm at standard-dose and different low-dose were recorded. Nodules were assessed by diagnostic confidence ('definite nodule', 'questionable nodule', and 'definite not nodule'). The number of images with artifact in specimens and in 40 volunteers and 60 patients with pulmonary metastasis were recorded. Results: In specimen's study, the Kappa values of groups of low-dose (50, 30, 10 mA) were 0.515, 0.242, and 0.154, respectively. The group of 50 mA had a good coincidence with standard-dose group by U test. The sensitivity of group 50, 30, 10 mA was 88.0%, 78.4%, and 75.0%, respectively. The positive predictive values of which were 98%, 94%, and 93%, respectively. The correction rates of which were 85%, 73%, and 69%, respectively. In specimens' images, subtle linear artifact was showed only in paravertebral lung field in 21 images of 31 at the group of 10 mA. Linear artifacts that affected small nodule detection were showed in lung apexes in 3 of 100 subjects. Conclusion: Low-dose MSCT is expected to improve early detection of lung cancer. Pulmonary nodules less than 5 mm could be reliably detected at 50 mA tube current in specimens. Low-dose CT (30 mA) showed satisfactory imaging quality in our study. Low-dose CT screening for lung cancer may be applied if situation permits. (authors)

  9. Quantitative assessment of pulmonary function using low dose multi-slice spiral CT in smoker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huai; Zeng Qingsi; Zheng Jinping; Guan Yubao; Zhang Chaoliang; Cen Renli

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of low dose MSCT for quantitative assessment of pulmonary function in smokers. Methods: One hundred and forty-six patients with chronic objective pulmonary disease (COPD) including 109 smokers (74.6%) and 37 non-smokers (25.3%) underwent pulmonary function test and low-dose MSCT scan. All data were analyzed using computer-aided lung analysis software. Pulmonary function parameters from low-dose MSCT were compared between smokers and non-smokers and also compared with pulmonary function test in non-smokers (Pearson test). Results: In smokers, the average volume at full inspiratory phase (Vin) was (5125 ± 862 ) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-902 ± 26) HU, mean lung density was (0.0984 ± 0.0260 ) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (2890 ±1370) ml. The average volume at full expiratory phase (Vex) was (2756 ±1027) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-811 ±62) HU, mean lung density was (0.1878 ±0.0631) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (685 ±104) ml. In non-smokers, the average Vin was (3734 ± 759) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-876 ±40) HU,mean lung density was (0.1244 ±0.0401)g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was ( 1503 ± 1217) ml. The average Vex was (1770 ± 679) ml, mean lung attenuation was (-765 ± 56) HU, mean lung density was (0.2360 ± 0.0563) g/cm 3 , emphysema volume was (156 ± 45) ml. There were significant differences between smokers and non-smokers (P<0.01). The Vex/Vin was correlated with residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC, r=0.60, P<0.01), and Vin was correlated with TLC (r=0.58, P<0.01), Vex with RV (r=0.59, P<0.01). Pixel index (PI) -950 in was correlated with FEV 1% pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.53, -0.62, respective, P<0.01), Pl-950ex was correlated with FEV1 % pre and FEV1/FVC% (r=-0.71, -0.77, respective, P<0.01). Conclusion: Low-dose MSCT can be a potential imaging tool for quantitative pulmonary function assessment in smokes. (authors)

  10. Inter- and intrascanner variability of pulmonary nodule volumetry on low-dose 64-row CT: an anthropomorphic phantom study

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    Xie, X; Willemink, M J; Zhao, Y; de Jong, P A; van Ooijen, P M A; Oudkerk, M; Greuter, M J W

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess inter- and intrascanner variability in volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom using low-dose CT. Methods: Five spherical solid artificial nodules [diameters 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; CT density +100 Hounsfield units (HU)] were randomly placed inside an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom in different combinations. The phantom was examined on two 64-row multidetector CT (64-MDCT) systems (CT-A and CT-B) from different vendors with a low-dose protocol. Each CT examination was performed three times. The CT examinations were evaluated twice by independent blinded observers. Nodule volume was semi-automatically measured by dedicated software. Interscanner variability was evaluated by Bland–Altman analysis and expressed as 95% confidence interval (CI) of relative differences. Intrascanner variability was expressed as 95% CI of relative variation from the mean. Results: No significant difference in CT-derived volume was found between CT-A and CT-B, except for the 3-mm nodules (pvolumetry of artificial pulmonary nodules between 5 mm and 12 mm in diameter. Inter- and intrascanner variability decreases at a larger nodule size to a maximum of 4.9% for ≥8 mm nodules. Advances in knowledge: The commonly accepted cut-off of 25% to determine nodule growth has the potential to be reduced for ≥8 mm nodules. This offers the possibility of reducing the interval for repeated CT scans in lung cancer screenings. PMID:23884758

  11. Sensitivity and accuracy of volumetry of pulmonary nodules on low-dose 16- and 64-row multi-detector CT : an anthropomorphic phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, X.; Zhao, Yingru; Snijder, R.A.; van Ooijen, P.M.; de Jong, P.A.; Oudkerk, M.; de Bock, G.H.; Vliegenthart, R.; Greuter, M.J.

    To assess the sensitivity of detection and accuracy of volumetry by manual and semi-automated quantification of artificial pulmonary nodules in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom on low-dose CT. Fifteen artificial spherical nodules (diameter 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; CT densities -800, -630 and +100

  12. CT patterns of fungal pulmonary infections of the lung: Comparison of standard-dose and simulated low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christe, Andreas; Lin, Margaret C.; Yen, Andrew C.; Hallett, Rich L.; Roychoudhury, Kingshuk; Schmitzberger, Florian; Fleischmann, Dominik; Leung, Ann N.; Rubin, Geoffry D.; Vock, Peter; Roos, Justus E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of radiation dose reduction on the appearance and visual quantification of specific CT patterns of fungal infection in immuno-compromised patients. Materials and methods: Raw data of thoracic CT scans (64 × 0.75 mm, 120 kVp, 300 reference mAs) from 41 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary fungal infection were collected. In 32 patients fungal infection could be proven (median age of 55.5 years, range 35–83). A total of 267 cuboids showing CT patterns of fungal infection and 27 cubes having no disease were reconstructed at the original and 6 simulated tube currents of 100, 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 reference mAs. Eight specific fungal CT patterns were analyzed by three radiologists: 76 ground glass opacities, 42 ground glass nodules, 51 mixed, part solid, part ground glass nodules, 36 solid nodules, 5 lobulated nodules, 6 spiculated nodules, 14 cavitary nodules, and 37 foci of air-space disease. The standard of reference was a consensus subjective interpretation by experts whom were not readers in the study. Results: The mean sensitivity and standard deviation for detecting pathological cuboids/disease using standard dose CT was 0.91 ± 0.07. Decreasing dose did not affect sensitivity significantly until the lowest dose level of 5 mAs (0.87 ± 0.10, p = 0.012). Nodular pattern discrimination was impaired below the dose level of 30 reference mAs: specificity for fungal ‘mixed nodules’ decreased significantly at 20, 10 and 5 reference mAs (p < 0.05). At lower dose levels, classification drifted from ‘solid’ to ‘mixed nodule’, although no lesion was missed. Conclusion: Our simulation data suggest that tube current levels can be reduced from 300 to 30 reference mAs without impairing the diagnostic information of specific CT patterns of pulmonary fungal infections

  13. Submillisievert standard-pitch CT pulmonary angiography with ultra-low dose contrast media administration: A comparison to standard CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntharalingam, Saravanabavaan; Mikat, Christian; Stenzel, Elena; Erfanian, Youssef; Wetter, Axel; Schlosser, Thomas; Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of submillisievert standard-pitch CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with ultra-low dose contrast media administration in comparison to standard CTPA. Hundred patients (56 females, 44 males, mean age 69.6±15.4 years; median BMI: 26.6, IQR: 5.9) with suspected pulmonary embolism were examined with two different protocols (n = 50 each, group A: 80 kVp, ref. mAs 115, 25 ml of contrast medium; group B: 100 kVp, ref. mAs 150, 60 ml of contrast medium) using a dual-source CT equipped with automated exposure control. Objective and subjective image qualities, radiation exposure as well as the frequency of pulmonary embolism were evaluated. There was no significant difference in subjective image quality scores between two groups regarding pulmonary arteries (p = 0.776), whereby the interobserver agreement was excellent (group A: k = 0.9; group B k = 1.0). Objective image analysis revealed that signal intensities (SI), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the pulmonary arteries were equal or significantly higher in group B. There was no significant difference in the frequency of pulmonary embolism (p = 0.65). Using the low dose and low contrast media protocol resulted in a radiation dose reduction by 71.8% (2.4 vs. 0.7 mSv; pcontrast agent volume can obtain sufficient image quality to exclude or diagnose pulmonary emboli while reducing radiation dose by approximately 71%.

  14. Automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters using model-based blood vessel segmentation for predicting chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in low-dose CT lung screening

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    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by residual organized thrombi. A morphological abnormality inside mediastinum of CTEPH patient is enlargement of pulmonary artery. This paper presents an automated assessment of aortic and main pulmonary arterial diameters for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT lung screening. The distinctive feature of our method is to segment aorta and main pulmonary artery using both of prior probability and vascular direction which were estimated from mediastinal vascular region using principal curvatures of four-dimensional hyper surface. The method was applied to two datasets, 64 lowdose CT scans of lung cancer screening and 19 normal-dose CT scans of CTEPH patients through the training phase with 121 low-dose CT scans. This paper demonstrates effectiveness of our method for predicting CTEPH in low-dose CT screening.

  15. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Chang Min; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo

    2014-11-01

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. • Low-dose CT using MBIR algorithm improves reproducibility in the classification of SSNs. • MBIR would enable more confident clinical planning according to the SSN type. • Reduced measurement variability on MBIR allows earlier detection of potentially malignant nodules.

  16. Assessment of pulmonary function using pixel indexes of multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lihua; Wang Yunhua; Jiang Zhongbiao; Zhang Lejun; Sun Wanli; Zhang Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the values of pixel indexes (PI) with multiple-slice spiral CT low-dose two-phase scanning for assessing the pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Thirty-six patients with COPD (COPD group)and 30 healthy people (control group)underwent pulmonary function test (PFT). Chest 64-MSCT low-dose (50 mAs) scanning at full inspiration and expiration, routine scanning (100 mAs) at inspiration were performed. The effective dose (ED) was calculated. The lung was divided into three regions (upper, middle, lower). PI of lung were divided into five groups: -960--1024, -910--960, -800--910, -700--800, -400--700. The PI -910 (sum of the PI under -910 HU) of low-dose scanning at each region were measured and calculated using pulmo software. All PI included PIin -910 , PIiex -910 , PIin -910 -PIiex -910 , PIiex -910 /PIin -910 and (PIin -910 -PIiex -910 )/PIin -910 . All patients underwent PFT within 3 days after 64-MSCT canning, FEV1% and FEV1/FVC were selected for comparison. Results: The PIin in three regions (-960 - -1024, -910 - -960, -800 - -910) were statistically significant between normal and COPD groups (U=0.00, 57.00, 20.50, P<0.01). The PIex in all regions were statistically significant (U=0.00, 0.00, 71.52, 191.00, 6.00, P<0.01). PI -910--1024 at expiration and inspiration were correlated with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.548, -0.664, -0.752, -0.781, P<0.01). PIin -910 , PIex -910 ,PIiex -910 /PIin -910 , (PIin -910 -PIex -910 )/PIin -910 had a good correlation with FEV1% and FEV1/FVC (r=-0.548, -0.664, -0.752, -0.781, -0.674, -0.642, 0.674, 0.642, P<0.01). Conclusion: Pixel indexes of 64-MSCT low-dose two-phase scanning can be used to evaluate pulmonary function in COPD patients. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of chronic infectious interstitial pulmonary disease in children by low-dose CT-guided transthoracic lung biopsy

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    Heyer, Christoph M.; Lemburg, Stefan P.; Kagel, Thomas; Nicolas, Volkmar [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, BG Clinics Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany); Mueller, Klaus-Michael [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Institute of Pathology, BG Clinics Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany); Nuesslein, Thomas G.; Rieger, Christian H.L. [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Pediatric Hospital, Bochum (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Children with chronic infectious interstitial lung disease often have to undergo open lung biopsy to establish a final diagnosis. Open lung biopsy is an invasive procedure with major potential complications. Transthoracic lung biopsy (TLB) guided by computed tomography (CT) is a less-invasive well-established procedure in adults. Detailing the role of low-dose CT-guided TLB in the enhanced diagnosis of chronic lung diseases related to infection in children. A group of 11 children (age 8 months to 16 years) underwent CT-guided TLB with a 20-gauge biopsy device. All investigations were done under general anaesthesia on a multidetector CT scanner (SOMATOM Volume Zoom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a low-dose protocol (single slices, 120 kV, 20 mAs). Specimens were processed by histopathological, bacteriological, and virological techniques. All biopsies were performed without major complications; one child developed a small pneumothorax that resolved spontaneously. A diagnosis could be obtained in 10 of the 11 patients. Biopsy specimens revealed chronic interstitial alveolitis in ten patients. In five patients Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR was positive, in three Mycoplasma pneumoniae PCR was positive, and in two Cytomegalovirus PCR was positive. The average effective dose was 0.83 mSv. Low-dose CT-guided TLB can be a helpful tool in investigating chronic infectious inflammatory processes in children with minimal radiation exposure. It should be considered prior to any open surgical procedure performed for biopsy alone. In our patient group no significant complication occurred. A disadvantage of the method is that it does not allow smaller airways and vessels to be assessed. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic work-up of pulmonary nodules. Management of pulmonary nodules detected with low-dose CT screening; Abklaerung von Lungenrundherden. Management durch Frueherkennungsuntersuchungen detektierter pulmonaler Rundherde

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    Wormanns, D. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary nodules are the most frequent pathological finding in low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanning for early detection of lung cancer. Early stages of lung cancer are often manifested as pulmonary nodules; however, the very commonly occurring small nodules are predominantly benign. These benign nodules are responsible for the high percentage of false positive test results in screening studies. Appropriate diagnostic algorithms are necessary to reduce false positive screening results and to improve the specificity of lung cancer screening. Such algorithms are based on some of the basic principles comprehensively described in this article. Firstly, the diameter of nodules allows a differentiation between large (>8 mm) probably malignant and small (<8 mm) probably benign nodules. Secondly, some morphological features of pulmonary nodules in CT can prove their benign nature. Thirdly, growth of small nodules is the best non-invasive predictor of malignancy and is utilized as a trigger for further diagnostic work-up. Non-invasive testing using positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast enhancement as well as invasive diagnostic tests (e.g. various procedures for cytological and histological diagnostics) are briefly described in this article. Different nodule morphology using CT (e.g. solid and semisolid nodules) is associated with different biological behavior and different algorithms for follow-up are required. Currently, no obligatory algorithm is available in German-speaking countries for the management of pulmonary nodules, which reflects the current state of knowledge. The main features of some international and American recommendations are briefly presented in this article from which conclusions for the daily clinical use are derived. (orig.) [German] Lungenrundherde sind die haeufigsten pathologischen Befunde bei Untersuchungen mit der Niedrigdosis-CT zur Lungenkrebsfrueherkennung. Fruehstadien des Lungenkarzinoms manifestieren sich meist als Rundherd

  19. Sensitivity and accuracy of volumetry of pulmonary nodules on low-dose 16- and 64-row multi-detector CT: an anthropomorphic phantom study

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    Xie, Xueqian; Zhao, Yingru; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, EB44, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Snijder, Roland A.; Greuter, Marcel J.W. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, EB44, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    To assess the sensitivity of detection and accuracy of volumetry by manual and semi-automated quantification of artificial pulmonary nodules in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom on low-dose CT. Fifteen artificial spherical nodules (diameter 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; CT densities -800, -630 and +100 HU) were randomly placed inside an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. The phantom was examined on 16- and 64-row multidetector CT with a low-dose protocol. Two independent blinded observers screened for pulmonary nodules. Nodule diameter was measured manually, and volume calculated. For solid nodules (+100 HU), diameter and volume were also evaluated by semi-automated software. Differences in observed volumes between the manual and semi-automated method were evaluated by a t-test. Sensitivity was 100 % for all nodules of >5 mm and larger, 60-80 % for solid and 0-20 % for non-solid 3-mm nodules. No false-positive nodules but high inter-observer reliability and inter-technique correlation were found. Volume was underestimated manually by 24.1 {+-} 14.0 % for nodules of any density, and 26.4 {+-} 15.5 % for solid nodules, compared with 7.6 {+-} 8.5 % (P < 0.01) semi-automatically. In an anthropomorphic phantom study, the sensitivity of detection is 100 % for nodules of >5 mm in diameter. Semi-automated volumetry yielded more accurate nodule volumes than manual measurements. (orig.)

  20. Sensitivity and accuracy of volumetry of pulmonary nodules on low-dose 16- and 64-row multi-detector CT: an anthropomorphic phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xueqian; Zhao, Yingru; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Snijder, Roland A.; Greuter, Marcel J.W.; Jong, Pim A. de; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bock, Geertruida H. de

    2013-01-01

    To assess the sensitivity of detection and accuracy of volumetry by manual and semi-automated quantification of artificial pulmonary nodules in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom on low-dose CT. Fifteen artificial spherical nodules (diameter 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; CT densities -800, -630 and +100 HU) were randomly placed inside an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. The phantom was examined on 16- and 64-row multidetector CT with a low-dose protocol. Two independent blinded observers screened for pulmonary nodules. Nodule diameter was measured manually, and volume calculated. For solid nodules (+100 HU), diameter and volume were also evaluated by semi-automated software. Differences in observed volumes between the manual and semi-automated method were evaluated by a t-test. Sensitivity was 100 % for all nodules of >5 mm and larger, 60-80 % for solid and 0-20 % for non-solid 3-mm nodules. No false-positive nodules but high inter-observer reliability and inter-technique correlation were found. Volume was underestimated manually by 24.1 ± 14.0 % for nodules of any density, and 26.4 ± 15.5 % for solid nodules, compared with 7.6 ± 8.5 % (P 5 mm in diameter. Semi-automated volumetry yielded more accurate nodule volumes than manual measurements. (orig.)

  1. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Kyung Hee; Park, Chang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Goo, Jin Mo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. (orig.)

  2. Low-dose dental CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustemeyer, P.; Eich, H.T.; John-Mikolajewski, V.; Mueller, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The intention of this study was to reduce patient dose during dental CT in the planning for osseointegrated implants. Methods and Materials: Dental CTs were performed with a spiral CT (Somatom Plus 4, Siemens) and a dental software package. Use of the usual dental CT technique (120 kVp; 165 mA, 1 s rotation time, 165 mAs; pitch factor 1) was compared with a new protocol (120 kVp; 50 mA; 0.7 s rotation time; 35 mAs; pitch factor 2) which delivered the best image quality at the lowest possible radiation dose, as tested in a preceding study. Image quality was analysed using a human anatomic head preparation. Four radiologists analysed the images independently. A Wilcoxon rank pair-test was used for statistic evaluation. The doses to the thyroid gland, the active bone marrow, the salivary glands, and the eye lens were determined in a tissue-equivalent phantom (Alderson-Rando Phantom) with lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters at the appropriate locations. Results: By mAs reduction from 165 to 35 and using a pitch factor of 2, the radiation dose could be reduced by a factor of nine (max.) (e.g., the bone marrow dose could be reduced from 23.6 mSv to 2.9 mSv, eye lens from 0.5 mSv to 0.3 mSv, thyroid gland from 2.5 mSv to 0.5 mSv, parotid glands from 2.3 mSv to 0.4 mSv). The dose reduction did not lead to an actual loss of image quality or diagnostic information. Conclusion: A considerable dose reduction without loss of diagnostic information is achievable in dental CT. Dosereducing examination protocols like the one presented may further expand the use of preoperative dental CT. (orig.) [de

  3. Low-dose multi-slice CT (LMCT) assessment of pulmonary emphysema in public-school teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Jiro; Suemitsu, Ichizou; Kamei, Tadashi; Tada, Shinya; Ueda, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Although rates of emphysematous change in smokers have been reported previously, the precise effects of smoking on emphysematous change have not been established because the study subjects of previous reports were heterogeneous. This study was designed to determine the incidence of emphysematous change identified by low-dose multi-slice CT (LMCT) imaging in public-school teachers. We reviewed 1776 consecutive subjects (ages from 31 to 61 years) who had undergone LMCT scanning during health care examinations. In addition, their replies to questionnaires about smoking were obtained. Emphysematous change was found by LMCT imaging in 22 male smokers. In these 22 smokers, the scores of emphysematous change according to Goddard's method was well correlated with smoking history. According to the questionnaires, the smoking rates of male and female teachers were 56.7% and 4%, respectively. Eighty-five percent of the teachers worked in offices separated from smokers. Most smokers wished to quit smoking and most teachers knew the risk of nicotine as well as the rate of smoking among high school students. However, knowledge of the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were not adequate. Our present study clearly demonstrated the incidence of emphysematous change in school teachers. In addition, early exposure to information about the risks of smoking is believed to be important for students, but school teachers did not have enough of such information. (author)

  4. Performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in low-dose CT: comparison with double reading by nodule volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yingru; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Wang, Ying; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [University of Groningen/University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Klaveren, Rob J. van [Lievensberg Hospital, Department of Pulmonology, P.O. Box 135, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); Bogoni, Luca [CAD Group, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P. [University of Utrecht, Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    To evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) beyond double reading for pulmonary nodules on low-dose computed tomography (CT) by nodule volume. A total of 400 low-dose chest CT examinations were randomly selected from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. CTs were evaluated by two independent readers and processed by CAD. A total of 1,667 findings marked by readers and/or CAD were evaluated by a consensus panel of expert chest radiologists. Performance was evaluated by calculating sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection and number of false positives, by nodule characteristics and volume. According to the screening protocol, 90.9 % of the findings could be excluded from further evaluation, 49.2 % being small nodules (less than 50 mm{sup 3}). Excluding small nodules reduced false-positive detections by CAD from 3.7 to 1.9 per examination. Of 151 findings that needed further evaluation, 33 (21.9 %) were detected by CAD only, one of them being diagnosed as lung cancer the following year. The sensitivity of nodule detection was 78.1 % for double reading and 96.7 % for CAD. A total of 69.7 % of nodules undetected by readers were attached nodules of which 78.3 % were vessel-attached. CAD is valuable in lung cancer screening to improve sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection beyond double reading, at a low false-positive rate when excluding small nodules. circle Computer-aided detection (CAD) has known advantages for computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  5. Performance of computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules in low-dose CT: comparison with double reading by nodule volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yingru; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Wang, Ying; Ooijen, Peter M.A. van; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Klaveren, Rob J. van; Bogoni, Luca; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) beyond double reading for pulmonary nodules on low-dose computed tomography (CT) by nodule volume. A total of 400 low-dose chest CT examinations were randomly selected from the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. CTs were evaluated by two independent readers and processed by CAD. A total of 1,667 findings marked by readers and/or CAD were evaluated by a consensus panel of expert chest radiologists. Performance was evaluated by calculating sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection and number of false positives, by nodule characteristics and volume. According to the screening protocol, 90.9 % of the findings could be excluded from further evaluation, 49.2 % being small nodules (less than 50 mm 3 ). Excluding small nodules reduced false-positive detections by CAD from 3.7 to 1.9 per examination. Of 151 findings that needed further evaluation, 33 (21.9 %) were detected by CAD only, one of them being diagnosed as lung cancer the following year. The sensitivity of nodule detection was 78.1 % for double reading and 96.7 % for CAD. A total of 69.7 % of nodules undetected by readers were attached nodules of which 78.3 % were vessel-attached. CAD is valuable in lung cancer screening to improve sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection beyond double reading, at a low false-positive rate when excluding small nodules. circle Computer-aided detection (CAD) has known advantages for computed tomography (CT). (orig.)

  6. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema with T2-Weighted PROPELLER MRI in a High-Risk Population Compared to Low-Dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Schroers, Michael; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Becker, Manuel; Homsi, Rami; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-03-07

     To determine the suitability of T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI for the assessment of pulmonary emphysema.  60 participants in a lung cancer screening program (30 subjects with pulmonary emphysema, and 30 control subjects without emphysema) were included for this retrospective study. All subjects were examined with low-dose CT (LDCT) and MRI within the screening program. The use of a T2-weighted PROPELLER sequence for the assessment of emphysema was analyzed and correlated with the results of LDCT. The presence and the extent of pulmonary emphysema were first assessed qualitatively using a three-point score, and then quantitatively with a semi-automated software program to obtain emphysema indices.  All 30 cases with pulmonary emphysema were accurately detected by MRI. There were 3 cases with emphysema according to MRI without emphysematous changes on LDCT (false-positive results). The qualitative scores as well as the emphysema indices were significantly higher in the emphysema group compared to the control group for MRI and LDCT (p emphysema group and r = 0.668/p emphysema index: r = 0.960/p emphysema group and r = 0.746/p pulmonary emphysema may be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI with very good correlation to LDCT.   · T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI may be suitable for the assessment of pulmonary emphysema.. · There was significant correlation between MRI and LDCT regarding qualitative scores and quantitative emphysema indices in our study with correlation coefficients for different subgroups ranging from r = 0.668 to r = 0.960.. · T2-weighted PROPELLER MRI may have the potential to be used for follow-up examinations in patients with severe emphysema to avoid radiation exposure of repeated CTs.. · Meier-Schroers M, Sprinkart AM, Becker M et al. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Pulmonary Emphysema with T2-Weighted PROPELLER MRI in a High-Risk Population Compared to Low-Dose CT

  7. Detection of pulmonary embolism with combined ventilation-perfusion SPECT and low-dose CT: head-to-head comparison with multidetector CT angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Mortensen, Jann; Jensen, Claus Verner

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually established by a combination of clinical assessment, D-dimer testing, and imaging with either pulmonary ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy or pulmonary multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography. Both V/Q SPECT and MDCT angiography seem to have...... high diagnostic accuracy. However, only limited data directly comparing these 2 modalities are available. Hybrid gamma-camera/MDCT systems have been introduced and allow simultaneous 3-dimensional lung V/Q SPECT and MDCT angiography, suitable for diagnosing PE. The aim of our study was to compare...

  8. A pilot study using low-dose Spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm to diagnose solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huijuan; Liu, Yihe; Tan, Hongna; Liang, Pan; Wang, Bo; Su, Lei; Wang, Suya; Gao, Jianbo

    2015-11-17

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer which has the highest mortality rate. With the development of computed tomography (CT) techniques, the case detection rates of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has constantly increased and the diagnosis accuracy of SPN has remained a hot topic in clinical and imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of low-dose spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). 62 patients with SPN (42 cases of benign SPN and 20 cases of malignant SPN, pathology confirmed) were scanned by spectral CT with a dual-phase contrast-enhanced method. The iodine and water concentration (IC and WC) of the lesion and the artery in the image that had the same density were measured by the GSI (Gemstone Spectral Imaging) software. The normalized iodine and water concentration (NIC and NWC) of the lesion and the normalized iodine and water concentration difference (ICD and WCD) between the arterial and venous phases (AP and VP) were also calculated. The spectral HU (Hounsfield Unit ) curve was divided into 3 sections based on the energy (40-70, 70-100 and 100-140 keV) and the slopes (λHU) in both phases were calculated. The ICAP, ICVP, WCAP and WCVP, NIC and NWC, and the λHU in benign and malignant SPN were compared by independent sample t-test. The iodine related parameters (ICAP, ICVP, NICAP, NICVP, and the ICD) of malignant SPN were significantly higher than that of benign SPN (t = 3.310, 1.330, 2.388, 1.669 and 3.251, respectively, P 0.05). The iodine related parameters and the slope of spectral curve are useful markers to distinguish the benign from the malignant lung diseases, and its application is extremely feasible in clinical applications.

  9. Deep learning for low-dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hu; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jiliu; Wang, Ge

    2017-09-01

    Given the potential risk of X-ray radiation to the patient, low-dose CT has attracted a considerable interest in the medical imaging field. Currently, the main stream low-dose CT methods include vendor-specific sinogram domain filtration and iterative reconstruction algorithms, but they need to access raw data whose formats are not transparent to most users. Due to the difficulty of modeling the statistical characteristics in the image domain, the existing methods for directly processing reconstructed images cannot eliminate image noise very well while keeping structural details. Inspired by the idea of deep learning, here we combine the autoencoder, deconvolution network, and shortcut connections into the residual encoder-decoder convolutional neural network (RED-CNN) for low-dose CT imaging. After patch-based training, the proposed RED-CNN achieves a competitive performance relative to the-state-of-art methods. Especially, our method has been favorably evaluated in terms of noise suppression and structural preservation.

  10. Low-dose CT: new tool for screening lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignant tumours as it is very common and has a poor prognosis at advanced tumour stages. Prognosis could be improved by treatment at early stages. As these stages are usually asymptomatic, a diagnostic test that would allow detection of early tumour stages in a population at risk could potentially reduce mortality from lung cancer. Previous approaches using chest radiography and sputum cytology in smokers have been disappointing. Fluorescent bronchoscopy and molecular markers are not yet applicable in clinical routine. Because of its high sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are the most common manifestation of early lung cancer, CT appears suitable as a screening test. Low-dose examination parameters can and should be used for this purpose. From clinical practice it is well known that chest CT often demonstrates small pulmonary nodules, which do not represent lung cancer. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to avoid unnecessary biopsies in benign lesions. In preliminary studies of low-dose CT using algorithms based on size and density of detected nodules a large proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers and a large proportion of early, resectable tumour stages were found with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign nodules. Before this technology can be recommended for broad application, however, further information is required regarding appropriate inclusion criteria (smoking habits, age groups) and screening intervals. Most importantly, further data are required to clarify whether lung cancer screening using low-dose CT can actually reduce mortality from lung cancer. (orig.)

  11. Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2003-01-01

    Screening for lung cancer is hoped to reduce mortality from this common tumour, which is characterised by a dismal overall survival, relatively well defined risk groups (mainly heavy cigarette smokers and workers exposed to asbestos) and a lack of early symptoms. In the past studies using sputum cytology and chest radiography have failed to demonstrate any reduction in lung cancer mortality through screening. One of the reasons is probably the relatively poor sensitivity of both these tests in early tumours. Low radiation dose computed tomography (CT) has been shown to have a much higher sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are believed to be the most common presentation of early lung cancer. As, however, small pulmonary nodules are common and most are not malignant, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to correctly classify the detected lesions and avoid invasive procedures in benign nodules. Nodule density, size and the demonstration of growth at follow-up have been shown to be useful in this respect and may in the future be supplemented by contrast-enhanced CT and positron emission tomography. Based on these diagnostic algorithms preliminary studies of low-dose CT in heavy smokers have demonstrated a high proportion of asymptomatic, early, resectable cancers with good survival. As, however, several biases could explain these findings in the absence of the ultimate goal of cancer screening, i.e. mortality reduction, most researchers believe that randomised controlled trials including several 10000 subjects are required to demonstrate a possible mortality reduction. Only then general recommendations to screen individuals at risk of lung cancer with low-dose CT should be made. It can be hoped that international cooperation will succeed in providing results as early as possible

  12. Low-dose Dental-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahleitner, A.; Imhof, H.; Homolka, P.; Fuerhauser, R.; Freudenthaler, J.; Watzek, G.

    2000-01-01

    Dental-CT is a relatively new, increasingly used investigation technique in dental radiology. Several authors have stated that the indication for Dental-CT has to be chosen on a strict basis, due to high dose values. This article describes the technique of performing dental-CT and calculates the effective dose based on published data and own measurements as well as the dose reduction potential to achieve an optimized protocol for Dental-CT investigations. (orig.) [de

  13. Is body weight the most appropriate criterion to select patients eligible for low-dose pulmonary CT angiography? Analysis of objective and subjective image quality at 80 kVp in 100 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Strautz, Tamara; Patak, Michael A.; Kurmann, Luzia; Vock, Peter; Schindera, Sebastian T. [University Hospital and University of Berne, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Paediatric Radiology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    The objective of this retrospective study was to assess image quality with pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) using 80 kVp and to find anthropomorphic parameters other than body weight (BW) to serve as selection criteria for low-dose CTA. Attenuation in the pulmonary arteries, anteroposterior and lateral diameters, cross-sectional area and soft-tissue thickness of the chest were measured in 100 consecutive patients weighing less than 100 kg with 80 kVp pulmonary CTA. Body surface area (BSA) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Three radiologists analyzed arterial enhancement, noise, and image quality. Image parameters between patients grouped by BW (group 1: 0-50 kg; groups 2-6: 51-100 kg, decadelly increasing) were compared. CNR was higher in patients weighing less than 60 kg than in the BW groups 71-99 kg (P between 0.025 and <0.001). Subjective ranking of enhancement (P=0.165-0.605), noise (P=0.063), and image quality (P=0.079) did not differ significantly across all patient groups. CNR correlated moderately strongly with weight (R=-0.585), BSA (R=-0.582), cross-sectional area (R=-0.544), and anteroposterior diameter of the chest (R=-0.457; P<0.001 all parameters). We conclude that 80 kVp pulmonary CTA permits diagnostic image quality in patients weighing up to 100 kg. Body weight is a suitable criterion to select patients for low-dose pulmonary CTA. (orig.)

  14. Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: prevalence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, Luciano; Cortese, Giancarlo; Ferraris, Fabrizio; Perotto, Fabio; Fava, Cesare; Borasio, Piero; Dogliotti, Luigi; Novello, Silvia; Scagliotti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and its prognosis largely depends on early detection. We report the prevalence data of the study on early detection of lung cancer with low-dose spiral CT underway at our hospital. Materials and methods. Since the beginning of 2001, 519 asymptomatic volunteers have undergone annual blood tests, sputum tests, urinalyses and low-dose spiral CT. The inclusion criteria were age (55 years old), a history of cigarette smoking and a negative history for previous neoplastic disease. The diagnostic workup varied depending on the size and CT features of the nodules detected. Results. At baseline, the CT scan detected nodules> 5 mm in 22% of subjects; the nodules were single in 42 and multiple in 71. In 53% of cases the findings were completely negative, while in 122 (23.4%) nodules with a diameter [it

  15. Low dose CT simulation using experimental noise model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Satori; Zamyatin, Alexander A. [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Otawarashi (Japan); Silver, Michael D. [Toshiba Medical Research Institute, Vernon Hills, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    We suggest a method to obtain system noise model experimentally without relying on assumptions on statistical distribution of the noise; also, knowledge of DAS gain and electronic noise level are not required. Evaluation with ultra-low dose CT data (5 mAs) shows good match between simulated and real data noise. (orig.)

  16. Low-dose multislice CT in febrile neutropenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, F.; Jenett, M.; Hahn, D.; Sandstede, J.; Geib, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to define the value of low-dose multislice CT in a clinical setting for early detection of pneumonia in neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin. Materials and methods: thirty-five neutropenic patients suffering from fever of unknown origin with normal chest X-ray underwent unenhanced low-dose CT of the chest (120 kV, 10 eff. mAs, collimation 4 x 1 mm) using a multislice CT scanner. Axial und frontal slices with a thickness of 5 mm were calculated. If no pneumonia was found, standard antibiotics were given and a repeated examination was performed if fever continued. In case of pneumonia, antimycotic therapy was added and a follow-up CT was performed within one week. Regression or progression of pneumonia at follow-up served as evidence of pneumonia; lowering of fever within 48 h or inconspicuous follow-up CT was regarded as absence of pneumonia. Results: ten of 35 patients had pneumonic infiltration, which decreased or increased on follow-up CT in 3 and 6 patients, respectively. One patient revealed leucemic infiltration by bronchoalveolar lavage. Twenty-five of 35 patients had no evidence of pneumonia. Twenty of these patients were free of fever within 48 h under antibiotics; one patient died due to his basic illness. Out of 4 patients with persisting fever, 3 patients had no pneumonia on repeated examination; one patient showed disseminated micronodular infiltration. Frontal reconstructions helped to differentiate infiltration from atelectasis in 4 patients. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pneumonia at the first examination were 90% and 96%, negative predictive value was 96%. Conclusion: low-dose multislice CT should be performed in neutropenic patients having a fever of unknown origin and normal chest X-ray. (orig.)

  17. Low dose coronary CT angiography with 256-slice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Tang Binghang; Li Fangyun

    2011-01-01

    of 573) in B, 96.1% (548 of 570) in C, and 85.7% (505/589) in D, with no significant difference for A vs C (Z= -1.351, P>0.05) and with significant differences for B vs D (Z=-2.236, P<0.05). Linear correlation analysis indicated a significant degradation of image quality with the increase of heart rate using SAS mode (Spearman correlation, r=0.577, P<0.01). ROC analysis established an upper HR threshold of 78 bpm for obtaining diagnostic image quality using SAS mode (AUC = 0.827, P<0.05). The average radiation dose in group A [(2.6±0.5) mSv] reduced 75% comparing with that in group C [(10.6±2.3) mSv], and the average radiation dose in group B [(4.0±0.7) mSv] reduced 69% comparing with that in group D [(13.0±1.4) mSv]. Conclusion: Using SAS mode to perform low-dose CCTA with 256-slice helical CT could keep the image quality and reduce radiation dose significantly. Our preliminary experience suggests a good promise of this technique which could be applied to a wider group of patients such as with higher heart rates. (authors)

  18. Gamma regularization based reconstruction for low dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Yang; Hu, Yining; Luo, Limin; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Bicao; Liu, Jin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the radiation in computerized tomography is today a major concern in radiology. Low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) offers a sound way to deal with this problem. However, more severe noise in the reconstructed CT images is observed under low dose scan protocols (e.g. lowered tube current or voltage values). In this paper we propose a Gamma regularization based algorithm for LDCT image reconstruction. This solution is flexible and provides a good balance between the regularizations based on l 0 -norm and l 1 -norm. We evaluate the proposed approach using the projection data from simulated phantoms and scanned Catphan phantoms. Qualitative and quantitative results show that the Gamma regularization based reconstruction can perform better in both edge-preserving and noise suppression when compared with other norms. (paper)

  19. Clinical application of low-dose spiral CT for orthodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Na; Gan Yungen; Shu Huang; Lin FeiFei; Li Zhiyong; Sun Jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of reducing the value of mA or kV on the image quality and the radiation dose of the patients undergoing low-dose spiral CT for orthodontics. Methods: Thirty patients were divided into three groups, each group has 10 patients. They were group 1 (80 kV and 200 mA), group 2 (120 kV and 80 mA), group 3 (120 kV and 200 mA) The volume CT dose index (CTDI) was recorded and the average dose-length produce (DLP) was calculated in three groups,respectively. Image quality of three groups were compared and scored by two radiologists, and the results were statistically analysed. Results: The CTDI and DLP of 80 kV group (group 2) were 8.7 mGy and (36.80 ± 3.60) mGy · cm, respectively, those of 80 mA group (group 3) were 19.6 mGy and (82.14 ± 7.18) mGy · cm, respectively, and those of conventional-dose group (group 1) were 19.6 mGy and (82.14 ± 7.18) mGy · cm, respectively. There was no significant difference among three groups in diagnostic image quality. Conclusions: Low-dose spiral CT for orthodontics, especially the low-kV scan, may decrease the radiation exposure and guarantee the image quality. (authors)

  20. Automated lung module detection at low-dose CT: preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Jin-Mo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Seung-Wan; Kim, Jong-Hyo; Im, Jung-Gi

    2003-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the automated detection of lung nodules at low-dose CT. A CAD system developed for detecting lung nodules was used to process the data provided by 50 consecutive low-dose CT scans. The results of an initial report, a second look review by two chest radiologists, and those obtained by the CAD system were compared, and by reviewing all of these, a gold standard was established. By applying the gold standard, a total of 52 nodules were identified (26 with a diameter ≤ 5 mm; 26 with a diameter > 5 mm). Compared to an initial report, four additional nodules were detected by the CAD system. Three of these, identified only at CAD, formed part of the data used to derive the gold standard. For the detection of nodules > 5 mm in diameter, sensitivity was 77% for the initial report, for the second look review, and 88% for the second look review,and 65% for the CAD system. There were 8.0 ± 5.2 false-positive CAD results per CT study. These preliminary results indicate that a CAD system may improve the detection of pulmonary nodules at low-dose CT

  1. Detecting airway remodeling in COPD and emphysema using low-dose CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyanto, R.; Ceresa, M.; Muñoz-Barrutia, A.; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, C.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we quantitatively characterize lung airway remodeling caused by smoking-related emphysema and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), in low-dose CT scans. To that end, we established three groups of individuals: subjects with COPD (n=35), subjects with emphysema (n=38) and healthy smokers (n=28). All individuals underwent a low-dose CT scan, and the images were analyzed as described next. First the lung airways were segmented using a fast marching method and labeled according to its generation. Along each airway segment, cross-section images were resampled orthogonal to the airway axis. Next 128 rays were cast from the center of the airway lumen in each crosssection slice. Finally, we used an integral-based method, to measure lumen radius, wall thickness, mean wall percentage and mean peak wall attenuation on every cast ray. Our analysis shows that both the mean global wall thickness and the lumen radius of the airways of both COPD and emphysema groups were significantly different from those of the healthy group. In addition, the wall thickness change starts at the 3rd airway generation in the COPD patients compared with emphysema patients, who display the first significant changes starting in the 2nd generation. In conclusion, it is shown that airway remodeling happens in individuals suffering from either COPD or emphysema, with some local difference between both groups, and that we are able to detect and accurately quantify this process using images of low-dose CT scans.

  2. Fully automated gynecomastia quantification from low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Sonnenblick, Emily B.; Azour, Lea; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2018-02-01

    Gynecomastia is characterized by the enlargement of male breasts, which is a common and sometimes distressing condition found in over half of adult men over the age of 44. Although the majority of gynecomastia is physiologic or idiopathic, its occurrence may also associate with an extensive variety of underlying systemic disease or drug toxicity. With the recent large-scale implementation of annual lung cancer screening using low-dose chest CT (LDCT), gynecomastia is believed to be a frequent incidental finding on LDCT. A fully automated system for gynecomastia quantification from LDCT is presented in this paper. The whole breast region is first segmented using an anatomyorientated approach based on the propagation of pectoral muscle fronts in the vertical direction. The subareolar region is then localized, and the fibroglandular tissue within it is measured for the assessment of gynecomastia. The presented system was validated using 454 breast regions from non-contrast LDCT scans of 227 adult men. The ground truth was established by an experienced radiologist by classifying each breast into one of the five categorical scores. The automated measurements have been demonstrated to achieve promising performance for the gynecomastia diagnosis with the AUC of 0.86 for the ROC curve and have statistically significant Spearman correlation r=0.70 (p early detection as well as the treatment of both gynecomastia and the underlying medical problems, if any, that cause gynecomastia.

  3. Low dose CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Amanda; Symons, Sean; Jakubovic, Raphael; Zhang, Liying; Aviv, Richard I.; So, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if CT perfusion (CTP) measurements at low doses (LD = 20 or 50 mAs) are similar to those obtained at regular doses (RD = 100 mAs), with and without the addition of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). A single-center, prospective study was performed in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 37; 54 % male; age = 74 ± 15 years). Two CTP scans were performed on each subject: one at 100 mAs (RD) and one at either 50 or 20 mAs (LD). CTP parameters were compared between the RD and LD scans in regions of ischemia, infarction, and normal tissue. Differences were determined using a within-subjects ANOVA (p 0.05). CTP-derived CBF and CBV are not different at 50 mAs compared to 100 mAs, even without the addition of ASIR. Current CTP protocols can be modified to reduce the effective dose by 50 % without altering CTP measurements. (orig.)

  4. Low dose CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amanda; So, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim; Symons, Sean; Jakubovic, Raphael; Zhang, Liying; Aviv, Richard I

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if CT perfusion (CTP) measurements at low doses (LD = 20 or 50 mAs) are similar to those obtained at regular doses (RD = 100 mAs), with and without the addition of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). A single-center, prospective study was performed in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 37; 54% male; age = 74 ± 15 years). Two CTP scans were performed on each subject: one at 100 mAs (RD) and one at either 50 or 20 mAs (LD). CTP parameters were compared between the RD and LD scans in regions of ischemia, infarction, and normal tissue. Differences were determined using a within-subjects ANOVA (p test post hoc analysis (p 50 mAs, there was no significant difference between cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), or time to maximum enhancement (Tmax) values for the RD and LD scans in the ischemic, infarcted, or normal contralateral regions (p LD scans for all parameters in the ischemic and normal tissue regions (p > 0.05). CTP-derived CBF and CBV are not different at 50 mAs compared to 100 mAs, even without the addition of ASIR. Current CTP protocols can be modified to reduce the effective dose by 50 % without altering CTP measurements.

  5. Ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction for PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Ting; Kinahan, Paul E; Alessio, Adam M; De Man, Bruno; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Asma, Evren

    2012-01-01

    A challenge for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) quantitation is patient respiratory motion, which can cause an underestimation of lesion activity uptake and an overestimation of lesion volume. Several respiratory motion correction methods benefit from longer duration CT scans that are phase matched with PET scans. However, even with the currently available, lowest dose CT techniques, extended duration cine CT scans impart a substantially high radiation dose. This study evaluates methods designed to reduce CT radiation dose in PET/CT scanning. We investigated selected combinations of dose reduced acquisition and noise suppression methods that take advantage of the reduced requirement of CT for PET attenuation correction (AC). These include reducing CT tube current, optimizing CT tube voltage, adding filtration, CT sinogram smoothing and clipping. We explored the impact of these methods on PET quantitation via simulations on different digital phantoms. CT tube current can be reduced much lower for AC than that in low dose CT protocols. Spectra that are higher energy and narrower are generally more dose efficient with respect to PET image quality. Sinogram smoothing could be used to compensate for the increased noise and artifacts at radiation dose reduced CT images, which allows for a further reduction of CT dose with no penalty for PET image quantitation. When CT is not used for diagnostic and anatomical localization purposes, we showed that ultra-low dose CT for PET/CT is feasible. The significant dose reduction strategies proposed here could enable respiratory motion compensation methods that require extended duration CT scans and reduce radiation exposure in general for all PET/CT imaging. (paper)

  6. Ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction for PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; De Man, Bruno; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    A challenge for PET/CT quantitation is patient respiratory motion, which can cause an underestimation of lesion activity uptake and an overestimation of lesion volume. Several respiratory motion correction methods benefit from longer duration CT scans that are phase matched with PET scans. However, even with the currently-available, lowest dose CT techniques, extended duration CINE CT scans impart a substantially high radiation dose. This study evaluates methods designed to reduce CT radiation dose in PET/CT scanning. Methods We investigated selected combinations of dose reduced acquisition and noise suppression methods that take advantage of the reduced requirement of CT for PET attenuation correction (AC). These include reducing CT tube current, optimizing CT tube voltage, adding filtration, CT sinogram smoothing and clipping. We explored the impact of these methods on PET quantitation via simulations on different digital phantoms. Results CT tube current can be reduced much lower for AC than that in low dose CT protocols. Spectra that are higher energy and narrower are generally more dose efficient with respect to PET image quality. Sinogram smoothing could be used to compensate for the increased noise and artifacts at radiation dose reduced CT images, which allows for a further reduction of CT dose with no penalty for PET image quantitation. Conclusion When CT is not used for diagnostic and anatomical localization purposes, we showed that ultra-low dose CT for PET/CT is feasible. The significant dose reduction strategies proposed here could enable respiratory motion compensation methods that require extended duration CT scans and reduce radiation exposure in general for all PET/CT imaging. PMID:22156174

  7. Emphysema Quantification Using Low Dose Chest CT: Changes in Follow-Up Examinations of Asymptomatic Smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Eun Ho; Sun, Joo Sung; Kang, Doo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Joo; Park, Kyung Joo [Dept. of Pulmolary Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To evaluate the changes of emphysema quantification in a follow-up low dose CT compared with pulmonary function test (PFT) results in asymptomatic smokers. We selected 66 asymptomatic smokers (> 40 years old) who underwent a follow-up low dose CT at least one year after the first CT as well as PFT within the same time period. Emphysema quantification was performed using an automated measurement software and an emphysema index (EI) was calculated using multiple threshold values (-970--900 HU). The interval change of EI ({Delta} EI) was compared with the change in the PFT values. Mean follow-up %forced expiratory volume in 1 second (88.1), %forced vital capacity (FVC) (89.5) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of vital capacity (3.21) were significantly lower compared with the values of initial tests (93.3, 93.1, 3.48). The mean EIs (2.4-25.6%) increased on follow-up CTs compared with initial EIs (2.1-24.5%), though the increase was not statistically significant. In a group with a follow-up period of 2 years or more (n = 32), EI significantly increased when using -900 HU as the threshold. The ({Delta} EIs were poorly correlated with the ({Delta} PFT values, but significantly correlated with ({Delta} FVC (r = -0.32--0.27). Emphysema quantification using low dose CT was not effective for the evaluation of short-term changes in less than a 2-year period, but may be used for long term follow-up series in asymptomatic smokers.

  8. Low dose CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Amanda; Symons, Sean; Jakubovic, Raphael; Zhang, Liying; Aviv, Richard I. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); So, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if CT perfusion (CTP) measurements at low doses (LD = 20 or 50 mAs) are similar to those obtained at regular doses (RD = 100 mAs), with and without the addition of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). A single-center, prospective study was performed in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 37; 54 % male; age = 74 ± 15 years). Two CTP scans were performed on each subject: one at 100 mAs (RD) and one at either 50 or 20 mAs (LD). CTP parameters were compared between the RD and LD scans in regions of ischemia, infarction, and normal tissue. Differences were determined using a within-subjects ANOVA (p < 0.05) followed by a paired t test post hoc analysis (p < 0.01). At 50 mAs, there was no significant difference between cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), or time to maximum enhancement (Tmax) values for the RD and LD scans in the ischemic, infarcted, or normal contralateral regions (p < 0.05). At 20 mAs, there were significant differences between the RD and LD scans for all parameters in the ischemic and normal tissue regions (p > 0.05). CTP-derived CBF and CBV are not different at 50 mAs compared to 100 mAs, even without the addition of ASIR. Current CTP protocols can be modified to reduce the effective dose by 50 % without altering CTP measurements. (orig.)

  9. Detection of lung nodules with low-dose spiral CT: comparison with conventional dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tianzhao; Tang Guangjian; Jiang Xuexiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of reducing scan dose on the lung nodules detection rate by scanning a lung nodule model at low dose and conventional dose. Methods: The lung and the thoracic cage were simulated by using a cyst filled with water surrounded by a roll bandage. Flour, butter, and paraffin wax were mixed together by a certain ratio to simulate lung nodules of 10 mm and 5 mm in diameter with the CT values ranging from -10 to 50 HU. Conventional-dose scan (240 mA, 140 kV) and low-dose scan of three different levels (43 mA, 140 kV; 50 mA, 120 kV; 75 mA, 80 kV) together with three different pitches (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) were performed. The images of the simulated nodules were combined with the CT images of a normal adult's upper, middle, and inferior lung. Three radiologists read the images and the number of the nodules they detected including both the real ones and the false-positive ones was calculated to investigate weather there was any difference among different doses, pitch groups, and different locations. Results: The detection rate of the 10 mm and 5 mm nodules was 100% and 89.6% respectively by the low-dose scan. There was no difference between low-dose and conventional-dose CT (χ 2 =0.6907, P>0.70). The detection rate of 5 mm nodules declined when large pitch was used. Conclusion: The detection rates of 10 mm and 5 mm nodules had no difference between low-dose CT and conventional-dose CT. As the pitch augmented, the detection rate for the nodules declined

  10. Correlation of ultra-low dose chest CT findings with physiologic measures of asbestosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, David [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Wong, Patrick; Murray, Conor; Teh, Joelin [Royal Perth Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Perth (Australia); Kwok, Yi Jin [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nedlands, WA (Australia); De Klerk, Nick; Franklin, Peter [University of Western Australia, School of Population Health, Perth, WA (Australia); Alfonso, Helman; Reid, Alison [Curtin University, School of Public Health, Perth, WA (Australia); Musk, A.W.B. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nedlands, WA (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Population Health, Perth, WA (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Perth, WA (Australia); Brims, Fraser J.H. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nedlands, WA (Australia); University of Western Australia, School of Population Health, Perth, WA (Australia); Curtin University, Curtin Medical School, Perth (Australia)

    2017-08-15

    The correlation between ultra low dose computed tomography (ULDCT)-detected parenchymal lung changes and pulmonary function abnormalities is not well described. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ULDCT-detected interstitial lung disease (ILD) and measures of pulmonary function in an asbestos-exposed population. Two thoracic radiologists independently categorised prone ULDCT scans from 143 participants for ILD appearances as absent (score 0), probable (1) or definite (2) without knowledge of asbestos exposure or lung function. Pulmonary function measures included spirometry and diffusing capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO). Participants were 92% male with a median age of 73.0 years. CT dose index volume was between 0.6 and 1.8 mGy. Probable or definite ILD was reported in 63 (44.1%) participants. Inter-observer agreement was good (k = 0.613, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the ILD score and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.17, p = 0.04 and r = -0.20, p = 0.02). There was a strong correlation between ILD score and DLCO (r = -0.34, p < 0.0001). Changes consistent with ILD on ULDCT correlate well with corresponding reductions in gas transfer, similar to standard CT. In asbestos-exposed populations, ULDCT may be adequate to detect radiological changes consistent with asbestosis. (orig.)

  11. Correlation of ultra-low dose chest CT findings with physiologic measures of asbestosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manners, David; Wong, Patrick; Murray, Conor; Teh, Joelin; Kwok, Yi Jin; De Klerk, Nick; Franklin, Peter; Alfonso, Helman; Reid, Alison; Musk, A.W.B.; Brims, Fraser J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The correlation between ultra low dose computed tomography (ULDCT)-detected parenchymal lung changes and pulmonary function abnormalities is not well described. This study aimed to determine the relationship between ULDCT-detected interstitial lung disease (ILD) and measures of pulmonary function in an asbestos-exposed population. Two thoracic radiologists independently categorised prone ULDCT scans from 143 participants for ILD appearances as absent (score 0), probable (1) or definite (2) without knowledge of asbestos exposure or lung function. Pulmonary function measures included spirometry and diffusing capacity to carbon monoxide (DLCO). Participants were 92% male with a median age of 73.0 years. CT dose index volume was between 0.6 and 1.8 mGy. Probable or definite ILD was reported in 63 (44.1%) participants. Inter-observer agreement was good (k = 0.613, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant correlation between the ILD score and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = -0.17, p = 0.04 and r = -0.20, p = 0.02). There was a strong correlation between ILD score and DLCO (r = -0.34, p < 0.0001). Changes consistent with ILD on ULDCT correlate well with corresponding reductions in gas transfer, similar to standard CT. In asbestos-exposed populations, ULDCT may be adequate to detect radiological changes consistent with asbestosis. (orig.)

  12. Low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) in the perioperative workup of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abul-Kasim, Kasim; Overgaard, Angelica; Maly, Pavel [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Ohlin, Acke [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Mikael [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Radiation Physics, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden); Sundgren, Pia C. [University of Michigan Health Systems, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Ann Arbor (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The study aims were to estimate the radiation dose in patients examined with low dose spine CT and to compare it with that received by patients undergoing standard CT for trauma of the same region, as well as to evaluate the impact of dose reduction on image quality. Radiation doses in 113 consecutive low dose spine CTs were compared with those in 127 CTs for trauma. The inter- and intraobserver agreement in measurements of pedicular width, and vertebral rotation, measurements of signal-to-noise ratio and assessment of hardware status were the indicators in the evaluation of image quality. The effective dose of the low dose spine CT (0.37 mSv) was 20 times lower than that of a standard CT for trauma (13.09 mSv). This dose reduction conveyed no impact on image quality. This low dose spine CT protocol allows detailed evaluation that is necessary for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Accuracy of low dose CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis in childhood and comparison with USG and standard dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dae Yong; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Kim, Jee Taek; Lee, Na Mi; Kim, Hyery; Yun, Sin Weon; Chae, Soo Ahn; Lim, In Seok

    Computed tomography should be performed after careful consideration due to radiation hazard, which is why interest in low dose CT has increased recently in acute appendicitis. Previous studies have been performed in adult and adolescents populations, but no studies have reported on the efficacy of using low-dose CT in children younger than 10 years. Patients (n=475) younger than 10 years who were examined for acute appendicitis were recruited. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the examinations performed: low-dose CT, ultrasonography, and standard-dose CT. Subjects were categorized according to age and body mass index (BMI). Low-dose CT was a contributive tool in diagnosing appendicitis, and it was an adequate method, when compared with ultrasonography and standard-dose CT in terms of sensitivity (95.5% vs. 95.0% and 94.5%, p=0.794), specificity (94.9% vs. 80.0% and 98.8%, p=0.024), positive-predictive value (96.4% vs. 92.7% and 97.2%, p=0.019), and negative-predictive value (93.7% vs. 85.7% and 91.3%, p=0.890). Low-dose CT accurately diagnosed patients with a perforated appendix. Acute appendicitis was effectively diagnosed using low-dose CT in both early and middle childhood. BMI did not influence the accuracy of detecting acute appendicitis on low-dose CT. Low-dose CT is effective and accurate for diagnosing acute appendicitis in childhood, as well as in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, low-dose CT was relatively accurate, irrespective of age or BMI, for detecting acute appendicitis. Therefore, low-dose CT is recommended for assessing children with suspected acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. PET/CT in malignant melanoma: contrast-enhanced CT versus plain low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, Thomas; Schneider, Vera; Fougere, Christian la; Bartenstein, Peter; Weiss, Mayo; Melzer, Henriette Ingrid; Coppenrath, Eva; Berking, Carola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) versus non-enhanced low-dose CT (NECT) in the staging of advanced malignant melanoma with 18 F-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. In total, 50 18 F-FDG PET/CT examinations were performed in 50 patients with metastasized melanoma. For attenuation correction, whole-body NECT was performed followed by diagnostic CECT with contrast agent. For the whole-body PET, 18 F-FDG was applied. Criteria for evaluation were signs of vital tumour tissue (extent of lesions, contrast enhancement, maximum standardized uptake value >2.5). Findings suspicious for melanoma were considered lesions. NECT, CECT and 18 F-FDG PET were evaluated separately, followed by combined analysis of PET/NECT and PET/CECT. Findings were verified histologically and/or by follow-up (>6 months). Overall, 232 lesions were analysed, and 151 proved to be metastases. The sensitivity of NECT, CECT, PET, PET/NECT and PET/CECT was 62, 85, 90, 97 and 100%, and specificity was 52, 63, 88, 93 and 93%, respectively. Compared to CECT, NECT obtained additional false-negative results: lymph node (n = 19) and liver/spleen metastases (n = 9). Misinterpreted physiological structures mainly caused additional false-positive findings (n = 17). In combined analysis of PET/NECT, six false-positive [other tumours (n = 2), inflammatory lymph nodes (n = 2), inflammatory lung lesion (n = 1), blood vessel (n = 1)] and five false-negative findings [liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 1), lymph node metastases (n = 1)] remained. On PET/CECT, six false-positive [inflammatory lymph nodes (n = 3), other tumours (n = 2), inflammatory lung lesion (n = 1)] and no false-negative findings occurred. However, additional false findings on PET/NECT (6 of 232) did not change staging compared to PET/CECT. Our results indicate that it is justified to perform PET/NECT instead of PET/CECT for melanoma staging. (orig.)

  15. Low-dose CT image reconstruction using gain intervention-based dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Yadunath; Arya, K. V.; Tiwari, Shailendra

    2018-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) approach is extensively utilized in clinical diagnoses. However, X-ray residue in human body may introduce somatic damage such as cancer. Owing to radiation risk, research has focused on the radiation exposure distributed to patients through CT investigations. Therefore, low-dose CT has become a significant research area. Many researchers have proposed different low-dose CT reconstruction techniques. But, these techniques suffer from various issues such as over smoothing, artifacts, noise, etc. Therefore, in this paper, we have proposed a novel integrated low-dose CT reconstruction technique. The proposed technique utilizes global dictionary-based statistical iterative reconstruction (GDSIR) and adaptive dictionary-based statistical iterative reconstruction (ADSIR)-based reconstruction techniques. In case the dictionary (D) is predetermined, then GDSIR can be used and if D is adaptively defined then ADSIR is appropriate choice. The gain intervention-based filter is also used as a post-processing technique for removing the artifacts from low-dose CT reconstructed images. Experiments have been done by considering the proposed and other low-dose CT reconstruction techniques on well-known benchmark CT images. Extensive experiments have shown that the proposed technique outperforms the available approaches.

  16. Generative Adversarial Networks for Noise Reduction in Low-Dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterink, Jelmer M; Leiner, Tim; Viergever, Max A; Isgum, Ivana

    2017-12-01

    Noise is inherent to low-dose CT acquisition. We propose to train a convolutional neural network (CNN) jointly with an adversarial CNN to estimate routine-dose CT images from low-dose CT images and hence reduce noise. A generator CNN was trained to transform low-dose CT images into routine-dose CT images using voxelwise loss minimization. An adversarial discriminator CNN was simultaneously trained to distinguish the output of the generator from routine-dose CT images. The performance of this discriminator was used as an adversarial loss for the generator. Experiments were performed using CT images of an anthropomorphic phantom containing calcium inserts, as well as patient non-contrast-enhanced cardiac CT images. The phantom and patients were scanned at 20% and 100% routine clinical dose. Three training strategies were compared: the first used only voxelwise loss, the second combined voxelwise loss and adversarial loss, and the third used only adversarial loss. The results showed that training with only voxelwise loss resulted in the highest peak signal-to-noise ratio with respect to reference routine-dose images. However, CNNs trained with adversarial loss captured image statistics of routine-dose images better. Noise reduction improved quantification of low-density calcified inserts in phantom CT images and allowed coronary calcium scoring in low-dose patient CT images with high noise levels. Testing took less than 10 s per CT volume. CNN-based low-dose CT noise reduction in the image domain is feasible. Training with an adversarial network improves the CNNs ability to generate images with an appearance similar to that of reference routine-dose CT images.

  17. Low-dose quantitative phase contrast medical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittone, A.; Bravin, A.; Coan, P.

    2018-02-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful and routinely used clinical diagnostic technique, which is well tolerated by patients, and which provides high-resolution images and volumetric information about the body. However, two important limitations still affect this examination procedure: (1) its low sensitivity with respect to soft tissues, and (2) the hazards associated with x-ray exposure. Conventional radiology is based on the detection of the different photon absorption properties that characterize biological tissues, and thus the obtainable image contrast from soft and/or similar tissues is intrinsically limited. In this scenario, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) has been extensively tested and proven to overcome some of the main issues surrounding standard x-ray imaging. In addition to the absorption signal, XPCI relies on detecting the phase shifts induced by an object. Interestingly, as the order of magnitude of the phase contrast is higher than that of absorption, XPCI can, in principle, offer higher sensitivity at lower radiation doses. However, other technical aspects may counterbalance this gain, and an optimized setup and image processing solutions need to be implemented. The work presented here describes the strategies and developments we have realized, with the aim of controlling the radiation dose for the highly sensitive and quantitative XPCI-CT. Different algorithms for the phase retrieval and CT reconstruction of the XPCI data are presented. The CT algorithms we have implemented, namely the equally sloped tomography and the dictionary learning method, allow the image quality to be preserved while reducing the number of angular projections required by a factor of five. The results applied to breast imaging report accurate reconstructions at clinically compatible doses of the 3D distribution of the refractive properties of full human organs obtained by using three different phase retrieval methods. The described methodologies and the

  18. Spectrotemporal CT data acquisition and reconstruction at low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Darin P.; Badea, Cristian T.; Lee, Chang-Lung; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used, both clinically and preclinically, for fast, high-resolution anatomic imaging; however, compelling opportunities exist to expand its use in functional imaging applications. For instance, spectral information combined with nanoparticle contrast agents enables quantification of tissue perfusion levels, while temporal information details cardiac and respiratory dynamics. The authors propose and demonstrate a projection acquisition and reconstruction strategy for 5D CT (3D + dual energy + time) which recovers spectral and temporal information without substantially increasing radiation dose or sampling time relative to anatomic imaging protocols. Methods: The authors approach the 5D reconstruction problem within the framework of low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. Unlike previous work on rank-sparsity constrained CT reconstruction, the authors establish an explicit rank-sparse signal model to describe the spectral and temporal dimensions. The spectral dimension is represented as a well-sampled time and energy averaged image plus regularly undersampled principal components describing the spectral contrast. The temporal dimension is represented as the same time and energy averaged reconstruction plus contiguous, spatially sparse, and irregularly sampled temporal contrast images. Using a nonlinear, image domain filtration approach, the authors refer to as rank-sparse kernel regression, the authors transfer image structure from the well-sampled time and energy averaged reconstruction to the spectral and temporal contrast images. This regularization strategy strictly constrains the reconstruction problem while approximately separating the temporal and spectral dimensions. Separability results in a highly compressed representation for the 5D data in which projections are shared between the temporal and spectral reconstruction subproblems, enabling substantial undersampling. The authors solved the 5D reconstruction

  19. Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yang; Shi Luyao; Shu Huazhong; Luo Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Yin Xindao; Toumoulin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In abdomen computed tomography (CT), repeated radiation exposures are often inevitable for cancer patients who receive surgery or radiotherapy guided by CT images. Low-dose scans should thus be considered in order to avoid the harm of accumulative x-ray radiation. This work is aimed at improving abdomen tumor CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast dictionary learning (DL) based processing. Stemming from sparse representation theory, the proposed patch-based DL approach allows effective suppression of both mottled noise and streak artifacts. The experiments carried out on clinical data show that the proposed method brings encouraging improvements in abdomen low-dose CT images with tumors. (paper)

  20. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Faroese National Hospital, Department of Medicine, Torshavn (Faroe Islands); Gutte, Henrik [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Copenhagen, Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Faculty of Health Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-15

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar technique for diagnosing PE. SPECT has been shown to have fewer indeterminate results and a higher diagnostic value. The latest improvement is the combination of a low-dose CT scan with a V/P SPECT scan in a hybrid tomograph. In a study comparing CTPA, planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone, SPECT/CT had the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume coverage per rotation and faster rotation. Furthermore, the dual energy CT technique is a promising modality that can provide functional imaging in combination with anatomical information. Newer high-end CT scanners and SPECT systems are able to visualize smaller subsegmental emboli. However, consensus is lacking regarding the clinical impact and treatment. In the present review, SPECT and SPECT in combination with low-dose CT, CTPA and dual energy CT are discussed in the context of diagnosing PE. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  2. Bibliometrics analysis of the PubMed literatures on low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Xia Guanghui; Ma Xiaohong; Zhao Xinming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the developmental rule and feature in low-dose CT examinations and to provide useful references for study in the future. Materials and Methods: The journal articles on PubMed from 2002 to 2011 were processed by Thomson Data Analyzer and five aspects were analysed: time, authors, institutions, journals, countries, and keywords. Results: The number of journal articles in low-dose CT examinations were 6 433, 3165 were from US (49.2%), 112 from China (1.4%); 3664 authors (80.42%) published only one article, the famous authors published more than 4 articles; there were 9 core journals in this area. In the last decade, the number and quality of the journal articles in low -dose CT have been dramatically increased. Conclusion: The interest on the low -dose CT examination has been steadily increasing, and world famous research teams have been established. The research in low-dose CT is a multi-discipline involving medicine, medical physics, and mathematics. Cooperation between multiple scientific domains is needed for the future studies. (authors)

  3. Primary study of quantitative measurement in different grades of COPD using low-dose multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yiming; Yin Jianzhong; Yang Wenjie; Tan Zhengshuai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of airway measurement at the trunk of apical bronchus of right upper lobe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and airway dimensions and lung density changes in different COPD stages. Methods: 1) Fifteen randomly selected COPD patients underwent low -dose chest multi -slice CT scan. The wall thickness-to-diameter ratio (TDR) and percentage wall area (WA%) at apical bronchus of right upper lobe section and mean TDR and WA% of small airway (<2 mm) were calculated. 2) Another fifty-five randomly selected COPD patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of pulmonary function tests. There were sixteen patients with grade 1, sixteen patients with grade 2, fourteen patients with grade 3. and nine patients with grade 4. Fifteen non-COPD patients were selected as controls. The total lung was scanned with low-dose multi-slice CT during inspiration. The mean lung attenuation (MLA) and voxel index (VI) were measured. Inner area of bronchus (A i ), TDR and WA% of the apical bronchus of right upper lobe were measured. Results: 1) The TDR of the apical bronchus of right were smaller than the mean TDR of the small airways; The WA% of the apical bronchus of right were larger than the mean WA% of the small airways; but there were good correlation (r=0.793 and 0.784, respectively). 2) The MLA values were decreased with increase of COPD stage. The VI values were increased with increase of COPD stage. However, the values did not differ between adjacent stages. The luminal areas of stage 3-4 patients were smaller than that of other stages. There was no statistics difference in TDR between adjacent groups, except between stages 3 and 4. For WA%, the higher stage group had higher WA%. Conclusion: There were good correlations for TDR and WA% between the apical bronchus of right upper lobe and small airway. WA% is the most sensitive index for detecting thickened airway. (authors)

  4. Early detection of lung cancer using ultra-low-dose computed tomography in coronary CT angiography scans among patients with suspected coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Matheus; Pacini, Gabriel Sartori; de Souza, Vinicius Valério Silveiro; Marchiori, Edson; Meirelles, Gustavo Souza Portes; Szarf, Gilberto; Torres, Felipe Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    To assess whether an additional chest ultra-low-dose CT scan to the coronary CT angiography protocol can be used for lung cancer screening among patients with suspected coronary artery disease. 175 patients underwent coronary CT angiography for assessment of coronary artery disease, additionally undergoing ultra-low-dose CT screening to early diagnosis of lung cancer in the same scanner (80kVp and 15mAs). Patients presenting pulmonary nodules were followed-up for two years, repeating low-dose CTs in intervals of 3, 6, or 12 months based on nodule size and growth rate in accordance with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Ultra-low-dose CT identified 71 patients with solitary pulmonary nodules (41%), with a mean diameter of 5.50±4.00mm. Twenty-eight were >6mm, and in 79% (n=22) of these cases they were false positive findings, further confirmed by follow-up (n=20), resection (n=1), or biopsy (n=1). Lung cancer was detected in six patients due to CT screening (diagnostic yield: 3%). Among these, four cases could not be detected in the cardiac field of view. Most patients were in early stages of the disease. Two patients diagnosed at advanced stages died due to cancer complications. The addition of the ultra-low-dose CT scan represented a radiation dose increment of 1.22±0.53% (effective dose, 0.11±0.03mSv). Lung cancer might be detected using additional ultra-low-dose protocols in coronary CT angiography scans among patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Smoking habits in the randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial with low-dose CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present the final results of the effect of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT on the smoking habits of participants in a 5-year screening trial. METHODS: The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) was a 5-year screening trial that enrolled 4104 subjects; 2052 were randomised...... to annual low-dose CT (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were current and ex-smokers (≥4 weeks abstinence from smoking) with a tobacco consumption of ≥20 pack years. Smoking habits were determined annually. Missing values for smoking status at the final screening...... round were handled using two different models. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in annual smoking status between the CT group and control group. Overall the ex-smoker rates (CT + control group) significantly increased from 24% (baseline) to 37% at year 5 of screening (p

  6. The bibliometric analysis of literatures on low-dose CT in CNKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Qi Weiwei; Xia Guanghui; Zhao Xinming; Ma Xiaohong; Zhou Chunwu; Hong Nan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the characteristics and rule of the development in national low -dose CT examination, and to supply a useful reference for future studies. Materials and Methods: The journal articles in CNKI which were included by China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (CAJD) from 2002 to 2011 were processed with Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA). Seven aspects were analyzed: time, authors, funds for scientific research, areal distribution, institutions, authors, and keywords. Results: A total 3148 journal articles on low-dose CT examination and 7352 authors were found. The cooperative rate and degree were 63, 48% and 2.34, respectively. The famous authors were those who published more than 3 articles. Authors were from 33 areas, 471 institutions of 8 systems. Beijing and Shanghai were the most productive areas, publishing 45.9% articles. There were 10 core journals in this research area, 868 articles were funded by certain grants, and number of articles was increased yearly, indicative of the importance of grant in promoting research. Conclusion: The national low-dose CT research was in the young stage compared to the international research, and the research were not evenly distributed national wide. Though the researches have involved multi-institute, multi-system, multi-discipline, the quantities and qualities of papers still have improvement space. Strengthening basic research, improving medical ethics, and optimizing clinical research methods would promote development of low-dose CT studies. (authors)

  7. Convolutional auto-encoder for image denoising of ultra-low-dose CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuho Nishio

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Neural network with convolutional auto-encoder could be trained using pairs of standard-dose and ultra-low-dose CT image patches. According to the visual assessment by radiologists and technologists, the performance of our proposed method was superior to that of large-scale nonlocal mean and block-matching and 3D filtering.

  8. Fully Convolutional Architecture for Low-Dose CT Image Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badretale, S.; Shaker, F.; Babyn, P.; Alirezaie, J.

    2017-10-01

    One of the critical topics in medical low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is how best to maintain image quality. As the quality of images decreases with lowering the X-ray radiation dose, improving image quality is extremely important and challenging. We have proposed a novel approach to denoise low-dose CT images. Our algorithm learns directly from an end-to-end mapping from the low-dose Computed Tomography images for denoising the normal-dose CT images. Our method is based on a deep convolutional neural network with rectified linear units. By learning various low-level to high-level features from a low-dose image the proposed algorithm is capable of creating a high-quality denoised image. We demonstrate the superiority of our technique by comparing the results with two other state-of-the-art methods in terms of the peak signal to noise ratio, root mean square error, and a structural similarity index.

  9. Low dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging using a statistical iterative reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Yinghua [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Hacker, Timothy A.; Raval, Amish N. [Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Van Lysel, Michael S.; Speidel, Michael A., E-mail: speidel@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging has the potential to provide both functional and anatomical information regarding coronary artery stenosis. However, radiation dose can be potentially high due to repeated scanning of the same region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of statistical iterative reconstruction to improve parametric maps of myocardial perfusion derived from a low tube current dynamic CT acquisition. Methods: Four pigs underwent high (500 mA) and low (25 mA) dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion scans with and without coronary occlusion. To delineate the affected myocardial territory, an N-13 ammonia PET perfusion scan was performed for each animal in each occlusion state. Filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction was first applied to all CT data sets. Then, a statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) method was applied to data sets acquired at low dose. Image voxel noise was matched between the low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. CT perfusion maps were compared among the low dose FBP, low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. Numerical simulations of a dynamic CT scan at high and low dose (20:1 ratio) were performed to quantitatively evaluate SIR and FBP performance in terms of flow map accuracy, precision, dose efficiency, and spatial resolution. Results: Forin vivo studies, the 500 mA FBP maps gave −88.4%, −96.0%, −76.7%, and −65.8% flow change in the occluded anterior region compared to the open-coronary scans (four animals). The percent changes in the 25 mA SIR maps were in good agreement, measuring −94.7%, −81.6%, −84.0%, and −72.2%. The 25 mA FBP maps gave unreliable flow measurements due to streaks caused by photon starvation (percent changes of +137.4%, +71.0%, −11.8%, and −3.5%). Agreement between 25 mA SIR and 500 mA FBP global flow was −9.7%, 8.8%, −3.1%, and 26.4%. The average variability of flow measurements in a nonoccluded region was 16.3%, 24.1%, and 937

  10. Low dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging using a statistical iterative reconstruction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Yinghua; Chen, Guang-Hong; Hacker, Timothy A.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging has the potential to provide both functional and anatomical information regarding coronary artery stenosis. However, radiation dose can be potentially high due to repeated scanning of the same region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of statistical iterative reconstruction to improve parametric maps of myocardial perfusion derived from a low tube current dynamic CT acquisition. Methods: Four pigs underwent high (500 mA) and low (25 mA) dose dynamic CT myocardial perfusion scans with and without coronary occlusion. To delineate the affected myocardial territory, an N-13 ammonia PET perfusion scan was performed for each animal in each occlusion state. Filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction was first applied to all CT data sets. Then, a statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) method was applied to data sets acquired at low dose. Image voxel noise was matched between the low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. CT perfusion maps were compared among the low dose FBP, low dose SIR and high dose FBP reconstructions. Numerical simulations of a dynamic CT scan at high and low dose (20:1 ratio) were performed to quantitatively evaluate SIR and FBP performance in terms of flow map accuracy, precision, dose efficiency, and spatial resolution. Results: Forin vivo studies, the 500 mA FBP maps gave −88.4%, −96.0%, −76.7%, and −65.8% flow change in the occluded anterior region compared to the open-coronary scans (four animals). The percent changes in the 25 mA SIR maps were in good agreement, measuring −94.7%, −81.6%, −84.0%, and −72.2%. The 25 mA FBP maps gave unreliable flow measurements due to streaks caused by photon starvation (percent changes of +137.4%, +71.0%, −11.8%, and −3.5%). Agreement between 25 mA SIR and 500 mA FBP global flow was −9.7%, 8.8%, −3.1%, and 26.4%. The average variability of flow measurements in a nonoccluded region was 16.3%, 24.1%, and 937

  11. Lateral topography for reducing effective dose in low-dose chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dong-Ho; Lim, Daekeon; Hwang, Wi-Sub; Park, Seong-Hoon; Jeong, Ok-man; Kang, Kyung Wook; Kang, Hohyung

    2013-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess radiation exposure during low-dose chest CT by using lateral topography and to compare the lateral topographic findings with findings obtained with anteroposterior topography alone and anteroposterior and lateral topography combined. From November 2011 to February 2012, 210 male subjects were enrolled in the study. Age, weight, and height of the men were recorded. All subjects were placed into one of three subgroups based on the type of topographic image obtained: anteroposterior topography, lateral topography, and both anteroposterior and lateral topography. Imaging was performed with a 128-MDCT scanner. CT, except for topography, was the same for all subjects. A radiologist analyzed each image, recorded scan length, checked for any insufficiencies in the FOV, and calculated the effective radiation dose. One-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were used to compare the effective radiation exposure and scan length between groups. The mean scan length in the anteroposterior topography group was significantly greater than that of the lateral topography group and the combined anteroposterior and lateral topography group (p topography group (0.735 ± 0.033 mSv) was significantly lower than that for the anteroposterior topography group (0.763 ± 0.038 mSv) and the combined anteroposterior and lateral topography group (0.773 ± 0.038) (p < 0.001). Lateral topographic low-dose CT was associated with a lower effective radiation dose and scan length than either anteroposterior topographic low-dose chest CT or low-dose chest CT with both anteroposterior and lateral topograms.

  12. Low-Dose X-ray CT Reconstruction via Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Zhang, Lei; Hsieh, Jiang; Wang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Although diagnostic medical imaging provides enormous benefits in the early detection and accuracy diagnosis of various diseases, there are growing concerns on the potential side effect of radiation induced genetic, cancerous and other diseases. How to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic performance is a major challenge in the computed tomography (CT) field. Inspired by the compressive sensing theory, the sparse constraint in terms of total variation (TV) minimization has already led to promising results for low-dose CT reconstruction. Compared to the discrete gradient transform used in the TV method, dictionary learning is proven to be an effective way for sparse representation. On the other hand, it is important to consider the statistical property of projection data in the low-dose CT case. Recently, we have developed a dictionary learning based approach for low-dose X-ray CT. In this paper, we present this method in detail and evaluate it in experiments. In our method, the sparse constraint in terms of a redundant dictionary is incorporated into an objective function in a statistical iterative reconstruction framework. The dictionary can be either predetermined before an image reconstruction task or adaptively defined during the reconstruction process. An alternating minimization scheme is developed to minimize the objective function. Our approach is evaluated with low-dose X-ray projections collected in animal and human CT studies, and the improvement associated with dictionary learning is quantified relative to filtered backprojection and TV-based reconstructions. The results show that the proposed approach might produce better images with lower noise and more detailed structural features in our selected cases. However, there is no proof that this is true for all kinds of structures. PMID:22542666

  13. Low-dose X-ray CT reconstruction via dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Mou, Xuanqin; Zhang, Lei; Hsieh, Jiang; Wang, Ge

    2012-09-01

    Although diagnostic medical imaging provides enormous benefits in the early detection and accuracy diagnosis of various diseases, there are growing concerns on the potential side effect of radiation induced genetic, cancerous and other diseases. How to reduce radiation dose while maintaining the diagnostic performance is a major challenge in the computed tomography (CT) field. Inspired by the compressive sensing theory, the sparse constraint in terms of total variation (TV) minimization has already led to promising results for low-dose CT reconstruction. Compared to the discrete gradient transform used in the TV method, dictionary learning is proven to be an effective way for sparse representation. On the other hand, it is important to consider the statistical property of projection data in the low-dose CT case. Recently, we have developed a dictionary learning based approach for low-dose X-ray CT. In this paper, we present this method in detail and evaluate it in experiments. In our method, the sparse constraint in terms of a redundant dictionary is incorporated into an objective function in a statistical iterative reconstruction framework. The dictionary can be either predetermined before an image reconstruction task or adaptively defined during the reconstruction process. An alternating minimization scheme is developed to minimize the objective function. Our approach is evaluated with low-dose X-ray projections collected in animal and human CT studies, and the improvement associated with dictionary learning is quantified relative to filtered backprojection and TV-based reconstructions. The results show that the proposed approach might produce better images with lower noise and more detailed structural features in our selected cases. However, there is no proof that this is true for all kinds of structures.

  14. Optimised low-dose multidetector CT protocol for children with cranial deformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Jose Luis [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Radiology, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain); Pombar, Miguel Angel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Department of Radiophysics, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain); Pumar, Jose Manuel [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Department of Radiology, Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain); Campo, Victor Miguel del [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Public Health, Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2013-08-15

    To present an optimised low-dose multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) protocol for the study of children with cranial deformity. Ninety-one consecutive MDCT studies were performed in 80 children. Studies were performed with either our standard head CT protocol (group 1, n = 20) or a low-dose cranial deformity protocol (groups 2 and 3). Group 2 (n = 38), initial, and group 3 (n = 33), final and more optimised. All studies were performed in the same 64-MDCT equipment. Cranial deformity protocol was gradationally optimised decreasing kVp, limiting mA range, using automatic exposure control (AEC) and increasing the noise index (NI). Image quality was assessed. Dose indicators such us CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (E) were used. The optimised low-dose protocol reached the following values: 80 kVp, mA range: 50-150 and NI = 23. We achieved a maximum dose reduction of 10-22 times in the 1- to 12-month-old cranium in regard to the 2004 European guidelines for MDCT. A low-dose MDCT protocol that may be used as the first diagnostic imaging option in clinically selected patients with skull abnormalities. (orig.)

  15. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament.

  16. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament

  17. Longitudinal follow-up study of smoking-induced emphysema progression in low-dose CT screening of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, N.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major public health problem that is predicted to be third leading cause of death in 2030. Although spirometry is traditionally used to quantify emphysema progression, it is difficult to detect the loss of pulmonary function by emphysema in early stage, and to assess the susceptibility to smoking. This study presents quantification method of smoking-induced emphysema progression based on annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in lung cancer screening. The method consists of three steps. First, lung lobes are segmented using extracted interlobar fissures by enhancement filter based on fourdimensional curvature. Second, LAV of each lung lobe is segmented. Finally, smoking-induced emphysema progression is assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV percentage in each lung lobe. This method was applied to 140 participants in lung cancer CT screening for six years. The results showed that LAV progressions of nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers are different in terms of pack-year and smoking cessation duration. This study demonstrates effectiveness in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in lung cancer CT screening.

  18. A framework to measure myocardial extracellular volume fraction using dual-phase low dose CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yixun; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher T.; Bluemke, David A.; Nacif, Marcelo S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECVF) is a surrogate imaging biomarker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of pathologic ventricular remodeling. Low dose cardiac CT is emerging as a promising modality to detect diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis due to its fast acquisition and low radiation; however, the insufficient contrast in the low dose CT images poses great challenge to measure ECVF from the image. Methods: To deal with this difficulty, the authors present a complete ECVF measurement framework including a point-guided myocardial modeling, a deformable model-based myocardium segmentation, nonrigid registration of pre- and post-CT, and ECVF calculation. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on 20 patients by two observers. Compared to the manually delineated reference segmentations, the accuracy of our segmentation in terms of true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and average surface distance (ASD), were 92.18% ± 3.52%, 0.31% ± 0.10%, 0.69 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The interobserver variability measured by concordance correlation coefficient regarding TPVF, FPVF, and ASD were 0.95, 0.90, 0.94, respectively, demonstrating excellent agreement. Bland-Altman method showed 95% limits of agreement between ECVF at CT and ECVF at MR. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrates its efficiency, accuracy, and noninvasiveness in ECVF measurement and dramatically advances the ECVF at cardiac CT toward its clinical use

  19. Usefulness of low dose oral contrast media in 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2006-01-01

    The standard protocol using large volume of oral contrast media may cause gastrointestinal discomfort and contrast-related artifacts in PET/CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low dose oral contrast in 18 F-FDG PET/CT. We retrospectively reviewed the whole-body PET/CT images in a total of 435 patients. About 200 ml of oral contrast agent (barium sulfate) was administered immediately before injection of 18 F-FDG. The FDG uptake of intestines was analyzed by visual and semi-quantitative method on transaxial, coronal and saggital planes. Seventy (16%, 113 sites) of 435 images showed high FDG uptake (peak SUV > 4); 50 (74%, 84 sites) with diffuse and 20 (26%, 29 sites) with focal uptake. The most commonly delivered site of oral contrast media was small bowel (n = 27, 39%). On PET/CT images, FDG uptake coexisted with oral contrast media in 26 patients (54%, 38 sites) with diffuse pattern and 9 (45%, 9 sites) with focal pattern, and by sites, those were 38 (45%) and 9 (31%), respectively. In small bowel regions, the proportion of coexistence reached as high as 61% (29/47 sites). A visual analysis of available non-attenuation corrected PET images of 27 matched regions revealed no contrast-related artifact. We concluded that the application of low dose contrast media could be helpful in the evaluation of abdominal uptake in the FDG PET/CT image

  20. A framework to measure myocardial extracellular volume fraction using dual-phase low dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yixun; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua, E-mail: JYao@cc.nih.gov [Clinical Image Processing Service, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher T.; Bluemke, David A. [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 and Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Nacif, Marcelo S. [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECVF) is a surrogate imaging biomarker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of pathologic ventricular remodeling. Low dose cardiac CT is emerging as a promising modality to detect diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis due to its fast acquisition and low radiation; however, the insufficient contrast in the low dose CT images poses great challenge to measure ECVF from the image. Methods: To deal with this difficulty, the authors present a complete ECVF measurement framework including a point-guided myocardial modeling, a deformable model-based myocardium segmentation, nonrigid registration of pre- and post-CT, and ECVF calculation. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on 20 patients by two observers. Compared to the manually delineated reference segmentations, the accuracy of our segmentation in terms of true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and average surface distance (ASD), were 92.18% ± 3.52%, 0.31% ± 0.10%, 0.69 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The interobserver variability measured by concordance correlation coefficient regarding TPVF, FPVF, and ASD were 0.95, 0.90, 0.94, respectively, demonstrating excellent agreement. Bland-Altman method showed 95% limits of agreement between ECVF at CT and ECVF at MR. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrates its efficiency, accuracy, and noninvasiveness in ECVF measurement and dramatically advances the ECVF at cardiac CT toward its clinical use.

  1. Computer aided detection system for Osteoporosis using low dose thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Harada, Masafumi; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Tsuchida, Takaaki; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro

    2018-02-01

    The patient of osteoporosis is about 13 million people in Japan and it is one of healthy life problems in the aging society. It is necessary to do early stage detection and treatment in order to prevent the osteoporosis. Multi-slice CT technology has been improving the three dimensional (3D) image analysis with higher resolution and shorter scan time. The 3D image analysis of thoracic vertebra can be used for supporting to diagnosis of osteoporosis. This analysis can be used for lung cancer detection at the same time. We develop method of shape analysis and CT values of spongy bone for the detection osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and lung cancer screening show high extraction rate by the thoracic vertebral evaluation CT images. In addition, we created standard pattern of CT value per thoracic vertebra for male age group using 298 low dose data.

  2. Low-Dose CT for Evaluation of Suspected Urolithiasis: Diagnostic Yield for Assessment of Alternative Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Bannas, Peter; Regier, Marc; Keller, Sarah; Kluth, Luis; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic yield of low-dose (LD) CT for alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected urolithiasis. In this retrospective study, we included 776 consecutive patients who underwent unenhanced abdominal CT for evaluation of suspected urolithiasis. All examinations were performed with an LD CT protocol; images were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction. The leading LD CT diagnosis was recorded for each patient and compared with the final clinical diagnosis, which served as the reference standard. The mean (± SD) effective dose of CT was 1.9 ± 0.6 mSv. The frequency of urolithiasis was 82.5% (640/776). LD CT reached a sensitivity of 94.1% (602/640), a specificity of 100.0% (136/136), and an accuracy of 95.1% (738/776) for the detection of urolithiasis. In 93 of 136 patients (68.4%) without urolithiasis, alternative diagnoses were established as the final clinical diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses were most commonly located in the genitourinary (n = 53) and gastrointestinal (n = 18) tracts. LD CT correctly provided alternative diagnoses for 57 patients (61.3%) and was false-negative for five patients (5.4%). The most common clinical alternative diagnoses were urinary tract infections (n = 22). Seven diagnoses missed at LD CT were located outside the FOV. For 43 of all 776 patients (5.5%), neither LD CT nor clinical workup could establish a final diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LD CT for the detection of alternative diagnoses were 91.9% (57/62), 95.6% (43/45), and 93.5% (100/107), respectively. LD CT enables the diagnosis of most alternative diagnoses in the setting of suspected urolithiasis. The most frequent alternative diagnoses missed by LD CT are urinary tract infections or diagnoses located outside the FOV of the abdominopelvic CT scan.

  3. Seventy kilovolt ultra-low dose CT of the paranasal sinus: first clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodelle, B.; Wichmann, J.L.; Klotz, N.; Lehnert, T.; Vogl, T.J.; Luboldt, W.; Schulz, B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic image quality and radiation dose of low-dose 70 kV computed tomography (CT) of the paranasal sinus in comparison to 100 and 120 kV CT. Materials and methods: CT of the paranasal sinus was performed in 127 patients divided into three groups using different tube voltages and currents (70 kV/75 mAs, ultra-low dose protocol, n = 44; 100 kV/40 mAs, standard low-dose protocol, n = 42; 120 kV/40 mAs, standard protocol, n = 41). CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose–length product (DLP), attenuation, image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were compared between the groups using Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U-test. Subjective diagnostic image quality was compared by using a five-point scale (1 = non-diagnostic, 5 = excellent, read by two readers in consensus) and Cohen's weighted kappa analysis for interobserver agreement. Results: Radiation dose was significantly lower with 70 kV acquisition than 100 and 120 kV (DLP: 31 versus 52 versus 82 mGy·cm; CTDI 2.33 versus 3.95 versus 6.31 mGy, all p < 0.05). Mean SNR (70 kV: 0.37; 100 kV: 0.21; 120 kV: 0.13; p < 0.05) and organ attenuation increased significantly with lower voltages. All examinations showed diagnostic image quality. Subjective diagnostic image quality was higher with standard protocols than the 70 kV protocol (120 kV: 5.0; 100 kV: 4.5; 70 kV: 3.5, p < 0.05) without significant differences with substantial interobserver agreement (κ > 0.59). Conclusion: The ultra-low dose (70 kV) CT imaging of the paranasal sinus allowed for significant dose reduction by 61% and an increased attenuation of organ structures in comparison to standard acquisition while maintaining diagnostic image quality with a slight reduction in subjective image quality. -- Highlights: •Image quality and radiation dose of 70 kV ultra-low dose CT of the paranasal sinus. •70 kV ultra-low dose CT of the paranasal sinus allows for dose reduction by 61%. •70 kV CT of the

  4. Iterative reconstruction technique vs filter back projection: utility for quantitative bronchial assessment on low-dose thin-section MDCT in patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Seki, Shinichiro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the iterative reconstruction (IR) technique for quantitative bronchial assessment during low-dose computed tomography (CT) as a substitute for standard-dose CT in patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fifty patients (mean age, 69.2; mean % predicted FEV1, 79.4) underwent standard-dose CT (150mAs) and low-dose CT (25mAs). Except for tube current, the imaging parameters were identical for both protocols. Standard-dose CT was reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP), and low-dose CT was reconstructed using IR and FBP. For quantitative bronchial assessment, the wall area percentage (WA%) of the sub-segmental bronchi and the airway luminal volume percentage (LV%) from the main bronchus to the peripheral bronchi were acquired in each dataset. The correlation and agreement of WA% and LV% between standard-dose CT and both low-dose CTs were statistically evaluated. WA% and LV% between standard-dose CT and both low-dose CTs were significant correlated (r > 0.77, p < 0.00001); however, only the LV% agreement between SD-CT and low-dose CT reconstructed with IR was moderate (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.93); the other agreement was poor (concordance correlation coefficient <0.90). Quantitative bronchial assessment via low-dose CT has potential as a substitute for standard-dose CT by using IR and airway luminal volumetry techniques. circle Quantitative bronchial assessment of COPD using low-dose CT is possible. (orig.)

  5. Low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses. Minimizing X-ray exposure with spectral shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Wolfgang [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Radiological Institute, Erlangen (Germany); Radiological Institute, Erlangen (Germany); May, Matthias; Saake, Marc; Brand, Michael; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Radiological Institute, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Shaping the energy spectrum of the X-ray beam has been shown to be beneficial in low-dose CT. This study's aim was to investigate dose and image quality of tin filtration at 100 kV for pre-operative planning in low-dose paranasal CT imaging in a large patient cohort. In a prospective trial, 129 patients were included. 64 patients were randomly assigned to the study protocol (100 kV with additional tin filtration, 150mAs, 192 x 0.6-mm slice collimation) and 65 patients to the standard low-dose protocol (100 kV, 50mAs, 128 x 0.6-mm slice collimation). To assess the image quality, subjective parameters were evaluated using a five-point scale. This scale was applied on overall image quality and contour delineation of critical anatomical structures. All scans were of diagnostic image quality. Bony structures were of good diagnostic image quality in both groups, soft tissues were of sufficient diagnostic image quality in the study group because of a high level of noise. Radiation exposure was very low in both groups, but significantly lower in the study group (CTDI{sub vol} 1.2 mGy vs. 4.4 mGy, p < 0.001). Spectral optimization (tin filtration at 100 kV) allows for visualization of the paranasal sinus with sufficient image quality at a very low radiation exposure. (orig.)

  6. Usefulness of low dose oral contrast media in FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Y. S.; Yun, J. G.; Lee, M. H.; Cho, C. W.; Yun, S. N [Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Oral contrast media might help in interpreting PET/CT images, allowing better discrimination between physiologic and pathologic abdominal uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low dose oral contrast on FDG PET/CT. A total of 435 cancer patients received 200mL of oral Barium with water(200mL) immediately before FDG injection. PET images were reconstructed using attenuation correction and iterative reconstruction. The FDG uptake in gastrointestinal(GI) tract were analyzed by visual and semiquantitative method in transaxial, coronal and sagittal planes. Seventy patients(16%, 113 sites) of 435 images showed high FDG uptake(pSUV>4.0) : 50(74%, 84 sites) with diffuse uptake and 20(26%, 29sites) with focal uptake. The most common distribution site of oral contrast media was small bowel (n=27, 39%) and others were small bowel with transverse colon(n=6, 8%), small bowel with ascending and sigmoid colon(n=6, 8%) and etc. In PET/CT images, FDG uptake coexisted with oral contrast was showed in 26 patients(54%) with diffuse pattern and 9(45%) with focal pattern, and by sites, those were 38(45%) and 9(31%), respectively. In small bowel regions, the most common distribution site, the proportion of coexistence reached as high as 61% (29 in the total 47 sites). Application of low dose contrast agent can be helpful in the evaluation of intestinal uptake in FDG PET/CT image.

  7. Usefulness of low dose oral contrast media in FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Y. S.; Yun, J. G.; Lee, M. H.; Cho, C. W.; Yun, S. N

    2004-01-01

    Oral contrast media might help in interpreting PET/CT images, allowing better discrimination between physiologic and pathologic abdominal uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low dose oral contrast on FDG PET/CT. A total of 435 cancer patients received 200mL of oral Barium with water(200mL) immediately before FDG injection. PET images were reconstructed using attenuation correction and iterative reconstruction. The FDG uptake in gastrointestinal(GI) tract were analyzed by visual and semiquantitative method in transaxial, coronal and sagittal planes. Seventy patients(16%, 113 sites) of 435 images showed high FDG uptake(pSUV>4.0) : 50(74%, 84 sites) with diffuse uptake and 20(26%, 29sites) with focal uptake. The most common distribution site of oral contrast media was small bowel (n=27, 39%) and others were small bowel with transverse colon(n=6, 8%), small bowel with ascending and sigmoid colon(n=6, 8%) and etc. In PET/CT images, FDG uptake coexisted with oral contrast was showed in 26 patients(54%) with diffuse pattern and 9(45%) with focal pattern, and by sites, those were 38(45%) and 9(31%), respectively. In small bowel regions, the most common distribution site, the proportion of coexistence reached as high as 61% (29 in the total 47 sites). Application of low dose contrast agent can be helpful in the evaluation of intestinal uptake in FDG PET/CT image

  8. CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Man Chung

    1995-01-01

    The fungus aspergillus can cause a variety of pulmonary disorders. Aspergilloma is a noninvasive aspergillus colonization of virtually any type of preexisting pulmonary cavity or cystic space. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is serious, usually fatal infection in patients being treated with immunosuppressants or who have chronic debilitating disease. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized clinically by asthma, blood and sputum eosinophilia and positive immunologic reaction to aspergillus antigen. Awareness of the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis is important in making the diagnosis of aspergillus-caused pulmonary disorders. In this pictorial essay, we illustrated various radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis focused on CT findings correlated with gross pathologic specimens

  9. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Soo Hyung [School of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, Jun; Wang Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Zheng Bin, E-mail: zhengb@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 {+-} 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  10. Application of low-dose radiation protocols in survey CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; Liu Ting; Lu Tao; Xu Ke; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the protocols with low-dose radiation in survey CT scans for localization. Methods: Eighty standard adult patients, head and body phantoms were recruited. Default protocols provided by operator's manual setting were that all the tube voltage for head, chest, abdomen and lumbar was 120 kV; the tube currents were 20,10,20 and 40 mA, respectively. Values of kV and mA in the low-dose experiments were optimized according to the device options. For chest and abdomen, the tube position were compared between default (0 degree) and 180 degree. Phantoms were scanned with above protocols, and the radiation doses were measured respectively. Paired t-test were used for comparisons of standard deviation in CT value, noise and exposure surface dose (ESD) between group with default protocols and group with optimized protocols. Results: The optimized protocols in low-dose CT survey scans were 80 kV, 10 mA for head, 80 kV, 10 mA for chest, 80 kV, 10 mA for abdomen and 100 kV, 10 mA for lumbar. The values of ESD for phantom scan in default and optimized protocols were 0.38 mGy/0.16 mGy in head, 0.30 mGy/0.20 mGy in chest, 0.74 mGy/0.30 mGy in abdomen and 0.81 mGy/0.44 mGy in lumbar, respectively. Compared with default protocols, the optimized protocols reduced the radiation doses 59%, 33%, 59% and 46% in head, chest, abdomen and lumbar. When tube position changed from 0 degree to 180 degree, the ESD were 0.24 mGy/0.20 mGy for chest; 0.37 mGy/0.30 mGy for abdomen, and the radiation doses were reduced 20% and 17%. Conclusion: A certain amount of image noise is increased in low-dose protocols, but image quality is still acceptable without problem in CT localization. The reduction of radiation dose and the radiation harm to patients are the superiority. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of a low-dose CT protocol with oral contrast for assessment of acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platon, Alexandra; Jlassi, Helmi; Becker, Christoph D.; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Rutschmann, Olivier T. [University Hospital of Geneva, Emergency Center, Geneva (Switzerland); Verdun, Francis R. [University Institute for Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gervaz, Pascal [University Hospital of Geneva, Clinic of Digestive Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a low-dose CT with oral contrast medium (LDCT) for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare its performance with standard-dose i.v. contrast-enhanced CT (standard CT) according to patients' BMIs. Eighty-six consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute appendicitis underwent LDCT (30 mAs), followed by standard CT (180 mAs). Both examinations were reviewed by two experienced radiologists for direct and indirect signs of appendicitis. Clinical and surgical follow-up was considered as the reference standard. Appendicitis was confirmed by surgery in 37 (43%) of the 86 patients. Twenty-nine (34%) patients eventually had an alternative discharge diagnosis to explain their abdominal pain. Clinical and biological follow-up was uneventful in 20 (23%) patients. LDCT and standard CT had the same sensitivity (100%, 33/33) and specificity (98%, 45/46) to diagnose appendicitis in patients with a body mass index (BMI) {>=} 18.5. In slim patients (BMI < 18.5), sensitivity to diagnose appendicitis was 50% (2/4) for LDCT and 100% (4/4) for standard CT, while specificity was identical for both techniques (67%, 2/3). LDCT may play a role in the diagnostic workup of patients with a BMI {>=} 18.5. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of a low-dose CT protocol with oral contrast for assessment of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platon, Alexandra; Jlassi, Helmi; Becker, Christoph D.; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Rutschmann, Olivier T.; Verdun, Francis R.; Gervaz, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a low-dose CT with oral contrast medium (LDCT) for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare its performance with standard-dose i.v. contrast-enhanced CT (standard CT) according to patients' BMIs. Eighty-six consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute appendicitis underwent LDCT (30 mAs), followed by standard CT (180 mAs). Both examinations were reviewed by two experienced radiologists for direct and indirect signs of appendicitis. Clinical and surgical follow-up was considered as the reference standard. Appendicitis was confirmed by surgery in 37 (43%) of the 86 patients. Twenty-nine (34%) patients eventually had an alternative discharge diagnosis to explain their abdominal pain. Clinical and biological follow-up was uneventful in 20 (23%) patients. LDCT and standard CT had the same sensitivity (100%, 33/33) and specificity (98%, 45/46) to diagnose appendicitis in patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5. In slim patients (BMI < 18.5), sensitivity to diagnose appendicitis was 50% (2/4) for LDCT and 100% (4/4) for standard CT, while specificity was identical for both techniques (67%, 2/3). LDCT may play a role in the diagnostic workup of patients with a BMI ≥ 18.5. (orig.)

  13. Development of low-dose protocols for thin-section CT assessment of cystic fibrosis in pediatric patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-12-01

    To develop low-dose thin-section computed tomographic (CT) protocols for assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in pediatric patients and determine the clinical usefulness thereof compared with chest radiography.

  14. Ultra-low dose CT attenuation correction for PET/CT: analysis of sparse view data acquisition and reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xue; Cheng, Lishui; Long, Yong; Fu, Lin; Alessio, Adam M.; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.; De Man, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    For PET/CT systems, PET image reconstruction requires corresponding CT images for anatomical localization and attenuation correction. In the case of PET respiratory gating, multiple gated CT scans can offer phase-matched attenuation and motion correction, at the expense of increased radiation dose. We aim to minimize the dose of the CT scan, while preserving adequate image quality for the purpose of PET attenuation correction by introducing sparse view CT data acquisition. Methods We investigated sparse view CT acquisition protocols resulting in ultra-low dose CT scans designed for PET attenuation correction. We analyzed the tradeoffs between the number of views and the integrated tube current per view for a given dose using CT and PET simulations of a 3D NCAT phantom with lesions inserted into liver and lung. We simulated seven CT acquisition protocols with {984, 328, 123, 41, 24, 12, 8} views per rotation at a gantry speed of 0.35 seconds. One standard dose and four ultra-low dose levels, namely, 0.35 mAs, 0.175 mAs, 0.0875 mAs, and 0.04375 mAs, were investigated. Both the analytical FDK algorithm and the Model Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm were used for CT image reconstruction. We also evaluated the impact of sinogram interpolation to estimate the missing projection measurements due to sparse view data acquisition. For MBIR, we used a penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) cost function with an approximate total-variation (TV) regularizing penalty function. We compared a tube pulsing mode and a continuous exposure mode for sparse view data acquisition. Global PET ensemble root-mean-squares-error (RMSE) and local ensemble lesion activity error were used as quantitative evaluation metrics for PET image quality. Results With sparse view sampling, it is possible to greatly reduce the CT scan dose when it is primarily used for PET attenuation correction with little or no measureable effect on the PET image. For the four ultra-low dose levels

  15. [Application of Low Dose Spiral CT in Diagnosing Impacted Teeth in Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-tian; Li, Xue-sheng; Li, Kai-ming; Bao, Li; Ning, Gang

    2015-09-01

    [ABSTRACT] To determine the value of low dose spiral CT scanning in diagnosing impacted teeth of children and adolescents. A total of 153 children and adolescents with confirmed impacted teeth in West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 5 groups according to the different spiral CT scan parameters (tube current time product, scanning thickness and collimation value): Group A (n=30, 330 mAs, 6 X 0. 75 mm and 3. 0 mm), Group B (n=30, 140 mAs, 6 X 0. 75 mm and 3. 0 mm), Group C (n=30, 80 mAs, 6 X 0. 75 mm and 3. 0 mm), Group D (n=31, 80 mAs, 6 X 1. 50 mm and 5. 0 mm), and Group E (n=32, 50 mAs, 6 X 1. 50 mm and 5. 0 mm). There were no significant differences in general clinical features (P>0. 05) among the participants of the five groups. The phantoms were used to measure spatial resolution and contrast resolution of the scan images. Dose length product (DLP) was recorded during CT scanning for calculating effective dose (ED) of exposure. The quality of images was evaluated using a list of quality scoring criteria. (1) Under 330, 140, 80, 80 and 50 mAs, the images had a spatial resolution of 1.0 mm, with contrast resolution of 2. 0, 3. 0, 4. 5, 4. 5 and 6. 0 mm, respectively. (2) Significant differences in ED values were found among the five groups (F=1 064. 119, P=0. 000) and between every two of those groups (P0. 05). The diagnostic results of the spiral CT were consistent with those of orthodontic surgery. Low dose spiral CT scanning can meet the image quality requirements for diagnosing impacted teeth, minimizing radiation exposure effectively.

  16. Assessment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: use of low-dose whole pancreatic CT perfusion and individualized dual-energy CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-ou; Guo, Jun; Li, Xiao; Qi, Yao-dong; Wang, Xi-ming; Xu, Zhuo-dong; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Jiu-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of low-dose whole pancreatic computed tomography (CT) perfusion integrated with individualized dual-energy CT (DECT) scanning in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Twenty patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma underwent pancreatic CT perfusion as well as individualized dual-phase DECT pancreatic scans. Perfusion characteristics of non-tumourous pancreatic parenchyma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma were analysed. Weighted-average 120 kVp images and the optimal monoenergetic images in dual phase were reconstructed and the contrast noise ratio (CNR) of pancreas-to-tumour were compared. There were significant difference on blood flow as well as blood volume between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and the non-tumourous pancreatic parenchyma (P < 0.05), whereas no difference on permeability (P > 0.05). CNRs of pancreas-to-tumour in individualized pancreatic phase were significantly higher than those in venous phase (P < 0.05), and CNRs of optimal monoenergetic images were higher than those on weighted-average 120 kVp images (P < 0.05) in both phase. Total effective radiation dose of CT examination was around 9.32–13.75 mSv. Low-dose whole pancreatic CT perfusion can provide functional information, and the individualized pancreatic phase DECT scan is the optimal method for detecting pancreatic adenocarcinomas. The integration of the two techniques has great value in clinical application.

  17. Intra-arterial Ultra-low-Dose CT Angiography of Lower Extremity in Diabetic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özgen, Ali, E-mail: draliozgen@hotmail.com [Yeditepe University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Sanioğlu, Soner [Yeditepe University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Bingöl, Uğur Anıl [Yeditepe University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeTo image lower extremity arteries by CT angiography using a very low-dose intra-arterial contrast medium in patients with high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN).Materials and MethodsThree cases with long-standing diabetes mellitus and signs of lower extremity atherosclerotic disease were evaluated by CT angiography using 0.1 ml/kg of the body weight of contrast medium given via 10-cm-long 4F introducer by puncturing the CFA. Images were evaluated by an interventional radiologist and a cardiovascular surgeon. Density values of the lower extremity arteries were also calculated. Findings in two cases were compared with digital subtraction angiography images performed for percutaneous revascularization. Blood creatinine levels were followed for possible CIN.ResultsIntra-arterial CT angiography images were considered diagnostic in all patients and optimal in one patient. No patient developed CIN after intra-arterial CT angiography, while one patient developed CIN after percutaneous intervention.ConclusionIntra-arterial CT angiography of lower extremity might be performed in selected patients with high risk of developing CIN. Our limited experience suggests that as low as of 0.1 ml/kg of the body weight of contrast medium may result in adequate diagnostic imaging.

  18. A Shearlet-based algorithm for quantum noise removal in low-dose CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aguan; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yumin; Yang, Xiaopeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-dose CT (LDCT) scanning is a potential way to reduce the radiation exposure of X-ray in the population. It is necessary to improve the quality of low-dose CT images. In this paper, we propose an effective algorithm for quantum noise removal in LDCT images using shearlet transform. Because the quantum noise can be simulated by Poisson process, we first transform the quantum noise by using anscombe variance stabilizing transform (VST), producing an approximately Gaussian noise with unitary variance. Second, the non-noise shearlet coefficients are obtained by adaptive hard-threshold processing in shearlet domain. Third, we reconstruct the de-noised image using the inverse shearlet transform. Finally, an anscombe inverse transform is applied to the de-noised image, which can produce the improved image. The main contribution is to combine the anscombe VST with the shearlet transform. By this way, edge coefficients and noise coefficients can be separated from high frequency sub-bands effectively. A number of experiments are performed over some LDCT images by using the proposed method. Both quantitative and visual results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the quantum noise while enhancing the subtle details. It has certain value in clinical application.

  19. CT of diffuse pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Todo, Giro

    1987-01-01

    While the theory of chest radiographic interpretation in diagnosing diffuse pulmonary diseases has not yet been established, X-ray computed tomography (CT), having intrinsic high contrast resolution and improved spatial resolution, has proved to offer important imformation concerning the location and invasion of diffuse pulmonary lesions. This study related to CT-pathologic correlation, focusing on perivascular interstitial space and secondary pulmonary lobule at macroscopic levels. The perivascular interstitial space was thickened as a result of the infiltration of cancer, granulomas, and inflammatory cells. This finding appeared as irregular contour of the blood vessel on CT. Centrilobular nodules were distributed at the tip of the bronchus or pulmonary artery on CT. The distance from the terminal and respiratory bronchioles to the lobular border was 2 to 3 mm. Lobular lesions were delineated as clear margin on CT. Contribution of these CT features to chest radiographic interpretation must await further studies. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Evaluation of the effective dose and image quality of low-dose multi-detector CT for orthodontic treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effective doses from low-dose and standard-dose multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanning protocols and evaluate the image quality and the spatial resolution of the low-dose MDCT protocols for clinical use. 6-channel MDCT scanner (Siemens Medical System, Forschheim, Germany), was used for this study. Protocol of the standard-dose MDCT for the orthodontic analysis was 130 kV, 35 mAs, 1.25 mm slice width, 0.8 pitch. Those of the low-dose MDCT for orthodontic analysis and orthodontic surgery were 110 kV, 30 mAs, 1.25 mm slice width, 0.85 pitch and 110 kV, 45 mAs, 2.5 mm slice width, 0.85 pitch. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed at 31 sites throughout the levels of adult female ART head and neck phantom. Effective doses were calculated according to ICRP 1990 and 2007 recommendations. A formalin-fixed cadaver and AAPM CT performance phantom were scanned for the evaluation of subjective image quality and spatial resolution. Effective doses in μSv (E2007) were 699.1, 429.4 and 603.1 for standard-dose CT of orthodontic treatment, low-dose CT of orthodontic analysis, and low-dose CT of orthodontic surgery, respectively. The image quality from the low-dose protocol were not worse than those from the standard-dose protocol. The spatial resolutions of both standard-dose and low-dose CT images were acceptable. From the above results, it can be concluded that the low-dose MDCT protocol is preferable in obtaining CT images for orthodontic analysis and orthodontic surgery.

  1. Evaluation of the effective dose and image quality of low-dose multi-detector CT for orthodontic treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to compare the effective doses from low-dose and standard-dose multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanning protocols and evaluate the image quality and the spatial resolution of the low-dose MDCT protocols for clinical use. 6-channel MDCT scanner (Siemens Medical System, Forschheim, Germany), was used for this study. Protocol of the standard-dose MDCT for the orthodontic analysis was 130 kV, 35 mAs, 1.25 mm slice width, 0.8 pitch. Those of the low-dose MDCT for orthodontic analysis and orthodontic surgery were 110 kV, 30 mAs, 1.25 mm slice width, 0.85 pitch and 110 kV, 45 mAs, 2.5 mm slice width, 0.85 pitch. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed at 31 sites throughout the levels of adult female ART head and neck phantom. Effective doses were calculated according to ICRP 1990 and 2007 recommendations. A formalin-fixed cadaver and AAPM CT performance phantom were scanned for the evaluation of subjective image quality and spatial resolution. Effective doses in {mu}Sv (E2007) were 699.1, 429.4 and 603.1 for standard-dose CT of orthodontic treatment, low-dose CT of orthodontic analysis, and low-dose CT of orthodontic surgery, respectively. The image quality from the low-dose protocol were not worse than those from the standard-dose protocol. The spatial resolutions of both standard-dose and low-dose CT images were acceptable. From the above results, it can be concluded that the low-dose MDCT protocol is preferable in obtaining CT images for orthodontic analysis and orthodontic surgery.

  2. Effects of sparse sampling schemes on image quality in low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Sajid; Lee, Taewon; Cho, Seungryong; Shin, Sukyoung; Lee, Rena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Various scanning methods and image reconstruction algorithms are actively investigated for low-dose computed tomography (CT) that can potentially reduce a health-risk related to radiation dose. Particularly, compressive-sensing (CS) based algorithms have been successfully developed for reconstructing images from sparsely sampled data. Although these algorithms have shown promises in low-dose CT, it has not been studied how sparse sampling schemes affect image quality in CS-based image reconstruction. In this work, the authors present several sparse-sampling schemes for low-dose CT, quantitatively analyze their data property, and compare effects of the sampling schemes on the image quality.Methods: Data properties of several sampling schemes are analyzed with respect to the CS-based image reconstruction using two measures: sampling density and data incoherence. The authors present five different sparse sampling schemes, and simulated those schemes to achieve a targeted dose reduction. Dose reduction factors of about 75% and 87.5%, compared to a conventional scan, were tested. A fully sampled circular cone-beam CT data set was used as a reference, and sparse sampling has been realized numerically based on the CBCT data.Results: It is found that both sampling density and data incoherence affect the image quality in the CS-based reconstruction. Among the sampling schemes the authors investigated, the sparse-view, many-view undersampling (MVUS)-fine, and MVUS-moving cases have shown promising results. These sampling schemes produced images with similar image quality compared to the reference image and their structure similarity index values were higher than 0.92 in the mouse head scan with 75% dose reduction.Conclusions: The authors found that in CS-based image reconstructions both sampling density and data incoherence affect the image quality, and suggest that a sampling scheme should be devised and optimized by use of these indicators. With this strategic

  3. Accuracy of lung nodule volumetry in low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, K W; Kang, E-Y; Yong, H S; Woo, O H; Lee, K Y; Oh, Y-W

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess accuracy of lung nodule volumetry in low-dose CT with application of iterative reconstruction (IR) according to nodule size, nodule density and CT tube currents, using artificial lung nodules within an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. Eight artificial nodules (four diameters: 5, 8, 10 and 12 mm; two CT densities: -630 HU that represents ground-glass nodule and +100 HU that represents solid nodule) were randomly placed inside a thoracic phantom. Scans were performed with tube current-time product to 10, 20, 30 and 50 mAs. Images were reconstructed with IR and filtered back projection (FBP). We compared volume estimates to a reference standard and calculated the absolute percentage error (APE). The APE of all nodules was significantly lower when IR was used than with FBP (7.5 ± 4.7% compared with 9.0 ±6.9%; p volumetry in low-dose CT by application of IR showed reliable accuracy in a phantom study. Lung nodule volumetry can be reliably applicable to all lung nodules including small, ground-glass nodules even in ultra-low-dose CT with application of IR. IR significantly improved the accuracy of lung nodule volumetry compared with FBP particularly for ground-glass (-630 HU) nodules. Volumetry in low-dose CT can be utilized in patient with lung nodule work-up, and IR has benefit for small, ground-glass lung nodules in low-dose CT.

  4. The relationship between image quality and CT dose index of multi-slice low-dose chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiaohua; Shao Jiang; Shi Jingyun; You Zhengqian; Li Shijun; Xue Yongming

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the rationality and possibility of multi-slice low-dose CT scan in the examination of the chest. Methods: (1) X-ray dose index measurement: 120 kV tube voltage, 0.75 s rotation, 8 mm and 3 mm slice thickness, and the tube current setting of 115.0, 40.0, 25.0, and 7.5 mAs were employed in every section. The X-ray radiation dose was measured and compared statistically. (2) phantom measurement of homogeneity and noise: The technical parameters were 120 kV, 0.75 s, 8 mm and 3 mm sections, and every slice was scanned using tube current of 115.0, 40.0, 25.0, and 7.5 mAs. Five same regions of interest were measured on every image. The homogeneity and noise level of CT were appraised. (3) The multi-slice low-dose CT in patients: 30 patients with mass and 30 with patch shadow in the lung were selected randomly. The technical parameters were 120 kV, 0.75 s, 8 mm and 3 mm slice thickness. 115.0, 40.0, 25.0, 15.0, and 7.5 mAs tube current were employed in each same slice. Otherwise, 15 cases with helical scan were examined using 190, 150, 40, 25, and 15 mAs tube current. The reconstruction images of MIP, MPR, CVR, HRCT, 3D, CT virtual endoscopy, and variety of interval reconstruction were compared. (4) Evaluation of image quality: CT images were evaluated by four doctors using single-blind method, and 3 degrees including normal image, image with few artifact, and image with excessive artifact, were employed and analyzed statistically. Results: (1) The CT dose index with 115.0 mAs tube current exceeded those of 40.0, 25.0, and 7.5 mAs by about 60%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. (2) The phantom measurement showed that the lower of CT dose the lower of homogeneity, the lower of CT dose the higher of noise level. (3) Result of image quality evaluation: The percentage of the normal image had no significant difference between 8 and 3 mm in 115, 40, and 25 mAs (P>0.05). Conclusion: Multi-slice low-dose chest CT technology may protect the patients and guarantee the

  5. The efficacy of low-dose helical CT screening as an option for health examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazuma; Hara, Shigeko; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Fujii, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the results of low-dose helical CT screening as an option for health examinations. From November 2002 to October 2005, CT screening was performed in 2,306 individuals (men 1,766, women 540, mean age 56.1 years). Among them, 71 individuals (3.1%) were diagnosed as having active thoracic diseases consisting of 14 neoplasms and 57 non-neoplastic diseases. Of 14 patients with neoplastic lesions, 13 had lung cancer, 1 of whom had double primary lung cancer, and 1 had atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. The mean diameter of the 14 lung cancers was 14.4 mm. The histology of these lesions was adenocarcinoma in 13 and squamous cell carcinoma in 1. The pathological stage was IA in 12 patients and IIA in 1. All patients underwent surgical resection. On the other hand, emphysema was diagnosed in 40 asymptomatic individuals based on CT and spirometry, and smoking cessation was strongly implemented for those who were current smokers. CT screening is useful for detecting not only early lung cancer but also non-neoplastic lung diseases. (author)

  6. The evaluation of radioprotection with low dose CT scanning in normal rabbits brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuqing; Gong Shenchu; Wang Tianle; Shen Yunxia; Cui Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine wheather a lower radiation dose technique and various pitch could be used in CT of the rabbits' brain without jeopardizing the diagnostic accuracy of the images, and determine the evaluation of radioprotection with low dose CT scanning. Methods: Fifteen rabbits underwent CT using 200 mAs, 110 mAs or 70 mAs,and pitch 1.0 or 1.5. Anatomy details and the confidence level in reaching a diagnosis were evaluated by two radiologists in a double-blinded manner using a 4-point scoring system. The CTDI w of every group were compared. Results: For both reader there was no statistically significant difference between 6 group total score of 1-6 anatomical detail and each of 6 anatomical detail although score for each of 6 anatomical detail. The CTDI w of 70 mAs, in pitch 1.5 group decreased about 76.7%. Conclusion: Radiation dose reduction in brain CT is feasible in clinical use, and quality of images can be re- served. It plays an important role in radiation protection. (authors)

  7. Incidence of tracheobronchomalacia associated with pulmonary emphysema. Detection with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography using a low-dose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masanori; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Nakano, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) associated with pulmonary emphysema with paired inspiratory-expiratory multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) using a low-dose technique. This study included 56 consecutive patients (55 men, 1 woman; mean age 68.9 years) with pulmonary emphysema who had undergone paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scanning with a low-dose technique (40 mA). All images were retrospectively examined by two thoracic radiologists in a blinded fashion. The diagnosis of TBM was based on the standard criterion of >50% reduction in the cross-sectional area of the tracheobronchial lumen at the end-expiratory phase. A mild TBM criterion of >30% reduction was also reviewed. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests. The relation between the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1.0% ) and TBM was statistically analyzed. Four (7.1%) and eight (14.3%) patients were diagnosed as TBM based on the standard and mild criteria, respectively. In four patients, the percentages of luminal narrowing were 63.4% and 51.2%, respectively for tracheomalacia and 59.2% and 62.0%, respectively, for bronchomalacia. The FEV 1.0% values between patients with and without TBM showed no statistical difference. The incidence of TBM associated with pulmonary emphysema was 7.1% with the standard criterion. It is possible that TBM has been underdiagnosed in a number of patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  8. Low-dose x-ray phase-contrast and absorption CT using equally sloped tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahimian, Benjamin P; Miao Jianwei; Mao Yu; Cloetens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tomographic reconstruction from undersampled and noisy projections is often desirable in transmission CT modalities for purposes of low-dose tomography and fast acquisition imaging. However under such conditions, due to the violation of the Nyquist sampling criteria and the presence of noise, reconstructions with acceptable accuracy may not be possible. Recent experiments in transmission electron tomography and coherent diffraction microscopy have shown that the technique of equally sloped tomography (EST), an exact tomographic method utilizing an oversampling iterative Fourier-based reconstruction, provides more accurate image reconstructions when the number of projections is significantly undersampled relative to filtered back projection and algebraic iterative methods. Here we extend this technique by developing new reconstruction algorithms which allow for the incorporation of advanced mathematical regularization constraints, such as the nonlocal means total variational model, in a manner that is consistent with experimental projections. We then evaluate the resulting image quality of the developed algorithm through simulations and experiments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility on image quality phantoms using the x-ray absorption and phase contrast CT modalities. Both our simulation and experimental results have indicated that the method can reduce the number of projections by 60-75% in parallel beam modalities, while achieving comparable or better image quality than the conventional reconstructions. As large-scale and compact synchrotron radiation facilities are currently under rapid development worldwide, the implementation of low-dose x-ray absorption and phase-contrast CT can find broad applications in biology and medicine using these advanced x-ray sources.

  9. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Gerritsen

    Full Text Available We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4% had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197. Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  10. Improving early diagnosis of pulmonary infections in patients with febrile neutropenia using low-dose chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M G; Willemink, M J; Pompe, E; van der Bruggen, T; van Rhenen, A; Lammers, J W J; Wessels, F; Sprengers, R W; de Jong, P A; Minnema, M C

    2017-01-01

    We performed a prospective study in patients with chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia to investigate the diagnostic value of low-dose computed tomography compared to standard chest radiography. The aim was to compare both modalities for detection of pulmonary infections and to explore performance of low-dose computed tomography for early detection of invasive fungal disease. The low-dose computed tomography remained blinded during the study. A consensus diagnosis of the fever episode made by an expert panel was used as reference standard. We included 67 consecutive patients on the first day of febrile neutropenia. According to the consensus diagnosis 11 patients (16.4%) had pulmonary infections. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 36%, 93%, 50% and 88% for radiography, and 73%, 91%, 62% and 94% for low-dose computed tomography, respectively. An uncorrected McNemar showed no statistical difference (p = 0.197). Mean radiation dose for low-dose computed tomography was 0.24 mSv. Four out of 5 included patients diagnosed with invasive fungal disease had radiographic abnormalities suspect for invasive fungal disease on the low-dose computed tomography scan made on day 1 of fever, compared to none of the chest radiographs. We conclude that chest radiography has little value in the initial assessment of febrile neutropenia on day 1 for detection of pulmonary abnormalities. Low-dose computed tomography improves detection of pulmonary infiltrates and seems capable of detecting invasive fungal disease at a very early stage with a low radiation dose.

  11. A deep convolutional neural network using directional wavelets for low-dose X-ray CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunhee; Min, Junhong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2017-10-01

    Due to the potential risk of inducing cancer, radiation exposure by X-ray CT devices should be reduced for routine patient scanning. However, in low-dose X-ray CT, severe artifacts typically occur due to photon starvation, beam hardening, and other causes, all of which decrease the reliability of the diagnosis. Thus, a high-quality reconstruction method from low-dose X-ray CT data has become a major research topic in the CT community. Conventional model-based de-noising approaches are, however, computationally very expensive, and image-domain de-noising approaches cannot readily remove CT-specific noise patterns. To tackle these problems, we want to develop a new low-dose X-ray CT algorithm based on a deep-learning approach. We propose an algorithm which uses a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) which is applied to the wavelet transform coefficients of low-dose CT images. More specifically, using a directional wavelet transform to extract the directional component of artifacts and exploit the intra- and inter- band correlations, our deep network can effectively suppress CT-specific noise. In addition, our CNN is designed with a residual learning architecture for faster network training and better performance. Experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm effectively removes complex noise patterns from CT images derived from a reduced X-ray dose. In addition, we show that the wavelet-domain CNN is efficient when used to remove noise from low-dose CT compared to existing approaches. Our results were rigorously evaluated by several radiologists at the Mayo Clinic and won second place at the 2016 "Low-Dose CT Grand Challenge." To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first deep-learning architecture for low-dose CT reconstruction which has been rigorously evaluated and proven to be effective. In addition, the proposed algorithm, in contrast to existing model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods, has considerable potential to benefit from

  12. Clinical application of low-dose CT combined with computer-aided detection in lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zushan; Hou Hongjun; Xu Yan; Ma Daqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of chest low-dose CT (LDCT) combined with computer-aided detection (CAD) system for lung cancer screening in high risk population. Methods: Two hundred and nineteen healthy candidates underwent 64-slice LDCT scan. All images were reviewed in consensus by two radiologists with 15 years of thoracic CT diagnosis experience. Then the image data were analyzed with CAD alone. Finally images were reviewed by two radiologists with 5 years of CT diagnosis experience with and without CT Viewer software. The sensitivity, false positive rate of CAD for pulmonary nodule detection were calculated. SPSS 11.5 software and Chi-square test were used for the statistics. Results: Of 219 candidates ,104(47.5% ) were detected with lung nodules. There were 366 true nodules confirmed by the senior radiologists. The CAD system detected 271 (74.0%) true nodules and 424 false-positive nodules. The false-positive rate was 1.94/per case. The two junior radiologists indentifid 292 (79.8%), 286(78.1%) nodules without CAD and 336 (91.8%), 333 (91.0%) nodules with CAD respectively. There were significant differences for radiologists in indentifying nodules with or without CAD system (P<0.01). Conclusions: CAD is more sensitive than radiologists for indentifying the nodules in the central area or in the hilar region of the lung. While radiologists are more sensitive for the peripheral and sub-pleural nodules,or ground glass opacity nodules, or nodules smaller than 4 mm. CAD can not be used alone. The detection rate can be improved with the combination of radiologist and CAD in LDCT screen. (authors)

  13. Cystic Fibrosis: Are Volumetric Ultra-Low-Dose Expiratory CT Scans Sufficient for Monitoring Related Lung Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Lequin, Maarten H; Bruijne, Marleen de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether chest computed tomography (CT) scores from ultra-low-dose end-expiratory scans alone could suffice for assessment of all cystic fibrosis (CF)-related structural lung abnormalities. Materials and Methods: In this institutional review board–approved study, 20 patients...... with CF aged 6–20 years (eight males, 12 females) underwent low-dose end-inspiratory CT and ultra-low-dose end-expiratory CT. Informed consent was obtained. Scans were randomized and scored by using the Brody-II CT scoring system to assess bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, mucus plugging......-Altman plots. Results: Median age was 12.6 years (range, 6.3–20.3 years), median forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 100% (range, 46%–127%) of the predicted value, and median forced vital capacity was 99% (range, 61%–123%) of the predicted value. Very good agreement was observed between end...

  14. Synthetic CT: Simulating low dose single and dual energy protocols from a dual energy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The choice of CT protocol can greatly impact patient dose and image quality. Since acquiring multiple scans at different techniques on a given patient is undesirable, the ability to predict image quality changes starting from a high quality exam can be quite useful. While existing methods allow one to generate simulated images of lower exposure (mAs) from an acquired CT exam, the authors present and validate a new method called synthetic CT that can generate realistic images of a patient at arbitrary low dose protocols (kVp, mAs, and filtration) for both single and dual energy scans. Methods: The synthetic CT algorithm is derived by carefully ensuring that the expected signal and noise are accurate for the simulated protocol. The method relies on the observation that the material decomposition from a dual energy CT scan allows the transmission of an arbitrary spectrum to be predicted. It requires an initial dual energy scan of the patient to either synthesize raw projections of a single energy scan or synthesize the material decompositions of a dual energy scan. The initial dual energy scan contributes inherent noise to the synthesized projections that must be accounted for before adding more noise to simulate low dose protocols. Therefore, synthetic CT is subject to the constraint that the synthesized data have noise greater than the inherent noise. The authors experimentally validated the synthetic CT algorithm across a range of protocols using a dual energy scan of an acrylic phantom with solutions of different iodine concentrations. An initial 80/140 kVp dual energy scan of the phantom provided the material decomposition necessary to synthesize images at 100 kVp and at 120 kVp, across a range of mAs values. They compared these synthesized single energy scans of the phantom to actual scans at the same protocols. Furthermore, material decompositions of a 100/120 kVp dual energy scan are synthesized by adding correlated noise to the initial material

  15. 3D ultrasonography is as accurate as low-dose CT in thyroid volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, K; Darr, A; Opfermann, T; Winkens, T; Freesmeyer, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare thyroid volumetry by three-dimensional mechanically swept ultrasonography (3DmsUS) and low-dose computed tomography (ldCT). 30 subjects referred for radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases were subjected to 3DmsUS and ldCT. A prerequisite of 3DmsUS analyses was that the scans had to capture the entire thyroid, excluding therefore cases with a very large volume or retrosternal portions. The 3DmsUS data were transformed into a DICOM format, and volumetry calculations were performed via a multimodal workstation equipped with standard software for cross-sectional imaging. Volume was calculated applying both the ellipsoid model and a manually tracing method. Statistical analyses included 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the means and limits of agreement according to Bland and Altman, the latter including 95% of all expected values. Volumetric measurements by 3DmsUS and ldCT resulted in very high, significant correlation coefficients, r = 0.997 using the ellipsoid model and r = 0.993 with the manually tracing method. The mean relative differences of the two imaging modalities proved very small (-1.2±4.0% [95% CI -2.62; 0.28] using the ellipsoid model; -1.1±5.2% [95% CI -2.93; 0.80] using the manually tracing method) and the limits of agreement sufficiently narrow (-9.1% to 6.8%; -11.3% to 9.2%, respectively). For moderately enlarged thyroids, volumetry with 3DmsUS proved comparable to that of ldCT, irrespective of whether the ellipsoid model or the manually tracing method was applied. Thus, 3DmsUS qualifies as a potential alternative to ldCT, provided that the organ is completely accessible. The use of a standard workstation for cross-sectional imaging with routine software did not prove problematic.

  16. Median prior constrained TV algorithm for sparse view low-dose CT reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shangguan, Hong; Zhang, Quan; Zhu, Hongqing; Shu, Huazhong; Gui, Zhiguo

    2015-05-01

    It is known that lowering the X-ray tube current (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) and simultaneously reducing the total number of X-ray views (sparse view) is an effective means to achieve low-dose in computed tomography (CT) scan. However, the associated image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) usually degrades due to the excessive quantum noise. Although sparse-view CT reconstruction algorithm via total variation (TV), in the scanning protocol of reducing X-ray tube current, has been demonstrated to be able to result in significant radiation dose reduction while maintain image quality, noticeable patchy artifacts still exist in reconstructed images. In this study, to address the problem of patchy artifacts, we proposed a median prior constrained TV regularization to retain the image quality by introducing an auxiliary vector m in register with the object. Specifically, the approximate action of m is to draw, in each iteration, an object voxel toward its own local median, aiming to improve low-dose image quality with sparse-view projection measurements. Subsequently, an alternating optimization algorithm is adopted to optimize the associative objective function. We refer to the median prior constrained TV regularization as "TV_MP" for simplicity. Experimental results on digital phantoms and clinical phantom demonstrated that the proposed TV_MP with appropriate control parameters can not only ensure a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reconstructed image, but also its resolution compared with the original TV method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical application of low-dose CT in patients with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Xiaojun; Wu Hao; Hua Yanqing; Wang Mingpeng; Mao Dingbiao; Tang Ping; Hu Fei; Zhang Guozhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate images quality and diagnostic feasibility of low-dose CT in patients with traumatic rib fractures. Methods: Twenty-five patients presented with thoracic injury were underwent 64-slice spiral CT scanning in inspiration breath-hold technique. Two scan protocols were performed. In one scan protocol noise index (NI) is 11, and in another NI is 21, but the other scan parameters were no difference. The mean value of tube current, the volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ), and effective dose (ED) were recorded. Image quality was scored by 2 experienced radiologists using the 5-points scale. The numbers and degrees of rib fractures were recorded. The data were tested by using the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. The differences of the inter-observer were determined by Kappa statistics. Results: The mean CTDIvol and ED in scan protocol with NI of 11 were (13.88±5.17) mGy and (8.14± 3.21) mSv, and that with NI of 21 were (3.91±1.57) mGy and (2.31±0.97) mSv. Compared the scan with NI of 11, there was 72% intrinsic dose reduction in the scan with NI of 21. The mean value of tube current in scan with NI of 11 and 21 were (195.88±69.33) mAs and (54.56±21.54) mAs. All patients with Ⅱ and Ⅲ degree and most patients with Ⅰ degree rib fractures that identified by the scan with NI of 11 were detected by the scan with NI of 21. There were no statistical difference between two scans with the Wilcoxon, signed rank sum test. The diagnostic acceptability and image noise score in the scan with NI of 11 were 4.9±0.2 and 4.6±0.5, and that with NI = 21 were 3.5±0.5 and 3.3±0.5. There was prefect concordance in the inter-observers in diagnostic, acceptability on finding of rib fractures, diagnostic acceptability and image noise (Kappa =0.876, 0.820, 0.792, P<0.01) between two scan protocols. Conclusion: Rib fractures can be diagnosed by the low-dose CT using the scan protocol with NI of 21. (authors)

  18. The application and shielding value of low-dose CT scanning in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy of neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Aiqin; Zheng Wenlong; Xu Chongyong; Cheng Jianmin; Chen Yu; Chen Tinggang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application and shielding value of multi-slice spiral CT scanning with low-dose in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) of neonate. Methods: 60 neonates with HIE diagnosed by clinic were prospectively selected and randomly divided into two groups averagely. The technical parameters were tube tension 120 kV, slice thickness and gap 6 mm, conventional tube current 250 mAs and low dose 50 mAs. Weighted CT dose index (CTDI w ) and dose length product (DLP) were compared to each other. The image noise were analyzed with water phantom of children's skull. The mean and standard deviation of CT value were statistically analyzed. The image quality was blindly evaluated in two different dose groups. Results: (1) The mAs, CTDI w and DLP in low dose group were 20 % of conventional dose group; (2) The noise of water phantom in low dose group was larger than in conventional dose group with the significant difference (t=34.533, P < 0.01 ); (3) The imaging quality in low dose group was mostly better, but inferior to conventional dose group, while there is no poor images to influence the diagnosis of HIE. Conclusions: The low dose scanning will be practical in diagnosis of HIE, and beneficial to protect the newborn which corresponds to the optimizing principle of ICRP in medical radiation protection. (authors)

  19. Optimization of SPECT-CT Hybrid Imaging Using Iterative Image Reconstruction for Low-Dose CT: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver S Grosser

    Full Text Available Hybrid imaging combines nuclear medicine imaging such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT or positron emission tomography (PET with computed tomography (CT. Through this hybrid design, scanned patients accumulate radiation exposure from both applications. Imaging modalities have been the subject of long-term optimization efforts, focusing on diagnostic applications. It was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of an iterative CT image reconstruction algorithm (ASIR on the image quality of the low-dose CT images.Examinations were performed with a SPECT-CT scanner with standardized CT and SPECT-phantom geometries and CT protocols with systematically reduced X-ray tube currents. Analyses included image quality with respect to photon flux. Results were compared to the standard FBP reconstructed images. The general impact of the CT-based attenuation maps used during SPECT reconstruction was examined for two SPECT phantoms. Using ASIR for image reconstructions, image noise was reduced compared to FBP reconstructions for the same X-ray tube current. The Hounsfield unit (HU values reconstructed by ASIR were correlated to the FBP HU values(R2 ≥ 0.88 and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR was improved by ASIR. However, for a phantom with increased attenuation, the HU values shifted for low X-ray tube currents I ≤ 60 mA (p ≤ 0.04. In addition, the shift of the HU values was observed within the attenuation corrected SPECT images for very low X-ray tube currents (I ≤ 20 mA, p ≤ 0.001.In general, the decrease in X-ray tube current up to 30 mA in combination with ASIR led to a reduction of CT-related radiation exposure without a significant decrease in image quality.

  20. Measurement error of spiral CT volumetry: influence of low dose CT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Myung Jin; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Tae Gyu; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Seog Joon; Baik, Sang Hyun

    2004-01-01

    To examine the possible measurement errors of lung nodule volumetry at the various scan parameters by using a small nodule phantom. We obtained images of a nodule phantom using a spiral CT scanner. The nodule phantom was made of paraffin and urethane and its real volume was known. For the CT scanning experiments, we used three different values for both the pitch of the table feed, i.e. 1:1, 1:15 and 1:2, and the tube current, i.e. 40 mA, 80 mA and 120 mA. All of the images acquired through CT scanning were reconstructed three dimensionally and measured with volumetry software. We tested the correlation between the true volume and the measured volume for each set of parameters using linear regression analysis. For the pitches of table feed of 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2, the mean relative errors were 23.3%, 22.8% and 22.6%, respectively. There were perfect correlations among the three sets of measurements (Pearson's coefficient = 1.000, p< 0.001). For the tube currents of 40 mA, 80 mA and 120 mA, the mean relative errors were 22.6%, 22.6% and 22.9%, respectively. There were perfect correlations among them (Pearson's coefficient=1.000, p<0.001). In the measurement of the volume of the lung nodule using spiral CT, the measurement error was not increased in spite of the tube current being decreased or the pitch of table feed being increased

  1. Ultra-low Dose CT for Attenuation Correction of 82Rb Cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Maria Balshøj; Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen

    Aim: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using cardiac PET with tracers like 82Rb and 15O-water is substantially lower in radiation dose than classic MIBI-based SPECT. However, for cardiac PET, the dose contribution of CT for attenuation correction (CTAC) is typically 20-30% of the total dose....... To reduce the total radiation dose of cardiac PET further, we set out to examine if the use of ultra-low dose CTAC (UL-CTAC) would affect the accuracy of the quantitative parameters related to MPI. Furthermore, we examined whether the low quality of the UL-CTAC would affect the technologist’s ability...... to perform manual adjustment for misalignment between PET and CTAC. The CT reconstruction algorithm Q.AC was used to improve quality and consistency of the CTAC. Method: 23 consecutive clinical patients (BMI: 26.9 [range: 15.4-38.8]) referred for 82Rb PET rest and stress imaging were included in the study...

  2. Usefulness evaluation of low-dose for emphysema: Compared with high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Daejeon Health Institute of Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of low-dose CT (LDCT) for emphysema compared with high-resolution CT (HRCT). Measurements of radiation dose and noise were repeated 3 times in same exposure condition which was similar with obtaining HRCT and LDCT images. We analysed reading results of 146 subjects. Six images per participants selected for emphysema grading. Emphysema was graded for all 6 zones on the left and right sides of the lungs by the consensus reading of two chest radiologists using a 4-point scale. Between the HRCT and LDCT images, diagnostic differences and agreements for emphysema were analyzed by McNemar's and unweighted kappa tests, and radiation doses and noise by a Mann-Whitney U-test, using the SPSS 19.0 program. Radiation dose from HRCT was significantly higher than that of LDCT, but the noise was significantly lower in HRCT than in LDCT. Diagnostic agreement for emphysema between HRCT and LDCT images was excellent (k-value=0.88). Emphysema grading scores were not significantly different between HRCT and LDCT images for all six lung zones. Emphysema grading scores from LDCT images were significantly correlated with increased scores on HRCT images (r=0.599, p < 0.001). Considering the tradeoff between radiation dose and image noise, LDCT could be used as the gold standard method instead of HRCT for emphysema detection and grading.

  3. Objective factors affecting the image quality of low-dose cranial CT of infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Na; Gan Yungen; Wang Hongwei; Zeng Hongwu; Cao Weiguo; Sun Longwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the objective factors that affect the image quality of infant cranial CT using different mAs. Materials and Methods: Ninety infants were divided into three groups randomly. The maximum anteroposterior diameter (MAPD) of skull of each infant was measured. Three reference levels, cerebellar, basal ganglia and centrum semiovale levels were selected respectively. Only one level was studied in each group and scanned with 150, 100 and 80 mAs. The subjective quality grade and the objective noise of all images were recorded and analysed statistically. Results: The average MAPD of ninety patients was (148.0±17.4) mm. On the cerebellar level, the subjective quality grade was lower than the other two levels, which were 6.3%, 9.4% and 22.9% respectively when mAs were 150, 100 and 80 mAs. Both quality grade of image and objective noise were significantly correlated with MAPD. Conclusions: The inherent high noise of cerebellar level and MAPD were the objective factors that affect the image quality of low-dose cranial CT of infant. (authors)

  4. Deformable 3D–2D registration for CT and its application to low dose tomographic fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Many applications in medical imaging include image registration for matching of images from the same or different modalities. In the case of full data sampling, the respective reconstructed images are usually of such a good image quality that standard deformable volume-to-volume (3D–3D) registration approaches can be applied. But research in temporal-correlated image reconstruction and dose reductions increases the number of cases where rawdata are available from only few projection angles. Here, deteriorated image quality leads to non-acceptable deformable volume-to-volume registration results. Therefore a registration approach is required that is robust against a decreasing number of projections defining the target position. We propose a deformable volume-to-rawdata (3D–2D) registration method that aims at finding a displacement vector field maximizing the alignment of a CT volume and the acquired rawdata based on the sum of squared differences in rawdata domain. The registration is constrained by a regularization term in accordance with a fluid-based diffusion. Both cost function components, the rawdata fidelity and the regularization term, are optimized in an alternating manner. The matching criterion is optimized by a conjugate gradient descent for nonlinear functions, while the regularization is realized by convolution of the vector fields with Gaussian kernels. We validate the proposed method and compare it to the demons algorithm, a well-known 3D–3D registration method. The comparison is done for a range of 4–60 target projections using datasets from low dose tomographic fluoroscopy as an application example. The results show a high correlation to the ground truth target position without introducing artifacts even in the case of very few projections. In particular the matching in the rawdata domain is improved compared to the 3D–3D registration for the investigated range. The proposed volume-to-rawdata registration increases the robustness

  5. Prevention of fatal postoperative pulmonary embolism by low doses of heparin. An international multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-12

    The efficacy of low-dose heparin in preventing fatal postoperative pulmonary embolism has been investigated in a multicentre prospective randomised trial. 4121 patients over the age of forty years undergoing a variety of elective major surgical procedures were included in the trial; 2076 of these were in the control group and 2045 patients received heparin. The two groups were well matched for age, sex, weight, blood-group, and other factors which could predispose to the development of venous thromboembolism. 180 (4-4 %) patients died during the postoperative period, 100 in the control and 80 in the heparin group: 72% of deaths in the control and 66% in the heparin group had necropsy examination. 16 patients in the control group and 2 in the heparin group were found at necropsy to have died due to acute massive pulmonary embolism (P smaller than 0-005). In addition, emboli found at necropsy in 6 patients in the control group and 3 in the heparin group were considered either contributory to death or an incidental finding since death in these patients was attributed to other causes. Taking all pulmonary emboli together, the findings were again significant (P smaller than 0-005). Of 1292 patients in whom the 125-I-fibrinogen test was performed to detect deep-vein thrombosis (D.V.T.) 667 were in the control group and 625 in the heparin group. The frequency of isotopic D.V.T. was reduced from 24-6% in the control group 7-7% in the heparin group (P smaller 0-005). In 30 patients D.V.T. was detected at necropsy; 24 in the control and 6 in the heparin group (P smaller 0-005). 32 patients in the control group and 11 in the heparin group developed clinically diagnosed D.V.T. which was confirmed by venography (P smaller than 0-005). In addition, 24 patients in the control and 8 in the heparin group were treated for clinically suspected pulmonary emoblism. The difference in the number of patients requiring treatment for D.V.T. and/or pulmonary embolism in the two groups was

  6. Restaging of patients with lymphoma. Comparison of low dose CT (20 mAs) with contrast enhanced diagnostic CT in combined [18F]-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fougere, C. la; Pfluger, T.; Schneider, V.; Hacker, M.; Broeckel, N.; Bartenstein, P.; Tiling, R.; Morhard, D.; Hundt, W.; Becker, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: assessment of the clinical benefit of i.v. contrast enhanced diagnostic CT (CE-CT) compared to low dose CT with 20 mAs (LD-CT) without contrast medium in combined [ 18 F]-FDG PET/CT examinations in restaging of patients with lymphoma. Patients, methods: 45 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35) and Hodgkin's disease (n = 10) were included into this study. PET, LD-CT and CE-CT were analyzed separately as well as side-by-side. Lymphoma involvement was evaluated separately for seven regions. Indeterminate diagnoses were accepted whenever there was a discrepancy between PET and CT findings. Results for combined reading were calculated by rating indeterminate diagnoses according the suggestions of either CT or PET. Each patient had a clinical follow-up evaluation for > 6 months. Results: region-based evaluation suggested a sensitivity/specificity of 66/93% for LD-CT, 87%/91% for CE-CT, 95%/96% for PET, 94%/99% for PET/LD-CT and 96%/99% for PET/CE-CT. The data for PET/CT were obtained by rating indeterminate results according to the suggestions of PET, which turned out to be superior to CT. Lymphoma staging was changed in two patients using PET/CE-CT as compared to PET/LD-CT. Conclusion: overall, there was no significant difference between PET/LD-CT and PET/CE-CT. However, PET/CE-CT yielded a more precise lesion delineation than PET/LD-CT. This was due to the improved image quality of CE-CT and might lead to a more accurate investigation of lymphoma. (orig.)

  7. Developing low-dose C-arm CT imaging for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Cahill, Anne Marie [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Felice, Marc [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Laura [Computed Tomography Division, Siemens Healthcare Sector, Shanghai (China); Sarmiento, Marily [Siemens Medical Solutions, Angiography and X-ray Division, Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Manufacturers have provided C-arm CT imaging technologies for applications in interventional radiology in recent years. However, clinical imaging protocols and radiation doses have not been well studied or reported. The purpose of this study is to develop low-dose settings for clinically acceptable CT imaging of temporomandibular joint in interventional radiology suites, using a C-arm imaging angiography system. CT scans were performed with a flat-panel digital C-arm angiographic system on a 5-year-old anthropomorphic phantom. The CTDI was determined for various rotation times, dose settings and Cu filter selections. The CTDI values were compared with those of conventional low-dose CT for the same phantom. The effectiveness of using Cu filters to reduce dose was also investigated. Images were reviewed by a senior radiologist for clinical acceptance. The manufacturer's default setting gave an equivalent CTDI of 4.8 mGy. Optimizing the dose settings and adding copper filtration reduced the radiation dose by 94%. This represents a 50% reduction from conventional CT. Use of Cu filters and low-dose settings significantly reduced radiation dose from that of standard settings. This phantom study process successfully guided the clinical implementation of low-dose studies for all ages at our institution. (orig.)

  8. Low-dose respiratory-gated PET/CT: based on 30 mA tube current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Li Sijin; Zhang Yanlan; Hao Xinzhong; Qin Zhixing; Yan Min; Cheng Pengliang; Wu Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish a low-dose but image-comparable respiratory-gated PET/CT (RG PET/CT) protocol based on 30 mA tube current plus other improved scanning parameters, such as the tube current, the number of respiratory phase and length of breathing cycle. Methods: Twenty-six patients with 18 F-FDG-intaking lung nodules underwent one-bed standard-dose PET/CT (120 mA, 2 min/bed) and low dose RG PET/CT (30 mA, 6 respiratory phases, 1 min/phase). The radiation dose and image quality were analyzed subsequently with signal to noise ratio (SNR) for PET and the homogeneity, noise level for CT in the water phantom respectively. Otherwise the CT images were both visual evaluated by two experienced doctors. In addition, different respiratory cycle was simulated to observe its relation with radiation dose. Results: The effective dose of low-dose RG PET/CT was 4.88∼7.69 mSv [mean (5.68±0.83) mSv]. The PET SNR showed no significance between groups. The homogeneity of 30 mA is good (< 5 HU), although noise level was high, the visual character like lobulation, speculation of lung nodule was superior in some respiratory phases. The radiation dose was positively correlated with respiratory cycle. Conclusions: The performance of low-dose RG PET/CT was comparable to those of standard-dose PET/CT based on a protocol with 30 mA tube current, 6 respiratory phases and breathing state of eupnoea. It produced a much lower radiation exposure and the image quality was enough for clinical use such as delineation of tumor active target, characterization and staging of lung nodules, etc. (authors)

  9. Low-dose celiac CT angiography with fixed current-time product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Li Huimin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Shiqiang; Zhang Jiaming; Wang Xiangming; Zou Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the feasibility of low-dose CT angiography on 16-slice multi-slice computed tomography (16-MSCT), and its relationship to the noise in the pre-contrast image and enhancement value. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients (male 21, female 22, mean age 59 years, median age 56 years) underwent abdominal 16-MSCT (Toshiba Aquilion 16) with constant scanning parameters including 120 kVp, a 0.5-second gantry rotation time, a pitch of 0.938: 1, and 16 x 1-mm detector collimation. The mA was set at 200 in the pre-contrast scan and 160 in the contrast-enhanced scan. The arterial phase images were retrospectively reconstructed with 1-mm slice thickness, 0.8 mm interval. The pre-contrast noise was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of the aorta at the level of right posterior crura of diaphragm. The enhancement of aorta was also measured at level of celiac artery. The volume rendering of CT angiography was made and classified into three grades (excellent, good, bad). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the relationship between the image quality of CT angiography and noise in the pre-contrast image and enhancement value. Results: Twenty-five cases had the aorta enhancement between 300.0-400.0 HU. The sensitivity and specificity of excellent CTA image was 75% and 62%, respectively when the SD was 12.00. Eighteen cases had the aorta enhancement more than 400.0 HU. The sensitivity and specificity of excellent CTA image was all 100% when the SD was 12.25, and 100% and 75%, respectively when the SD was 13.35. The area under curve of CTA image quality and enhancement in receiver-operated characteristic analysis was 0.907. The enhancement was more than 356.7 HU when the sensitivity and specificity of excellent CTA image was 100% and 60%, respectively, and 389.8 HU when 78% and 80%. When the enhancement was more than 442.4 HU, the specificity of excellent CTA image was 100%. Conclusions: MSCT angiography with low radiation

  10. Comparison of biophysical factors influencing on emphysema quantification with low-dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Chang Yong; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2014-03-01

    Emphysema Index(EI) measurements in MDCT is known to be influenced by various biophysical factors such as total lung volume, and body size. We investigated the association of the four biophysical factors with emphysema index in low-dose MDCT. In particular, we attempted to identify a potentially stronger biophysical factor than total lung volume. A total of 400 low-dose MDCT volumes taken at 120kVp, 40mAs, 1mm thickness, and B30f reconstruction kernel were used. The lungs, airways, and pulmonary vessels were automatically segmented, and two Emphysema Indices, relative area below -950HU(RA950) and 15th percentile(Perc15), were extracted from the segmented lungs. The biophysical factors such as total lung volume(TLV), mode of lung attenuation(ModLA), effective body diameter(EBD), and the water equivalent body diameter(WBD) were estimated from the segmented lung and body area. The association of biophysical factors with emphysema indices were evaluated by correlation coefficients. The mean emphysema indices were 8.3±5.5(%) in RA950, and -930±18(HU) in Perc15. The estimates of biophysical factors were 4.7±1.0(L) in TLV, -901±21(HU) in ModLA, 26.9±2.2(cm) in EBD, and 25.9±2.6(cm) in WBD. The correlation coefficients of biophysical factors with RA950 were 0.73 in TLV, 0.94 in ModLA, 0.31 in EBD, and 0.18 WBD, the ones with Perc15 were 0.74 in TLV, 0.98 in ModLA, 0.29 in EBD, and 0.15 WBD. Study results revealed that two biophysical factors, TLV and ModLA, mostly affects the emphysema indices. In particular, the ModLA exhibited strongest correlation of 0.98 with Perc15, which indicating the ModLA is the most significant confounding biophysical factor in emphysema indices measurement.

  11. Iterative raw measurements restoration method with penalized weighted least squares approach for low-dose CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Goto, Taiga; Hirokawa, Koichi; Miyazaki, Osamu

    2014-03-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction and post-log data restoration algorithms for CT noise reduction have been widely studied and these techniques have enabled us to reduce irradiation doses while maintaining image qualities. In low dose scanning, electronic noise becomes obvious and it results in some non-positive signals in raw measurements. The nonpositive signal should be converted to positive signal so that it can be log-transformed. Since conventional conversion methods do not consider local variance on the sinogram, they have difficulty of controlling the strength of the filtering. Thus, in this work, we propose a method to convert the non-positive signal to the positive signal by mainly controlling the local variance. The method is implemented in two separate steps. First, an iterative restoration algorithm based on penalized weighted least squares is used to mitigate the effect of electronic noise. The algorithm preserves the local mean and reduces the local variance induced by the electronic noise. Second, smoothed raw measurements by the iterative algorithm are converted to the positive signal according to a function which replaces the non-positive signal with its local mean. In phantom studies, we confirm that the proposed method properly preserves the local mean and reduce the variance induced by the electronic noise. Our technique results in dramatically reduced shading artifacts and can also successfully cooperate with the post-log data filter to reduce streak artifacts.

  12. Low-dose CT colonography in children: initial experience, technical feasibility and utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anupindi, Sudha; Perumpillichira, James; Zalis, Michael E.; Jaramillo, Diego; Israel, Esther J.

    2005-01-01

    CT colonography (CTC) is utilized as a diagnostic tool in the detection of colon polyps and early colorectal cancer in adults. Large studies in the literature, although focused on adult populations, have shown CTC to be a safe, accurate, non-invasive technique. We evaluated the technical feasibility of CTC in children using a low-dose technique. From November 2001 to April 2004 we evaluated eight patients (3-17 years) with non-contrast CTC. Seven of the patients had CTC, followed by standard colonoscopy (SC) the same day; in one patient, CTC followed a failed SC. CTC results were compared to results of SC. The estimated effective dose from each CTC was calculated and compared to that of standard barium enema. CTC results were consistent with those of SC. Sensitivity for polyps 5-10 mm was 100%, and sensitivity for polyps 10 mm and larger was 66.7%. The estimated mean effective dose was 2.17 mSv for CTC, compared to the 5-6 mSv for a standard air-contrast barium enema in a small child. Our initial experience shows CTC in children is well-tolerated, safe, and useful. The procedure can be performed successfully with a low radiation dose, and preliminary results compare well with SC. (orig.)

  13. Prevalence of incidental or unexpected findings on low-dose CT performed during routine SPECT/CT nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin Kwok-Ho; Sutherland, Tom; Shafik-Eid, Raymond; Taubman, Kim; Schlicht, Stephen; Ramaseshan, Ganeshan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) is often combined with ‘simultaneous’ low-dose CT (LDCT) to provide complementary anatomical and functional correlation. As a consequence, numerous incidental and unexpected findings may be detected on LDCT. Recognition of these findings and appropriate determination of their relevance can add to the utility of SPECT/CT. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and categorise the relevance of incidental and unexpected findings on LDCT scans performed as part of routine SPECT/CT studies. All available LDCT scans performed as part of SPECT/CT studies at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne in the year 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Two qualified radiologists independently reviewed the studies and any previous available imaging and categorised any detected incidental findings. A total of 2447 LDCT studies were reviewed. The relevance of the findings was classified according to a modified version of a scale used in the Colonography Reporting and Data System: E1 = normal or normal variant (28.0%); E2 = clinically unimportant (63.5%); E3 = likely unimportant or incompletely characterised (6.2%); E4 = potentially important (2.5%). Imaging specialists need to be cognisant of incidental and unexpected findings present on LDCT studies performed as part of SPECT/CT. Appropriate categorisation of findings and communication of potentially important findings to referring clinicians should form part of routine practice. The overall prevalence of potentially significant incidental and unexpected findings in our series was 8.7% (E3, 6.2%; E4, 2.5%) and was comparable to rates in other published imaging series.

  14. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Wilson, David L., E-mail: dlw@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P{sub C}. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit

  15. CTA-enhanced perfusion CT: an original method to perform ultra-low-dose CTA-enhanced perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Elizabeth; Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Utilizing CT angiography enhances image quality in PCT, thereby permitting acquisition at ultra-low dose. Dynamic CT acquisitions were obtained at 80 kVp with decreasing tube current-time product [milliamperes x seconds (mAs)] in patients suspected of ischemic stroke, with concurrent CTA of the cervical and intracranial arteries. By utilizing fast Fourier transformation, high spatial frequencies of CTA were combined with low spatial frequencies of PCT to create a virtual PCT dataset. The real and virtual PCT datasets with decreasing mAs were compared by assessing contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and noise and PCT values and by visual inspection of PCT parametric maps. Virtual PCT attained CNR and SNR three- to sevenfold superior to real PCT and noise reduction by a factor of 4-6 (p < 0.05). At 20 mAs, virtual PCT achieved diagnostic parametric maps, while the quality of real PCT maps was inadequate. At 10 mAs, both real and virtual PCT maps were nondiagnostic. Virtual PCT (but not real PCT) maps regained diagnostic quality at 10 mAs by applying 40 % adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and improved further with 80 % ASIR. Our new method of creating virtual PCT by combining ultra-low-dose PCT with CTA information yields diagnostic perfusion parametric maps from PCT acquired at 20 or 10 mAs with 80 % ASIR. Effective dose is approximately 0.20 mSv, equivalent to two chest radiographs. (orig.)

  16. Characteristics of breast cancer blood supply before and after chemotherapy with low-dose CT perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Juan; Lu Hong; Sheng Fugeng; Xing Xudong; Li Gongjie; Liu Baosheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of breast cancer blood supply before and after chemotherapy with low-dose CT perfusion. Methods: Fifteen patients with breast cancer underwent CT breast perfusion examination, which was performed before and after chemotherapy within 1 week on Siemens Sensation 4 scanner with 120 kV and 50 mAs, 50 ml of nonionic contrast agent (320 mg I/ml) was injected at a flow rate of 4 ml/s with a power injector, Scan started after 8 seconds delay and data acquisition duration was 50 seconds. The blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transfer time (MTT) of lesion and contralateral normal breast gland were calculated using Basama perfusion 3 software package before and after chemotherapy. At the same time, the tumor size before and after chemotherapy were measured and correlated with the BF values. The t test and non-parametric test were used for the statistics. Results: (1) The mean BF, BV and MTT of breast cancer were (33.20±4.17) ml·min -1 ·100 ml -1 , (8.31±2.43) ml· 100 ml -1 and (15.31±4.31) s respectively before chemotherapy, and (13.65±6.04) ml·min -1 · 100 ml -1 (5.04±2.33) ml·100 ml -1 and (25.97±9.07) s respectively after chemotherapy and there were statistically significant (P=0.000). The mean BF, BV and MTT of normal breast were (4.31±2.23) ml -1 , min -1 ·100 ml -1 , (1.38±0.75) ml·100 ml -1 and ( 19.25±3.94) s respectively before chemotherapy, and (4.03±2.35) ml·min -1 ·100 ml -1 , (1.44±0.84) ml·100 ml -1 , (22.56±7.71 ) s respectively after chemotherapy and there were not statistically significant (P>0.05). (2)The BF of breast cancer was higher than the normal breast before chemotherapy (P<0.01). (3)There was a positive correlation between the BF values and tumor size before and after chemotherapy (r=0.902, P=0.000). Conclusion: The BF value has a positive correlation with tumor size after chemotherapy, CT perfusion is more sensitive for the evaluation of chemotherapy response than morphologic

  17. Fully automated bone mineral density assessment from low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Gonzalez, Jessica; Zulueta, Javier; de-Torres, Juan P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2018-02-01

    A fully automated system is presented for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment from low-dose chest CT (LDCT). BMD assessment is central in the diagnosis and follow-up therapy monitoring of osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone density and is estimated to affect 12.3 million US population aged 50 years or older, creating tremendous social and economic burdens. BMD assessment from DXA scans (BMDDXA) is currently the most widely used and gold standard technique for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and bone fracture risk estimation. With the recent large-scale implementation of annual lung cancer screening using LDCT, great potential emerges for the concurrent opportunistic osteoporosis screening. In the presented BMDCT assessment system, each vertebral body is first segmented and labeled with its anatomical name. Various 3D region of interest (ROI) inside the vertebral body are then explored for BMDCT measurements at different vertebral levels. The system was validated using 76 pairs of DXA and LDCT scans of the same subject. Average BMDDXA of L1-L4 was used as the reference standard. Statistically significant (p-value correlation is obtained between BMDDXA and BMDCT at all vertebral levels (T1 - L2). A Pearson correlation of 0.857 was achieved between BMDDXA and average BMDCT of T9-T11 by using a 3D ROI taking into account of both trabecular and cortical bone tissue. These encouraging results demonstrate the feasibility of fully automated quantitative BMD assessment and the potential of opportunistic osteoporosis screening with concurrent lung cancer screening using LDCT.

  18. Virtual Colonoscopy Screening With Ultra Low-Dose CT and Less-Stressful Bowel Preparation: A Computer Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Su; Li, Lihong; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2008-10-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) or CT-based virtual colonoscopy (VC) is an emerging tool for detection of colonic polyps. Compared to the conventional fiber-optic colonoscopy, VC has demonstrated the potential to become a mass screening modality in terms of safety, cost, and patient compliance. However, current CTC delivers excessive X-ray radiation to the patient during data acquisition. The radiation is a major concern for screening application of CTC. In this work, we performed a simulation study to demonstrate a possible ultra low-dose CT technique for VC. The ultra low-dose abdominal CT images were simulated by adding noise to the sinograms of the patient CTC images acquired with normal dose scans at 100 mA s levels. The simulated noisy sinogram or projection data were first processed by a Karhunen-Loeve domain penalized weighted least-squares (KL-PWLS) restoration method and then reconstructed by a filtered backprojection algorithm for the ultra low-dose CT images. The patient-specific virtual colon lumen was constructed and navigated by a VC system after electronic colon cleansing of the orally-tagged residue stool and fluid. By the KL-PWLS noise reduction, the colon lumen can successfully be constructed and the colonic polyp can be detected in an ultra low-dose level below 50 mA s. Polyp detection can be found more easily by the KL-PWLS noise reduction compared to the results using the conventional noise filters, such as Hanning filter. These promising results indicate the feasibility of an ultra low-dose CTC pipeline for colon screening with less-stressful bowel preparation by fecal tagging with oral contrast.

  19. CT findings of pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yukio; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Sato, Toru; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2006-01-01

    For the treatment for pulmonary hypertension (PH), the differential diagnosis of its causal diseases is essential. To determine whether X-ray CT is useful for differentiating PH, we reviewed CT findings of 53 patients (18 men and 35 women, mean age of 44.9) given a diagnosis of PH, consisting of 25 with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), 18 with chronic pulmonary embolism (cPE), 6 with Eisenmenger syndrome, 5 cases of collagen diseases, 2 of acute PE, and 1 of cor pulmonale. The intrapulmonary distribution of CT findings (ground glass opacity [GGO], mosaic attenuation, striation and/or infiltration, and interlobular septal thickening) were reviewed and scored on a 4-point scale (grade 0: no findings, 1: involving one third of the lung, 2: involving one-two thirds, and 3: diffuse distribution) by two radiologists who reached a consensus. PPH showed preferentially diffuse distribution of GGO as compared with cPE (p<0.05). However, there was no apparent relationship between the pulmonary vascular resistance and the distribution of GGO in PPH cases. The mosaic attenuation pattern was more frequent in cPE (43%) than PPH (12%; p<0.05). Striation and/or infiltration was observed in 36% of cPE, but only 4% of PPH. Interlobular septal thickening was seen in 16% of PPH, and 0% in cPE. Evaluation of CT findings is useful to differentiate PH. (author)

  20. Lesion detection performance: comparative analysis of low-dose CT data of the chest on two hybrid imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, Maryam; Thompson, John D; Coward, Joanne; Sanderud, Audun; Jorge, José; de Groot, Martijn; Lança, Luís; Hogg, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Incidental findings on low-dose CT images obtained during hybrid imaging are an increasing phenomenon as CT technology advances. Understanding the diagnostic value of incidental findings along with the technical limitations is important when reporting image results and recommending follow-up, which may result in an additional radiation dose from further diagnostic imaging and an increase in patient anxiety. This study assessed lesions incidentally detected on CT images acquired for attenuation correction on two SPECT/CT systems. An anthropomorphic chest phantom containing simulated lesions of varying size and density was imaged on an Infinia Hawkeye 4 and a Symbia T6 using the low-dose CT settings applied for attenuation correction acquisitions in myocardial perfusion imaging. Twenty-two interpreters assessed 46 images from each SPECT/CT system (15 normal images and 31 abnormal images; 41 lesions). Data were evaluated using a jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating-characteristic analysis (JAFROC). JAFROC analysis showed a significant difference (P detection, with the figures of merit being 0.599 (95% confidence interval, 0.568, 0.631) and 0.810 (95% confidence interval, 0.781, 0.839) for the Infinia Hawkeye 4 and Symbia T6, respectively. Lesion detection on the Infinia Hawkeye 4 was generally limited to larger, higher-density lesions. The Symbia T6 allowed improved detection rates for midsized lesions and some lower-density lesions. However, interpreters struggled to detect small (5 mm) lesions on both image sets, irrespective of density. Lesion detection is more reliable on low-dose CT images from the Symbia T6 than from the Infinia Hawkeye 4. This phantom-based study gives an indication of potential lesion detection in the clinical context as shown by two commonly used SPECT/CT systems, which may assist the clinician in determining whether further diagnostic imaging is justified. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

  1. TU-EF-204-07: Add Tube Current Modulation to a Low Dose Simulation Tool for CT Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Wen, G.; Brown, K.; Klahr, P.; Dhanantwari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We extended the capabilities of a low dose simulation tool to model Tube-Current Modulation (TCM). TCM is widely used in clinical practice to reduce radiation dose in CT scans. We expect the tool to be valuable for various clinical applications (e.g., optimize protocols, compare reconstruction techniques and evaluate TCM methods). Methods: The tube current is input as a function of z location, instead of a fixed value. Starting from the line integrals of a scan, a new Poisson noise realization at a lower dose is generated for each view. To validate the new functionality, we compared simulated scans with real scans in image space. Results: First we assessed noise in the difference between the low-dose simulations and the original high-dose scan. When the simulated tube current is a step function of z location, the noise at each segment matches the noise of 3 separate constant-tube-current-simulations. Secondly, with a phantom that forces TCM, we compared a low-dose simulation with an equivalent real low-dose scan. The mean CT number of the simulated scan and the real low-dose scan were 137.7±0.6 and 137.8±0.5 respectively. Furthermore, with 240 ROIs, the noise of the simulated scan and the real low-dose scan were 24.03±0.45 and 23.99±0.43 respectively, and they were not statistically different (2-sample t-test, p-value=0.28). The facts that the noise reflected the trend of the TCM curve, and that the absolute noise measurements were not statistically different validated the TCM function. Conclusion: We successfully added tube-current modulation functionality in an existing low dose simulation tool. We demonstrated that the noise reflected an input tube-current modulation curve. In addition, we verified that the noise and mean CT number of our simulation agreed with a real low dose scan. The authors are all employees of Philips. Yijun Ding is also supported by NIBIB P41EB002035 and NIBIB R01EB000803

  2. Ultra-low-dose CT imaging of the thorax: decreasing the radiation dose by one order of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Lukas; Banerjee, Rohan; Votruba, Jiri; El-Lababidi, Nabil; Zeman, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an indispensable tool for imaging of the thorax and there is virtually no alternative without associated radiation burden. The authors demonstrate ultra-low-dose CT of the thorax in three interesting cases. In an 18-y-old girl with rheumatoid arthritis, CT of the thorax identified alveolitis in the posterior costophrenic angles (radiation dose = 0.2 mSv). Its resolution was demonstrated on a follow-up scan (4.2 mSv) performed elsewhere. In an 11-y-old girl, CT (0.1 mSv) showed changes of the right collar bone consistent with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. CT (0.1 mSv) of a 9-y-old girl with mucopolysaccharidosis revealed altogether three hamartomas, peribronchial infiltrate, and spine deformity. In some indications, the radiation dose from CT of the thorax can approach that of several plain radiographs. This may help the pediatrician in deciding whether 'gentle' ultra-low-dose CT instead of observation or follow-up radiographs will alleviate the uncertainty of the diagnosis with little harm to the child. (author)

  3. Estimation of the total effective dose from low-dose CT scans and radiopharmaceutical administrations delivered to patients undergoing SPECT/CT explorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gomez-Caminero, F.; Garcia, S.; Martin, C.; Rosero, A.; Tamayo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid imaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, is used in routine clinical practice, allowing coregistered images of the functional and structural information provided by the two imaging modalities. However, this multimodality imaging may mean that patients are exposed to a higher radiation dose than those receiving SPECT alone. The study aimed to determine the radiation exposure of patients who had undergone SPECT/CT examinations and to relate this to the Background Equivalent Radiation Time (BERT). 145 SPECT/CT studies were used to estimate the total effective dose to patients due to both radiopharmaceutical administrations and low-dose CT scans. The CT contribution was estimated by the Dose-Length Product method. Specific conversion coefficients were calculated for SPECT explorations. The radiation dose from low-dose CTs ranged between 0.6 mSv for head and neck CT and 2.6 mSv for whole body CT scan, representing a maximum of 1 year of background radiation exposure. These values represent a decrease of 80-85% with respect to the radiation dose from diagnostic CT. The radiation exposure from radiopharmaceutical administration varied from 2.1 mSv for stress myocardial perfusion SPECT to 26 mSv for gallium SPECT in patients with lymphoma. The BERT ranged from 1 to 11 years. The contribution of low-dose CT scans to the total radiation dose to patients undergoing SPECT/CT examinations is relatively low compared with the effective dose from radiopharmaceutical administration. When a CT scan is only acquired for anatomical localization and attenuation correction, low-dose CT scan is justified on the basis of its lower dose. (author)

  4. The reduction of image noise and streak artifact in the thoracic inlet during low dose and ultra-low dose thoracic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, N S; Prezelj, E; Burey, P; Menezes, R J; Blobel, J; Ursani, A; Kashani, H; Siewerdsen, J H

    2010-01-01

    Increased pixel noise and streak artifact reduce CT image quality and limit the potential for radiation dose reduction during CT of the thoracic inlet. We propose to quantify the pixel noise of mediastinal structures in the thoracic inlet, during low-dose (LDCT) and ultralow-dose (uLDCT) thoracic CT, and assess the utility of new software (quantum denoising system and BOOST3D) in addressing these limitations. Twelve patients had LDCT (120 kV, 25 mAs) and uLDCT (120 kV, 10 mAs) images reconstructed initially using standard mediastinal and lung filters followed by the quantum denoising system (QDS) to reduce pixel noise and BOOST3D (B3D) software to correct photon starvation noise as follows: group 1 no QDS, no B3D; group 2 B3D alone; group 3 QDS alone and group 4 both QDS and B3D. Nine regions of interest (ROIs) were replicated on mediastinal anatomy in the thoracic inlet, for each patient resulting in 3456 data points to calculate pixel noise and attenuation. QDS reduced pixel noise by 18.4% (lung images) and 15.8% (mediastinal images) at 25 mAs. B3D reduced pixel noise by ∼8% in the posterior thorax and in combination there was a 35.5% reduction in effective radiation dose (E) for LDCT (1.63-1.05 mSv) in lung images and 32.2% (1.55-1.05 mSv) in mediastinal images. The same combination produced 20.7% reduction (0.53-0.42 mSv) in E for uLDCT, for lung images and 17.3% (0.51-0.42) for mediastinal images. This quantitative analysis of image quality confirms the utility of dedicated processing software in targeting image noise and streak artifact in thoracic LDCT and uLDCT images taken in the thoracic inlet. This processing software potentiates substantial reductions in radiation dose during thoracic LDCT and uLDCT.

  5. Incidental renal tumours on low-dose CT lung cancer screening exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F; Dunn, Barbara; Gierada, David; Nath, P Hrudaya; Munden, Reginald; Berland, Lincoln; Kramer, Barnett S

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Renal cancer incidence has increased markedly in the United States in recent decades, largely due to incidentally detected tumours from computed tomography imaging. Here, we analyze the potential for low-dose computed tomography lung cancer screening to detect renal cancer. Methods The National Lung Screening Trial randomized subjects to three annual screens with either low-dose computed tomography or chest X-ray. Eligibility criteria included 30 + pack-years, current smoking or quit within 15 years, and age 55-74. Subjects were followed for seven years. Low-dose computed tomography screening forms collected information on lung cancer and non-lung cancer abnormalities, including abnormalities below the diaphragm. A reader study was performed on a sample of National Lung Screening Trial low-dose computed tomography images assessing presence of abnormalities below the diaphragms and abnormalities suspicious for renal cancer. Results There were 26,722 and 26,732 subjects enrolled in the low-dose computed tomography and chest X-ray arms, respectively, and there were 104 and 85 renal cancer cases diagnosed, respectively (relative risk = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.9-1.5). From 75,126 low-dose computed tomography screens, there were 46 renal cancer diagnoses within one year. Abnormalities below the diaphragm rates were 39.1% in screens with renal cancer versus 4.1% in screens without (P cancer cases versus 13% of non-cases had abnormalities below the diaphragms; 55% of cases and 0.8% of non-cases had a finding suspicious for renal cancer (P cancers. The benefits to harms tradeoff of incidental detection of renal tumours on low-dose computed tomography is unknown.

  6. Low dose CT reconstruction via L1 norm dictionary learning using alternating minimization algorithm and balancing principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junfeng; Dai, Fang; Hu, Gang; Mou, Xuanqin

    2018-04-18

    Excessive radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) scans increases the chance of developing cancer and has become a major clinical concern. Recently, statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) with l0-norm dictionary learning regularization has been developed to reconstruct CT images from the low dose and few-view dataset in order to reduce radiation dose. Nonetheless, the sparse regularization term adopted in this approach is l0-norm, which cannot guarantee the global convergence of the proposed algorithm. To address this problem, in this study we introduced the l1-norm dictionary learning penalty into SIR framework for low dose CT image reconstruction, and developed an alternating minimization algorithm to minimize the associated objective function, which transforms CT image reconstruction problem into a sparse coding subproblem and an image updating subproblem. During the image updating process, an efficient model function approach based on balancing principle is applied to choose the regularization parameters. The proposed alternating minimization algorithm was evaluated first using real projection data of a sheep lung CT perfusion and then using numerical simulation based on sheep lung CT image and chest image. Both visual assessment and quantitative comparison using terms of root mean square error (RMSE) and structural similarity (SSIM) index demonstrated that the new image reconstruction algorithm yielded similar performance with l0-norm dictionary learning penalty and outperformed the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and total variation (TV) minimization algorithms.

  7. CORK Study in Cystic Fibrosis: Sustained Improvements in Ultra-Low-Dose Chest CT Scores After CFTR Modulation With Ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Nicola J; Einarsson, Gisli G; Twomey, Maria; Mooney, Denver; Mullane, David; NiChroinin, Muireann; O'Callaghan, Grace; Shanahan, Fergus; Murphy, Desmond M; O'Connor, Owen J; Shortt, Cathy A; Tunney, Michael M; Eustace, Joseph A; Maher, Michael M; Elborn, J Stuart; Plant, Barry J

    2018-02-01

    Ivacaftor produces significant clinical benefit in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with the G551D mutation. Prevalence of this mutation at the Cork CF Centre is 23%. This study assessed the impact of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulation on multiple modalities of patient assessment. Thirty-three patients with the G551D mutation were assessed at baseline and prospectively every 3 months for 1 year after initiation of ivacaftor. Change in ultra-low-dose chest CT scans, blood inflammatory mediators, and the sputum microbiome were assessed. Significant improvements in FEV 1 , BMI, and sweat chloride levels were observed post-ivacaftor treatment. Improvement in ultra-low-dose CT imaging scores were observed after treatment, with significant mean reductions in total Bhalla score (P < .01), peribronchial thickening (P = .035), and extent of mucous plugging (P < .001). Reductions in circulating inflammatory markers, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were demonstrated. There was a 30% reduction in the relative abundance of Pseudomonas species and an increase in the relative abundance of bacteria associated with more stable community structures. Posttreatment community richness increased significantly (P = .03). Early and sustained improvements on ultra-low-dose CT scores suggest it may be a useful method of evaluating treatment response. It paralleled improvement in symptoms, circulating inflammatory markers, and changes in the lung microbiota. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CT of the pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, J.D.; Vock, P.; Osborne, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Most computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest show the inferior pulmonary ligament and an associated septum in the lower lobe, although CT descriptions of these structures have not been reported. Conventional radiography of the ligament has relied on indirect signs: the position of the lower lobe in the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, soft-tissue peaks along the upper surface of the diaphragm, and the rare traumatic paramediastinal pneumatocele (attributed to air in the ligament). CT clarifies the anatomic relations of the ligament and alterations caused by pleural effusion and pneumothorax. The ligament is probably responsible for some long linear shadows at the lung bases, and CT helps to distinguish these from scars, walls of bullae, and normal structures such as the phrenic nerve and the interlobar fissures

  9. CT of the pulmonary ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin, J.D.; Vock, P.; Osborne, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    Most computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest show the inferior pulmonary ligament and an associated septum in the lower lobe, although CT descriptions of these structures have not been reported. Conventional radiography of the ligament has relied on indirect signs: the position of the lower lobe in the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, soft-tissue peaks along the upper surface of the diaphragm, and the rare traumatic paramediastinal pneumatocele (attributed to air in the ligament). CT clarifies the anatomic relations of the ligament and alterations caused by pleural effusion and pneumothorax. The ligament is probably responsible for some long linear shadows at the lung bases, and CT helps to distinguish these from scars, walls of bullae, and normal structures such as the phrenic nerve and the interlobar fissures.

  10. Clinical utility of coronary CT angiography with low-dose chest CT in the evaluation of patients with atypical chest pain: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Soo Jin; Choo, Ki Seok; Kim, Chang Won

    2008-01-01

    To determine the clinical utility of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with low-dose chest CT in the evaluation of patients with atypical chest pain. Ninety-six patients (mean age 60.2 years; age range, 41-68 years; 70 males) were referred for CCTA with low-dose chest CT (16-slice MDCT, Siemens) for an evaluation of atypical chest pain. When significant stenoses (lumen diameter reduction > 50%) were detected on CCTA, invasive coronary angiography (CA) was performed as the standard of reference. In all patients, medical chart review or telephone contact with patients was used to evaluate the contribution of CCTA with low-dose chest CT to the final clinical diagnosis, at least 6 months after performing CCTA. Among 96 patients, seven patients (7%) had significant stenoses as detected on CCTA, whereas two patients (2%) had significant stenoses and five patients had insignificant stenoses or no stenosis, as detected on conventional catheter angiography. In 18 (19%) of the 89 patients without significant stenosis detected on CCTA, this protocol provided additional information that suggested or confirmed an alternate clinical diagnosis. In patients with atypical chest pain, CCTA with low-dose chest CT could help to exclude ischemic heart disease and could provide important ancillary information for the final diagnosis

  11. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order(γ = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; ρ < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order (γ = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; ρ < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT

  12. Prevalence of emphysematous changes as shown by low-dose spiral CT screening images in 6144 healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawa, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of emphysematous changes among healthy workers and retired persons, using subjective evaluations of low-dose spiral CT images obtained during thoracic CT screenings for lung cancer. Among 6144 male participants (50-69 years old; mean age, 57), we detected 686 cases (11.2%) with emphysematous changes. The majority (95.3%) of CT-detected emphysema cases were in current or former smokers, and 169 cases (24.6%) showed significant obstructive impairment. Of 236 cases with emphysematous changes in the internal region (more than 20 mm from the costal margin), 98 (41.5%) had significant obstructive impairment. Smoking was found to be the major risk factor for CT-detected emphysema. Longitudinal observation of the emphysema cases, as well as health care support for cessation of smoking, is very important. (author)

  13. Low-dose non-enhanced CT versus full-dose contrast-enhanced CT in integrated PET/CT studies for the diagnosis of uterine cancer recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of PET Diagnosis, Kobe (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Suzuki, Kayo [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of PET Diagnosis, Kobe (Japan); Nakamoto, Yuji [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Onishi, Yumiko; Sakamoto, Setsu; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Senda, Michio [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Department of Molecular Imaging, Kobe (Japan); Kita, Masato [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    To evaluate low-dose non-enhanced CT (ldCT) and full-dose contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) in integrated {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT studies for restaging of uterine cancer. A group of 100 women who had undergone treatment for uterine cervical (n=55) or endometrial cancer (n=45) underwent a conventional PET/CT scans with ldCT, and then a ceCT scan. Two observers retrospectively reviewed and interpreted the PET/ldCT and PET/ceCT images in consensus using a three-point grading scale (negative, equivocal, or positive) per patient and per lesion. Final diagnoses were obtained by histopathological examination, or clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. Patient-based analysis showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/ceCT were 90% (27/30), 97% (68/70) and 95% (95/100), respectively, whereas those of PET/ldCT were 83% (25/30), 94% (66/70) and 91% (91/100), respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy did not significantly differ between two methods (McNemar test, p=0.48, p=0.48, and p=0.13, respectively). There were 52 sites of lesion recurrence: 12 pelvic lymph node (LN), 11 local recurrence, 8 peritoneum, 7 abdominal LN, 5 lung, 3 supraclavicular LN, 3 liver, 2 mediastinal LN, and 1 muscle and bone. The grading results for the 52 sites of recurrence were: negative 5, equivocal 0 and positive 47 for PET/ceCT, and negative 5, equivocal 4 and positive 43 for PET/ldCT, respectively. Four equivocal regions by PET/ldCT (local recurrence, pelvic LN metastasis, liver metastasis and muscle metastasis) were correctly interpreted as positive by PET/ceCT. PET/ceCT is an accurate imaging modality for the assessment of uterine cancer recurrence. Its use reduces the frequency of equivocal interpretations. (orig.)

  14. More than lung cancer: Automated analysis of low-dose screening CT scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major health care problem and is projected to cause over 8 million deaths per year worldwide in the coming decades. To reduce lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers, several randomized screening trials were initiated in the past years using screening with low-dose Computed Tomography

  15. SU-F-I-12: Region-Specific Dictionary Learning for Low-Dose X-Ray CT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q; Han, H; Xing, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dictionary learning based method has attracted more and more attentions in low-dose CT due to the superior performance on suppressing noise and preserving structural details. Considering the structures and noise vary from region to region in one imaging object, we propose a region-specific dictionary learning method to improve the low-dose CT reconstruction. Methods: A set of normal-dose images was used for dictionary learning. Segmentations were performed on these images, so that the training patch sets corresponding to different regions can be extracted out. After that, region-specific dictionaries were learned from these training sets. For the low-dose CT reconstruction, a conventional reconstruction, such as filtered back-projection (FBP), was performed firstly, and then segmentation was followed to segment the image into different regions. Sparsity constraints of each region based on its dictionary were used as regularization terms. The regularization parameters were selected adaptively according to different regions. A low-dose human thorax dataset was used to evaluate the proposed method. The single dictionary based method was performed for comparison. Results: Since the lung region is very different from the other part of thorax, two dictionaries corresponding to lung region and the rest part of thorax respectively were learned to better express the structural details and avoid artifacts. With only one dictionary some artifact appeared in the body region caused by the spot atoms corresponding to the structures in the lung region. And also some structure in the lung regions cannot be recovered well by only one dictionary. The quantitative indices of the result by the proposed method were also improved a little compared to the single dictionary based method. Conclusion: Region-specific dictionary can make the dictionary more adaptive to different region characteristics, which is much desirable for enhancing the performance of dictionary learning

  16. SU-F-I-12: Region-Specific Dictionary Learning for Low-Dose X-Ray CT Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q; Han, H; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dictionary learning based method has attracted more and more attentions in low-dose CT due to the superior performance on suppressing noise and preserving structural details. Considering the structures and noise vary from region to region in one imaging object, we propose a region-specific dictionary learning method to improve the low-dose CT reconstruction. Methods: A set of normal-dose images was used for dictionary learning. Segmentations were performed on these images, so that the training patch sets corresponding to different regions can be extracted out. After that, region-specific dictionaries were learned from these training sets. For the low-dose CT reconstruction, a conventional reconstruction, such as filtered back-projection (FBP), was performed firstly, and then segmentation was followed to segment the image into different regions. Sparsity constraints of each region based on its dictionary were used as regularization terms. The regularization parameters were selected adaptively according to different regions. A low-dose human thorax dataset was used to evaluate the proposed method. The single dictionary based method was performed for comparison. Results: Since the lung region is very different from the other part of thorax, two dictionaries corresponding to lung region and the rest part of thorax respectively were learned to better express the structural details and avoid artifacts. With only one dictionary some artifact appeared in the body region caused by the spot atoms corresponding to the structures in the lung region. And also some structure in the lung regions cannot be recovered well by only one dictionary. The quantitative indices of the result by the proposed method were also improved a little compared to the single dictionary based method. Conclusion: Region-specific dictionary can make the dictionary more adaptive to different region characteristics, which is much desirable for enhancing the performance of dictionary learning

  17. Screenings of lung cancer with low dose spiral CT: results of a three year pilot study and design of the randomised controlled trial Italung-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picozzi, Giulia; Paci, Enrico; Lopes Pegna, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a three-year observational pilot study of lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) and to present the study design of a randomised clinical trial named as Italung CT. Materials and methods: Sixty (47 males and 13 females, mean age 64±4.5 years) heavy smokers (at least 20 packs-year) underwent three low-dose spiral CT screening tests one year apart on a single slice or multislice CT scanner. Indeterminate nodules were managed according to the recommendations of the Early Lung Cancer Action Project. Results: Indeterminate nodules were observed in 33 (55%) of the subjects (60% at the baseline screening test, 24% at the first annual test and 16% at the second annual test). The size of the largest indeterminate nodule was [it

  18. Central image archiving and managements system for multicenter clinical studies: Lessons from low-dose CT for appendicitis trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, You Sun; Lee, Kyong Joon; Lee, Kyoung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-03-15

    This special report aimed to document our experiences in implementing the Central Imaging Archiving and Management System (CIAMS) for a multicenter clinical trial, Low-dose CT for Appendicitis Trial (LOCAT), supported by the Korean Society of Radiology and Radiology Imaging Network of Korea for Clinical Research. LOCAT was a randomized controlled trial to determine whether low-dose CT is non-inferior to standard-dose CT with respect to the negative appendectomy rate in patients aged from 15 to 44 years. Site investigators downloaded the CT images from the site picture archiving and communication system servers, and uploaded the anonymized images to the primary server. CIAMS administrators inspected the images routed to the secondary server by a cross-check against image submission worksheets provided by the site investigators. The secondary server was automatically synchronized to the tertiary backup server. Up to June 2016, 2715 patients from 20 sites participated in LOCAT for 30 months. A total of 2539 patients' images (93.5%, 2539/2715) were uploaded to the primary server, 2193 patients' worksheets (80.8%, 2193/2715) were submitted, and 2163 patients' data (79.7%, 2163/2715) were finally monitored. No data error occurred.

  19. Towards robust deconvolution of low-dose perfusion CT: Sparse perfusion deconvolution using online dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruogu; Chen, Tsuhan; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an important functional imaging modality in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in acute stroke and vasospasm. However, the post-processed parametric maps of blood flow tend to be noisy, especially in low-dose CTP, due to the noisy contrast enhancement profile and the oscillatory nature of the results generated by the current computational methods. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse perfusion deconvolution method (SPD) to estimate cerebral blood flow in CTP performed at low radiation dose. We first build a dictionary from high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation on the low-dose CTP data. Our method is validated on clinical data of patients with normal and pathological CBF maps. The results show that we achieve superior performance than existing methods, and potentially improve the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissue in the brain. PMID:23542422

  20. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes......: Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. KEY POINTS: • Substantial interobserver consistency in determining early-stage emphysema in low-dose CT. • Longitudinal analyses show clear...... time-trends for emphysema presence and grading. • For continuous smokers, progression of emphysema was seen in all lung zones. • For former smokers, progression of emphysema was undetectable by visual assessment. • Onset and progression of interstitial abnormalities are visually detectable....

  1. Low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial dual-source CT angiography in patients with pulsatile bilateral bidirectional Glenn Shunt: an alternative noninvasive method for postoperative morphological estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Ji

    Full Text Available To explore the clinical value of low-dose prospectively electrocardiogram-gated axial dual-source CT angiography (low-dose PGA scanning, CTA in patients with pulsatile bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt (bBDG as an alternative noninvasive method for postoperative morphological estimation.Twenty patients with pulsatile bBDG (mean age 4.2±1.6 years underwent both low-dose PGA scanning and conventional cardiac angiography (CCA for the morphological changes. The morphological evaluation included the anatomy of superior vena cava (SVC and pulmonary artery (PA, the anastomotic location, thrombosis, aorto-pulmonary collateral circulation, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, etc. Objective and subjective image quality was assessed. Bland-Altman analysis and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation on measurements between CTA and CCA. Effective radiation dose of both modalities was calculated.The CT attenuation value of bilateral SVC and PA was higher than 300 HU. The average subjective image quality score was 4.05±0.69. The morphology of bilateral SVC and PA was displayed completely and intuitively by CTA images. There were 24 SVC above PA and 15 SVC beside PA. Thrombosis was found in 1 patient. Collateral vessels were detected in 13 patients. No pulmonary arteriovenous malformation was found in our study. A strong correlation (R2>0.8, P0.The mean effective dose of CTA and CCA was 0.50±0.17 mSv and 4.85±1.34 mSv respectively.CT angiography with a low-dose PGA scanning is an accurate and reliable noninvasive examination in the assessment of morphological changes in patients with pulsatile bBDG.

  2. Low-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Breast CT Using Spectral Shaping Filters: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeev, Andrey; Glick, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Iodinated contrast-enhanced X-ray imaging of the breast has been studied with various modalities, including full-field digital mammography (FFDM), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and dedicated breast CT. Contrast imaging with breast CT has a number of advantages over FFDM and DBT, including the lack of breast compression, and generation of fully isotropic 3-D reconstructions. Nonetheless, for breast CT to be considered as a viable tool for routine clinical use, it would be desirable to reduce radiation dose. One approach for dose reduction in breast CT is spectral shaping using X-ray filters. In this paper, two high atomic number filter materials are studied, namely, gadolinium (Gd) and erbium (Er), and compared with Al and Cu filters currently used in breast CT systems. Task-based performance is assessed by imaging a cylindrical poly(methyl methacrylate) phantom with iodine inserts on a benchtop breast CT system that emulates clinical breast CT. To evaluate detectability, a channelized hoteling observer (CHO) is used with sums of Laguerre-Gauss channels. It was observed that spectral shaping using Er and Gd filters substantially increased the dose efficiency (defined as signal-to-noise ratio of the CHO divided by mean glandular dose) as compared with kilovolt peak and filter settings used in commercial and prototype breast CT systems. These experimental phantom study results are encouraging for reducing dose of breast CT, however, further evaluation involving patients is needed.

  3. Low-dose dual-energy cone-beam CT using a total-variation minimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jong Hwan

    2011-02-01

    Dual-energy cone-beam CT is an important imaging modality in diagnostic applications, and may also find its use in other application such as therapeutic image guidance. Despite of its clinical values, relatively high radiation dose of dual-energy scan may pose a challenge to its wide use. In this work, we investigated a low-dose, pre-reconstruction type of dual-energy cone-beam CT (CBCT) using a total-variation minimization algorithm for image reconstruction. An empirical dual-energy calibration method was used to prepare material-specific projection data. Raw data at high and low tube voltages are converted into a set of basis functions which can be linearly combined to produce material-specific data using the coefficients obtained through the calibration process. From much fewer views than are conventionally used, material specific images are reconstructed by use of the total-variation minimization algorithm. An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method using a micro-CT system. We have reconstructed images of the phantoms from only 90 projections acquired at tube voltages of 40 kVp and 90 kVp each. Aluminum-only and acryl-only images were successfully decomposed. We evaluated the quality of the reconstructed images by use of contrast-to-noise ratio and detectability. A low-dose dual-energy CBCT can be realized via the proposed method by greatly reducing the number of projections

  4. Deep convolutional neural networks for automatic coronary calcium scoring in a screening study with low-dose chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Nikolas; Išgum, Ivana; Setio, Arnaud A. A.; de Vos, Bob D.; Ciompi, Francesco; de Jong, Pim A.; Oudkerk, Matthjis; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-03-01

    The amount of calcifications in the coronary arteries is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular events and is used to identify subjects at high risk who might benefit from preventive treatment. Routine quantification of coronary calcium scores can complement screening programs using low-dose chest CT, such as lung cancer screening. We present a system for automatic coronary calcium scoring based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The system uses three independently trained CNNs to estimate a bounding box around the heart. In this region of interest, connected components above 130 HU are considered candidates for coronary artery calcifications. To separate them from other high intensity lesions, classification of all extracted voxels is performed by feeding two-dimensional 50 mm × 50 mm patches from three orthogonal planes into three concurrent CNNs. The networks consist of three convolutional layers and one fully-connected layer with 256 neurons. In the experiments, 1028 non-contrast-enhanced and non-ECG-triggered low-dose chest CT scans were used. The network was trained on 797 scans. In the remaining 231 test scans, the method detected on average 194.3 mm3 of 199.8 mm3 coronary calcifications per scan (sensitivity 97.2 %) with an average false-positive volume of 10.3 mm3 . Subjects were assigned to one of five standard cardiovascular risk categories based on the Agatston score. Accuracy of risk category assignment was 84.4 % with a linearly weighted κ of 0.89. The proposed system can perform automatic coronary artery calcium scoring to identify subjects undergoing low-dose chest CT screening who are at risk of cardiovascular events with high accuracy.

  5. Influence of Ultra-Low-Dose and Iterative Reconstructions on the Visualization of Orbital Soft Tissues on Maxillofacial CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, G; Juranek, D; Waldenberger, F; Schullian, P; Dennhardt, A; Hoermann, R; Steurer, M; Gassner, E-M; Puelacher, W

    2017-08-01

    Dose reduction on CT scans for surgical planning and postoperative evaluation of midface and orbital fractures is an important concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability of various low-dose and iterative reconstruction techniques on the visualization of orbital soft tissues. Contrast-to-noise ratios of the optic nerve and inferior rectus muscle and subjective scores of a human cadaver were calculated from CT with a reference dose protocol (CT dose index volume = 36.69 mGy) and a subsequent series of low-dose protocols (LDPs I-4: CT dose index volume = 4.18, 2.64, 0.99, and 0.53 mGy) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-50, ASIR-100, and model-based iterative reconstruction. The Dunn Multiple Comparison Test was used to compare each combination of protocols (α = .05). Compared with the reference dose protocol with FBP, the following statistically significant differences in contrast-to-noise ratios were shown (all, P ≤ .012) for the following: 1) optic nerve: LDP-I with FBP; LDP-II with FBP and ASIR-50; LDP-III with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100; and LDP-IV with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100; and 2) inferior rectus muscle: LDP-II with FBP, LDP-III with FBP and ASIR-50, and LDP-IV with FBP, ASIR-50, and ASIR-100. Model-based iterative reconstruction showed the best contrast-to-noise ratio in all images and provided similar subjective scores for LDP-II. ASIR-50 had no remarkable effect, and ASIR-100, a small effect on subjective scores. Compared with a reference dose protocol with FBP, model-based iterative reconstruction may show similar diagnostic visibility of orbital soft tissues at a CT dose index volume of 2.64 mGy. Low-dose technology and iterative reconstruction technology may redefine current reference dose levels in maxillofacial CT. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. SU-F-I-31: Reproducibility of An Automatic Exposure Control Technique in the Low-Dose CT Scan of Cardiac PET/CT Exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M; Rosica, D; Agarwal, V; Di Carli, M; Dorbala, S [Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Two separate low-dose CT scans are usually performed for attenuation correction of rest and stress N-13 ammonia PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (PET/CT). We utilize an automatic exposure control (AEC) technique to reduce CT radiation dose while maintaining perfusion image quality. Our goal is to assess the reproducibility of displayed CT dose index (CTDI) on same-day repeat CT scans (CT1 and CT2). Methods: Retrospectively, we reviewed CT images of PET/CT studies performed on the same day. Low-dose CT utilized AEC technique based on tube current modulation called Smart-mA. The scan parameters were 64 × 0.625mm collimation, 5mm slice thickness, 0.984 pitch, 1-sec rotation time, 120 kVp, and noise index 50 with a range of 10–200 mA. The scan length matched with PET field of view (FOV) with the heart near the middle of axial FOV. We identified the reference slice number (RS) for an anatomical landmark (carina) and used it to estimate axial shift between two CTs. For patient size, we measured an effective diameter on the reference slice. The effect of patient positioning to CTDI was evaluated using the table height. We calculated the absolute percent difference of the CTDI (%diff) for estimation of the reproducibility. Results: The study included 168 adults with an average body-mass index of 31.72 ± 9.10 (kg/m{sup 2}) and effective diameter was 32.72 ± 4.60 cm. The average CTDI was 1.95 ± 1.40 mGy for CT1 and 1.97 ± 1.42mGy for CT2. The mean %diff was 7.8 ± 6.8%. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the table height and %diff CTDI. (r=0.82, p<0.001) Conclusion: We have shown for the first time in human subjects, using two same-day CT images, that the AEC technique in low-dose CT is reproducible within 10% and significantly depends on the patient centering.

  7. Investigation of ultra low-dose scans in the context of quantum-counting clinical CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, T.; Buzug, T. M.; Flohr, T.; Fung, G. S. K.; Kappler, S.; Stierstorfer, K.; Tsui, B. M. W.

    2012-03-01

    In clinical computed tomography (CT), images from patient examinations taken with conventional scanners exhibit noise characteristics governed by electronics noise, when scanning strongly attenuating obese patients or with an ultra-low X-ray dose. Unlike CT systems based on energy integrating detectors, a system with a quantum counting detector does not suffer from this drawback. Instead, the noise from the electronics mainly affects the spectral resolution of these detectors. Therefore, it does not contribute to the image noise in spectrally non-resolved CT images. This promises improved image quality due to image noise reduction in scans obtained from clinical CT examinations with lowest X-ray tube currents or obese patients. To quantify the benefits of quantum counting detectors in clinical CT we have carried out an extensive simulation study of the complete scanning and reconstruction process for both kinds of detectors. The simulation chain encompasses modeling of the X-ray source, beam attenuation in the patient, and calculation of the detector response. Moreover, in each case the subsequent image preprocessing and reconstruction is modeled as well. The simulation-based, theoretical evaluation is validated by experiments with a novel prototype quantum counting system and a Siemens Definition Flash scanner with a conventional energy integrating CT detector. We demonstrate and quantify the improvement from image noise reduction achievable with quantum counting techniques in CT examinations with ultra-low X-ray dose and strong attenuation.

  8. Evaluation of the low dose cardiac CT imaging using ASIR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiahua; Hsieh, Jiang; Deubig, Amy; Sainath, Paavana; Crandall, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Today Cardiac imaging is one of the key driving forces for the research and development activities of Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. It requires high spatial and temporal resolution and is often associated with high radiation dose. The newly introduced ASIR technique presents an efficient method that offers the dose reduction benefits while maintaining image quality and providing fast reconstruction speed. This paper discusses the study of image quality of the ASIR technique for Cardiac CT imaging. Phantoms as well as clinical data have been evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of ASIR technique for Cardiac CT applications.

  9. Sharpness-Aware Low-Dose CT Denoising Using Conditional Generative Adversarial Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Babyn, Paul

    2018-02-20

    Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) has offered tremendous benefits in radiation-restricted applications, but the quantum noise as resulted by the insufficient number of photons could potentially harm the diagnostic performance. Current image-based denoising methods tend to produce a blur effect on the final reconstructed results especially in high noise levels. In this paper, a deep learning-based approach was proposed to mitigate this problem. An adversarially trained network and a sharpness detection network were trained to guide the training process. Experiments on both simulated and real dataset show that the results of the proposed method have very small resolution loss and achieves better performance relative to state-of-the-art methods both quantitatively and visually.

  10. Aquilion ONE / ViSION Edition CT scanner realizing 3D dynamic observation with low-dose scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Masahiro; Saito, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners have been continuously advancing as essential diagnostic imaging equipment for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases, including the three major disease classes of cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Through the development of helical CT scanners and multislice CT scanners, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation has developed the Aquilion ONE, a CT scanner with a scanning range of up to 160 mm per rotation that can obtain three-dimensional (3D) images of the brain, heart, and other organs in a single rotation. We have now developed the Aquilion ONE / ViSION Edition, a next-generation 320-row multislice CT scanner incorporating the latest technologies that achieves a shorter scanning time and significant reduction in dose compared with conventional products. This product with its low-dose scanning technology will contribute to the practical realization of new diagnosis and treatment modalities employing four-dimensional (4D) data based on 3D dynamic observations through continuous rotations. (author)

  11. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodén, Cyrus; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting.

  12. Mixed connective tissue disease associated with noted pulmonary CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Souji; Tsukada, Atsuko; Furuya, Tatsutaka

    1984-10-01

    CT was performed in a 56-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Much more definitive pulmonary findings were obtained by CT than by the conventional chest x-ray examination and pulmonary function test. CT findings disclosed pulmonary lesions extremely similar to those in cases of progressive systemic sclerosis. Pulmonary CT was considered useful in examining pulmonary lesions for MCTD.

  13. Low-dose computed tomography scans with automatic exposure control for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Ching; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tu, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Tung-Hsin; Liu, Shu-Hsin

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of automatic exposure control (AEC) in order to optimize low-dose computed tomography (CT) protocols for patients of different ages undergoing cardiac PET/CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). One PET/CT and one SPECT/CT were used to acquire CT images for four anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1-year-old, 5-year-old and 10-year-old children and an adult. For the hybrid systems investigated in this study, the radiation dose and image quality of cardiac CT scans performed with AEC activated depend mainly on the selection of a predefined image quality index. Multiple linear regression methods were used to analyse image data from anthropomorphic phantom studies to investigate the effects of body size and predefined image quality index on CT radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT scans. The regression relationships have a coefficient of determination larger than 0.9, indicating a good fit to the data. According to the regression models, low-dose protocols using the AEC technique were optimized for patients of different ages. In comparison with the standard protocol with AEC activated for adult cardiac examinations used in our clinical routine practice, the optimized paediatric protocols in PET/CT allow 32.2, 63.7 and 79.2% CT dose reductions for anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 10-year-old, 5-year-old and 1-year-old children, respectively. The corresponding results for cardiac SPECT/CT are 8.4, 51.5 and 72.7%. AEC is a practical way to reduce CT radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT, but the AEC settings should be determined properly for optimal effect. Our results show that AEC does not eliminate the need for paediatric protocols and CT examinations using the AEC technique should be optimized for paediatric patients to reduce the radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable.

  14. Ultra low-dose chest CT using filtered back projection: Comparison of 80-, 100- and 120 kVp protocols in a prospective randomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali, E-mail: rkhawaja@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Thoracic Radiology, MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Singh, Sarabjeet [Division of Thoracic Radiology, MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Madan, Rachna [Division of Thoracic Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Sharma, Amita; Padole, Atul; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Digumarthy, Subba; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Kalra, Mannudeep K. [Division of Thoracic Radiology, MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Filtered back projection technique enables acceptable image quality for chest CT examinations at 0.9 mGy (estimated effective dose of 0.5 mSv) for selected sizes of patients. • Lesion detection (such as solid non-calcified lung nodules) in lung parenchyma is optimal at 0.9 mGy, with limited visualization of thyroid nodules in FBP images. • Further dose reduction down to 0.4 mGy is possible for most patients undergoing follow-up chest CT for evaluation of larger lung nodules and GGOs. • Our results may help set the reference ALARA dose for chest CT examinations reconstructed with filtered back projection technique using the minimum possible radiation dose with acceptable image quality and lesion detection. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess lesion detection and diagnostic image quality of filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction technique in ultra low-dose chest CT examinations. Methods and materials: In this IRB-approved ongoing prospective clinical study, 116 CT-image-series at four different radiation-doses were performed for 29 patients (age, 57–87 years; F:M – 15:12; BMI 16–32 kg/m{sup 2}). All patients provided written-informed-consent for the acquisitions of additional ultra low-dose (ULD) series on a 256-slice MDCT (iCT, Philips Healthcare). In-addition to their clinical standard-dose chest CT (SD, 120 kV mean CTDI{sub vol}, 6 ± 1 mGy), ULD-CT was subsequently performed at three-dose-levels (0.9 mGy [120 kV]; 0.5 mGy [100 kV] and 0.2 mGy [80 kV]). Images were reconstructed with FBP (2.5 mm * 1.25 mm) resulting into four-stacks: SD-FBP (reference-standard), FBP{sub 0.9}, FBP{sub 0.5}, and FBP{sub 0.2}. Four thoracic-radiologists from two-teaching-hospitals independently-evaluated data for lesion-detection and visibility-of-small-structures. Friedman's-non-parametric-test with post hoc Dunn's-test was used for data-analysis. Results: Interobserver-agreement was substantial between radiologists (k = 0.6–0.8). With

  15. CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, M.J. [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van, E-mail: h.es@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Koobs, L. [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Morshuis, W.J. [Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Snijder, R.J. [Department of Pulmonary Disease, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Heesewijk, J.P.M. van [Department of Radiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The educational objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the computed tomography (CT) findings in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This article reviews the key imaging findings at CT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. After reading this article, the reader should have an improved awareness of the condition, its imaging features, and the CT imaging features associated with surgically accessible disease.

  16. CT evaluation of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, M.J.; Es, H.W. van; Koobs, L.; Morshuis, W.J.; Snijder, R.J.; Heesewijk, J.P.M. van

    2012-01-01

    The educational objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the computed tomography (CT) findings in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This article reviews the key imaging findings at CT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. After reading this article, the reader should have an improved awareness of the condition, its imaging features, and the CT imaging features associated with surgically accessible disease.

  17. Task-based image quality evaluation of iterative reconstruction methods for low dose CT using computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Fuld, Matthew K.; Fung, George S. K.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2015-04-01

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) methods for x-ray CT is a promising approach to improve image quality or reduce radiation dose to patients. The goal of this work was to use task based image quality measures and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) to evaluate both analytic and IR methods for clinical x-ray CT applications. We performed realistic computer simulations at five radiation dose levels, from a clinical reference low dose D0 to 25% D0. A fixed size and contrast lesion was inserted at different locations into the liver of the XCAT phantom to simulate a weak signal. The simulated data were reconstructed on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using the vendor-provided analytic (WFBP) and IR (SAFIRE) methods. The reconstructed images were analyzed by CHOs with both rotationally symmetric (RS) and rotationally oriented (RO) channels, and with different numbers of lesion locations (5, 10, and 20) in a signal known exactly (SKE), background known exactly but variable (BKEV) detection task. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used as a summary measure to compare the IR and analytic methods; the AUC was also used as the equal performance criterion to derive the potential dose reduction factor of IR. In general, there was a good agreement in the relative AUC values of different reconstruction methods using CHOs with RS and RO channels, although the CHO with RO channels achieved higher AUCs than RS channels. The improvement of IR over analytic methods depends on the dose level. The reference dose level D0 was based on a clinical low dose protocol, lower than the standard dose due to the use of IR methods. At 75% D0, the performance improvement was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The potential dose reduction factor also depended on the detection task. For the SKE/BKEV task involving 10 lesion locations, a dose reduction of at least 25% from D0 was achieved.

  18. Application of low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media in enhanced CT scans in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Song, Lei; Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qifeng; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Yong; Peng, Yun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media in enhanced CT examinations in children with congenital heart disease. Ninety patients with congenital heart disease were randomly divided into three groups of 30 patients each who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac scans on a Discovery CT750 HD scanner. Group A received 270 mg I/mL iodixanol, and group B received 320 mg I/mL iodixanol contrast media and was scanned with prospective ECG triggering mode. Group C received 320 mg I/mL iodixanol and was scanned with conventional retrospective ECG gating mode. The same weight-based contrast injection protocol was used for all three groups. Images were reconstructed using a 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and a 50% ASIR in groups A and B and a 30% ASIR in group C. The subjective and objective image quality evaluations, diagnostic accuracies, radiation doses and amounts of contrast media in the three groups were measured and compared. All images in the three groups met the diagnostic requirements, with the same diagnostic accuracy and image quality scores greater than 3 in a 4-point scoring system. However, ventricular enhancement and the objective noise, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and subjective image quality scores in group C were better than those in groups A and B (all Pcontrast dose (14% lower than that of groups B and C). Enhanced CT scan images with low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media can meet the diagnostic requirements for examining children with congenital heart disease while reducing the potential risk of radiation damage and contrast-induced nephropathy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Dose and image quality in low-dose CT for urinary stone disease: added value of automatic tube current modulation and iterative reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenen, Olivier; Balliauw, Christophe; Oyen, Raymond; Zanca, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dose and image quality (IQ) of a baseline low-dose computed tomography (CT) (fix mAs) vs. an ultra-low-dose CT (automatic tube current modulation, ATCM) in patients with suspected urinary stone disease and to assess the added value of iterative reconstruction. CT examination was performed on 193 patients (103 baseline low-dose, 90 ultra-low-dose). Filtered back projection (FBP) was used for both protocols, and Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) was used for the ultra-low-dose protocol only. Dose and ureter stones information were collected for both protocols. Subjective IQ was assessed by two radiologists scoring noise, visibility of the ureter and overall IQ. Objective IQ (contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR) was assessed for the ultra-low-dose protocol only (FBP and SAFIRE). The ultra-low-dose protocol (ATCM) showed a 22% decrease in mean effective dose ( p < 0.001) and improved visibility of the pelvic ureter (p = 0.02). CNR was higher for SAFIRE (p < 0.0001). SAFIRE improves the objective IQ, but not the subjective IQ for the chosen clinical task. (authors)

  20. Case report: Pulmonary syphilis mimicking pulmonary hematogenous metastases on chest CT and integrated PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of syphilis with pulmonary involvement. Chest CT scan and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET/CT showed multiple pulmonary nodules mimicking pulmonary hematogenous metastases. This was confirmed on follow-up images that showed therapeutic response to penicillin.

  1. Case report: Pulmonary syphilis mimicking pulmonary hematogenous metastases on chest CT and integrated PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Shin, Hyo Hyun; Choi, Yoo-Duk

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of syphilis with pulmonary involvement. Chest CT scan and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT showed multiple pulmonary nodules mimicking pulmonary hematogenous metastases. This was confirmed on follow-up images that showed therapeutic response to penicillin

  2. Low dose CT image restoration using a database of image patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sungsoo; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the radiation dose in CT imaging has become an active research topic and many solutions have been proposed to remove the significant noise and streak artifacts in the reconstructed images. Most of these methods operate within the domain of the image that is subject to restoration. This, however, poses limitations on the extent of filtering possible. We advocate to take into consideration the vast body of external knowledge that exists in the domain of already acquired medical CT images, since after all, this is what radiologists do when they examine these low quality images. We can incorporate this knowledge by creating a database of prior scans, either of the same patient or a diverse corpus of different patients, to assist in the restoration process. Our paper follows up on our previous work that used a database of images. Using images, however, is challenging since it requires tedious and error prone registration and alignment. Our new method eliminates these problems by storing a diverse set of small image patches in conjunction with a localized similarity matching scheme. We also empirically show that it is sufficient to store these patches without anatomical tags since their statistics are sufficiently strong to yield good similarity matches from the database and as a direct effect, produce image restorations of high quality. A final experiment demonstrates that our global database approach can recover image features that are difficult to preserve with conventional denoising approaches.

  3. Low-dose megavoltage cone-beam CT for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Jean; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Chen, Josephine; Svatos, Michelle; Ghelmansarai, Farhad; Mitschke, Matthias; Aubin, Michele; Xia Ping; Morin, Olivier; Bucci, Kara; Roach, Mack; Hernandez, Paco; Zheng Zirao; Hristov, Dimitre; Verhey, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring low-exposure megavoltage cone-beam CT (MV CBCT) three-dimensional (3D) image data of sufficient quality to register the CBCT images to kilovoltage planning CT images for patient alignment and dose verification purposes. Methods and materials: A standard clinical 6-MV Primus linear accelerator, operating in arc therapy mode, and an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) flat-panel electronic portal-imaging device (EPID) were employed. The dose-pulse rate of a 6-MV Primus accelerator beam was windowed to expose an a-Si flat panel by using only 0.02 to 0.08 monitor units (MUs) per image. A triggered image-acquisition mode was designed to produce a high signal-to-noise ratio without pulsing artifacts. Several data sets were acquired for an anthropomorphic head phantom and frozen sheep and pig cadaver heads, as well as for a head-and-neck cancer patient on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). For each CBCT image, a set of 90 to 180 projection images incremented by 1 deg to 2 deg was acquired. The two-dimensional (2D) projection images were then synthesized into a 3D image by use of cone-beam CT reconstruction. The resulting MV CBCT image set was used to visualize the 3D bony anatomy and some soft-tissue details. The 3D image registration with the kV planning CT was performed either automatically by application of a maximization of mutual information (MMI) algorithm or manually by aligning multiple 2D slices. Results: Low-noise 3D MV CBCT images without pulsing artifacts were acquired with a total delivered dose that ranged from 5 to 15 cGy. Acquisition times, including image readout, were on the order of 90 seconds for 180 projection images taken through a continuous gantry rotation of 180 deg . The processing time of the data required an additional 90 seconds for the reconstruction of a 256 3 cube with 1.0-mm voxel size. Implanted gold markers (1 mm x 3 mm) were easily visible for all exposure

  4. Lung cancer screening with low-dose helical CT in Korea: experiences at the Samsung Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Rhee, Chong H

    2005-06-01

    To determine overall detection rates of lung cancer by low-dose CT (LDCT) screening and to compare histopathologic and imaging differences of detected cancers between high- and low-risk groups, this study included 6,406 asymptomatic Korean adults with >or=45 yr of age who underwent LDCT for lung cancer screening. All were classified into high- (>or=20 pack-year smoking; 3,353) and low-risk (3,053; <20 pack-yr smoking and non-smokers) groups. We compared CT findings of detected cancers and detection rates between high- and low-risk. At initial CT, 35% (2,255 of 6,406) had at least one or more non-calcified nodule. Lung cancer detection rates were 0.36% (23 of 6,406). Twenty-one non-small cell lung cancers appeared as solid (n=14) or ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n=7) nodules. Cancer likelihood was higher in GGO nodules than in solid nodules (p<0.01). Fifteen of 23 cancers occurred in high-risk group and 8 in low-risk group (p=0.215). Therefore, LDCT screening help detect early stage of lung cancer in asymptomatic Korean population with detection rate of 0.36% on a population basis and may be useful for discovering early lung cancer in low-risk group as well as in high-risk group.

  5. Assessment of pulmonary emphysema on CT teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Kato, Koji; Mitani, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The present study assessed the current wave of using CT for the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema using teleradiology. Thirty patients were examined. CT images were transmitted by Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to an image viewer and displayed in 4-image and 1-image arrays for reading. Pulmonary emphysema was found in 7 of the 30 patients. On both displays, the same diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases. In the remaining 2 cases, the low attenuation areas (LAAs) of mild centrilobular emphysema could be recognized only on the 1-image display. The diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema can be made by CT examination using teleradiology even in cases with mild lesions. (author)

  6. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte

    2014-01-01

    the best diagnostic accuracy for PE. In addition, recent developments in the CTPA technique have made it possible to image the pulmonary arteries of the lungs in one breath-hold. This development is based on the change from a single-detector to multidetector CT technology with an increase in volume......Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...

  7. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  8. Very low-dose (0.15 mGy) chest CT protocols using the COPDGene 2 test object and a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with corresponding third-generation iterative reconstruction software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, John D; Fuld, Matthew K; Allmendinger, Thomas; Sieren, Jered P; Chan, Kung-Sik; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    size (P 0.05). The SD was lower with ADMIRE compared with WFBP at all dose levels and ring sizes (P < 0.05). The third-generation dual-source CT scanners using third-generation iterative reconstruction methods can acquire accurate quantitative CT images with acceptable image noise at very low-dose levels (0.15 mGy). This opens up new diagnostic and research opportunities in CT phenotyping of the lung for developing new treatments and increased understanding of pulmonary disease.

  9. Utilization of low-dose multidetector CT and virtual bronchoscopy in children with suspected foreign body aspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaletli, Ibrahim; Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Ulus, Sila; Ozer, Harun; Kantarci, Fatih; Mihmanli, Ismail; Akman, Canan; Elicevik, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration is common in children, especially those under 3 years of age. Chest radiography and CT are the main imaging modalities for the evaluation of these children. Management of children with suspected foreign body aspiration (SFBA) mainly depends on radiological findings. To investigate the potential use of low-dose multidetector CT (MDCT) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) in the evaluation and management of SFBA in children. Included in the study were 37 children (17 girls, 20 boys; age 4 months to 10 years, mean 32 months) with SFBA. Chest radiographs were obtained prior to MDCT in all patients. MDCT was performed using a low-dose technique. VB images were obtained in the same session. Conventional bronchoscopy (CB) was performed within 24 h on patients in whom an obstructive abnormality had been found by MDCT and VB. Obstructive pathology was found in 16 (43.25%) of the 37 patients using MDCT and VB. In 13 of these patients, foreign bodies were detected and removed via CB. The foreign bodies were located in the right main bronchus (n = 5), in the bronchus intermedius (n = 6), in the medial segment of the middle lobe bronchus (n = 1), and in the left main bronchus (n = 1). In the remaining three patients, the diagnosis was false-positive for an obstructive pathology by MDCT and VB; the final diagnoses were secretions (n = 2) and schwannoma (n = 1), as demonstrated by CB. In 21 patients in whom no obstructive pathology was detected by MDCT and VB, CB was not performed. These patients were followed for 5-20 months without any recurrent obstructive symptomatology. Low-dose MDCT and VB are non-invasive radiological modalities that can be used easily in the investigation of SFBA in children. MDCT and VB provide the exact location of the obstructive pathology prior to CB. If obstructive pathology is depicted with MDCT and VB, CB should be performed either for confirmation of the diagnosis or for the diagnosis of an alternative cause for the obstruction

  10. Application of low dose multi-slice helical CT in orbital trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rui; Dai Limei; Li Jianying; Wang Fengyan; Du Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the most appropriate low radiation dose in multi-slice CT (MSCT) scans for orbital trauma patients. Methods: Thirty trauma patients with suspected orbital fractures who underwent helical CT scans with a 64-MSCT using regular dose were selected. Noise was artificially introduced to the axial images using an image space noise addition tool to simulate 6 sets of lower dose scans with tube current of 30, 70, 100, 140, 170 and 200 mA, respectively. The lowest tube current with adequate image quality for confident diagnosis was determined based on the evaluation of the overall image quality and fracture detection on images at different dose levels. The determined lowest tube current was then validated using clinical scans. Radiation dose related parameters CTDIvol, DLP, ED were also recorded. Image quality was evaluated according to its low-density resolution, noise and structure clarity and characterized into 5-grades of excellent, good, fair, worse and worst. Rank sum test and χ 2 test were used for statistics. Results: In 30 trauma patients with regular dose of 300 mA, there were 30 cases of orbital fracture, 19 cases of intraorbital emphysema, 12 cases of ocular muscle injury and 1 case of intraorbital foreign body. These changes could still be clearly observed and correctly diagnosed when the tube current was reduced to as low as 70 mA. However, the overall image quality was mostly fair. At the simulated dose of 100 mA, the majority of images were characterized as excellent or good, and there was no statistical difference compared with that of regular dose scans (P>0.05). In the clinical evaluation for 20 orbital trauma patients with the reduced tube current of 100 m A , the majority of images were judged to be excellent (9 cases) or good (17 cases) and fair (4 cases). The radiation dose (0.29 mSv) was reduced by 70% compared with that of regular tube current of 300 mA (0.86 mSv). Conclusion: The tube current of MSCT may be used as low as

  11. Can low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction reduce both the radiation dose and the amount of iodine contrast medium in a dynamic CT study of the liver?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Okada, Masahiro; Hyodo, Tomoko; Hidaka, Syojiro; Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Murakami, Takamichi, E-mail: murakami@med.kindai.ac.jp

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether low-dose dynamic CT of the liver with iterative reconstruction can reduce both the radiation dose and the amount of contrast medium. Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board. 113 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group A/group B (fifty-eight/fifty-five patients) underwent liver dynamic CT at 120/100 kV, with 0/40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), with a contrast dose of 600/480 mg I/kg, respectively. Radiation exposure was estimated based on the manufacturer's phantom data. The enhancement value of the hepatic parenchyma, vessels and the tumor-to-liver contrast of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were compared between two groups. Two readers independently assessed the CT images of the hepatic parenchyma and HCCs. Results: The mean CT dose indices: 6.38/4.04 mGy, the dose-length products: 194.54/124.57 mGy cm, for group A/group B. The mean enhancement value of the hepatic parenchyma and the tumor-to-liver contrast of HCCs with diameters greater than 1 cm in the post-contrast all phases did not differ significantly between two groups (P > 0.05). The enhancement values of vessels in group B were significantly higher than that in group A in the delayed phases (P < 0.05). Two reader's confidence levels for the hepatic parenchyma in the delayed phases and HCCs did not differ significantly between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Low-dose dynamic CT with ASIR can reduce both the radiation dose and the amount of contrast medium without image quality degradation, compared to conventional dynamic CT without ASIR.

  12. Comparison of computational to human observer detection for evaluation of CT low dose iterative reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Brendan; Fahmi, Rachid; Brown, Kevin M.; Raihani, Nilgoun; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Model observers were created and compared to human observers for the detection of low contrast targets in computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with an advanced, knowledge-based, iterative image reconstruction method for low x-ray dose imaging. A 5-channel Laguerre-Gauss Hotelling Observer (CHO) was used with internal noise added to the decision variable (DV) and/or channel outputs (CO). Models were defined by parameters: (k1) DV-noise with standard deviation (std) proportional to DV std; (k2) DV-noise with constant std; (k3) CO-noise with constant std across channels; and (k4) CO-noise in each channel with std proportional to CO variance. Four-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer studies were performed on sub-images extracted from phantom images with and without a "pin" target. Model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood comparison to human probability correct (PC) data. PC in human and all model observers increased with dose, contrast, and size, and was much higher for advanced iterative reconstruction (IMR) as compared to filtered back projection (FBP). Detection in IMR was better than FPB at 1/3 dose, suggesting significant dose savings. Model(k1,k2,k3,k4) gave the best overall fit to humans across independent variables (dose, size, contrast, and reconstruction) at fixed display window. However Model(k1) performed better when considering model complexity using the Akaike information criterion. Model(k1) fit the extraordinary detectability difference between IMR and FBP, despite the different noise quality. It is anticipated that the model observer will predict results from iterative reconstruction methods having similar noise characteristics, enabling rapid comparison of methods.

  13. The optimization of low-dose scanning protocols of 64-slice spiral CT in the adult chest: a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wei; Huang Yao; Wu Ning

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the image quality of chest low dose CT (LDCT) using automatic exposure control (AEC) and constant current. control (CCC) and explore a more reasonable scanning protocol. Methods: Two hundred and eighty participants were examined with 64 CT scanner at 7 centers in China. All were divided into 4 groups. Two groups underwent LDCT using AEC with standard deviation set at 25 (Al) and 30 (A2) respectively and the tube current ranged from 10 mA to 80 mA. The other two groups underwent LDCT using CCC with tube current set at 40 mA (Cl) and 50 mA (C2) respectively. The axial and MPR images were evaluated by two radiologists who were blinded to the scanning protocols. The radiation dose, noise and the image quality of the 4 groups were compared and analyzed statistically. Differences of radiation dose and noise among groups were determined with variance analysis and t test, image quality with Mann- Whitney test and the consistency of diagnosis with Kappa test. Results: There was a significant lower DLP in AEC group than in CCC group [(82.62±40.31) vs (110.81±18.21) mGy · cm (F=56.88, P 0.05]. The noisy of AEC group was higher than that of CCC group both on lung window (41.50±9.58 vs 40.86±7.03) and mediastinum window (41.19±7.83 vs 40.92±9.89), but there was no significant difference (F lung =0.835, P=0.476, F wediastinum =1.910, P=0.128). The quality score of axial image in AEC group was higher than that in CCC group (superior margin of the brachiocephalic vein level: 4.49± 0.56 vs 4.38±0.64, superior margin of the aortic arch: 4.86±0.23 vs 4.81±0.32, the right superior lobar bronchus Level: 4.87±0.27 vs 4.84±0.22, the right middle lobar bronchus Level: 4.90±0.25 vs 4.88±0.21) except on the right inferior pulmonary vein level (4.92±0.25 vs 4.93±0.17) and superior margin of the left diaphragmatic dome level (4.91±0.27 vs 4.93±0.22) on lung window, but no significant differences (F=0.076-1.748, P>0.05) were observed. A significant

  14. Impact of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique on image quality in ultra-low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yan; He, Wen; Chen, Hui; Hu, Zhihai; Li, Juan; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between different noise indices (NIs) and radiation dose and to compare the effect of different reconstruction algorithm applications for ultra-low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) on image quality improvement and the accuracy of volumetric measurement of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules using a phantom study. Materials and methods: A 11 cm thick transverse phantom section with a chest wall, mediastinum, and 14 artificial GGO nodules with known volumes (919.93 ± 64.05 mm 3 ) was constructed. The phantom was scanned on a Discovery CT 750HD scanner with five different NIs (NIs = 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60). All data were reconstructed with a 0.625 mm section thickness using the filtered back-projection (FBP), 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and Veo model-base iterative reconstruction algorithms. Image noise was measured in six regions of interest (ROIs). Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial volumetric software package. The image quality and the volume measurement errors were analysed. Results: Image noise increased dramatically from 30.7 HU at NI 20 to 122.4 HU at NI 60, with FBP reconstruction. Conversely, Veo reconstruction effectively controlled the noise increase, with an increase from 9.97 HU at NI 20 to only 15.1 HU at NI 60. Image noise at NI 60 with Veo was even lower (50.8%) than that at NI 20 with FBP. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of Veo at NI 40 was similar to that of FBP at NI 20. All artificial GGO nodules were successfully identified and measured with an average relative volume measurement error with Veo at NI 60 of 4.24%, comparable to a value of 10.41% with FBP at NI 20. At NI 60, the radiation dose was only one-tenth that at NI 20. Conclusion: The Veo reconstruction algorithms very effectively reduced image noise compared with the conventional FBP reconstructions. Using ultra-low-dose CT scanning and Veo reconstruction, GGOs can be detected and quantified with an acceptable

  15. SU-D-12A-06: A Comprehensive Parameter Analysis for Low Dose Cone-Beam CT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W; Yan, H; Gu, X; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Bai, T; Zhou, L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is always a parameter in compressive sensing based iterative reconstruction (IR) methods low dose cone-beam CT (CBCT), which controls the weight of regularization relative to data fidelity. A clear understanding of the relationship between image quality and parameter values is important. The purpose of this study is to investigate this subject based on experimental data and a representative advanced IR algorithm using Tight-frame (TF) regularization. Methods: Three data sets of a Catphan phantom acquired at low, regular and high dose levels are used. For each tests, 90 projections covering a 200-degree scan range are used for reconstruction. Three different regions-of-interest (ROIs) of different contrasts are used to calculate contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for contrast evaluation. A single point structure is used to measure modulation transfer function (MTF) for spatial-resolution evaluation. Finally, we analyze CNRs and MTFs to study the relationship between image quality and parameter selections. Results: It was found that: 1) there is no universal optimal parameter. The optimal parameter value depends on specific task and dose level. 2) There is a clear trade-off between CNR and resolution. The parameter for the best CNR is always smaller than that for the best resolution. 3) Optimal parameters are also dose-specific. Data acquired under a high dose protocol require less regularization, yielding smaller optimal parameter values. 4) Comparing with conventional FDK images, TF-based CBCT images are better under a certain optimally selected parameters. The advantages are more obvious for low dose data. Conclusion: We have investigated the relationship between image quality and parameter values in the TF-based IR algorithm. Preliminary results indicate optimal parameters are specific to both the task types and dose levels, providing guidance for selecting parameters in advanced IR algorithms. This work is supported in part by NIH (1R01CA154747-01)

  16. Emergency assessment of patients with acute abdominal pain using low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Minerva; Becker, Christoph D.; Zaidi, Habib; Platon, Alexandra [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Halfon Poletti, Alice; Rutschmann, Olivier T. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Community, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Perneger, Thomas [University Hospital of Geneva, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    To determine if radiation dose delivered by contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for acute abdominal pain can be reduced to the dose administered in abdominal radiography (<2.5 mSv) using low-dose CT (LDCT) with iterative reconstruction algorithms. One hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients requiring CECT for acute abdominal pain were included, and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. CECT was immediately followed by LDCT. LDCT series was processed using 1) 40% iterative reconstruction algorithm blended with filtered back projection (LDCT-IR-FBP) and 2) model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (LDCT-MBIR). LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR images were reviewed independently by two board-certified radiologists (Raters 1 and 2). Abdominal pathology was revealed on CECT in 120 (79%) patients. In those with BMI <30, accuracies for correct diagnosis by Rater 1 with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR, when compared to CECT, were 95.4% (104/109) and 99% (108/109), respectively, and 92.7% (101/109) and 100% (109/109) for Rater 2. In patients with BMI ≥30, accuracies with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR were 88.1% (37/42) and 90.5% (38/42) for Rater 1 and 78.6% (33/42) and 92.9% (39/42) for Rater 2. The radiation dose delivered by CT to non-obese patients with acute abdominal pain can be safely reduced to levels close to standard radiography using LDCT-MBIR. (orig.)

  17. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM.Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200 were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each, with a noise index (NI of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were measured, and effective dose (ED was recorded.Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (P<0.001, and SNR decreased with increasing NI (P<0.001. These values improved with increased ASIR levels (P<0.001. Images from all 4 groups were clinically diagnosable. Images with NI = 30 and 50% ASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15, the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively.Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  18. Combining automatic tube current modulation with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction for low-dose chest CT screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Hong; Jin, Er-Hu; He, Wen; Zhao, Li-Qin

    2014-01-01

    To reduce radiation dose while maintaining image quality in low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by combining adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Patients undergoing cancer screening (n = 200) were subjected to 64-slice multidetector chest CT scanning with ASIR and ATCM. Patients were divided into groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 (n = 50 each), with a noise index (NI) of 15, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Each image set was reconstructed with 4 ASIR levels (0% ASIR, 30% ASIR, 50% ASIR, and 80% ASIR) in each group. Two radiologists assessed subjective image noise, image artifacts, and visibility of the anatomical structures. Objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured, and effective dose (ED) was recorded. Increased NI was associated with increased subjective and objective image noise results (PASIR levels (PASIR had average subjective image noise scores and nearly average anatomical structure visibility scores, with a mean objective image noise of 23.42 HU. The EDs for groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 2.79 ± 1.17, 1.69 ± 0.59, 0.74 ± 0.29, and 0.37 ± 0.22 mSv, respectively. Compared to group 1 (NI = 15), the ED reductions were 39.43%, 73.48%, and 86.74% for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Using NI = 30 with 50% ASIR in the chest CT protocol, we obtained average or above-average image quality but a reduced ED.

  19. Body packers on your examination table: How helpful are plain x-ray images? A definitive low-dose CT protocol as a diagnosis tool for body packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B; Grossbach, A; Gruber-Rouh, T; Zangos, S; Vogl, Th J; Eichler, K

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the clinical value and radiation dose of plain x-rays and CT in examining patients suspected of ingesting drug-filled packets. Thirty-eight patients with suspected internal concealment of drug-filled packets who were examined with plain x-rays or CT or both were included in the study. CT studies were performed using low-dose and standard-dose techniques. All radiographic images were analysed by two radiologists regarding identification of the packets and estimating the effective radiation dose from standard- and low-dose CT versus conventional x-ray examinations. Descriptive calculations were made regarding the number and density of packs and radiation dosage. The diagnostic performance of both radiologists with standard- and low-dose CT was calculated by analysing differences in the mean number of packs found. Thirty-one patients were positively identified as body packers with an average of 13 packs (min: n = 1, max: n = 58, total: n = 390); seven patients were not concealing drug packets. X-ray images were taken of 24 patients prior to CT, thus allowing a direct comparison between the two methods. The correct diagnosis was made in 42%, in 33% the radiologists were uncertain, and in 25% of drug packets were either not or wrongly identified. X-ray imaging had a positive predictive value of 20% with a negative predictive value of 81%. A total of 55 CT examinations were performed on all patients with a mean effective dose of 2 mSv (low dose) versus 9.3 mSv (standard dose). The visibility of packets on low-dose CT images compared to high-dose CT was not reduced: the radiologists identified 385 and 381 of the packets, respectively, with no difference regarding the examination technique (p = 0.24 and p = 0.253, respectively). The radiodensity of all drug-filled packets at CT ranged from 26-292 HU (mean 181.2 HU). X-ray imaging of supposed body packers leads to a significant risk of diagnostic errors and additional need for CT. Instead, a single abdominal low-dose

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose versus ultra-low-dose CT for lumbar disc disease and facet joint osteoarthritis in patients with low back pain with MRI correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Jo, Hyeon Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyeon; Song, Jae Gwang; Park, Yong Sung

    2018-01-01

    To compare the image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic performance between low-dose (LD) and ultra-low-dose (ULD) lumbar-spine (L-spine) CT with iterative reconstruction (IR) for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). In total, 260 patients with chronic LBP who underwent L-spine CT between November 2015 and September 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Of these, 143 underwent LD-CT with IR and 117 underwent ULD-CT with IR. The patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) into BMI1 (<22.9 kg/m 2 ), BMI2 (23.0-24.9 kg/m 2 ), and BMI3 (≥25 kg/m 2 ) groups. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), qualitative image quality, and final diagnoses (lumbar disc disease and facet joint osteoarthritis). L-spine MRIs interpreted by consensus were used as the reference standard. All data were statistically analyzed. ULD protocol showed significantly lower SNR for all patients (p < 0.001) except the vertebral bodies and lower qualitative image quality for BMI3 patients (p ≤ 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference between ULD (sensitivity, 95.1-98.1%; specificity, 92.5-98.7%; accuracy, 94.6-98.0%) and LD protocols (sensitivity, 95.6-100%; specificity, 95.5-98.9%; accuracy, 97.4-98.1%), (all p≥0.1) in the BMI1 and BMI2; while dose was 60-68% lower with the ULD protocol. Interobserver agreements were excellent or good with regard to image quality and final diagnoses. For the BM1 and BMI2 groups, ULD-CT provided an acceptable image quality and exhibited a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of LD-CT. These findings suggest that it is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with chronic LBP who exhibit a BMI of <25 kg/m 2 . (orig.)

  1. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim7071@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  2. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  3. Acute appendicitis: prospective evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm integrating ultrasound and low-dose CT to reduce the need of standard CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Perrot, Thomas de; Becker, Christoph D.; Sarasin, Francois; Rutschmann, Olivier; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Perneger, Thomas; Gervaz, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate an algorithm integrating ultrasound and low-dose unenhanced CT with oral contrast medium (LDCT) in the assessment of acute appendicitis, to reduce the need of conventional CT. Ultrasound was performed upon admission in 183 consecutive adult patients (111 women, 72 men, mean age 32) with suspicion of acute appendicitis and a BMI between 18.5 and 30 (step 1). No further examination was recommended when ultrasound was positive for appendicitis, negative with low clinical suspicion, or demonstrated an alternative diagnosis. All other patients underwent LDCT (30 mAs) (step 2). Standard intravenously enhanced CT (180 mAs) was performed after indeterminate LDCT (step 3). No further imaging was recommended after ultrasound in 84 (46%) patients; LDCT was obtained in 99 (54%). LDCT was positive or negative for appendicitis in 81 (82%) of these 99 patients, indeterminate in 18 (18%) who underwent standard CT. Eighty-six (47%) of the 183 patients had a surgically proven appendicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm were 98.8% and 96.9%. The proposed algorithm achieved high sensitivity and specificity for detection of acute appendicitis, while reducing the need for standard CT and thus limiting exposition to radiation and to intravenous contrast media. (orig.)

  4. Acute appendicitis: prospective evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm integrating ultrasound and low-dose CT to reduce the need of standard CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); University Hospital of Geneva, Emergency Center, Geneva (Switzerland); Perrot, Thomas de; Becker, Christoph D. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Sarasin, Francois; Rutschmann, Olivier [University Hospital of Geneva, Emergency Center, Geneva (Switzerland); Andereggen, Elisabeth [University Hospital of Geneva, Emergency Center, Geneva (Switzerland); University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland); Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Perneger, Thomas [University Hospital of Geneva, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Gervaz, Pascal [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Surgery, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate an algorithm integrating ultrasound and low-dose unenhanced CT with oral contrast medium (LDCT) in the assessment of acute appendicitis, to reduce the need of conventional CT. Ultrasound was performed upon admission in 183 consecutive adult patients (111 women, 72 men, mean age 32) with suspicion of acute appendicitis and a BMI between 18.5 and 30 (step 1). No further examination was recommended when ultrasound was positive for appendicitis, negative with low clinical suspicion, or demonstrated an alternative diagnosis. All other patients underwent LDCT (30 mAs) (step 2). Standard intravenously enhanced CT (180 mAs) was performed after indeterminate LDCT (step 3). No further imaging was recommended after ultrasound in 84 (46%) patients; LDCT was obtained in 99 (54%). LDCT was positive or negative for appendicitis in 81 (82%) of these 99 patients, indeterminate in 18 (18%) who underwent standard CT. Eighty-six (47%) of the 183 patients had a surgically proven appendicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm were 98.8% and 96.9%. The proposed algorithm achieved high sensitivity and specificity for detection of acute appendicitis, while reducing the need for standard CT and thus limiting exposition to radiation and to intravenous contrast media. (orig.)

  5. Helical CT for lung-cancer screening. 3. Fundamental study for ultra-low-dose CT by application of small tube current and filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shigeki; Koyama, Shuji; Tusaka, Masatoshi; Maekoshi, Hisashi; Satake, Hiroko; Ishigaki, Takeo.

    1996-01-01

    In order to develop ultra-low-dose helical CT for lung cancer screening, the effect of reduction of the tube current to 20 mA and application of a 10 mm thick aluminium filter upon radiation dose and image quality was evaluated with a phantom. Exposure dose at the center of a gantry and absorbed dose at the center of an acrylic phantom at 20 mA with the filter were 15% and 29% of the dose at 50 mA without the filter, respectively. For reduction of absorbed dose, reduction of the tube current was more useful than application of the filter. Image noise at 20 mA with the filter was double that at 50 mA without the filter. Neither reduction of the tube current nor application of the filter changed full width at half maximum on section sensitivity of the Z-axis. Although reduction of the tube current did not affect the difference in CT values between an acrylic sphere and styroform, application of the filter caused a reduction of 4.5% in the difference in CT values. Neither reduction of the tube current nor application of the filter affected the contrast resolution of the high-contrast phantom; however, that of the low-contrast phantom deteriorated. Although improvement of the filter and evaluation of clinical images are necessary, reduction of the tube current to 20 mA and application of the aluminium filter appear to be a promising method for ultra-low-dose helical CT of the lung. (author)

  6. WE-FG-207A-03: Low-Dose Cone-Beam Breast CT: Physics and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, J.

    2016-01-01

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  7. WE-FG-207A-03: Low-Dose Cone-Beam Breast CT: Physics and Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, J. [UC Davis Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    investigating dedicated breast CT. The development of large-area flat-panel detectors with field-of-view sufficient to image the entire breast in each projection enabled development of flat-panel cone-beam breast CT. More recently, the availability of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detectors with lower system noise and finer pixel pitch, combined with the development of x-ray tubes with focal spot dimensions similar to mammography systems, has shown improved spatial resolution and could improve visualization of microcalcifications. These technological developments promise clinical translation of low-dose cone-beam breast CT. Dedicated photon-counting breast CT (pcBCT) systems represent a novel detector design, which provide high spatial resolution (∼ 100µm) and low mean glandular dose (MGD). The CdTe-based direct conversion detector technology was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups [Kalender et al., Eur Radiol 22: 1–8, 2012]. Measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters, and surgical specimens on a pcBCT scanner have been completed. Comparative evaluation of surgical specimens showed that pcBCT outperformed mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis with respect to 3D spatial resolution, detectability of calcifications, and soft tissue delineation. Major barriers to widespread clinical use of BCT relate to radiation dose, imaging of microcalcifications, and adequate coverage of breast tissue near the chest wall. Adequate chest wall coverage is also technically challenging but recent progress in x-ray tube, detector and table design now enables full breast coverage in the majority of patients. At this time, BCT has been deemed to be suitable for diagnostic imaging but not yet for screening. The mean glandular dose (MGD) from BCT has been reported to be between 5.7 to 27.8 mGy, and this range is comparable to, and within the range of, the MGD of 2.6 to 31.6 mGy in diagnostic mammography

  8. Mixed connective tissue disease associated with noted pulmonary CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Souji; Tsukada, Atsuko; Furuya, Tatsutaka

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed in a 56-year-old woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Much more definitive pulmonary findings were obtained by CT than by the conventional chest x-ray examination and pulmonary function test. CT findings disclosed pulmonary lesions extremely similar to those in cases of progressive systemic sclerosis. Pulmonary CT was considered useful in examining pulmonary lesions for MCTD. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Chin A.; Lee, Kyung Soo; Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Kwon, O. Jung; Shin, Kyung Eun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  10. Low-dose CT screening in an Asian population with diverse risk for lung cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chin A. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Hee; Cho, Yun Yung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon-Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Center for Health Promotion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, O. Jung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kyung Hee University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the performance of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LCA) detection in an Asian population with diverse risks for LCA. LCA screening was performed in 12,427 symptomless Asian subjects using either LDCT (5,771) or chest radiography (CXR) (6,656) in a non-trial setting. Subjects were divided into high-risk and non-high-risk groups. Data were collected on the number of patients with screening-detected LCAs and their survival in order to compare outcomes between LDCT and CXR screening with the stratification of risks considering age, sex and smoking status. In the non-high-risk group, a significant difference was observed for the detection of lung cancer (adjusted OR, 5.07; 95 % CI, 2.72-9.45) and survival (adjusted HR of LCA survival between LDCT vs. CXR group, 0.08; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.62). No difference in detection or survival of LCA was noticed in the high-risk group. LCAs in the non-high-risk group were predominantly adenocarcinomas (96 %), and more likely to be part-solid or non-solid compared with those in the high-risk group (p = 0.023). In the non-high-risk group, LDCT helps detect more LCAs and offers better survival than CXR screening, due to better detection of part solid or non-solid lung adenocarcinomas. (orig.)

  11. Detection of Airway Anomalies in?Pediatric?Patients with Cardiovascular Anomalies with Low Dose Prospective ECG-Gated Dual-Source CT

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Hui; Xu, Zhuodong; Wu, Lebin; Cheng, Zhaoping; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhong, Hai; Meng, Chen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of low-dose prospective ECG-gated dual-source CT (DSCT) in detecting airway anomalies in pediatric patients with cardiovascular anomalies compared with flexible tracheobronchoscopy (FTB). METHODS: 33 pediatrics with respiratory symptoms who had been revealed cardiovascular anomalies by transthoracic echocardiography underwent FTB and contrast material-enhanced prospective ECG-triggering CT were enrolled. The study was approved by our institution review bo...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Norrman, Eva; Geijer, Mats; Jansson, Kjell; Geijer, Håkan

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. • Low-dose CT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. • A systematic review shows that CT has better diagnostic accuracy than radiography. • Radiography has no place in the workup of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  13. Low-dose cardio-respiratory phase-correlated cone-beam micro-CT of small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Stefan; Bergner, Frank; Lapp, Robert; Mronz, Markus; Karolczak, Marek; Hess, Andreas; Kachelriess, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Micro-CT imaging of animal hearts typically requires a double gating procedure because scans during a breath-hold are not possible due to the long scan times and the high respiratory rates, Simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating can either be done prospectively or retrospectively. True five-dimensional information can be either retrieved with retrospective gating or with prospective gating if several prospective gates are acquired. In any case, the amount of information available to reconstruct one volume for a given respiratory and cardiac phase is orders of magnitud lower than the total amount of information acquired. For example, the reconstruction of a volume from a 10% wide respiratory and a 20% wide cardiac window uses only 2% of the data acquired. Achieving a similar image quality as a nongated scan would therefore require to increase the amount of data and thereby the dose to the animal by up to a factor of 50. To achieve the goal of low-dose phase-correlated (LDPC) imaging, the authors propose to use a highly efficient combination of slightly modified existing algorithms. In particular, the authors developed a variant of the McKinnon-Bates image reconstruction algorithm and combined it with bilateral filtering in up to five dimensions to significantly reduce image noise without impairing spatial or temporal resolution. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed LDPC reconstruction method typically reduces image noise by a factor of up to 6 (e.g., from 170 to 30 HU), while the dose values lie in a range from 60 to 500 mGy. Compared to other publications that apply 250-1800 mGy for the same task [C. T. Badea et al., "4D micro-CT of the mouse heart," Mol. Imaging 4(2), 110-116 (2005); M. Drangova et al., "Fast retrospectively gated quantitative four-dimensional (4D) cardiac micro computed tomography imaging of free-breathing mice," Invest. Radiol. 42(2), 85-94 (2007); S. H. Bartling et al., "Retrospective motion gating in small animal CT of mice

  14. Comparison of low dose with standard dose abdominal/pelvic multidetector CT in patients with stage 1 testicular cancer under surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chung, Peter; Warde, Padraig [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Haider, Masoom; Jhaveri, Kartik; Khalili, Korosh [Princess Margaret Hospital, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jang, Hyun-Jung [Toronto General Hospital, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Panzarella, Tony [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    To compare the image quality and acceptability of a low dose with those of standard dose abdominal/pelvic multidetector CT in patients with stage 1 testicular cancer managed by surveillance. One hundred patients (median age 31 years; range 19-83 years), 79 with seminoma and 21 with non-seminoma, underwent abdominal/pelvic imaging with low and standard dose protocols on 64-slice multidetector CT. Three reviewers independently evaluated images for noise and diagnostic quality on a 5-point scale and for diagnostic acceptability. On average, each reader scored noise and diagnostic quality of standard dose images significantly better than corresponding low dose images (p < 0.0001). One reader found all CT examinations acceptable; two readers each found 1/100 (1%) low dose examinations unacceptable. Median and mean dose-length product for low and standard dose protocols were 416.0 and 452.2 (range 122.9-913.4) and 931.9 and 999.8 (range 283.8-1,987.7) mGy cm, respectively. The low dose protocol provided diagnostically acceptable images for at least 99% of patients and achieved mean dose reduction of 55% compared with the standard dose protocol. (orig.)

  15. Motion-compensated PET image reconstruction with respiratory-matched attenuation correction using two low-dose inhale and exhale CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Woo Hyun; Ahn, Il Jun; Ra, Jong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Byung Il

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used for diagnosis and follow up assessment of radiotherapy. However, thoracic and abdominal PET suffers from false staging and incorrect quantification of the radioactive uptake of lesion(s) due to respiratory motion. Furthermore, respiratory motion-induced mismatch between a computed tomography (CT) attenuation map and PET data often leads to significant artifacts in the reconstructed PET image. To solve these problems, we propose a unified framework for respiratory-matched attenuation correction and motion compensation of respiratory-gated PET. For the attenuation correction, the proposed algorithm manipulates a 4D CT image virtually generated from two low-dose inhale and exhale CT images, rather than a real 4D CT image which significantly increases the radiation burden on a patient. It also utilizes CT-driven motion fields for motion compensation. To realize the proposed algorithm, we propose an improved region-based approach for non-rigid registration between body CT images, and we suggest a selection scheme of 3D CT images that are respiratory-matched to each respiratory-gated sinogram. In this work, the proposed algorithm was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by using patient datasets including lung and/or liver lesion(s). Experimental results show that the method can provide much clearer organ boundaries and more accurate lesion information than existing algorithms by utilizing two low-dose CT images. (paper)

  16. Study of low dose and dynamic multi-slice CT about obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in sleeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jie; Qi Ji; Yin Jianzhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To perform Low dose dynamic MSCT(multi-slice CT) in sleeping obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients correcting the imprecise measure values in waking state, and to exactly analyse the location and extension of the dynamic changes about the condition. Methods: Sixteen OSAS patients were scanned both in waking and naturally sleeping period (end phase of inspiration and expiration). Measured at the narrowest part of the retropalatal (RP) and retroglossal (RG) and 5 mm under the tip of epiglottis at the epiglottal (EPG)at the end period of inspiration in sleeping, respectively, and compared the accurate position of the narrowest or occlusive level in 3 phases. All patients were also scanned using cine mode at the narrowest level at the end period of inspiration in sleeping to show the pharyngeal cavity changes during sleep. Results: The smallest XSA of RP region (M w =47.50 mm 2 , M e =73.00 mm 2 , M i =2.00 mm 2 ; Z we =2.897, P we =0.003; Z wi =4.192, P wi ie =4.538, P ie w =8.00 mm, M e =9.50 mm, M i =1.50 mm; Z we =1.933, P we =0.056; Z wi =3.720, P wi ie =4.230, P ie w =8.00 mm, M e =9.00 mm, M i =1.00 mm; Z we =1.210, P we =0.246; Z wi =4.203, P wi ie =4.557, P ie w =4.00 mm 3 , M e =5.50 mm 3 , M i =1.50 mm 3 ; Z we =1.576, P we =0.125; Z wi =3.532, P wi ie =4.077, P ie w =7.00 mm, M e =6.00 mm, M i =10.50 mm; Z we =0.557, P we =0.603; Z wi =2.541, P wi =0.011; Z ie =2.852, P ie =0.004) and RG regions (M w =5.00 mm, M e =3.00 mm, M i =9.50 mm; Z we =0.747, P we =0.482; Z wi =2.657, P wi =0.007; Z ie =3.075, P ie =0.001), were different between inspiration and expiration of sleeping or awake. The dynamic cine CT scan during sleeping could show pharyngeal change, clearly. Conclusion: At the end period of inspiration in sleeping, the location of narrow or obstructive of airway is the most precise and sensitive and the false negative at the waking could be obviously reduced. Low dose MSCT scan reduced exposure and expense. (authors)

  17. Assessment of prior image induced nonlocal means regularization for low-dose CT reconstruction: Change in anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Jianhua; Wang, Jing; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2017-09-01

    Repeated computed tomography (CT) scans are prescribed for some clinical applications such as lung nodule surveillance. Several studies have demonstrated that incorporating a high-quality prior image into the reconstruction of subsequent low-dose CT (LDCT) acquisitions can either improve image quality or reduce data fidelity requirements. Our proposed previous normal-dose image induced nonlocal means (ndiNLM) regularization method for LDCT is an example of such a method. However, one major concern with prior image based methods is that they might produce false information when the prior image and the current LDCT image show different structures (for example, if a lung nodule emerges, grows, shrinks, or disappears over time). This study aims to assess the performance of the ndiNLM regularization method in situations with change in anatomy. We incorporated the ndiNLM regularization into the statistical image reconstruction (SIR) framework for reconstruction of subsequent LDCT images. Because of its patch-based search mechanism, a rough registration between the prior image and the current LDCT image is adequate for the SIR-ndiNLM method. We assessed the performance of the SIR-ndiNLM method in lung nodule surveillance for two different scenarios: (a) the nodule was not found in a baseline exam but appears in a follow-up LDCT scan; (b) the nodule was present in a baseline exam but disappears in a follow-up LDCT scan. We further investigated the effect of nodule size on the performance of the SIR-ndiNLM method. We found that a relatively large search-window (e.g., 33 × 33) should be used for the SIR-ndiNLM method to account for misalignment between the prior image and the current LDCT image, and to ensure that enough similar patches can be found in the prior image. With proper selection of other parameters, experimental results with two patient datasets demonstrated that the SIR-ndiNLM method did not miss true nodules nor introduce false nodules in the lung nodule

  18. A national survey of lung cancer specialists' views on low-dose CT screening for lung cancer in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available Lung cancer specialists play an important role in designing and implementing lung cancer screening. We aimed to describe their 1 attitudes toward low-dose lung computed tomography (LDCT screening, 2 current practices and experiences of LDCT screening and 3 attitudes and opinions towards national lung cancer screening program (NLCSP. We conducted a national web-based survey of pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiological oncologists who are members of Korean Association for Lung Cancer (N = 183. Almost all respondents agreed that LDCT screening increases early detection (100%, improves survival (95.1%, and gives a good smoking cessation counseling opportunity (88.6%. Most were concerned about its high false positive results (79.8% and the subsequent negative effects. Less than half were concerned about radiation hazard (37.2%. Overall, most (89.1% believed that the benefits outweigh the risks and harms. Most (79.2% stated that they proactively recommend LDCT screening to those who are eligible for the current guidelines, but the screening propensity varied considerably. The majority (77.6% agreed with the idea of NLCSP and its beneficial effect, but had concerns about the quality control of CT devices (74.9%, quality assurance of radiologic interpretation (63.3%, poor access to LDCT (56.3%, and difficulties in selecting eligible population using self-report history (66.7%. Most (79.2% thought that program need to be funded by a specialized fund rather than by the National Health Insurance. The opinions on the level of copayment for screening varied. Our findings would be an important source for health policy decision when considering for NLCSP in Korea.

  19. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Neil A. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Mailstop 1046, Kansas City, KS (United States); The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, Donald D. [The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  20. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Neil A.; Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian; Anderson, Donald D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 ; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  1. Impact of image denoising on image quality, quantitative parameters and sensitivity of ultra-low-dose volume perfusion CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ahmed E.; Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikoubashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of denoising on ultra-low-dose volume perfusion CT (ULD-VPCT) imaging in acute stroke. Simulated ULD-VPCT data sets at 20 % dose rate were generated from perfusion data sets of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kVp/180 mAs. Four data sets were generated from each ULD-VPCT data set: not-denoised (ND); denoised using spatiotemporal filter (D1); denoised using quanta-stream diffusion technique (D2); combination of both methods (D1 + D2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured in the resulting 100 data sets. Image quality, presence/absence of ischemic lesions, CBV and CBF scores according to a modified ASPECTS score were assessed by two blinded readers. SNR and qualitative scores were highest for D1 + D2 and lowest for ND (all p ≤ 0.001). In 25 % of the patients, ND maps were not assessable and therefore excluded from further analyses. Compared to original data sets, in D2 and D1 + D2, readers correctly identified all patients with ischemic lesions (sensitivity 1.0, kappa 1.0). Lesion size was most accurately estimated for D1 + D2 with a sensitivity of 1.0 (CBV) and 0.94 (CBF) and an inter-rater agreement of 1.0 and 0.92, respectively. An appropriate combination of denoising techniques applied in ULD-VPCT produces diagnostically sufficient perfusion maps at substantially reduced dose rates as low as 20 % of the normal scan. (orig.)

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose versus ultra-low-dose CT for lumbar disc disease and facet joint osteoarthritis in patients with low back pain with MRI correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Hwa [Inje University College of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Nowon-gu (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong Jong; Jo, Hyeon Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyeon [Republic of Korea Air Force, Department of Radiology, Aerospace Medical Center, Cheongwon-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Gwang [Republic of Korea Air Force, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aerospace Medical Center, Cheongwon-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Sung [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-04-15

    To compare the image quality, radiation dose, and diagnostic performance between low-dose (LD) and ultra-low-dose (ULD) lumbar-spine (L-spine) CT with iterative reconstruction (IR) for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). In total, 260 patients with chronic LBP who underwent L-spine CT between November 2015 and September 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Of these, 143 underwent LD-CT with IR and 117 underwent ULD-CT with IR. The patients were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) into BMI1 (<22.9 kg/m{sup 2}), BMI2 (23.0-24.9 kg/m{sup 2}), and BMI3 (≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) groups. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), qualitative image quality, and final diagnoses (lumbar disc disease and facet joint osteoarthritis). L-spine MRIs interpreted by consensus were used as the reference standard. All data were statistically analyzed. ULD protocol showed significantly lower SNR for all patients (p < 0.001) except the vertebral bodies and lower qualitative image quality for BMI3 patients (p ≤ 0.033). There was no statistically significant difference between ULD (sensitivity, 95.1-98.1%; specificity, 92.5-98.7%; accuracy, 94.6-98.0%) and LD protocols (sensitivity, 95.6-100%; specificity, 95.5-98.9%; accuracy, 97.4-98.1%), (all p≥0.1) in the BMI1 and BMI2; while dose was 60-68% lower with the ULD protocol. Interobserver agreements were excellent or good with regard to image quality and final diagnoses. For the BM1 and BMI2 groups, ULD-CT provided an acceptable image quality and exhibited a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of LD-CT. These findings suggest that it is a useful diagnostic tool for patients with chronic LBP who exhibit a BMI of <25 kg/m{sup 2}. (orig.)

  3. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Quantitative CT and pulmonary functional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Yubao, E-mail: yubaoguan@163.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510120 (China); State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zeng, Qingsi [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Yang, Haihong; Zheng, Jinping; Li, Shiyue; Gao, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Deng, Yu [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Mei, Jiang [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou 510120 (China); He, Jianxing, E-mail: jianxing63@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zhong, Nanshan, E-mail: nanshan@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: We assessed the relationship between quantitative computer tomography (qCT) and the pulmonary function test (PFT) or blood gas analysis in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) patients, as well as the utility of these analyses to monitor responses to whole lung lavage (WLL) therapy. Methods: Thirty-eight PAP patients simultaneously received a CT scan and PFT. Fifteen of these patients, undergoing sequential WLL for a total of 20 lavages, also underwent chest CT scans and blood gas analysis before and after WLL, and 14 of 15 patients underwent simultaneous PFT analysis. Differences between the qCT and PFT results were analyzed by canonical correlation. Results: PAP patients with low predicted values for FVC, FEV1, D{sub LCO} and D{sub LCO}/VA indicated small airspace volume and mean lung inflation, low airspace volume/total lung volume ratio and high mean lung density. Correlation and regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between D{sub LCO} and PaO{sub 2} values with CT results. The qCT results indicated that WLL significantly decreased lung weights and mean lung densities, and improved the total airspace volume/total lung volume ratios and mean lung inflations. Conclusion: Quantitative CT may be a sensitive tool for measuring the response of PAP patients to medical interventions such as WLL.

  5. Determination of pulmonary volume by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinuma, Ryutaro

    1984-01-01

    The pulmonary volume overlapping the shadows of the mediastinum and the hilus pulmonis in frontal chest films was determined by means of CT. The pulmonary volume, between the levels of the aortic arch and just above the right diaphragm, overlapping the shadows of the mediastinum and the hilus, was one fourth of the entire pulmonary volume between the same levels. When the lungs overlapping the mediastinum and the hilus were divided into a region overlapping the spine and the aorta (region A) and another region (region B), the ratio of the volume of region A to that of region B was 1:3. CT is useful for quantitative roentgenological anatomy of the lungs. (author)

  6. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V.

    1999-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung is a very rare disease. There are obvious discrepancies in the literature concerning the appearance of LAM on CT scans of the lung. This study adds the imaging findings of 11 patients and demonstrates how the imaging findings changed over time in four patients. Twenty-two CT examinations, and radiographs that had been obtained close to the CT examinations, of 11 patients with LAM confirmed by open lung biopsy were retrospectively evaluated with particular attention to the size of cystic lesions and wall thickness. Furthermore the CT scans were analysed for the type of pulmonary infiltration process and its distribution, presence or absence of pleural effusion, pneumothorax and lymph node enlargement. Clinical and CT follow-up studies were available in four patients. The CT scans revealed an increase in the interstitial pattern in all patients. Architectural distortion was seen in two patients and cystic lesions were present in all. The size of the cysts varied from small lesions to bullous emphysema. The cystic lesions revealed a wall thickness up to 2 mm but a wall was not perceptible in all. Pneumothorax was seen in only two patients; pleural effusion was seen in two patients. CT examination of patients with LAM reveals neither a uniform nor a pathognomonic appearance. In the early stages of LAM or in cases with interstitial changes the differential diagnosis of centrilobular emphysema or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis seems to be more difficult than most authors believe. (orig.) (orig.)

  7. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Thalhammer, A.; Jacobi, V. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik; Viel, K.; Dietrich, C.F. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik II; Schneider, M. [Zentrum fuer Pathologie, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung is a very rare disease. There are obvious discrepancies in the literature concerning the appearance of LAM on CT scans of the lung. This study adds the imaging findings of 11 patients and demonstrates how the imaging findings changed over time in four patients. Twenty-two CT examinations, and radiographs that had been obtained close to the CT examinations, of 11 patients with LAM confirmed by open lung biopsy were retrospectively evaluated with particular attention to the size of cystic lesions and wall thickness. Furthermore the CT scans were analysed for the type of pulmonary infiltration process and its distribution, presence or absence of pleural effusion, pneumothorax and lymph node enlargement. Clinical and CT follow-up studies were available in four patients. The CT scans revealed an increase in the interstitial pattern in all patients. Architectural distortion was seen in two patients and cystic lesions were present in all. The size of the cysts varied from small lesions to bullous emphysema. The cystic lesions revealed a wall thickness up to 2 mm but a wall was not perceptible in all. Pneumothorax was seen in only two patients; pleural effusion was seen in two patients. CT examination of patients with LAM reveals neither a uniform nor a pathognomonic appearance. In the early stages of LAM or in cases with interstitial changes the differential diagnosis of centrilobular emphysema or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis seems to be more difficult than most authors believe. (orig.) (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs.

  8. Computer-aided pulmonary nodule detection. Performance of two CAD systems at different CT dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Patrick Alexander; Rogalla, P.; Klessen, C.; Lembcke, A.; Romano, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose reduction on the performance of computer-aided lung nodule detection systems (CAD) of two manufacturers by comparing respective CAD results on ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULD-CT) and standard dose CT (SD-CT). Materials and Methods: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data sets of 26 patients (13 male and 13 female, patients 31 - 74 years old) were retrospectively selected for CAD analysis. Indication for CT examination was staging of a known primary malignancy or suspected pulmonary malignancy. CT images were consecutively acquired at 5 mAs (ULD-CT) and 75 mAs (SD-CT) with 120kV tube voltage (1 mm slice thickness). The standard of reference was determined by three experienced readers in consensus. CAD reading algorithms (pre-commercial CAD system, Philips, Netherlands: CAD-1; LungCARE, Siemens, Germany: CAD-2) were applied to the CT data sets. Results: Consensus reading identified 253 nodules on SD-CT and ULD-CT. Nodules ranged in diameter between 2 and 41 mm (mean diameter 4.8 mm). Detection rates were recorded with 72% and 62% (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 73% and 56% for ULD-CT. Median also positive rates per patient were calculated with 6 and 5 (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 8 and 3 for ULD-CT. After separate statistical analysis of nodules with diameters of 5 mm and greater, the detection rates increased to 83% and 61% for SD-CT and to 89% and 67% for ULD-CT (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2). For both CAD systems there were no significant differences between the detection rates for standard and ultra-low-dose data sets (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dose reduction of the underlying CT scan did not significantly influence nodule detection performance of the tested CAD systems. (orig.)

  9. Body packers on your examination table: How helpful are plain x-ray images? A definitive low-dose CT protocol as a diagnosis tool for body packers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, B.; Grossbach, A.; Gruber-Rouh, T.; Zangos, S.; Vogl, Th. J.; Eichler, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the clinical value and radiation dose of plain x-rays and CT in examining patients suspected of ingesting drug-filled packets. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight patients with suspected internal concealment of drug-filled packets who were examined with plain x-rays or CT or both were included in the study. CT studies were performed using low-dose and standard-dose techniques. All radiographic images were analysed by two radiologists regarding identification of the packets and estimating the effective radiation dose from standard- and low-dose CT versus conventional x-ray examinations. Descriptive calculations were made regarding the number and density of packs and radiation dosage. The diagnostic performance of both radiologists with standard- and low-dose CT was calculated by analysing differences in the mean number of packs found. Results: Thirty-one patients were positively identified as body packers with an average of 13 packs (min: n = 1, max: n = 58, total: n = 390); seven patients were not concealing drug packets. X-ray images were taken of 24 patients prior to CT, thus allowing a direct comparison between the two methods. The correct diagnosis was made in 42%, in 33% the radiologists were uncertain, and in 25% of drug packets were either not or wrongly identified. X-ray imaging had a positive predictive value of 20% with a negative predictive value of 81%. A total of 55 CT examinations were performed on all patients with a mean effective dose of 2 mSv (low dose) versus 9.3 mSv (standard dose). The visibility of packets on low-dose CT images compared to high-dose CT was not reduced: the radiologists identified 385 and 381 of the packets, respectively, with no difference regarding the examination technique (p = 0.24 and p = 0.253, respectively). The radiodensity of all drug-filled packets at CT ranged from 26–292 HU (mean 181.2 HU). Conclusion: X-ray imaging of supposed body packers leads to a significant risk of diagnostic

  10. Adaptive non-local means on local principle neighborhood for noise/artifacts reduction in low-dose CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanke; Lu, Hongbing; Rong, Junyan; Meng, Jing; Shang, Junliang; Ren, Pinghong; Zhang, Junying

    2017-09-01

    Low-dose CT (LDCT) technique can reduce the x-ray radiation exposure to patients at the cost of degraded images with severe noise and artifacts. Non-local means (NLM) filtering has shown its potential in improving LDCT image quality. However, currently most NLM-based approaches employ a weighted average operation directly on all neighbor pixels with a fixed filtering parameter throughout the NLM filtering process, ignoring the non-stationary noise nature of LDCT images. In this paper, an adaptive NLM filtering scheme on local principle neighborhoods (PC-NLM) is proposed for structure-preserving noise/artifacts reduction in LDCT images. Instead of using neighboring patches directly, in the PC-NLM scheme, the principle component analysis (PCA) is first applied on local neighboring patches of the target patch to decompose the local patches into uncorrelated principle components (PCs), then a NLM filtering is used to regularize each PC of the target patch and finally the regularized components is transformed to get the target patch in image domain. Especially, in the NLM scheme, the filtering parameter is estimated adaptively from local noise level of the neighborhood as well as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the corresponding PC, which guarantees a "weaker" NLM filtering on PCs with higher SNR and a "stronger" filtering on PCs with lower SNR. The PC-NLM procedure is iteratively performed several times for better removal of the noise and artifacts, and an adaptive iteration strategy is developed to reduce the computational load by determining whether a patch should be processed or not in next round of the PC-NLM filtering. The effectiveness of the presented PC-NLM algorithm is validated by experimental phantom studies and clinical studies. The results show that it can achieve promising gain over some state-of-the-art methods in terms of artifact suppression and structure preservation. With the use of PCA on local neighborhoods to extract principal structural

  11. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J.; Xu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 ± 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  12. Prospective ECG triggering versus low-dose retrospective ECG-gated 128-channel CT coronary angiography: comparison of image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Q.; Yin, Y.; Hua, X.; Zhu, R.; Hua, J. [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Xu, J., E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.co [Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose for 128-detector prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) compared with a low-dose retrospective ECG-gated imaging protocol. Materials and methods: Thirty-one and 47 patients suspected of having coronary artery disease were enrolled into groups examined using prospective and low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CT protocols respectively. All examinations were performed on a 128-detector CT system (Definition AS, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Prospective CTCA was performed using following parameters: tube voltage 100 kV; tube current 205 mAs; centre of acquisition window 70% of the RR interval. The tube current for low-dose retrospective ECG-gated CTCA was full dose during 40-70% of the RR interval and partial dose for the rest of RR interval. The pitch varied between 0.2 and 0.5 depending on heart rate and patient size. Image quality of coronary arteries was evaluated using a four-point grading scale. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of enhanced arteries and myocardium were also measured, corresponding contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and the radiation doses received were recorded. Results: There was a significant difference in the image quality scores between the retrospective and prospective gating protocols (Chi-square = 15.331, p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between the SNRs of the contrasted artery and myocardium in these two groups, but the CNRs were increased in the prospective group. The mean radiation dose of prospective gating group was 2.71 {+-} 0.67 mSv (range, 1.67-3.59 mSv), which was significantly lower than that of the retrospective group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prospective CT angiography can achieve lower radiation dose than that of low-dose retrospective CT angiography, with preserved image quality.

  13. Ultra-low-dose lung screening CT with model-based iterative reconstruction: an assessment of image quality and lesion conspicuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yun Hye; Lee, Geewon; Lee, Ji Won; Hong, Seung Baek; Suh, Young Ju; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2018-05-01

    Background Reducing radiation dose inevitably increases image noise, and thus, it is important in low-dose computed tomography (CT) to maintain image quality and lesion detection performance. Purpose To assess image quality and lesion conspicuity of ultra-low-dose CT with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and to determine a suitable protocol for lung screening CT. Material and Methods A total of 120 heavy smokers underwent lung screening CT and were randomly and equally assigned to one of five groups: group 1 = 120 kVp, 25 mAs, with FBP reconstruction; group 2 = 120 kVp, 10 mAs, with MBIR; group 3 = 100 kVp, 15 mAs, with MBIR; group 4 = 100 kVp, 10 mAs, with MBIR; and group 5 = 100 kVp, 5 mAs, with MBIR. Two radiologists evaluated intergroup differences with respect to radiation dose, image noise, image quality, and lesion conspicuity using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Chi-square test. Results Effective doses were 61-87% lower in groups 2-5 than in group 1. Image noises in groups 1 and 5 were significantly higher than in the other groups ( P image quality was best in group 1, but diagnostic acceptability of overall image qualities in groups 1-3 was not significantly different (all P values > 0.05). Lesion conspicuities were similar in groups 1-4, but were significantly poorer in group 5. Conclusion Lung screening CT with MBIR obtained at 100 kVp and 15 mAs enables a ∼60% reduction in radiation dose versus low-dose CT, while maintaining image quality and lesion conspicuity.

  14. Serial volumetric registration of pulmonary CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Silvestre; Silva, Augusto; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2008-03-01

    Detailed morphological analysis of pulmonary structures and tissue, provided by modern CT scanners, is of utmost importance as in the case of oncological applications both for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. In this case, a patient may go through several tomographic studies throughout a period of time originating volumetric sets of image data that must be appropriately registered in order to track suspicious radiological findings. The structures or regions of interest may change their position or shape in CT exams acquired at different moments, due to postural, physiologic or pathologic changes, so, the exams should be registered before any follow-up information can be extracted. Postural mismatching throughout time is practically impossible to avoid being particularly evident when imaging is performed at the limiting spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a method for intra-patient registration of pulmonary CT studies, to assist in the management of the oncological pathology. Our method takes advantage of prior segmentation work. In the first step, the pulmonary segmentation is performed where trachea and main bronchi are identified. Then, the registration method proceeds with a longitudinal alignment based on morphological features of the lungs, such as the position of the carina, the pulmonary areas, the centers of mass and the pulmonary trans-axial principal axis. The final step corresponds to the trans-axial registration of the corresponding pulmonary masked regions. This is accomplished by a pairwise sectional registration process driven by an iterative search of the affine transformation parameters leading to optimal similarity metrics. Results with several cases of intra-patient, intra-modality registration, up to 7 time points, show that this method provides accurate registration which is needed for quantitative tracking of lesions and the development of image fusion strategies that may effectively assist the follow-up process.

  15. Prevalance rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Results of a questionnaire survey of member facilities of Japan society of ningen dock with special concerns regarding the actual status and disincentives for implementing such screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a survey of member facilities of the Japan Society of Ningen Dock to elucidate the actual status of chest computed tomography (CT) screening and the reasons for not being able to change to low-dose CT. We sent a questionnaire consisting of 9 items to 531 member facilities in July 2010, response by facsimile to obtain an analysis. The prevalence rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening slightly increased to 35% in comparison with the former survey done in November 2008. Some facilities indicated some shift in tube current to a lower range even though this was insufficient to meet the definition of low-dose CT. This reflects their thinking of ''Even with knowledge, there is strong hesitation to change to low-dose CT''. Among the reasons why they did not change to low-dose CT, a priority for high quality images was the top reason among problems of devices and performance. Informed consent was not yet adequate. It is necessary for manufactures to develop better technology to improve the image quality of low-dose CT and to report enough information to clinicians. On the medical side, perception of the necessity for appropriate reduction of radiation dose and the decision to move to low-dose CT would be of crucial significance for facility heads as well as radiologists and technicians. (author)

  16. Low-dose 4D cone-beam CT via joint spatiotemporal regularization of tensor framelet and nonlocal total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hao; Gao, Hao; Xing, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Excessive radiation exposure is still a major concern in 4D cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) due to its prolonged scanning duration. Radiation dose can be effectively reduced by either under-sampling the x-ray projections or reducing the x-ray flux. However, 4D-CBCT reconstruction under such low-dose protocols is prone to image artifacts and noise. In this work, we propose a novel joint regularization-based iterative reconstruction method for low-dose 4D-CBCT. To tackle the under-sampling problem, we employ spatiotemporal tensor framelet (STF) regularization to take advantage of the spatiotemporal coherence of the patient anatomy in 4D images. To simultaneously suppress the image noise caused by photon starvation, we also incorporate spatiotemporal nonlocal total variation (SNTV) regularization to make use of the nonlocal self-recursiveness of anatomical structures in the spatial and temporal domains. Under the joint STF-SNTV regularization, the proposed iterative reconstruction approach is evaluated first using two digital phantoms and then using physical experiment data in the low-dose context of both under-sampled and noisy projections. Compared with existing approaches via either STF or SNTV regularization alone, the presented hybrid approach achieves improved image quality, and is particularly effective for the reconstruction of low-dose 4D-CBCT data that are not only sparse but noisy.

  17. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.; Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A.; Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Buchgeister, M.

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  18. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C; Patschan, O; Ketelsen, D; Tsiflikas, I; Reimann, A; Brodoefel, H; Buchgeister, M; Nagele, U; Stenzl, A; Claussen, C; Kopp, A; Heuschmid, M; Schlemmer, H-P

    2009-06-01

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo.

  19. Dual-energy CT for the characterization of urinary calculi: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a low-dose scanning protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Patschan, O.; Nagele, U.; Stenzl, A. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Tsiflikas, I.; Reimann, A.; Brodoefel, H.; Claussen, C.; Kopp, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schlemmer, H.P. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Buchgeister, M. [University of Tuebingen, Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The efficiency and radiation dose of a low-dose dual-energy (DE) CT protocol for the evaluation of urinary calculus disease were evaluated. A low-dose dual-source DE-CT renal calculi protocol (140 kV, 46 mAs; 80 kV, 210 mAs) was derived from the single-energy (SE) CT protocol used in our institution for the detection of renal calculi (120 kV, 75 mAs). An Alderson-Rando phantom was equipped with thermoluminescence dosimeters and examined by CT with both protocols. The effective doses were calculated. Fifty-one patients with suspected or known urinary calculus disease underwent DE-CT. DE analysis was performed if calculi were detected using a dedicated software tool. Results were compared to chemical analysis after invasive calculus extraction. An effective dose of 3.43 mSv (male) and 5.30 mSv (female) was measured in the phantom for the DE protocol (vs. 3.17/4.57 mSv for the SE protocol). Urinary calculi were found in 34 patients; in 28 patients, calculi were removed and analyzed (23 patients with calcified calculi, three with uric acid calculi, one with 2,8-dihyxdroxyadenine-calculi, one patient with a mixed struvite calculus). DE analysis was able to distinguish between calcified and non-calcified calculi in all cases. In conclusion, dual-energy urinary calculus analysis is effective also with a low-dose protocol. The protocol tested in this study reliably identified calcified urinary calculi in vivo. (orig.)

  20. CT analysis of pulmonary Wegener's granulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Hualing; Chen Jianbo; Zhong Wenchen; Chen Jingdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT features and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary Wegener's granulomatosis. Methods: 11 patients with histopathologically and clinically proven Wegener's granulomatosis were included in the study. Chest radiography was performed in all 11 patients and 8 patients underwent chest CT. Results: Lung abnormalities were noted in 10/11 patients including patchy lung opacities (n=3), multiple nodules (less than 3 cm in diameter, n=4), masses (more than 3cm in diameter, n=3), and cavitations (n=8). Multiple findings were observed in 4 patients. Conclusion: Imaging manifestations of pulmonary Wegener's granulomatosis were variable. Patchy lung opacities, nodules and cavitation were most common. Thin-walled cavity and ring-shaped cavity were characteristic. Pneumonia, abscess, tuberculosis and carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis. (authors)

  1. Adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) 3D in low dose CT abdomen-pelvis: Effects on image quality and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, W C; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Bahruddin, N A; Salehhon, N; Musa, Y

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of computed tomography (CT) has increased the medical radiation exposure and cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the impact of AIDR 3D in CT abdomen-pelvic examinations based on image quality and radiation dose in low dose (LD) setting compared to standard dose (STD) with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the images of 40 patients who underwent CT abdomen-pelvic using a 80 slice CT scanner. Group 1 patients ( n =20, mean age 41 ± 17 years) were performed at LD with AIDR 3D reconstruction and Group 2 patients ( n =20, mean age 52 ± 21 years) were scanned with STD using FBP reconstruction. Objective image noise was assessed by region of interest (ROI) measurements in the liver and aorta as standard deviation (SD) of the attenuation value (Hounsfield Unit, HU) while subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists. Statistical analysis was used to compare the scan length, CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and image quality of both patient groups. Although both groups have similar mean scan length, the CTDI vol significantly decreased by 38% in LD CT compared to STD CT ( p <0.05). Objective and subjective image quality were statistically improved with AIDR 3D ( p <0.05). In conclusion, AIDR 3D enables significant dose reduction of 38% with superior image quality in LD CT abdomen-pelvis. (paper)

  2. “Denervation” of autonomous nervous system in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension by low-dose radiation: a case report with an unexpected outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2014-03-01

    in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. A 58-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and mild edema of the lower extremities. A bronchoscopy was performed without any suspicious findings suggesting a central tumor or other infiltrative disease. Endobronchial ultrasound revealed enlarged pulmonary arteries containing thrombi, a few enlarged lymph nodes, and enlarged mediastinal tissue anatomy with suspicion for mediastinal infiltration of a malignant process. We estimated that less than 10% of the peripheral vascular bed of the lung was involved in direct consolidated fibrosis as demonstrated in the left upper lobe apex. Further, direct involvement of fibrosis around the main stems of the pulmonary arteries was assumed to be low from positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Assuming a positive influence of low-dose radiation, it was not expected that this could have reduced pulmonary vascular resistance by over two thirds of the initial result. However; it was noted that this patient had idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension mixed with “acute” (mediastinal fibrosis which could have contributed to the unexpected success of reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, probably as a result of low-dose radiation to the pulmonary arterial main stems. The patient continues to have no specific complaints concerning her idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.Keywords: radiation, pulmonary hypertension, denervatio

  3. Low-dose CT imaging of a total hip arthroplasty phantom using model-based iterative reconstruction and orthopedic metal artifact reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenberg, R.H.H.; Streekstra, G.J.; Maas, M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boomsma, M.F.; Osch, J.A.C. van [Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Vlassenbroek, A. [Philips Medical Systems, Brussels (Belgium); Milles, J. [Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Edens, M.A. [Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slump, C.H. [University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To compare quantitative measures of image quality, in terms of CT number accuracy, noise, signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), at different dose levels with filtered-back-projection (FBP), iterative reconstruction (IR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) alone and in combination with orthopedic metal artifact reduction (O-MAR) in a total hip arthroplasty (THA) phantom. Scans were acquired from high- to low-dose (CTDI{sub vol}: 40.0, 32.0, 24.0, 16.0, 8.0, and 4.0 mGy) at 120- and 140- kVp. Images were reconstructed using FBP, IR (iDose{sup 4} level 2, 4, and 6) and MBIR (IMR, level 1, 2, and 3) with and without O-MAR. CT number accuracy in Hounsfield Units (HU), noise or standard deviation, SNRs, and CNRs were analyzed. The IMR technique showed lower noise levels (p < 0.01), higher SNRs (p < 0.001) and CNRs (p < 0.001) compared with FBP and iDose{sup 4} in all acquisitions from high- to low-dose with constant CT numbers. O-MAR reduced noise (p < 0.01) and improved SNRs (p < 0.01) and CNRs (p < 0.001) while improving CT number accuracy only at a low dose. At the low dose of 4.0 mGy, IMR level 1, 2, and 3 showed 83%, 89%, and 95% lower noise values, a factor 6.0, 9.2, and 17.9 higher SNRs, and 5.7, 8.8, and 18.2 higher CNRs compared with FBP respectively. Based on quantitative analysis of CT number accuracy, noise values, SNRs, and CNRs, we conclude that the combined use of IMR and O-MAR enables a reduction in radiation dose of 83% compared with FBP and iDose{sup 4} in the CT imaging of a THA phantom. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Norrman, Eva [Oerebro University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Geijer, Mats [Lund University and Skaane University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Jansson, Kjell [Oerebro University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Geijer, Haakan; Norrman, Eva; Geijer, Mats; Jansson, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  6. Multislice CT imaging of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepf, J.U.; Kessler, M.A.; Rieger, C.T.; Herzog, P.; Wiesgigl, S.; Becker, C.R.; Exarhos, D.N.; Reiser, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years CT has been established as the method of choice for the diagnosis of central pulmonary embolism (PE) to the level of the segmental arteries. The key advantage of CT over competing modalities is the reliable detection of relevant alternative or additional disease causing the patient's symptoms. Although the clinical relevance of isolated peripheral emboli remains unclear, the alleged poor sensitivity of CT for the detection of such small clots has to date prevented the acceptance of CT as the gold standard for diagnosing PE. With the advent of multislice CT we can now cover the entire chest of a patient with 1-mm slices within one breath-hold. In comparison with thicker sections, the detection rate of subsegmental emboli can be significantly increased with 1-mm slices. In addition, the interobserver correlation which can be achieved with 1-mm sections by far exceeds the reproducibility of competing modalities. Meanwhile use of multislice CT for a combined diagnosis of PE and deep venous thrombosis with the same modality appears to be clinically accepted. In the vast majority of patients who receive a combined thoracic and venous multislice CT examination the scan either confirms the suspected diagnosis or reveals relevant alternative or additional disease. The therapeutic regimen is usually chosen based on the functional effect of embolic vascular occlusion. With the advent of fast CT scanning techniques, also functional parameters of lung perfusion can be non-invasively assessed by CT imaging. These advantages let multislice CT appear as an attractive modality for a non-invasive, fast, accurate, and comprehensive diagnosis of PE, its causes, effects, and differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  7. Diagnosis of Grave's disease with pulmonary hypertension on chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Hye Rin; Chun, Eun Ju; White, Charles S

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of chest CT findings to diagnose Grave's disease in pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively evaluated chest CT and the medical records of 13 patients with Grave's disease with (n=6) or without pulmonary hypertension (n=7) and in 17 control patients. Presence of iso-attenuation of diffusely enlarged thyroid glands compared with adjacent neck muscle on non-enhanced CT as a diagnostic clue of Grave's disease, and assessment of pulmonary hypertension on CT has high diagnostic accuracy. Chest CT has the potential to diagnose Grave's disease with pulmonary hypertension in the absence of other information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CT findings in primary pulmonary lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, Luciano; Allasia, Marco; Cataldi, Aldo; Ferraris, Fabrizio; Fava, Cesare; Parvis, Guido

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the CT findings of pathologically confirmed primary pulmonary lymphomas. Materials and methods. The CT examinations of 11 patients with pathologically proven primary pulmonary lymphoma (9 BALT lymphomas and 2 non-BALT lymphomas) were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. Evaluated findings included morphology (consolidation, mass, nodule), number and distribution of lesions. Other CT findings such as air bronchogram, lymphadenopathy atelectasis and pleural effusion were also assessed. Results. Pulmonary lesions were depicted as air-space consolidation (pneumonia-like) in 5 patients (45%), tumour-like rounded opacity in 4 (36%), and nodules in 4 (36%). Multiple and bilateral long lesions were seen in 3 patients (27%). Air bronchogram was present in 7 patients (63%), lymphadenopathy in 3 (27%), atelectasis in 4 (36%) and pleural effusion in only 1 (9%). Conclusions. Our results agree with previous studies regarding lesion patterns and their relative frequency. A smaller number of nodules and of multiple lesions were found compared with some previous studies. The most frequent pattern was airspace consolidation [it

  9. Pulmonary instillation of low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice leads to particle retention and gene expression changes in the absence of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Mainul; Saber, Anne T.; Guo, Charles; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jensen, Keld A.; Yauk, Carole L.; Williams, Andrew; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Hakan; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    We investigated gene expression, protein synthesis, and particle retention in mouse lungs following intratracheal instillation of varying doses of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO 2 ). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to rutile nano-TiO 2 via single intratracheal instillations of 18, 54, and 162 μg/mouse. Mice were sampled 1, 3, and 28 days post-exposure. The deposition of nano-TiO 2 in the lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. Biological responses in the pulmonary system were analyzed using DNA microarrays, pathway-specific real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), gene-specific qPCR arrays, and tissue protein ELISA. Hyperspectral mapping showed dose-dependent retention of nano-TiO 2 in the lungs up to 28 days post-instillation. DNA microarray analysis revealed approximately 3000 genes that were altered across all treatment groups (± 1.3 fold; p 2 in the absence of inflammation over time may potentially perturb calcium and ion homeostasis, and affect smooth muscle activities. - Highlights: • Pulmonary effects following exposure to low doses of nano-TiO 2 were examined. • Particle retention in lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. • Particles persisted up to 28 days in lungs in all dose groups. • Inflammation was the pathway affected in the high dose group at all time points. • Ion homeostasis and muscle activity pathways were affected in the low dose group

  10. CT assessment of progression in pulmonary emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Katashi; Mitani, Masahiro [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Murota, Makiko (and others)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression of pulmonary emphysema (PE) using CT. We reviewed the records of 25 cases (all male smokers and age range of 36-85 years) in whom progression of PE was recognized using CT scanning. PE was diagnosed by the presence of low attenuation areas on CT scan. PE was divided into 2 subtypes: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). There were 8 younger cases less than 50s. With respect to smoking habit, 6 cases had 1 pack per day at maximum whereas the remaining 19 cases had more over than 1.5 packs per day. Interval periods of observation were from 8 months minimum to 10 years maximum. PE, of both CLE and PSE subtype, was recognized even in younger cases less than 40 years of age, and progressed with cigarette consumption even a minimum during 8 months periods of observation. (author)

  11. SU-E-I-86: Ultra-Low Dose Computed Tomography Attenuation Correction for Pediatric PET CT Using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR™)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S; Shulkin, B [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop ultra-low dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultra-low doses (10–35 mAs). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for eleven tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% CTDIvol (0.39/3.64; mGy) radiation dose from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUVbw) of various diameter targets (range 8–37 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation organ dose, as derived from patient exam size specific dose estimate (SSDE), was converted to effective dose using the standard ICRP report 103 method. Effective dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative patient population dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the non-dose reduced CTAC image down to 90% dose reduction. No change in SUVbw, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols reconstructed with ASiR and down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62%–86% (3.2/8.3−0.9/6.2; mSv). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from pre dose-reduced patient images. Conclusion: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CTAC dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for co

  12. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Caroline; Groth, Michael; Bley, Thorsten A.; Henes, Frank O.; Treszl, András; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  13. Assessment of anemia during CT pulmonary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Caroline, E-mail: cjung@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Groth, Michael; Bley, Thorsten A.; Henes, Frank O. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, András [Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: Anemia is associated with increased mortality in patients with acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements on the single unenhanced trigger slice of pulmonary CT angiography scans for diagnosis of anemia. Material and Methods: 150 consecutive patients (median age 64 ± 16 years) with suspected PE underwent pulmonary CT angiography. Two radiologists, blinded to laboratory results, performed HU measurements in the single unenhanced trigger scan independently by region-based analysis (ROI). HU values from ascending and descending aorta and the calculated mean of both were correlated with serum hemoglobin levels. Inter- and intraobserver variability was determined for HU measurements, and ROC analysis was performed for diagnosis of anemia. Calculated linear models were used to assess formulas for estimation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. Results: HU measurements revealed high intra- and interrater reliability (ICC > 0.981 and ICC > 0.965, respectively). Calculated mean HU values showed a strong correlation with serum hemoglobin levels (r = 0.734), which allowed generation of different formulas for calculation of hemoglobin levels from HU measurements. ROC analyses confirmed a high sensitivity (80.4 for men; 91.3 for women) and specificity (84.0 for men; 84.9 for women) for diagnosing anemia. Conclusion: Diagnosis of anemia and quantification of hemoglobin levels upon a single unenhanced trigger scan of pulmonary CT angiography is feasible. We suggest disclosing the anemic state in the radiological report, independent of the presence of PE, since anemia carries increased risks of morbidity and mortality.

  14. Coronary CT angiography: Comparison of a novel iterative reconstruction with filtered back projection for reconstruction of low-dose CT—Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takx, Richard A.P.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Moscariello, Antonio; Das, Marco; Rowe, Garrett; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Fink, Christian; Henzler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively compare subjective and objective image quality in 20% tube current coronary CT angiography (cCTA) datasets between an iterative reconstruction algorithm (SAFIRE) and traditional filtered back projection (FBP). Materials and methods: Twenty patients underwent a prospectively ECG-triggered dual-step cCTA protocol using 2nd generation dual-source CT (DSCT). CT raw data was reconstructed using standard FBP at full-dose (Group 1 a) and 80% tube current reduced low-dose (Group 1 b). The low-dose raw data was additionally reconstructed using iterative raw data reconstruction (Group 2 ). Attenuation and image noise were measured in three regions of interest and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) as well as contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) was calculated. Subjective diagnostic image quality was evaluated using a 4-point Likert scale. Results: Mean image noise of group 2 was lowered by 22% on average when compared to group 1 b (p 2 compared to group 1 b (p 2 (1.88 ± 0.63) was also rated significantly higher when compared to group 1 b (1.58 ± 0.63, p = 0.004). Conclusions: Image quality of 80% tube current reduced iteratively reconstructed cCTA raw data is significantly improved when compared to standard FBP and consequently may improve the diagnostic accuracy of cCTA

  15. MO-DE-207A-09: Low-Dose CT Image Reconstruction Via Learning From Different Patient Normal-Dose Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H; Xing, L [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Liang, Z [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a novel low-dose CT (LdCT) image reconstruction strategy for lung CT imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: The proposed approach consists of four steps: (1) use the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) method to reconstruct the LdCT image; (2) calculate structure similarity (SSIM) index between the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image and a set of normal-dose CT (NdCT) images, and select the NdCT image with the highest SSIM as the learning source; (3) segment the NdCT source image into lung and outside tissue regions via simple thresholding, and adopt multiple linear regression to learn high-order Markov random field (MRF) pattern for each tissue region in the NdCT source image; (4) segment the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image into lung and outside regions as well, and apply the learnt MRF prior in each tissue region for statistical iterative reconstruction of the LdCT image following the penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) framework. Quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images was based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) metrics. Results: It was observed that lung and outside tissue regions have different MRF patterns predicted from the NdCT. Visual inspection showed that our method obviously outperformed the traditional FBP method. Comparing with the region-smoothing PWLS method, our method has, in average, 13% increase in SNR, 15% decrease in LBP difference, and 12% decrease in HOG difference from reference standard for all regions of interest, which indicated the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of image resolution and texture preservation. Conclusion: We proposed a novel LdCT image reconstruction method by learning similar image characteristics from a set of NdCT images, and the to-be-learnt NdCT image does not need to be scans from the same subject. This approach is particularly important for enhancing image quality in radiation therapy.

  16. MO-DE-207A-09: Low-Dose CT Image Reconstruction Via Learning From Different Patient Normal-Dose Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H; Xing, L; Liang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a novel low-dose CT (LdCT) image reconstruction strategy for lung CT imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: The proposed approach consists of four steps: (1) use the traditional filtered back-projection (FBP) method to reconstruct the LdCT image; (2) calculate structure similarity (SSIM) index between the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image and a set of normal-dose CT (NdCT) images, and select the NdCT image with the highest SSIM as the learning source; (3) segment the NdCT source image into lung and outside tissue regions via simple thresholding, and adopt multiple linear regression to learn high-order Markov random field (MRF) pattern for each tissue region in the NdCT source image; (4) segment the FBP-reconstructed LdCT image into lung and outside regions as well, and apply the learnt MRF prior in each tissue region for statistical iterative reconstruction of the LdCT image following the penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) framework. Quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images was based on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), local binary pattern (LBP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) metrics. Results: It was observed that lung and outside tissue regions have different MRF patterns predicted from the NdCT. Visual inspection showed that our method obviously outperformed the traditional FBP method. Comparing with the region-smoothing PWLS method, our method has, in average, 13% increase in SNR, 15% decrease in LBP difference, and 12% decrease in HOG difference from reference standard for all regions of interest, which indicated the superior performance of the proposed method in terms of image resolution and texture preservation. Conclusion: We proposed a novel LdCT image reconstruction method by learning similar image characteristics from a set of NdCT images, and the to-be-learnt NdCT image does not need to be scans from the same subject. This approach is particularly important for enhancing image quality in radiation therapy.

  17. Pulmonary instillation of low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice leads to particle retention and gene expression changes in the absence of inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, Mainul, E-mail: mainul.husain@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [The Danish NanoSafety Centre, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Guo, Charles, E-mail: charles.guo@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [The Danish NanoSafety Centre, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Jensen, Keld A., E-mail: kaj@nrcwe.dk [The Danish NanoSafety Centre, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [The Danish NanoSafety Centre, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [The Danish NanoSafety Centre, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Wallin, Hakan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [The Danish NanoSafety Centre, National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1014 (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    We investigated gene expression, protein synthesis, and particle retention in mouse lungs following intratracheal instillation of varying doses of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to rutile nano-TiO{sub 2} via single intratracheal instillations of 18, 54, and 162 μg/mouse. Mice were sampled 1, 3, and 28 days post-exposure. The deposition of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. Biological responses in the pulmonary system were analyzed using DNA microarrays, pathway-specific real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), gene-specific qPCR arrays, and tissue protein ELISA. Hyperspectral mapping showed dose-dependent retention of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the lungs up to 28 days post-instillation. DNA microarray analysis revealed approximately 3000 genes that were altered across all treatment groups (± 1.3 fold; p < 0.1). Several inflammatory mediators changed in a dose- and time-dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein level. Although no influx of neutrophils was detected at the low dose, changes in the expression of several genes and proteins associated with inflammation were observed. Resolving inflammation at the medium dose, and lack of neutrophil influx in the lung fluid at the low dose, were associated with down-regulation of genes involved in ion homeostasis and muscle regulation. Our gene expression results imply that retention of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the absence of inflammation over time may potentially perturb calcium and ion homeostasis, and affect smooth muscle activities. - Highlights: • Pulmonary effects following exposure to low doses of nano-TiO{sub 2} were examined. • Particle retention in lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. • Particles persisted up to 28 days in lungs in all dose groups. • Inflammation was the pathway affected in the high dose group at all time points. • Ion homeostasis and muscle activity pathways were affected in the low dose

  18. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules at multi-row detector CT: in vivo reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Marheine, Anke; Beyer, Florian; Heindel, Walter; Diederich, Stefan; Kohl, Gerhard; Klotz, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo measurement precision of a software tool for volumetric analysis of pulmonary nodules from two consecutive low-dose multi-row detector CT scans. A total of 151 pulmonary nodules (diameter 2.2-20.5 mm, mean diameter 7.4±4.5 mm) in ten subjects with pulmonary metastases were examined with low-dose four-detector-row CT (120 kVp, 20 mAs (effective), collimation 4 x 1 mm, normalized pitch 1.75, slice thickness 1.25 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm; Somatom VolumeZoom, Siemens). Two consecutive low-dose scans covering the whole lung were performed within 10 min. Nodule volume was determined for all pulmonary nodules visually detected in both scans using the volumetry tool included in the Siemens LungCare software. The 95% limits of agreement between nodule volume measurements on different scans were calculated using the Bland and Altman method for assessing measurement agreement. Intra- and interobserver agreement of volume measurement were determined using repetitive measurements of 50 randomly selected nodules at the same scan by the same and different observers. Taking into account all 151 nodules, 95% limits of agreement were -20.4 to 21.9% (standard error 1.5%); they were -19.3 to 20.4% (standard error 1.7%) for 105 nodules <10 mm. Limits of agreement were -3.9 to 5.7% for intraobserver and -5.5 to 6.6% for interobserver agreement. Precision of in vivo volumetric analysis of nodules with an automatic volumetry software tool was sufficiently high to allow for detection of clinically relevant growth in small pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  19. A simple method for estimating the effective dose in dental CT. Conversion factors and calculation for a clinical low-dose protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolka, P.; Kudler, H.; Nowotny, R.; Gahleitner, A.; Wien Univ.

    2001-01-01

    An easily appliable method to estimate effective dose including in its definition the high radio-sensitivity of the salivary glands from dental computed tomography is presented. Effective doses were calculated for a markedly dose reduced dental CT protocol as well as for standard settings. Data are compared with effective doses from the literature obtained with other modalities frequently used in dental care. Methods: Conversion factors based on the weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index were derived from published data to calculate effective dose values for various CT exposure settings. Results: Conversion factors determined can be used for clinically used kVp settings and prefiltrations. With reduced tube current an effective dose for a CT examination of the maxilla of 22 μSv can be achieved, which compares to values typically obtained with panoramic radiography (26 μSv). A CT scan of the mandible, respectively, gives 123 μSv comparable to a full mouth survey with intraoral films (150 μSv). Conclusion: For standard CT scan protocols of the mandible, effective doses exceed 600 μSv. Hence, low dose protocols for dental CT should be considered whenever feasable, especially for paediatric patients. If hard tissue diagnoses is performed, the potential of dose reduction is significant despite the higher image noise levels as readability is still adequate. (orig.) [de

  20. Benefits of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction in 0.4 mSv ultra-low-dose CT of the upper abdomen following transarterial chemoembolisation: comparison to low-dose and standard-dose CT and filtered back projection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodelle, B.; Isler, S.; Scholtz, J.-E.; Frellesen, C.; Luboldt, W.; Vogl, T.J.; Beeres, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the advantage of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SIR) compared to filtered back projection (FBP) in upper abdomen computed tomography (CT) after transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) at different tube currents. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Post-TACE CT was performed with different tube currents successively varied in four steps (180, 90, 45 and 23 mAs) with 40 patients per group (mean age: 60±12 years, range: 23–85 years, sex: 70 female, 90 male). The data were reconstructed with standard FBP and five different SIR strengths. Image quality was independently rated by two readers on a five-point scale. High (Lipiodol-to-liver) as well as low (liver-to-fat) contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were intra-individually compared within one dose to determine the optimal strength (S1–S5) and inter-individually between different doses to determine the possibility of dose reduction using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: Subjective image quality and objective CNR analysis were concordant: intra-individually, SIR was significantly (p<0.001) superior to FBP. Inter-individually, regarding different doses (180 versus 23 ref mAs), there was no significant (p=1.00) difference when using S5 SIR at 23 mAs instead of FBP. Conclusion: SIR allows for an 88% dose reduction from 3.43 to 0.4 mSv in unenhanced CT of the liver following TACE without subjective or objective loss in image quality. - Highlights: • Diagnostic image quality and radiation dose of ultra-low-dose CT of the upper abdomen using sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction following transarterial chemoembolization in comparison to low-dose and standard dose CT and filtered back projection technique. • Ultra-low dose CT of the upper abdomen using sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction allows for significant dose reduction by 88%. • Ultra-low dose CT of the upper abdomen

  1. CT manifestations of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Jun; Yu Wei; Gao Wanqin; Song Haiqiao; Ma Yingjian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyzes the CT manifestations of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). Methods: CT features of 11 patients with PLCH proved pathologically were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The main findings in 11 PLCHs were cysts and nodules. Two cases only had cysts, and 1 only had nodules, which most had cavitations. The other 8 cases showed cysts and nodules with 4 cases mainly manifested with cysts and nine mainly manifested with nodules. Two cases had pulmonary interstitial changes. One case only had cysts in the left upper lung field and 10 cases had lesions not only in the upper and middle but in the lower lung field, which 2 cases had more lesions in the lower and costo-phrenic angle field and 8 cases had less lesions in the costo-phrenic angle field. Three of these 8 cases had more lesions in the superior lobe and apical segment of lower lobe. Conclusion: CT manifestations of PLCH are helpful for the early diagnosis. (authors)

  2. Malignant pulmonary lesion. Possible causes of CT misdiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, J.; Feragalli, B.; Ciccotosto, C.; Storto, M.L.; Guidotti, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the radiological appearance of overlooked malignant pulmonary lesions at CT and to analyze the reasons of misdiagnosis. Ten patient with pulmonary lesion (PML) overlooked at forst CT examination were selected among patients with lung cancer. Endobronchial location of the tumors and their small size were the most frequent causes of misdiagnosis of PML at chest CT in the series. However, a systematic evaluation of CT scans can reduce the percentage of missed lesions [it

  3. Comparison of hybrid {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-DPD-SPECT/CT for the detection of bone metastases in prostate cancer patients. Additional value of morphologic information from low dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Jan-Carlo; Meissner, Sebastian; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Woythal, Nadine; Prasad, Vikas; Brenner, Winfried [Charite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    This study compared {sup 68}Gallium-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen based Positron-emission-tomography ({sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET) and {sup 99metastable}technetium-3,3-diphospho-1,2-propanedicarbonacid ({sup 99m}Tc-DPD-SPECT) in performing skeletal staging in prostate cancer (PC) patients and evaluated the additional value of the information from low-dose-computed tomography (CT). In this retrospective study, 54 patients who received {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-DPD-SPECT/CT within 80 days were extracted from our database. Osseous lesions were classified as benign, malignant or equivocal. Lesion, region and patient based analysis was performed with and without CT fusion. The reference standard was generated by defining a best valuable comparator (BVC) containing information from all available data. In the patient based analysis, accuracies measured as ''area-under-the-curve'' (AUC) for {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET, {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT, {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET/CT and {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT/CT were 0.97-0.96, 0.86-0.83, 1.00 and 0.83, respectively (p<0.05) (ranges = optimistic vs. pessimistic view). Region based analysis resulted in the following sensitivities and specificities: 91.8-97.7%, 100-99.5% (PET); 61.2-70.6%, 99.8-98.3% (SPECT); 97.7%, 100% (PET/CT), 69.4% and 98.3% (SPECT/CT) (p<0.05). The amount of correct classifications of equivocal lesions by CT was significantly higher in PET (100%) compared to SPECT (52.4%) (p<0.05). {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET outperforms {sup 99m}Tc-DPD-SPECT in detecting bone metastases in PC patients. Additional information from low-dose-CT resulted in a significant reduction in equivocal lesions in both modalities, however {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-PET benefited most. (orig.)

  4. DNA Damage Following Pulmonary Exposure by Instillation to Low Doses of Carbon Black (Printex 90) Nanoparticles in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    of 0.67, 2, 6, and 162 mu g Printex 90 NPCB and vehicle. Cellular composition and protein concentration was evaluated in BAL fluid as markers of inflammatory response and cell damage. DNA strand breaks in BAL cells, lung, and liver tissue were assessed using the alkaline comet assay. The pulmonary...... the comet assay. We interpret the increased DNA strand breaks occurring following these low exposure doses of NPCB as DNA damage caused by primary genotoxicity in the absence of substantial inflammation, cell damage, and acute phase response. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:41-49, 2015. (c) 2014 The Authors...

  5. TU-H-207A-08: Estimating Radiation Dose From Low-Dose Lung Cancer Screening CT Exams Using Tube Current Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, A; Bostani, M [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McMillan, K [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Zankl, M [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Cagnon, C [UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McNitt-Gray, M [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to estimate effective and lung doses from a low-dose lung cancer screening CT protocol using Tube Current Modulation (TCM) across patient models of different sizes. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate effective and lung doses from a low-dose lung cancer screening protocol for a 64-slice CT (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare) that used TCM. Scanning parameters were from the AAPM protocols. Ten GSF voxelized patient models were used and had all radiosensitive organs identified to facilitate estimating both organ and effective doses. Predicted TCM schemes for each patient model were generated using a validated method wherein tissue attenuation characteristics and scanner limitations were used to determine the TCM output as a function of table position and source angle. The water equivalent diameter (WED) was determined by estimating the attenuation at the center of the scan volume for each patient model. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the unique TCM scheme for each patient model. Lung doses were tallied and effective doses were estimated using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors. Effective and lung dose values were normalized by scanspecific 32 cm CTDIvol values based upon the average tube current across the entire simulated scan. Absolute and normalized doses were reported as a function of WED for each patient. Results: For all ten patients modeled, the effective dose using TCM protocols was below 1.5 mSv. Smaller sized patient models experienced lower absolute doses compared to larger sized patients. Normalized effective and lung doses showed some dependence on patient size (R2 = 0.77 and 0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Effective doses for a low-dose lung screening protocol using TCM were below 1.5 mSv for all patient models used in this study. Institutional research agreement, Siemens Healthcare; Past recipient, research grant support, Siemens Healthcare; Consultant, Toshiba America Medical

  6. TU-H-207A-08: Estimating Radiation Dose From Low-Dose Lung Cancer Screening CT Exams Using Tube Current Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, A; Bostani, M; McMillan, K; Zankl, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to estimate effective and lung doses from a low-dose lung cancer screening CT protocol using Tube Current Modulation (TCM) across patient models of different sizes. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate effective and lung doses from a low-dose lung cancer screening protocol for a 64-slice CT (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare) that used TCM. Scanning parameters were from the AAPM protocols. Ten GSF voxelized patient models were used and had all radiosensitive organs identified to facilitate estimating both organ and effective doses. Predicted TCM schemes for each patient model were generated using a validated method wherein tissue attenuation characteristics and scanner limitations were used to determine the TCM output as a function of table position and source angle. The water equivalent diameter (WED) was determined by estimating the attenuation at the center of the scan volume for each patient model. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the unique TCM scheme for each patient model. Lung doses were tallied and effective doses were estimated using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors. Effective and lung dose values were normalized by scanspecific 32 cm CTDIvol values based upon the average tube current across the entire simulated scan. Absolute and normalized doses were reported as a function of WED for each patient. Results: For all ten patients modeled, the effective dose using TCM protocols was below 1.5 mSv. Smaller sized patient models experienced lower absolute doses compared to larger sized patients. Normalized effective and lung doses showed some dependence on patient size (R2 = 0.77 and 0.78, respectively). Conclusion: Effective doses for a low-dose lung screening protocol using TCM were below 1.5 mSv for all patient models used in this study. Institutional research agreement, Siemens Healthcare; Past recipient, research grant support, Siemens Healthcare; Consultant, Toshiba America Medical

  7. Isolate pulmonary nodule. CT-guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Ettore, F.; Rogopoulos, A.; Geoffray, A.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Le Houcq, M.

    1989-01-01

    Transparietal CT-guided biopsy location can be successfully performed for isolate pulmonary nodules, defined as lesions with a maximal diameter of 3 cm, without any other parenchymal or mediastinal abnormality. A 21 G needle has been used according to an identical protocole in 64 cases (10 benign, 54 malignant). The biopsy was successful in 77.7% of the malignant cases. In relation to the diameter of the nodules, biopsy was successful in 66.7% of the nodules smaller than 2 cm and in 76% of the nodules ranging from 2 to 3 cm. The complications observed were rare (1 case of pneumothorax requiring drainage, 9 cases of pneumothorax without clinical signs and simply followed up, 4 cases of minor hemoptysis requiring no treatment and 5 cases of hematomas smaller than 5 cm on CT) [fr

  8. Routine chest and abdominal high-pitch CT: An alternative low dose protocol with preserved image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amacker, Nadja A.; Mader, Caecilia; Alkadhi, Hatem; Leschka, Sebastian; Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiation dose and image quality of the high-pitch dual source computer tomography (DSCT) for routine chest and abdominal scans. Methods: 130 consecutive patients (62 female, 68 male, median age 55 years) were included. All patients underwent 128-slice high-pitch DSCT (chest n = 99; abdomen n = 84) at a pitch of 3.2. Two observers independently rated image quality using a 4-point score (1: excellent to 4: non-diagnostic). Image noise was measured and operational radiation dose quantities were recorded. An additional group of 132 patients (chest, n = 80; abdomen n = 52) scanned with standard-pitch CT matched for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) served as control group. Results: Interobserver agreement for image quality rating was good (k = 0.74). Subjective image quality of high-pitch CT was diagnostic in all patients (median score chest; 2, median score abdomen: 2). Image noise of high-pitch CT was comparable to standard-pitch for the chest (p = 0.32) but increased in the abdomen (p < 0.0001). For high-pitch CT radiation dose was 4.4 ± 0.9 mSv (chest) and 6.5 ± 1.2 mSv (abdomen). These values were significantly lower compared to standard-pitch CT (chest: 5.5 ± 1.2 mSv; abdomen: 11.3 ± 3.8 mSv). Conclusion: Based on the technical background high-pitch dual source CT may serve as an alternative scan mode for low radiation dose routine chest and abdominal CT.

  9. Use of low-dose oral theophylline as an adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Graham; Cotton, Seonaidh; Barnes, Peter; Briggs, Andrew; Burns, Graham; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Chrystyn, Henry; Davies, Lisa; De Soyza, Anthony; Fielding, Shona; Gompertz, Simon; Haughney, John; Lee, Amanda J; McCormack, Kirsty; McPherson, Gladys; Morice, Alyn; Norrie, John; Sullivan, Anita; Wilson, Andrew; Price, David

    2015-06-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. An incomplete response to the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids is present in COPD. Preclinical work indicates that 'low dose' theophylline improves steroid responsiveness. The Theophylline With Inhaled Corticosteroids (TWICS) trial investigates whether the addition of 'low dose' theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids has clinical and cost-effective benefits in COPD. TWICS is a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in primary and secondary care sites in the UK. The inclusion criteria are the following: an established predominant respiratory diagnosis of COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC] of less than 0.7), age of at least 40 years, smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, current inhaled corticosteroid use, and history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics or oral corticosteroids in the previous year. A computerised randomisation system will stratify 1424 participants by region and recruitment setting (primary and secondary) and then randomly assign with equal probability to intervention or control arms. Participants will receive either 'low dose' theophylline (Uniphyllin MR 200 mg tablets) or placebo for 52 weeks. Dosing is based on pharmacokinetic modelling to achieve a steady-state serum theophylline of 1-5 mg/l. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg once daily (or placebo once daily) will be taken by participants who do not smoke or participants who smoke but have an ideal body weight (IBW) of not more than 60 kg. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg twice daily (or placebo twice daily) will be taken by participants who smoke and have an IBW of more than 60 kg. Participants will be reviewed at recruitment and after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the total number of participant-reported COPD exacerbations requiring

  10. Imaging of pulmonary vein anatomy using low-dose prospective ECG-triggered dual-source computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Philipp; Baumann, Tobias; Langer, Mathias; Pache, Gregor [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    To prospectively investigate the feasibility, image quality and radiation dose estimates for computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary veins and left atrium using prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered sequential dual-source (DS) data acquisition at end-systole in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Thirty-five patients (mean age 66.2 {+-} 12.6 years) with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent prospective ECG-triggered sequential DS-CTA with tube current (250 mAs/rotation) centred 250 ms past the R-peak. Tube voltage was adjusted to the BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2}: 100 kV, >25 kg/m{sup 2}: 120 kV). Presence of motion or stair-step artefacts was assessed. Effective radiation dose was calculated from the dose-length product. All data sets could be integrated into the electroanatomical mapping system. Twenty-two patients (63%) were in sinus rhythm (mean heart rate 69.2 {+-} 11.1 bpm, variability 1.0 {+-} 1.7 bpm) and 13 (37%) showed an ECG pattern of atrial fibrillation (mean heart rate 84.8 {+-} 16.6 bpm, variability 17.9 {+-} 7.5 bpm). Minor step artefacts were observed in three patients (23%) with atrial fibrillation. Mean estimated effective dose was 1.1 {+-} 0.3 and 3.0 {+-} 0.5 mSv for 100 and 120 kV respectively. Imaging of pulmonary vein anatomy is feasible using prospective ECG-triggered sequential data acquisition at end-systole regardless of heart rate or rhythm at the benefit of low radiation dose. (orig.)

  11. Imaging of pulmonary vein anatomy using low-dose prospective ECG-triggered dual-source computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanke, Philipp; Baumann, Tobias; Langer, Mathias; Pache, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the feasibility, image quality and radiation dose estimates for computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary veins and left atrium using prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered sequential dual-source (DS) data acquisition at end-systole in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing radiofrequency ablation. Thirty-five patients (mean age 66.2 ± 12.6 years) with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent prospective ECG-triggered sequential DS-CTA with tube current (250 mAs/rotation) centred 250 ms past the R-peak. Tube voltage was adjusted to the BMI ( 2 : 100 kV, >25 kg/m 2 : 120 kV). Presence of motion or stair-step artefacts was assessed. Effective radiation dose was calculated from the dose-length product. All data sets could be integrated into the electroanatomical mapping system. Twenty-two patients (63%) were in sinus rhythm (mean heart rate 69.2 ± 11.1 bpm, variability 1.0 ± 1.7 bpm) and 13 (37%) showed an ECG pattern of atrial fibrillation (mean heart rate 84.8 ± 16.6 bpm, variability 17.9 ± 7.5 bpm). Minor step artefacts were observed in three patients (23%) with atrial fibrillation. Mean estimated effective dose was 1.1 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.5 mSv for 100 and 120 kV respectively. Imaging of pulmonary vein anatomy is feasible using prospective ECG-triggered sequential data acquisition at end-systole regardless of heart rate or rhythm at the benefit of low radiation dose. (orig.)

  12. Lung nodule detection performance in five observers on computed tomography (CT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction using three-dimensional processing (AIDR 3D) in a Japanese multicenter study: Comparison between ultra-low-dose CT and low-dose CT by receiver-operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Miyara, Tetsuhiro; Koyama, Hisanobu; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Yukihisa; Moriya, Hiroshi; Noma, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-07-01

    To compare lung nodule detection performance (LNDP) in computed tomography (CT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction using three dimensional processing (AIDR3D) between ultra-low dose CT (ULDCT) and low dose CT (LDCT). This was part of the Area-detector Computed Tomography for the Investigation of Thoracic Diseases (ACTIve) Study, a multicenter research project being conducted in Japan. Institutional Review Board approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-three subjects (body mass index, 23.3 ± 3.2) underwent chest CT at 6 institutions using identical scanners and protocols. In a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120 and 20 mA (3.52, 1.74 and 0.29 mSv, respectively). Axial CT images with 2-mm thickness/increment were reconstructed using AIDR3D. Standard of reference (SOR) was determined based on CT images at 240 mA by consensus reading of 2 board-certificated radiologists as to the presence of lung nodules with the longest diameter (LD) of more than 3mm. Another 5 radiologists independently assessed and recorded presence/absence of lung nodules and their locations by continuously-distributed rating in CT images at 20 mA (ULDCT) and 120 mA (LDCT). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate LNDP of both methods in total and also in subgroups classified by LD (>4, 6 and 8 mm) and nodular characteristics (solid and ground glass nodules). For SOR, 161 solid and 60 ground glass nodules were identified. No significant difference in LNDP for entire solid nodules was demonstrated between both methods, as area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.844 ± 0.017 in ULDCT and 0.876 ± 0.026 in LDCT (p=0.057). For ground glass nodules with LD 8mm or more, LNDP was similar between both methods, as AUC 0.899 ± 0.038 in ULDCT and 0.941 ± 0.030 in LDCT. (p=0.144). ULDCT using AIDR3D with an equivalent radiation dose to chest x-ray could have comparable LNDP to LDCT with AIDR3D except for smaller ground

  13. Low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses with eye lens protection: effect on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Eike; Rogalla, Patrik; Klingebiel, Randolph; Hamm, Bernd [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Charite Hospital, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of lens protection on image quality and radiation dose to the eye lenses in CT of the paranasal sinuses. In 127 patients referred to rule out sinusitis, an axial spiral CT with a lens protection placed on the patients eyes was obtained (1.5/2/1, 50 mAs, 120 kV). Coronal views were reconstructed at 5-mm interval. To quantify a subjective impression of image quality, three regions of interest within the eyeball were plotted along a line perpendicular to the protection at 2, 5, and 9 mm beneath skin level on the axial images. Additionally, dose reduction of a bismuth-containing latex shield was measured using a film-dosimetry technique. The average eyeball density was 17.97 HU (SD 3.7 HU). The relative increase in CT density was 180.6 (17.7), 103.3 (11.7), and 53.6 HU (9.2), respectively. There was no diagnostic information loss on axial and coronal views observed. Artifacts were practically invisible on images viewed in a bone window/level setting. The use of the shield reduced skin radiation from 7.5 to 4.5 mGy. The utilization of a radioprotection to the eye lenses in paranasal CT is a suitable and effective means of reducing skin radiation by 40%. (orig.)

  14. Low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses with eye lens protection: effect on image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Eike; Rogalla, Patrik; Klingebiel, Randolph; Hamm, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of lens protection on image quality and radiation dose to the eye lenses in CT of the paranasal sinuses. In 127 patients referred to rule out sinusitis, an axial spiral CT with a lens protection placed on the patients eyes was obtained (1.5/2/1, 50 mAs, 120 kV). Coronal views were reconstructed at 5-mm interval. To quantify a subjective impression of image quality, three regions of interest within the eyeball were plotted along a line perpendicular to the protection at 2, 5, and 9 mm beneath skin level on the axial images. Additionally, dose reduction of a bismuth-containing latex shield was measured using a film-dosimetry technique. The average eyeball density was 17.97 HU (SD 3.7 HU). The relative increase in CT density was 180.6 (17.7), 103.3 (11.7), and 53.6 HU (9.2), respectively. There was no diagnostic information loss on axial and coronal views observed. Artifacts were practically invisible on images viewed in a bone window/level setting. The use of the shield reduced skin radiation from 7.5 to 4.5 mGy. The utilization of a radioprotection to the eye lenses in paranasal CT is a suitable and effective means of reducing skin radiation by 40%. (orig.)

  15. PET-CT in the typification of unique pulmonary injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, P.; San Roman, Jose L.; Dalurzo, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this document is to evaluate the usefulness of the PET-CT for the characterization of the unique pulmonary injuries. Retrospective analysis was made to patients with unique pulmonary injuries who carried out a PET-CT in the Italian Hospital between May of 2003 - March of 2005. Those patients with pulmonary outlying nodule, or unique pulmonary mass that had pathological anatomy of injury or follow-up through a computed tomography of thorax made with an interval of time not minor at 2 years of the PET-CT were included [es

  16. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, T.; Olausson, A. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Thoracic Radiology; Johnsson, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Nyman, U. [County Hospital, Trelleborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology; Aspelin, P. [Huddinge Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains.

  17. Comparative analysis between spiral CT and pathology of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaifu; Zhang Zhanqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of spiral CT in the diagnosis of atypical pulmonary nodules. Methods: CT, clinic and histopathologic data of 72 patients with atypical pulmonary nodules confirmed by surgical resection in 41 cases and/or biopsy in 31 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results: CT scans demonstrated slight lobulation in 34 cases, irregular margin in 50 cases, long speculate in 10 cases, air-bronchogram in 2 case, vacuole in 2 case. 38 pulmonary cancer, 22 pulmonary tuberculosis and 12 pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors were diagnosed with spiral CT. However, 30 pulmonary cancer, 30 pulmonary tuberculosis and 12 pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors were confirmed by histopathology. The overall accurate diagnostic rate of pulmonary cancer was 66.7% (20/30), pulmonary tuberculosis was 60%(18/30), pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumors was 16.7%(2/12). 40 cases were diagnosed correctly and 32 cases were misdiagnosed with CT in 72 cases of atypical pulmonary nodules. The misdiagnostic rate of CT was 44.4%. 10 cases of lung cancer were misdiagnosed, including 4 cases of tuberculosis (long speculate or irregular margin) and 6 cases of inflammatory pseudotumors (irregular margin or long speculate or air-bronchogram). 12 cases of tuberculosis were misdiagnosed, including 8 cases lung cancer (slight lobulation) and 4 cases of inflammatory pseudotumors (slight lobulation). 10 cases inflammatory pseudotumor were misdiagnosed as lung cancer (slight lobulation). Conclusion: Spiral CT was very useful in the localization and morphological describing, but difficult in qualitative diagnosing of atypical pulmonary nodules, exactly diagnosis was relied on surgery and biopsy. (authors)

  18. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B. [Gentofte Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hellerup (Denmark); Petersen, Jens [Copenhagen University, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, Jesper Holst [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate interobserver agreement and time-trend in chest CT assessment of emphysema, airways, and interstitial abnormalities in a lung cancer screening cohort. Visual assessment of baseline and fifth-year examination of 1990 participants was performed independently by two observers. Results were standardised by means of an electronic score sheet; kappa and time-trend analyses were performed. Interobserver agreement was substantial in early emphysema diagnosis; highly significant (p < 0.001) time-trends in both emphysema presence and grading were found (higher prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes was only fair. Agreement was fair regarding airway analysis. Interstitial abnormalities were infrequent in the cohort, and agreement on these was fair to moderate. A highly significant time-trend was found regarding interstitial abnormalities, which were more frequent in late examinations. Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. (orig.)

  19. Emphysema progression is visually detectable in low-dose CT in continuous but not in former smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B.; Petersen, Jens; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate interobserver agreement and time-trend in chest CT assessment of emphysema, airways, and interstitial abnormalities in a lung cancer screening cohort. Visual assessment of baseline and fifth-year examination of 1990 participants was performed independently by two observers. Results were standardised by means of an electronic score sheet; kappa and time-trend analyses were performed. Interobserver agreement was substantial in early emphysema diagnosis; highly significant (p < 0.001) time-trends in both emphysema presence and grading were found (higher prevalence and grade of emphysema in late CT examinations). Significant progression in emphysema was seen in continuous smokers, but not in former smokers. Agreement on centrilobular emphysema subtype was substantial; agreement on paraseptal subtype, moderate. Agreement on panlobular and mixed subtypes was only fair. Agreement was fair regarding airway analysis. Interstitial abnormalities were infrequent in the cohort, and agreement on these was fair to moderate. A highly significant time-trend was found regarding interstitial abnormalities, which were more frequent in late examinations. Visual scoring of chest CT is able to characterise the presence, pattern, and progression of early emphysema. Continuous smokers progress; former smokers do not. (orig.)

  20. SU-E-I-41: Dictionary Learning Based Quantitative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Dual-Energy CT (DECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q; Xing, L; Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: DECT collects two sets of projection data under higher and lower energies. With appropriates composition methods on linear attenuation coefficients, quantitative information about the object, such as density, can be obtained. In reality, one of the important problems in DECT is the radiation dose due to doubled scans. This work is aimed at establishing a dictionary learning based reconstruction framework for DECT for improved image quality while reducing the imaging dose. Methods: In our method, two dictionaries were learned respectively from the high-energy and lowenergy image datasets of similar objects under normal dose in advance. The linear attenuation coefficient was decomposed into two basis components with material based composition method. An iterative reconstruction framework was employed. Two basis components were alternately updated with DECT datasets and dictionary learning based sparse constraints. After one updating step under the dataset fidelity constraints, both high-energy and low-energy images can be obtained from the two basis components. Sparse constraints based on the learned dictionaries were applied to the high- and low-energy images to update the two basis components. The iterative calculation continues until a pre-set number of iteration was reached. Results: We evaluated the proposed dictionary learning method with dual energy images collected using a DECT scanner. We re-projected the projection data with added Poisson noise to reflect the low-dose situation. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with that obtained using FBP based method and TV based method. It was found that the proposed approach yield better results than other methods with higher resolution and less noise. Conclusion: The use of dictionary learned from DECT images under normal dose is valuable and leads to improved results with much lower imaging dose

  1. SU-E-I-41: Dictionary Learning Based Quantitative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Dual-Energy CT (DECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J [Dalio Institute of Cardiovascular Imaging, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: DECT collects two sets of projection data under higher and lower energies. With appropriates composition methods on linear attenuation coefficients, quantitative information about the object, such as density, can be obtained. In reality, one of the important problems in DECT is the radiation dose due to doubled scans. This work is aimed at establishing a dictionary learning based reconstruction framework for DECT for improved image quality while reducing the imaging dose. Methods: In our method, two dictionaries were learned respectively from the high-energy and lowenergy image datasets of similar objects under normal dose in advance. The linear attenuation coefficient was decomposed into two basis components with material based composition method. An iterative reconstruction framework was employed. Two basis components were alternately updated with DECT datasets and dictionary learning based sparse constraints. After one updating step under the dataset fidelity constraints, both high-energy and low-energy images can be obtained from the two basis components. Sparse constraints based on the learned dictionaries were applied to the high- and low-energy images to update the two basis components. The iterative calculation continues until a pre-set number of iteration was reached. Results: We evaluated the proposed dictionary learning method with dual energy images collected using a DECT scanner. We re-projected the projection data with added Poisson noise to reflect the low-dose situation. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with that obtained using FBP based method and TV based method. It was found that the proposed approach yield better results than other methods with higher resolution and less noise. Conclusion: The use of dictionary learned from DECT images under normal dose is valuable and leads to improved results with much lower imaging dose.

  2. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  3. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the HDTV algorithm shows the

  4. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Joscha, E-mail: joscha.maier@dkfz.de [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  5. CT findings in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, M.; Grgic, A.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B.; Tscholl, D.; Schaefers, H.J.; Uder, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is thought to be a rare complication of pulmonary embolism. However, it was recently demonstrated that CTEPH is more common than previously thought after pulmonary embolism. Without treatment, CTEPH is associated with a very high mortality rate. Making the correct diagnosis early is essential, because there is a potential curative treatment in the form of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). Because of the unspecific clinical symptoms of CTEPH, the different imaging modalities play a crucial role in diagnosis making. Since the introduction of the multi-detector CT technology, CT has become an important part in the diagnostic work up of pulmonary embolism and CTEPH and is often used as a first-line diagnostic tool. CT is not only a reliable tool for the diagnosis of CTEPH, but also is helpful in estimating the operability of these patients. PTE is still associated with a mortality rate of about 10%. Particularly an insufficient decrease of the pulmonary vascular resistance after PTE leads to a very high mortality rate. Therefore, it is crucial to correlate the degree of the surgical accessible obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature with the degree of pulmonary hypertension in deciding for or against PTE. The aim of this review is to describe the CT findings in patients with CTEPH and their use in differentiating CTEPH from other diseases like acute pulmonary embolism and primary pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, the correlation of different CT imaging features with surgical success after PTE will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Low-dose CT detects more progression of bone formation in comparison to conventional radiography in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: results from the SIAS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Anoek; de Bruin, Freek; van den Berg, Rosaline; Ramiro, Sofia; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Braun, Juergen; van Gaalen, Floris A; Reijnierse, Monique; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2018-02-01

    To compare the CT Syndesmophyte Score (CTSS) for low-dose CT (ldCT) with the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS) for conventional radiographs (CR) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Patients with AS in the Sensitive Imaging in Ankylosing Spondylitis cohort had lateral cervical and lumbar spine CR and whole spine ldCT at baseline and 2 years. CR and ldCT images were scored by two readers, paired by patient, blinded to time order, per imaging modality. For the total score analysis, we used average scores of readers per corner on CR or quadrant on ldCT. For the syndesmophyte analysis we used individual reader and consensus scores, regarding new or growing syndesmophyte at the same corner/quadrant. 50 patients were included in the syndesmophyte analysis and 37 in the total score analysis. Mean (SD) status scores for mSASSS (range 0-72) and CTSS (range 0-552) at baseline were 17.9 (13.8) and 161.6 (126.6), and mean progression was 2.4 (3.8) and 17.9 (22.1). Three times as many patients showed new or growing syndesmophytes at ≥3 quadrants on ldCT compared with ≥3 corners on CR for individual readers; for consensus this increased to five times. In 50 patients, 36 new or growing syndesmophytes are seen on CR compared with 151 on ldCT, most being found in the thoracic spine. ldCT, covering the whole spine, detects more progression in the form of new and growing syndesmophytes in patients with AS compared with CR, which is limited to the cervical and lumbar spine. Most progression occurred in the thoracic spine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Technical feasibility proof for high-resolution low-dose photon-counting CT of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalender, Willi A.; Kolditz, Daniel; Lueck, Ferdinand [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steiding, Christian [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); CT Imaging GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); University Hospital of Erlangen, Institute of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Ruth, Veikko; Roessler, Ann-Christin [University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institute of Medical Physics (IMP), Erlangen (Germany); Wenkel, Evelyn [University Hospital of Erlangen, Institute of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed and evaluated multiple times as a potentially alternative method for breast imaging. All efforts shown so far have been criticized and partly disapproved because of their limited spatial resolution and higher patient dose when compared to mammography. Our concept for a dedicated breast CT (BCT) scanner therefore aimed at novel apparatus and detector design to provide high spatial resolution of about 100 μm and average glandular dose (AGD) levels of 5 mGy or below. Photon-counting technology was considered as a solution to reach these goals. The complete concept was previously evaluated and confirmed by simulations and basic experiments on laboratory setups. We here present measurements of dose, technical image quality parameters and surgical specimen results on such a scanner. For comparison purposes, the specimens were also imaged with digital mammography (DM) and breast tomosynthesis (BT) apparatus. Results show that photon-counting BCT (pcBCT) at 5 mGy AGD offers sufficiently high 3D spatial resolution for reliable detectability of calcifications and soft tissue delineation. (orig.)

  8. Using YOLO based deep learning network for real time detection and localization of lung nodules from low dose CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran S., Sindhu; George, Jose; Skaria, Shibon; V. V., Varun

    2018-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in the world. The survival rate can be improved if the presence of lung nodules are detected early. This has also led to more focus being given to computer aided detection (CAD) and diagnosis of lung nodules. The arbitrariness of shape, size and texture of lung nodules is a challenge to be faced when developing these detection systems. In the proposed work we use convolutional neural networks to learn the features for nodule detection, replacing the traditional method of handcrafting features like geometric shape or texture. Our network uses the DetectNet architecture based on YOLO (You Only Look Once) to detect the nodules in CT scans of lung. In this architecture, object detection is treated as a regression problem with a single convolutional network simultaneously predicting multiple bounding boxes and class probabilities for those boxes. By performing training using chest CT scans from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC), NVIDIA DIGITS and Caffe deep learning framework, we show that nodule detection using this single neural network can result in reasonably low false positive rates with high sensitivity and precision.

  9. Image quality and radiation dose of low dose coronary CT angiography in obese patients: Sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction versus filtered back projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Rui; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Wu, Runze; Reddy, Ryan P.; Zhang, Chuanchen; Yu, Wei; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of low radiation dose CT coronary angiography (CTCA) using sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) compared with standard dose CTCA using filtered back-projection (FBP) in obese patients. Materials and methods: Seventy-eight consecutive obese patients were randomized into two groups and scanned using a prospectively ECG-triggered step-and-shot (SAS) CTCA protocol on a dual-source CT scanner. Thirty-nine patients (protocol A) were examined using a routine radiation dose protocol at 120 kV and images were reconstructed with FBP (protocol A). Thirty-nine patients (protocol B) were examined using a low dose protocol at 100 kV and images were reconstructed with SAFIRE. Two blinded observers independently assessed the image quality of each coronary segment using a 4-point scale (1 = non-diagnostic, 4 = excellent) and measured the objective parameters image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Radiation dose was calculated. Results: The coronary artery image quality scores, image noise, SNR and CNR were not significantly different between protocols A and B (all p > 0.05), with image quality scores of 3.51 ± 0.70 versus 3.55 ± 0.47, respectively. The effective radiation dose was significantly lower in protocol B (4.41 ± 0.83 mSv) than that in protocol A (8.83 ± 1.74 mSv, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Compared with standard dose CTCA using FBP, low dose CTCA using SAFIRE can maintain diagnostic image quality with 50% reduction of radiation dose.

  10. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  11. Characteristic performance evaluation of a photon counting Si strip detector for low dose spectral breast CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Barber, William C.; Ding, Huanjun; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The possible clinical applications which can be performed using a newly developed detector depend on the detector's characteristic performance in a number of metrics including the dynamic range, resolution, uniformity, and stability. The authors have evaluated a prototype energy resolved fast photon counting x-ray detector based on a silicon (Si) strip sensor used in an edge-on geometry with an application specific integrated circuit to record the number of x-rays and their energies at high flux and fast frame rates. The investigated detector was integrated with a dedicated breast spectral computed tomography (CT) system to make use of the detector's high spatial and energy resolution and low noise performance under conditions suitable for clinical breast imaging. The aim of this article is to investigate the intrinsic characteristics of the detector, in terms of maximum output count rate, spatial and energy resolution, and noise performance of the imaging system. Methods: The maximum output count rate was obtained with a 50 W x-ray tube with a maximum continuous output of 50 kVp at 1.0 mA. A109Cd source, with a characteristic x-ray peak at 22 keV from Ag, was used to measure the energy resolution of the detector. The axial plane modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using a 67 μm diameter tungsten wire. The two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) was measured using flat field images and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were calculated using the MTF and NPS results. The image quality parameters were studied as a function of various radiation doses and reconstruction filters. The one-dimensional (1D) NPS was used to investigate the effect of electronic noise elimination by varying the minimum energy threshold. Results: A maximum output count rate of 100 million counts per second per square millimeter (cps/mm2) has been obtained (1 million cps per 100 × 100 μm pixel). The electrical noise floor was less than 4 keV. The energy resolution

  12. CT anatomy of right phrenic nerve and pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkmen, Y.M.; Kazam, E.; Auh, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the right phrenic nerve and the right pulmonary ligament was studied in eight cadavers and 100 computed tomographic (CT) examinations. The pulmonary ligament originates below the inferior pulmonary vein and is constantly posterior to the inferior vena cava. The lower end of the right phrenic nerve, on the other hand, descends over the lateral surface of the inferior vena cava, accompanied by the right cardiophrenic artery. The nerve spreads over the diaphragm within a thick parietal pleural fold, wrapped in a fatty tissue, and this should not be confused with pulmonary ligament on CT

  13. Feasibility of spectral shaping for detection and quantification of coronary calcifications in ultra-low dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonder, Marleen; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging North-East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), Groningen (Netherlands); Huijsse, Sevrin E.M.; Greuter, Marcel J.W. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Meyer, Mathias; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg (Germany); Flohr, Thomas G. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging North-East Netherlands (CMI-NEN), Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate detectability and quantification of coronary calcifications for CT with a tin filter for spectral shaping. Phantom inserts with 100 small and 9 large calcifications, and a moving artificial artery with 3 calcifications (speed 0-30 mm/s) were placed in a thorax phantom simulating different patient sizes. The phantom was scanned in high-pitch spiral mode at 100 kVp with tin filter (Sn100 kVp), and at a reference of 120 kVp, with electrocardiographic (ECG) gating. Detectability and quantification of calcifications were analyzed for standard (130 HU) and adapted thresholds. Sn100 kVp yielded lower detectability of calcifications (9 % versus 12 %, p = 0.027) and lower Agatston scores (p < 0.008), irrespective of calcification, patient size and speed. Volume scores of the moving calcifications for Sn100 kVp at speed 10-30 mm/s were lower (p < 0.001), while mass scores were similar (p = 0.131). For Sn100 kVp with adapted threshold of 117 HU, detectability (p = 1.000) and Agatston score (p > 0.206) were similar to 120 kVp. Spectral shaping resulted in median dose reduction of 62.3 % (range 59.0-73.4 %). Coronary calcium scanning with spectral shaping yields lower detectability of calcifications and lower Agatston scores compared to 120 kVp scanning, for which a HU threshold correction should be developed. (orig.)

  14. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON): a prespecified analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess the effect of screening with increasing screening intervals on lung cancer mortality. In this prespecified analysis, we aimed to assess screening test performance, and the epidemiological, radiological, and clinical characteristics of interval cancers in NELSON trial participants assigned to the screening group. Eligible participants in the NELSON trial were those aged 50-75 years, who had smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day for more than 25 years or ten or more cigarettes for more than 30 years, and were still smoking or had quit less than 10 years ago. We included all participants assigned to the screening group who had attended at least one round of screening. Screening test results were based on volumetry using a two-step approach. Initially, screening test results were classified as negative, indeterminate, or positive based on nodule presence and volume. Subsequently, participants with an initial indeterminate result underwent follow-up screening to classify their final screening test result as negative or positive, based on nodule volume doubling time. We obtained information about all lung cancer diagnoses made during the first three rounds of screening, plus an additional 2 years of follow-up from the national cancer registry. We determined epidemiological, radiological, participant, and tumour characteristics by reassessing medical files, screening CTs, and clinical CTs. The NELSON trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl, number ISRCTN63545820. 15,822 participants were enrolled in the NELSON trial, of whom 7915 were assigned to low-dose CT screening with increasing interval between screens, and 7907 to no screening. We included 7155 participants in our study, with

  15. Low dose multi-detector CT of the chest (iLEAD Study): Visual ranking of different simulated mAs levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Krummenauer, Frank; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Detailed evaluation of the lung parenchyma might be impaired by use of low dose CT as image noise increases and subsequently image quality decreases. The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of visual perception of differences in image quality and noise at low dose chest CT. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients suffering from emphysema underwent CT (Aquilion-16, 120 kV, 150 mAs, 1 mm-collimation). Original raw data were used for simulation of 10 different mAs settings from 10 mAs to 100 mAs in 10 mAs increments. Three representative hard copy images (carina, 4 cm above, 5 cm below) were printed for evaluation of lung parenchyma (high-resolution kernel, lung window) and mediastinum (soft-kernel, soft tissue window). Ranking of expected low mAs level was performed for lung and soft tissue separately based on visual perception by three-blinded chest radiologist independently. Results were compared to the real simulated mAs. Results: The accuracy for correct ranking of the original 150 mAs scan was 89% for lung and 86% for soft tissue while it was 99% for the simulated 10 mAs for both windows. In comparison to the lowest mAs a significant error increase was found for the lung at 60-100 mAs (with error increase of 30-47%) for reader-I; 60-100 mAs for (33-64%) for reader-II and 70-100 mAs (38-57%) for reader-III. For the soft tissue: 60-150 mAs (with error increase of 28-63%) for reader-I; 50-100 mAs (35-56%) for reader-II and 50-90 mAs (35-40%) for reader-III. Conclusion: Simulated dose levels below 60 mAs (=42 mAs eff ) were clearly differentiated from higher dose levels by all readers. Therefore, imaging doses could be lowered down to 60 mAs without a diagnostically relevant increase in noise impairing image quality.

  16. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna [Seoul National University, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yanof, Jeffrey H. [Philips Healthcare, CT Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI{sub vol} and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI{sub vol} varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI{sub vol} and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI{sub vol} (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI{sub vol} (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  17. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna; Park, Seong Ho; Yanof, Jeffrey H.; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI vol and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI vol varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI vol and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI vol (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI vol (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  18. CT and PET-CT of a Dog with Multiple Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Jisun; KWON, Seong Young; CENA, Rohani; PARK, Seungjo; OH, Juyeon; OUI, Heejin; CHO, Kyoung-Oh; MIN, Jung-Joon; CHOI, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 10-year-old, intact female Yorkshire terrier had multiple pulmonary nodules on thoracic radiography and ultrasonography with no lesions elsewhere. Computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were performed to identify metastasis and undetected primary tumors. On CT examination, pulmonary nodules had a hypoattenuating center with thin peripheral enhancement, suggesting ischemic or necrotizing lesion. In PET-CT at 47 min after intravenous injection of 11.1 MBq/kg of FDG, the maximum standardized uptake value of each pulmonary nodule was about from 3.8 to 6.4. There were no abnormal lesions except for four pulmonary nodules on the CT and PET-CT. Primary lung tumor was tentatively diagnosed, and palliative therapy using 2 mg/kg tramadol and 2.2 mg/kg carprofen twice per day was applied. After the dog’s euthanasia due to deteriorated clinical signs and poor prognosis, undifferentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma was diagnosed through histopathologic and immunochemistry examination. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of CT and PET-CT features of canine pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In this case, multiple pulmonary adenocarcinoma could be determined on the basis of FDG PET-CT through screening the obvious distant metastasis and/or lymph node invasions and excluding unknown primary tumors. PMID:24389742

  19. Lung nodule detection performance in five observers on computed tomography (CT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction using three-dimensional processing (AIDR 3D) in a Japanese multicenter study: Comparison between ultra-low-dose CT and low-dose CT by receiver-operating characteristic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Yukihiro, E-mail: yatsushi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Shiga (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu 520-2192, Shiga (Japan); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Science, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 461-8673, Aichi (Japan); Yamashiro, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0215, Okinawa (Japan); Miyara, Tetsuhiro [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0215, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, Okinawa Prefectural Yaeyama Hospital, Ishigaki 907-0022, Okinawa (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Koyama, Mitsuhiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki 569-8686, Osaka (Japan); Sato, Yukihisa [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical Center of Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka 537-8511, Osaka (Japan); Moriya, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Ohara General Hospital, Fukushima 960-8611 (Japan); Noma, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Tenri 632-8552, Nara (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita 565-0871, Osaka (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Hyogo (Japan); Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara 903-0215, Okinawa (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Using AIDR 3D, ULDCT showed comparable LND of solid nodules to LDCT. • Using AIDR 3D, LND of smaller GGN in ULDCT was inferior to that in LDCT. • Effective dose in ULDCT was about only twice of that in chest X-ray. • BMI values in study population were mostly in the normal range body habitus. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare lung nodule detection performance (LNDP) in computed tomography (CT) with adaptive iterative dose reduction using three dimensional processing (AIDR3D) between ultra-low dose CT (ULDCT) and low dose CT (LDCT). Materials and methods: This was part of the Area-detector Computed Tomography for the Investigation of Thoracic Diseases (ACTIve) Study, a multicenter research project being conducted in Japan. Institutional Review Board approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-three subjects (body mass index, 23.3 ± 3.2) underwent chest CT at 6 institutions using identical scanners and protocols. In a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120 and 20 mA (3.52, 1.74 and 0.29 mSv, respectively). Axial CT images with 2-mm thickness/increment were reconstructed using AIDR3D. Standard of reference (SOR) was determined based on CT images at 240 mA by consensus reading of 2 board-certificated radiologists as to the presence of lung nodules with the longest diameter (LD) of more than 3 mm. Another 5 radiologists independently assessed and recorded presence/absence of lung nodules and their locations by continuously-distributed rating in CT images at 20 mA (ULDCT) and 120 mA (LDCT). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate LNDP of both methods in total and also in subgroups classified by LD (>4, 6 and 8 mm) and nodular characteristics (solid and ground glass nodules). Results: For SOR, 161 solid and 60 ground glass nodules were identified. No significant difference in LNDP for entire solid nodules was demonstrated between both methods, as area under ROC

  20. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong [Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia.

  1. Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with accompanying pulmonary parenchymal findings on CT: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Surin; Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Yun Jeong; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia or agenesis without congenital cardiovascular anomalies is rare in adults. We report a case of a 36-year-old man with isolated left unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia with recurrent hemoptysis. On computed tomography (CT), the left pulmonary artery showed hypoplasia with multiple collateral vessels seen in the mediastinum and the left hemithorax. Also, parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities were seen in the affected lung, which were probably due to chronic infarction induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia. There are only a few reports focusing on the radiologic findings in the pulmonary parenchyma induced by unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia, such as parenchymal bands and peripheral linear opacities. Therefore we report this case, which focused on the CT findings in the pulmonary parenchyma due to isolated unilateral pulmonary artery hypoplasia

  2. Aneurysms of proximal pulmonary arteries: CT diagnosis and preoperative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iula, G.; Ziviello, R.; Del Vecchio, W.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with proximal pulmonary artery aneurysm (PPAA) to determine whether accurate preoperative evaluation (crucial to differential diagnosis and surgical planning) had been obtained on the basis of CT study alone. Three patients with PPAA were studied with contrast-enhanced CT. We evaluated the size and shape of PPAAs, their proximal and distal extent, eventual presence of intraluminal thrombi, dissection, perianeurysmal fibrosis, and rupture. The results were compared with surgical findings. In two patients the aneurysm involved the pulmonary trunk and both the right and left arteries origin. In one patient the aneurysm extended from the left artery origin to the hilum of the left lung. Contrast-enhanced CT alone allows detection of aneurysm in the pulmonary trunk, in right or left pulmonary arteries with precise preoperative evaluation of the extent, size, shape, and complications. The CT imaging was unable to establish the etiologic origin and presence of small intimal tears in PPAA. (orig.)

  3. Low-dose ECG-gated 64-slices helical CT angiography of the chest: evaluation of image quality in 105 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, A.G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Khalil, C.; Remy, J.; Delannoy-Deken, V.; Duhamel, A.; Flohr, T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality of low-dose electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multislice helical computed tomography (CT) angiograms of the chest. One hundred and five consecutive patients with a regular sinus rhythm (72 men; 33 women) underwent ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the chest without administration of beta blockers using the following parameters: (a) collimation 32 x 0.6 mm with z-flying focal spot for the acquisition of 64 overlapping 0.6-mm slices, rotation time 0.33 s, pitch 0.3; (b) 120 kV, 200 mAs; (c) use of two dose modulation systems, including adjustment of the mAs setting to the patient's size and anatomical shape and an ECG-controlled tube current. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists in consensus on 3-mm-thick scans reconstructed at 55% of the response rate (RR) interval. The population and protocol characteristics included: (a) a mean [±standard deviation (SD)] body mass index (BMI) of 24.47 (±4.64); (b) a mean (±SD) heart rate of 72.04 (±15.76) bpm; (c) a mean (±SD) scanning time of 18.3 (±2.73) s; (d) a mean (±SD) dose-length product (DLP) value of 260.57 (±83.67) mGy/cm; (e) an estimated average effective dose of 4.95 (±1.59) mSv. Subjective noise was depicted in a total of nine examinations (8.5%), always rated as mild. Objective noise was assessed by measuring the standard deviation of pixel values in a homogeneous region of interest within the trachea and descending aorta; SD was 15.91 HU in the trachea and 22.16 HU in the descending aorta, with no significant difference in the mean value of the standard deviations between the four categories of BMI except for obese patients, who had a higher mean SD within the aorta. Interpolation artefacts were depicted in 22 patients, with a mean heart rate significantly lower than that of patients without interpolation artifacts, rated as mild in 11 patients and severe in 11 patients. The severity of interpolation artefacts

  4. CT SCAN EVALUATION OF PULMONARY NODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravi Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lung carcinomas are quite commonly diagnosed. Thanks to the ever increasing smokers’ population. Majority of the city dwellers are at a higher risk of having this disease when compared to the village counterparts. The stigma through which the person and the family have to undergo before confirming the diagnosis is enormous. So the radiographic methods of diagnosing the malignancies have to improve. Before confirming the diagnosis, the radiologists, the treating physicians should be somewhat confident about the diagnosis so as to prepare the patients and their relatives for the most probable diagnosis before the confirmatory report. The confirmatory procedures include the PET scan and the Histopathology. Both are time consuming procedures and in an economy like ours, finding a PET scanning centre is rather difficult. So the most probable diagnosis has to be thought of using minimal resource. This study puts in a sincere effort to understand and evaluate the pulmonary nodule when identified by a CT scan. This paper is intended to help the practicing radiologists and also make life easy for a practicing physician to identify correctly the lesions and also help the patients to prevent further progression of the disease. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional study. The sample size of the study consisted of thirty patients. CT scan was done in thirty patients who were identified to have lung nodules either by other mode of radiological studies or first time identified in a CT scan itself. The study was conducted in Fathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2015. RESULT Non-solid nodules were more in number when compared to the solid nodules. All the non-solid nodules were confirmed to be adenomas. Eighty percent of the nodules which were more than 8 mm in size were confirmed to be malignant. One hundred percent of the spiculated border on CT was confirmed to be malignant. In the present study

  5. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Kemmerich, G.; Herber, S.; Schweden, F.; Thelen, M.; Mayer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: 994 vessel segments of 14 consecutive patients with CTEPH were investigated with multislice-CT (slice thickness 3 mm, collimation 2.5 mm, reconstruction intervall 2 mm) and selective pulmonary DSA posterior-anterior, 45 oblique, and lateral projection. Analysis was performed by 2 investigators independently for CT and DSA. Diagnostic criteria were occlusions and non-occlusive changes like webs and bands, irregularities of the vessel wall, diameter reduction and thromboembolic depositions at different levels from central pulmonary arteries to subsegmental arteries. Reference diagnosis was made by synopsis of CT and DSA by consensus. Results: Concerning patency CT and DSA showed concordant findings overall in 88.9%, 92.9% for segmental arteries and 85.4% for subsegmental arteries. Concerning any thromboembolic changes, multislice-CT was significantly inferior to selective DSA (concordance 67.0% overall, 70.4% for segments and 63.6% for subsegments). Non-occlusive changes of the vessels were significantly underdiagnosed by CT (concordance of CT versus DSA: 23.1%). Conclusion: Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are equivalent for diagnosis of vessel occlusions at the level of segmental and subsegmental arteries. However, for visualisation of the non-occlusive thromboembolic changes of the vessel wall selective pulmonary DSA is still superior compared to multislice-CT. Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are complementary tools for diagnosis and treatment planning of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (orig.) [de

  6. CT analysis of pulmonary injuries from blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Shoko

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injuries due to blunt chest trauma and to categorize CT findings on the basis of their outcome. The materials of this study consist of 62 patients who had pulmonary injuries on CT obtained within 6 hours after blunt chest trauma. CT findings were analysed with regards to the shape, size, and distribution of the lesions. Follow-up CT scans were obtained in 35 patients at intervals from 1 day to 1 month after the initial CT study. CT showed ill-defined opacities in 59 patients (64 lesions in the peripheral area and 95 in the non-peripheral area) and pulmonary nodules with or without cavitary lesions in 30 patients (7 lesions in the peripheral area and 31 in the non-peripheral area). Follow-up CT allowed the classification of these pulmonary injuries into 3 types; the non-peripheral, ill-defined opacities showing immediate clearing, nodules with or without cavitary lesions over 1 cm in diameter showing prolongation, and the peripheral ill-defined opacities adjacent to the thoracic cage, and small nodules with or without cavitary lesions within 1 cm in diameter, showing various courses. CT has marked advantage over plain chest radiographs not only in the detection rate but in accurate estimation of the prognosis of the lesions. (author)

  7. CT of pulmonary emphysema - current status, challenges, and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanovich, Diana; Boiselle, Phillip M.; Bankier, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is characterized by irreversible destruction of lung parenchyma. Emphysema is a major contributor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which by itself is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Computed tomography (CT) is an established method for the in-vivo analysis of emphysema. This review first details the pathological basis of emphysema and shows how the subtypes of emphysema can be characterized by CT. The review then shows how CT is used to quantify emphysema, and describes the requirements and foundations for quantification to be accurate. Finally, the review discusses new challenges and their potential solution, notably focused on multi-detector-row CT, and emphasizes the open questions that future research on CT of pulmonary emphysema will have to address. (orig.)

  8. Cardiac causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension: assessment with multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoey, Edward T.D.; Gopalan, Deepa; Agrawal, S.K.B.; Screaton, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    The causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are diverse and include multiple congenital and acquired cardiac diseases as well as diseases primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature, lung, pleura and chest wall. The traditional role of CT in evaluating PAH includes assessment of pulmonary vasculature and lung parenchyma with limited assessment of the heart. Advances in multidetector CT technology with improved spatial and temporal resolution now permit accurate delineation of cardiac morphology. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is widely utilised in the workup of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease and can identify both pulmonary and cardiac causes. As the initial presentation for CTPA is often precipitated by nonspecific, unexplained symptoms and therefore undertaken by a general radiologist, it is important that a systematic approach to the interpretation of these studies, including cardiac evaluation, is routinely adopted. This paper reviews the CT evaluation in pulmonary hypertension with a particular focus on the cardiac causes, their subclassification into congenital systemic to pulmonary shunts and secondary to left heart disease, and their imaging features. It emphasises the use of a systematic approach to interpretation of CTPA examinations both in patients with known PAH and those with previously unsuspected disease. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension: assessment with multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoey, Edward T.D.; Gopalan, Deepa; Agrawal, S.K.B. [Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Papworth Hospital NHS Trust, Diagnostic Centre, Department of Radiology, Papworth Everard, Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    The causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are diverse and include multiple congenital and acquired cardiac diseases as well as diseases primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature, lung, pleura and chest wall. The traditional role of CT in evaluating PAH includes assessment of pulmonary vasculature and lung parenchyma with limited assessment of the heart. Advances in multidetector CT technology with improved spatial and temporal resolution now permit accurate delineation of cardiac morphology. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is widely utilised in the workup of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease and can identify both pulmonary and cardiac causes. As the initial presentation for CTPA is often precipitated by nonspecific, unexplained symptoms and therefore undertaken by a general radiologist, it is important that a systematic approach to the interpretation of these studies, including cardiac evaluation, is routinely adopted. This paper reviews the CT evaluation in pulmonary hypertension with a particular focus on the cardiac causes, their subclassification into congenital systemic to pulmonary shunts and secondary to left heart disease, and their imaging features. It emphasises the use of a systematic approach to interpretation of CTPA examinations both in patients with known PAH and those with previously unsuspected disease. (orig.)

  10. MO-DE-207A-05: Dictionary Learning Based Reconstruction with Low-Rank Constraint for Low-Dose Spectral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q; Liu, H; Xing, L; Yu, H; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Spectral CT enabled by an energy-resolved photon-counting detector outperforms conventional CT in terms of material discrimination, contrast resolution, etc. One reconstruction method for spectral CT is to generate a color image from a reconstructed component in each energy channel. However, given the radiation dose, the number of photons in each channel is limited, which will result in strong noise in each channel and affect the final color reconstruction. Here we propose a novel dictionary learning method for spectral CT that combines dictionary-based sparse representation method and the patch based low-rank constraint to simultaneously improve the reconstruction in each channel and to address the inter-channel correlations to further improve the reconstruction. Methods: The proposed method has two important features: (1) guarantee of the patch based sparsity in each energy channel, which is the result of the dictionary based sparse representation constraint; (2) the explicit consideration of the correlations among different energy channels, which is realized by patch-by-patch nuclear norm-based low-rank constraint. For each channel, the dictionary consists of two sub-dictionaries. One is learned from the average of the images in all energy channels, and the other is learned from the average of the images in all energy channels except the current channel. With average operation to reduce noise, these two dictionaries can effectively preserve the structural details and get rid of artifacts caused by noise. Combining them together can express all structural information in current channel. Results: Dictionary learning based methods can obtain better results than FBP and the TV-based method. With low-rank constraint, the image quality can be further improved in the channel with more noise. The final color result by the proposed method has the best visual quality. Conclusion: The proposed method can effectively improve the image quality of low-dose spectral

  11. MO-DE-207A-05: Dictionary Learning Based Reconstruction with Low-Rank Constraint for Low-Dose Spectral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Q [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China); Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Liu, H; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, H [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Wang, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Instute., Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spectral CT enabled by an energy-resolved photon-counting detector outperforms conventional CT in terms of material discrimination, contrast resolution, etc. One reconstruction method for spectral CT is to generate a color image from a reconstructed component in each energy channel. However, given the radiation dose, the number of photons in each channel is limited, which will result in strong noise in each channel and affect the final color reconstruction. Here we propose a novel dictionary learning method for spectral CT that combines dictionary-based sparse representation method and the patch based low-rank constraint to simultaneously improve the reconstruction in each channel and to address the inter-channel correlations to further improve the reconstruction. Methods: The proposed method has two important features: (1) guarantee of the patch based sparsity in each energy channel, which is the result of the dictionary based sparse representation constraint; (2) the explicit consideration of the correlations among different energy channels, which is realized by patch-by-patch nuclear norm-based low-rank constraint. For each channel, the dictionary consists of two sub-dictionaries. One is learned from the average of the images in all energy channels, and the other is learned from the average of the images in all energy channels except the current channel. With average operation to reduce noise, these two dictionaries can effectively preserve the structural details and get rid of artifacts caused by noise. Combining them together can express all structural information in current channel. Results: Dictionary learning based methods can obtain better results than FBP and the TV-based method. With low-rank constraint, the image quality can be further improved in the channel with more noise. The final color result by the proposed method has the best visual quality. Conclusion: The proposed method can effectively improve the image quality of low-dose spectral

  12. Feasibility of low-dose CT with model-based iterative image reconstruction in follow-up of patients with testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O’Neill, Siobhan B.; Foody, James; Breen, Micheál; Brady, Adrian; Kelly, Paul J.; Power, Derek G.; Sweeney, Paul; Bye, Jackie; O’Connor, Owen J.; Maher, Michael M.; O’Regan, Kevin N.

    2016-01-01

    •Radiologists should endeavour to minimise radiation exposure to patients with testicular cancer.•Iterative reconstruction algorithms permit CT imaging at lower radiation doses.•Image quality for reduced-dose CT–MBIR is at least comparable to conventional dose.•No loss of diagnostic accuracy apparent with reduced-dose CT–MBIR. Radiologists should endeavour to minimise radiation exposure to patients with testicular cancer. Iterative reconstruction algorithms permit CT imaging at lower radiation doses. Image quality for reduced-dose CT–MBIR is at least comparable to conventional dose. No loss of diagnostic accuracy apparent with reduced-dose CT–MBIR. We examine the performance of pure model-based iterative reconstruction with reduced-dose CT in follow-up of patients with early-stage testicular cancer. Sixteen patients (mean age 35.6 ± 7.4 years) with stage I or II testicular cancer underwent conventional dose (CD) and low-dose (LD) CT acquisition during CT surveillance. LD data was reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (LD–MBIR). Datasets were objectively and subjectively analysed at 8 anatomical levels. Two blinded clinical reads were compared to gold-standard assessment for diagnostic accuracy. Mean radiation dose reduction of 67.1% was recorded. Mean dose measurements for LD–MBIR were: thorax – 66 ± 11 mGy cm (DLP), 1.0 ± 0.2 mSv (ED), 2.0 ± 0.4 mGy (SSDE); abdominopelvic – 128 ± 38 mGy cm (DLP), 1.9 ± 0.6 mSv (ED), 3.0 ± 0.6 mGy (SSDE). Objective noise and signal-to-noise ratio values were comparable between the CD and LD–MBIR images. LD–MBIR images were superior (p < 0.001) with regard to subjective noise, streak artefact, 2-plane contrast resolution, 2-plane spatial resolution and diagnostic acceptability. All patients were correctly categorised as positive, indeterminate or negative for metastatic disease by 2 readers on LD–MBIR and CD datasets. MBIR facilitated a 67% reduction in radiation dose whilst

  13. X-ray CT evaluation of pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Koichi; Izumi, Takateru; Kitaichi, Masanori

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated high resolution CT in 60 patients with histologically diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis and, also, studied the relationship between CT and findings in open lung biopsy specimens in 2 cases. The CT findings were as follows: (1) thickening of bronchial wall shadows (27 out of 60 cases, 45.0 %), (2) irregular enlargement of pulmonary vascular shadows (39 cases, 65.0 %), (3) small or large nodular shadows (24 cases, 40.0 %), (4) local volume loss (14 cases, 23.3 %), (5) slightly increased density of localized lung field areas (24 cases, 40.0 %), (6) pleural or subpleural involvement (27 cases, 45.0 %), (7) lymph node enlargement (59 cases, 98.3 %). X-ray CT in 7 patients revealed no evidence of lung field involvement in patients with histologicall confirmed epithelioid cell granuloma in transbronchial lung biopsy specimens. Lesions located within vessels or in the vascular wall, perivascular sheath or alveoli surrounding blood vessels might cause pulmonary vascular shadows to appear swollen on CT. In a comparative study, we found irregular dilatation of pulmonary vascular shadows corresponding to granulomas in the connective tissue sheath of blood vessels. Also, thickening of bronchial wall shadows corresponded to granulomas in and around the bronchial wall. From the point of histopathological view epithelioid cell granulomas in the bronchovascular sheath were most marked in sarcoidosis, and they apperaed on CT as an irregular enlargement of pulmonary vascular shadows and thickening of the bronchial wall. On the other hand, we reported that collapse of alveoli and fibrosis surrounding blood vessels could cause irregular enlargement of pulmonary vascular shadows on CT in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Such shadows were seen on CT in both sarcoidosis and IPF but the mechanism of their appearance differed. (J.P.N.)

  14. The comparison of CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Yang Xufeng; Zhou Xuhui; Li Ziping; Fan Miao; Chen Jindi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the principal HRCT features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma and to explore their pathological mechanism, in order to improve the recognition of the CT signs of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma. Methods: The principal HRCT signs of thirty-five cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and forty cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively to explore the relationship between CT features and pathological findings. Results: The main features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma included larger masses, clear boundary, superficial sublobes and intra-tumor necrosis. While peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma mostly demonstrated as smaller nodules, deep sublobes, spiculations, spiculate protuberance, pleural indentation, vessel converging signs, and vacuole signs. The different of these above findings of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were significant (P<0.05). Peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma may depict bronchial casts and polygonal nodules; and peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma may demonstrate ground glass-like nodules. Conclusion: The difference of the CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and peripheral adenocarcinoma is based on their different histological features and biological behaviors. It is possible to differentiate them before operation in combination with clinical information. (authors)

  15. Time efficient 124I-PET volumetry in benign thyroid disorders by automatic isocontour procedures: mathematic adjustment using manual contoured measurements in low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freesmeyer, Martin; Kühnel, Christian; Westphal, Julian G

    2015-01-01

    Benign thyroid diseases are widely common in western societies. However, the volumetry of the thyroid gland, especially when enlarged or abnormally formed, proves to be a challenge in clinical routine. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid threshold-based isocontour extraction method for thyroid volumetry from (124)I-PET/CT data in patients scheduled for radioactive iodine therapy. PET/CT data from 45 patients were analysed 30 h after 1 MBq (124)I administration. Anatomical reference volume was calculated using manually contoured data from low-dose CT images of the neck (MC). In addition, we applied an automatic isocontour extraction method (IC0.2/1.0), with two different threshold values (0.2 and 1.0 kBq/ml), for volumetry of the PET data-set. IC0.2/1.0 shape data that showed significant variation from MC data were excluded. Subsequently, a mathematical correlation using a model of linear regression with multiple variables and step-wise elimination (mIC0.2/1.0), between IC0.2/1.0 and MC, was established. Data from 41 patients (IC0.2), and 32 patients (IC1.0) were analysed. The mathematically calculated volume, mIC, showed a median deviation from the reference (MC), of ±9 % (1-54 %) for mIC0.2 and of ±8.2 % (1-50 %) for mIC1.0 CONCLUSION: Contour extraction with both, mIC1.0 and mIC0.2 gave rapid and reliable results. However, mIC0.2 can be applied to significantly more patients (>90 %) and is, therefore, deemed to be more suitable for clinical routine, keeping in mind the potential advantages of using (124)I-PET/CT for the preparation of patients scheduled for radioactive iodine therapy.

  16. High-resolution CT of the lung in asbestos-exposed subjects. Comparison of low-dose and high-dose HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majurin, M.L.; Varpula, M.; Kurki, T.; Pakkala, L.

    1994-01-01

    The lowest possible mAs settings for high-resolution CT (HRCT) were studied on 45 individuals with suspected asbestos-related lung disease. All patients were investigated with 5 to 6 high-dose HRCT images (120 kVp/160 mA/2 s) at 3-cm intervals. At a selected level 4 additional low-dose images were obtained on each patient with lower mAs settings (100 mA/2 s, 80 mA/2 s, 60 mA/2 s, 30 mA/2 s). Thirty-seven subjects out of 45 had HRCT lesions compatible with asbestosis. HRCT images obtained with as low as 60 mA/2 s settings clearly showed pleural tractions and thickenings, parenchymal bands, honeycombing and subpleural curvilinear shadows, whereas in the evaluation of subpleural short lines and ground glass findings 80 mA/2 s were required. The lowest setting, 30 mA/2 s, was sufficient only in detecting and evaluating pleural tractions and thickenings. We conclude that 160 mAs yield good quality HRCT images, with substantial decrease of radiation dose, for the evaluation of asbestos-related lesions. (orig.)

  17. Reliable categorisation of visual scoring of coronary artery calcification on low-dose CT for lung cancer screening: validation with the standard Agatston score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Fu-Zong; Wang, Yen-Chi [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Ju, Yu-Jeng [National Taiwan University, Department of Psychology, Taipei (China); Mar, Guang-Yuan [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Kaohsiung 813 (China); Chuo, Chiung-Chen [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); Lin, Huey-Shyan [Fooyin University, School of Nursing, Kaohsiung (China); Wu, Ming-Ting [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung 813 (China); National Yang Ming University, Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2013-05-15

    To validate the reliability of the visual coronary artery calcification score (VCACS) on low-dose CT (LDCT) for concurrent screening of CAC and lung cancer. We enrolled 401 subjects receiving LDCT for lung cancer screening and ECG-gated CT for the Agatston score (AS). LDCT was reconstructed with 3- and 5-mm slice thickness (LDCT-3mm and LDCT-5mm respectively) for VCACS to obtain VCACS-3mm and VCACS-5mm respectively. After a training session comprising 32 cases, two observers performed four-scale VCACS (absent, mild, moderate, severe) of 369 data sets independently, the results were compared with four-scale AS (0, 1-100, 101-400, >400). CACs were present in 39.6 % (146/369) of subjects. The sensitivity of VCACS-3mm was higher than for VCACS-5mm (83.6 % versus 74.0 %). The median of AS of the 24 false-negative cases in VCACS-3mm was 2.3 (range 1.1-21.1). The false-negative rate for detecting AS {>=} 10 on LDCT-3mm was 1.9 %. VCACS-3mm had higher concordance with AS than VCACS-5mm (k = 0.813 versus k = 0.685). An extended test of VCACS-3mm for four junior observers showed high inter-observer reliability (intra-class correlation = 0.90) and good concordance with AS (k = 0.662-0.747). This study validated the reliability of VCACS on LDCT for lung cancer screening and showed that LDCT-3mm was more feasible than LDCT-5mm for CAD risk stratification. (orig.)

  18. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-applied ultra-low-dose CT with radiography- comparable radiation dose: Usefulness for lung nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Moon, Jung Won

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, < 0.01, 0.038, and < 0.868 for observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). The sensitivity of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p < 0.01 for three observers, and p = 0.064 and 0.146 for two observers). In jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, the mean values of figure-of-merit (FOM) for FBP, ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT

  19. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-applied ultra-low-dose CT with radiography- comparable radiation dose: Usefulness for lung nodule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jung Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, < 0.01, 0.038, and < 0.868 for observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). The sensitivity of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p < 0.01 for three observers, and p = 0.064 and 0.146 for two observers). In jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, the mean values of figure-of-merit (FOM) for FBP, ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT.

  20. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction-Applied Ultra-Low-Dose CT with Radiography-Comparable Radiation Dose: Usefulness for Lung Nodule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Moon, Jung Won; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT.

  1. CT and conventional radiographic techniques in interstitial pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leipner, N.; Schueller, H.; Uexkuell-Gueldenband, V. v.; Schlolaut, K.H.; Overlack, A.; Bonn Univ.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four patients with pulmonary fibrosis were examined by CT and by conventional radiological methods. Sixty patients had asbestosis, thirty-nine silicosis, forty sarcoidosis and twenty-five had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CT is superior to conventional radiography in evaluating interstitial pulmonary changes, particularly of the pleura and the lung parenchyma. In sixty-nine patients there were some findings which could only be demonstrated by CT. In asbestosis, silicosis and sarcoidosis the CT classification of the lung parenchyma which we have suggested produces significantly better correlation with vital capacity than can be achieved from conventional chest films, according to the guidelines of the I.L.O. (orig./GDG) [de

  2. WE-FG-207B-07: Feasibility of Low Dose Lung Cancer Screening with a Whole-Body Photon Counting CT: First Human Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, R; Cork, T; Folio, L; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. Methods: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings. EID and PCD images were compared for quantitative Hounsfield unit accuracy, noise levels, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and emphysema. Results: The PCD Hounsfield unit accuracy was better for water at all scan parameters, and for lung, GGN and emphysema equivalent regions of interest (ROIs) at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy. PCD attenuation accuracy was more consistent for all scan parameters (all P<0.01), while Hounsfield units for lung, GGN and emphysema ROIs changed significantly for EID with decreasing dose (all P<0.001). PCD showed lower noise levels at the lowest dose setting at 120, 100 and 80 kVp (15.2±0.3 vs 15.8±0.2, P=0.03; 16.1±0.3 vs 18.0±0.4, P=0.003; and 16.1±0.3 vs 17.9±0.3, P=0.001, respectively), resulting in superior CNR for the detection of GGNs and emphysema at 100 and 80 kVp. Significantly lower PCD noise levels were confirmed in volunteer images. Conclusion: PCD provided better Hounsfield unit accuracy for lung, ground-glass, and emphysema-equivalent foams at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy with less variability than EID. Additionally, PCD showed less noise, and higher CNR at 0.75 mGy for both 100 and 80 kVp. PCD technology may help reduce radiation exposure in lung cancer screening while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  3. WE-FG-207B-07: Feasibility of Low Dose Lung Cancer Screening with a Whole-Body Photon Counting CT: First Human Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, R; Cork, T; Folio, L; Bluemke, D; Pourmorteza, A [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a whole-body photon counting detector (PCD) CT scanner for low dose lung cancer screening compared to a conventional energy integrating detector (EID) system. Methods: Radiation dose-matched EID and PCD scans of the COPDGene 2 phantom and 2 human volunteers were acquired. Phantom images were acquired at different radiation dose levels (CTDIvol: 3.0, 1.5, and 0.75 mGy) and different tube voltages (120, 100, and 80 kVp), while human images were acquired at vendor recommended low-dose lung cancer screening settings. EID and PCD images were compared for quantitative Hounsfield unit accuracy, noise levels, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) for detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) and emphysema. Results: The PCD Hounsfield unit accuracy was better for water at all scan parameters, and for lung, GGN and emphysema equivalent regions of interest (ROIs) at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy. PCD attenuation accuracy was more consistent for all scan parameters (all P<0.01), while Hounsfield units for lung, GGN and emphysema ROIs changed significantly for EID with decreasing dose (all P<0.001). PCD showed lower noise levels at the lowest dose setting at 120, 100 and 80 kVp (15.2±0.3 vs 15.8±0.2, P=0.03; 16.1±0.3 vs 18.0±0.4, P=0.003; and 16.1±0.3 vs 17.9±0.3, P=0.001, respectively), resulting in superior CNR for the detection of GGNs and emphysema at 100 and 80 kVp. Significantly lower PCD noise levels were confirmed in volunteer images. Conclusion: PCD provided better Hounsfield unit accuracy for lung, ground-glass, and emphysema-equivalent foams at 1.5 and 0.75 mGy with less variability than EID. Additionally, PCD showed less noise, and higher CNR at 0.75 mGy for both 100 and 80 kVp. PCD technology may help reduce radiation exposure in lung cancer screening while maintaining diagnostic quality.

  4. Correlation between CT review findings and pulmonary function in pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Fukuda, Kiyoshi; Homma, Toshiaki

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between CT and pulmonary function test results in five normal controls and ten patients with severe pulmonary emphysema. We used mean lung attenuation values (MLAV) and ΔEMP as the index of emphysematous change in CT. ΔEMP was defined as the ratio of the area (-960 Hounsfield Units ∼ -1024 HU) to the area (-774 HU ∼ -1024 HU). MLAV and ΔEMP were measured from histograms of the CT review. Mean MLAV in pulmonary emphysema was -947.1 ± 9.3 HU, and that in normal controls was -906.6 ± 23.6 HU. Mean ΔEMP in pulmonary emphysema was 50.0 ± 9.9 %, and that in normal controls was 18.8 ± 13.0 %. The data in pulmonary emphysema cases differed significantly from those in normal controls. Furthermore MLAV and ΔEMP had good correlation to VC, %VC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, RV/TLC, %V 25 and Raw. CT is an easier examination than pulmonary function test for patients, and can show the extent and the distribution of emphysematous area. In this study it is suggested that CT is a useful examination in severe pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  5. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: bedros.taslakian@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Latson, Larry A., E-mail: larry.latson@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Truong, Mylene T., E-mail: mtruong@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX (United States); Aaltonen, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Aaltonen@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Shiau, Maria C., E-mail: Maria.Shiau@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Girvin, Francis, E-mail: Francis.Girvin@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Alpert, Jeffrey B., E-mail: Jeffrey.Alpert@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Wickstrom, Maj, E-mail: Maj.Wickstrom@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States); Ko, Jane P., E-mail: Jane.Ko@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CTPA plays a key role in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. • Improvements in CT technology have improved visualization of pulmonary arteries. • Knowledge of the technical pitfalls is essential for accurate diagnosis. • Dual energy CT imaging enables parenchymal iodine evaluation. • An awareness of the entities affecting the pulmonary arteries is important. - Abstract: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  6. CT pulmonary angiography of adult pulmonary vascular diseases: Technical considerations and interpretive pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Latson, Larry A.; Truong, Mylene T.; Aaltonen, Eric; Shiau, Maria C.; Girvin, Francis; Alpert, Jeffrey B.; Wickstrom, Maj; Ko, Jane P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CTPA plays a key role in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases. • Improvements in CT technology have improved visualization of pulmonary arteries. • Knowledge of the technical pitfalls is essential for accurate diagnosis. • Dual energy CT imaging enables parenchymal iodine evaluation. • An awareness of the entities affecting the pulmonary arteries is important. - Abstract: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the primary imaging modality for evaluating the pulmonary arteries. Although pulmonary embolism is the primary indication for CTPA, various pulmonary vascular abnormalities can be detected in adults. Knowledge of these disease entities and understanding technical pitfalls that can occur when performing CTPA are essential to enable accurate diagnosis and allow timely management. This review will cover a spectrum of acquired abnormalities including pulmonary embolism due to thrombus and foreign bodies, primary and metastatic tumor involving the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary hypertension, as well as pulmonary artery aneurysms and stenoses. Additionally, methods to overcome technical pitfalls and interventional treatment options will be addressed.

  7. Pulmonary sequestration: diagnosis with three dimensional reconstruction using spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Yongkang; Zhao Shaohong; Cai Zulong; Yang Li; Zhao Hong; Zhang Ailian; Huang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of three dimensional (3D) reconstruction using spiral CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration. Methods: Ten patients with pulmonary sequestration were analyzed. The diagnoses were confirmed by angiography in 2 patients, by operation in 2 patients, and by CT angiography in 6 patients. All patients were examined with Philips SR 7000 or GE Lightspeed Plus scanner. CT images were transferred to a workstation and 3D reconstruction was performed. All images were reviewed and analyzed by two radiologists. Results: Among 10 patients, the pulmonary sequestration was in the right lower lobe in 1 patient and in the left lower lobe in 9 patients. Anomalous systemic arteries originated from thoracic aorta in 8 patients and from celiac artery in 2 patients. On plain CT scan, there were 4 patients with patchy opacities, 3 patients with hilar mass accompanying vascular engorgement and profusion in adjacent parenchyma, 2 patients with finger-like appendage surrounded by hyper-inflated lung, and 1 patient with lung mass-like lesion. Enhanced CT revealed anomalous systemic arteries in 9 patients and drainage vein in 7 patients. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) and curvilinear reconstruction could depict the abnormal systemic artery and drainage vein in sequestration. Surface shadow display (SSD) and volume rendering (VR) could delineate the anomalous systemic artery. Conclusion: 3D reconstruction with enhanced spiral CT can depict anomalous systemic artery and drainage vein and it is the first method of choice in diagnosing pulmonary sequestration

  8. Identification of early-stage usual interstitial pneumonia from low-dose chest CT scans using fractional high-density lung distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiting; Salvatore, Mary; Liu, Shuang; Jirapatnakul, Artit; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2017-03-01

    A fully-automated computer algorithm has been developed to identify early-stage Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) using features computed from low-dose CT scans. In each scan, the pre-segmented lung region is divided into N subsections (N = 1, 8, 27, 64) by separating the lung from anterior/posterior, left/right and superior/inferior in 3D space. Each subsection has approximately the same volume. In each subsection, a classic density measurement (fractional high-density volume h) is evaluated to characterize the disease severity in that subsection, resulting in a feature vector of length N for each lung. Features are then combined in two different ways: concatenation (2*N features) and taking the maximum in each of the two corresponding subsections in the two lungs (N features). The algorithm was evaluated on a dataset consisting of 51 UIP and 56 normal cases, a combined feature vector was computed for each case and an SVM classifier (RBF kernel) was used to classify them into UIP or normal using ten-fold cross validation. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was used for evaluation. The highest AUC of 0.95 was achieved by using concatenated features and an N of 27. Using lung partition (N = 27, 64) with concatenated features had significantly better result over not using partitions (N = 1) (p-value < 0.05). Therefore this equal-volume partition fractional high-density volume method is useful in distinguishing early-stage UIP from normal cases.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism: chest radiograph and CT evaluation before and after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.C.; Kauczor, H.U.; Schild, H.H.; Renner, C.; Kirchhoff, E.; Lang, P.; Iversen, S.; Thelen, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of morphometric data on conventional radiography and CT predicting the presence and degree of pulmonary hypertension and to assess the reversibility after surgery. On preoperative X-ray films and CT scans of 50 patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic thromboembolism, we measured the cardiothoracic ratio, basal diameter, length of cardiac contact to sternum, pulmonary trunk, right and left descending pulmonary artery, and the septum angle. These data were correlated with pulmonary arterial pressure. In 14 X-ray patients and 18 CT patients, with follow-up after surgical thromboendarterectomy the reversibility of these changes was assessed. A dilated pulmonary trunk was the most common abnormality (96% each on X-ray and CT). Pulmonary arteries were dilated on X-ray in 40% (right) and 14% (left), and on CT in 92% (right) and 96% (left). The best correlation with mean arterial pressure was found measuring the pulmonary trunk on CT (r=0.43, p<0.01). After surgery, reversibility was most significant for the pulmonary trunk on CT (p<0.0001). In patients with chronic pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension can best be predicted by assessing the diameter of the pulmonary trunk both on X-ray and CT. No close correlation is present between the extent of any parameter and the level of the pulmonary pressure. (orig.)

  10. Multi-slice CT pulmonary function evaluation in emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Xiaojun; Zhang Guozhen; Zhu Yanping; Shan Lin; Mao Dingbiao; Ding Qiyong; Hua Yanqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of evaluating the lung function by MSCT in emphysema. Methods: The MSCT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were respectively performed in 147 receptors within one week. They were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (120 receptors), including normal, mild, moderate and severe abnormal pulmonary function based on the PFT, for comparing the correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT pulmonary function and PFT and settingup the primary, grade criteria of abnormal pulmonary, function in emphysema, group B (27 receptors) for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy in group A. The total lung was respectively scanned at the full inspiration and full expiration with MSCT. The pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT were measured with Siemens Pulmo pulmonary quantitative software. Results: There was correlation between pulmonary quantitative indexes of MSCT and PFT. The Piex/in -910 showed best correlation with FEV 1 % (r= -0. 905, P -910 (χ 2 0.267, P=0.966, accuracy 81.5%), and the primary criteria for abnormal pulmonary, function of emphysema was normal (0-9.9), mild (10.0-34.9), moderate (35.0-74.9) and severe (≥75.0). Conclusion: It is feasible to evaluate the abnormal lung function of emphysema with pulmonary quantitative indexes of CT. The Piex/in 910 was the most effective one in various indexes. (authors)

  11. Labeling the pulmonary arterial tree in CT images for automatic quantification of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.M.; Marquering, H.A.; Dogan, H.; Hendriks, E.A.; De Roos, A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Stoel, B.C.

    2007-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced CT Angiography has become an accepted diagnostic tool for detecting Pulmonary Embolism (PE). The CT obstruction index proposed by Qanadli, which is based on the number of obstructed arterial segments, enables the quantification of PE severity. Because the required manual

  12. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion imaging with dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Sven F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, LMU Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Hoegl, Sandra; Fisahn, Juergen; Irlbeck, Michael [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Anesthesiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Maxien, Daniel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) ventilation imaging in combination with DE perfusion mapping for a comprehensive assessment of ventilation, perfusion, morphology and structure of the pulmonary parenchyma. Two dual-energy CT acquisitions for xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion mapping were performed in patients under artificial respiration. Parenchymal xenon and iodine distribution were mapped and correlated with structural or vascular abnormalities. In all datasets, image quality was sufficient for a comprehensive image reading of the pulmonary CTA images, lung window images and pulmonary functional parameter maps and led to expedient results in each patient. With dual-source CT systems, DECT of the lung with iodine or xenon administration is technically feasible and makes it possible to depict the regional iodine or xenon distribution representing the local perfusion and ventilation. (orig.)

  13. Pulmonary CT findings in acute mercury vapour exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Sato, Kimihiko; Heianna, Jyouiti; Hirano, Yoshinori; Omachi, Kohiti; Izumi, Jyunichi; Watarai, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    AIM: We describe the pulmonary computed tomography (CT) findings in acute mercury poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial (n= 8) and follow-up (n= 6) chest CT examinations in eight patients exposed to mercury vapour while cutting pipes in a sulphuric acid plant were reviewed. Of the eight patients, two were asymptomatic and had normal CT results, two were asymptomatic but had abnormalities on CT, and four had both acute symptoms and positive CT results. The patients were all men whose ages ranged from 37 to 54 years (mean, 49 years). RESULTS: Poorly defined nodules were present in five of six patients with positive CT findings, present alone in two patients or as part of a mixed pattern in three. They were random in distribution. Alveolar consolidation (n= 3) and areas of ground-glass opacity (n= 4) were observed and were more prominent in the most severely affected patients with the highest blood and urine level of mercury, predominantly in the upper and/or middle zone. These abnormal findings on CT resolved with (n= 1) or without (n= 5) steroid therapy. Pathological findings (n= 1) demonstrated acute interstitial changes predominantly with oedema. CONCLUSION: We report CT findings in eight patients acutely exposed to mercury vapour. The pulmonary injury was reversible on CT in these cases. Hashimoto, M. (2001)

  14. Screenings of lung cancer with low dose spiral CT: results of a three year pilot study and design of the randomised controlled trial Italung-CT; Screening della neoplasia polmonare con TC spirale a bassa dose: risultati di uno studio pilota triennale e disegno dello studio clinico randomizzato Italung-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picozzi, Giulia [Firenze Univ., Firenze (Italy). Radiodiagnostica I-Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica; Paci, Enrico [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Careggi, Firenze (Italy). Unita' di Epidemiologia Clinica e Descrittiva Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica; Lopes Pegna, Andrea [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Careggi, Firenze (Italy). U.O. Pneumologia] [and others

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a three-year observational pilot study of lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) and to present the study design of a randomised clinical trial named as Italung CT. Materials and methods: Sixty (47 males and 13 females, mean age 64{+-}4.5 years) heavy smokers (at least 20 packs-year) underwent three low-dose spiral CT screening tests one year apart on a single slice or multislice CT scanner. Indeterminate nodules were managed according to the recommendations of the Early Lung Cancer Action Project. Results: Indeterminate nodules were observed in 33 (55%) of the subjects (60% at the baseline screening test, 24% at the first annual test and 16% at the second annual test). The size of the largest indeterminate nodule was <5mm in diameter in 20 subjects. 10 of whom showed the nodule at the baseline test. Forty-five subjects (75%) completed the first annual test and 42 (70%) the second annual test. One (1.6%) prevalent lung cancer (adenosquamous carcinoma) and one (2.2%) incident lung cancer (small cell cancer at the first annual examination) were observed, as well as pulmonary localisation of Hodgkin's lymphoma (at the second annual test). In addition, one subject underwent lung surgery for a chondromatous hamartoma. Conclusions: The results of the pilot study are substantially in line with those of other observational studies of greater sample size. This justifies optimism about the reliability of the results in the screened arm of the Italung Ct trial which hast just began. [Italian] Scopo: Riportare i risultati di uno studio pilota osservazionale di screening della neoplasia polmonare con TC a bassa dose della durata di tre anni e presentare il disegno dello studio clinico randomizzato Italung-CT. Materiale e metodi: Sessanta (47 uomini e 13 donne, eta' media 64{+-}4,5 anni) forti fumatori (almeno 20 pacchetti/anno) sono stati sottoposti ad un esame basale e a due controlli annuali con TC single o

  15. CT assessment of tracheobronchial anomaly in left pulmonary artery sling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min M.; Zhu, Ming; Sun, Ai-Min M.; Wang, Qian [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2010-11-15

    The left pulmonary artery sling (LPAS) is a rare vascular anomaly where the left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery, passes over the right bronchus, and goes posteriorly between the trachea and esophagus. The LPAS is frequently associated with cardiac and non-cardiac defects including tracheobronchial abnormalities. To evaluate the utility of multislice CT (MSCT) and helical CT (HCT) in diagnosing and defining the tracheobronchial anomaly and anatomic relationships between the trachea and aberrant left pulmonary artery. MSCT or HCT was performed in 27 children to determine the tracheobronchial anatomy and identify tracheobronchial stenosis. Eighteen children underwent surgery. According to the Wells [6] classification of LPAS, which includes two main types and two subtypes, there were eight cases of type 1A, five cases of type 1B, six cases of type 2A and eight cases of type 2B in this group. Twenty-four of the 27 children had substantial tracheobronchial stenosis. Four died before surgery; the 18 had reanastomosis of the left pulmonary artery. Five children also had tracheoplasty; three died after surgery. CT, especially MSCT, is an ideal modality for simultaneously identifying aberrant left pulmonary artery and any associated tracheobronchial anomaly. The Wells classification is useful for operative planning. (orig.)

  16. Demonstration of pulmonary embolism with gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coche, E.E.; Hammer, F.D.; Goffette, P.P. [Dept. of Radiology, St. Luc University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    The authors report a case of successful detection of pulmonary embolism using gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT (Gadodiamide, 0.4 mmol/kg, 2 ml/s, delay 18 s) in a 77-year-old woman, with previous allergy to iodinated contrast medium, and renal failure, who presented with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs was first performed and revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the right lower limb. To establish if venous thrombosis was the cause of pulmonary hypertension and to confirm that pulmonary endarterectomy was not indicated in this situation, several imaging modalities were performed. Lung scintigraphy and MRI were non-diagnostic. Gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT demonstrated a large thrombus located proximally and in a segmental artery of the right lower lobe. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of gadolinium as alternative contrast agent with spiral CT to diagnose pulmonary embolism and elucidate the cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a patient with some contraindications for iodinated contrast medium injection. (orig.)

  17. Demonstration of pulmonary embolism with gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coche, E.E.; Hammer, F.D.; Goffette, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    The authors report a case of successful detection of pulmonary embolism using gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT (Gadodiamide, 0.4 mmol/kg, 2 ml/s, delay 18 s) in a 77-year-old woman, with previous allergy to iodinated contrast medium, and renal failure, who presented with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs was first performed and revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the right lower limb. To establish if venous thrombosis was the cause of pulmonary hypertension and to confirm that pulmonary endarterectomy was not indicated in this situation, several imaging modalities were performed. Lung scintigraphy and MRI were non-diagnostic. Gadolinium-enhanced spiral CT demonstrated a large thrombus located proximally and in a segmental artery of the right lower lobe. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of gadolinium as alternative contrast agent with spiral CT to diagnose pulmonary embolism and elucidate the cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a patient with some contraindications for iodinated contrast medium injection. (orig.)

  18. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  19. Low doses effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this article is asked the question about a possible carcinogens effect of low dose irradiation. With epidemiological data, knowledge about the carcinogenesis, the professor Tubiana explains that in spite of experiments made on thousand or hundred of thousands animals it has not been possible to bring to the fore a carcinogens effect for low doses and then it is not reasonable to believe and let the population believe that low dose irradiation could lead to an increase of neoplasms and from this point of view any hardening of radiation protection standards could in fact, increase anguish about ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  20. Lung cancer incidence and mortality in National Lung Screening Trial participants who underwent low-dose CT prevalence screening: a retrospective cohort analysis of a randomised, multicentre, diagnostic screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Edward F; Greco, Erin; Gatsonis, Constantine; Pinsky, Paul; Kramer, Barnett S; Aberle, Denise R

    2016-05-01

    Annual low-dose CT screening for lung cancer has been recommended for high-risk individuals, but the necessity of yearly low-dose CT in all eligible individuals is uncertain. This study examined rates of lung cancer in National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had a negative prevalence (initial) low-dose CT screen to explore whether less frequent screening could be justified in some lower-risk subpopulations. We did a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the NLST, a randomised, multicentre screening trial comparing three annual low-dose CT assessments with three annual chest radiographs for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk, eligible individuals (aged 55-74 years with at least a 30 pack-year history of cigarette smoking, and, if a former smoker, had quit within the past 15 years), recruited from US medical centres between Aug 5, 2002, and April 26, 2004. Participants were followed up for up to 5 years after their last annual screen. For the purposes of this analysis, our cohort consisted of all NLST participants who had received a low-dose CT prevalence (T0) screen. We determined the frequency, stage, histology, study year of diagnosis, and incidence of lung cancer, as well as overall and lung cancer-specific mortality, and whether lung cancers were detected as a result of screening or within 1 year of a negative screen. We also estimated the effect on mortality if the first annual (T1) screen in participants with a negative T0 screen had not been done. The NLST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00047385. Our cohort consisted of 26 231 participants assigned to the low-dose CT screening group who had undergone their T0 screen. The 19 066 participants with a negative T0 screen had a lower incidence of lung cancer than did all 26 231 T0-screened participants (371·88 [95% CI 337·97-408·26] per 100 000 person-years vs 661·23 [622·07-702·21]) and had lower lung cancer-related mortality (185·82 [95% CI 162·17

  1. WE-G-18A-04: 3D Dictionary Learning Based Statistical Iterative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Cone Beam CT Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T; Yan, H; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, Steve B.; Lou, Y; Xu, Q; Mou, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a 3D dictionary learning based statistical reconstruction algorithm on graphic processing units (GPU), to improve the quality of low-dose cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging with high efficiency. Methods: A 3D dictionary containing 256 small volumes (atoms) of 3x3x3 voxels was trained from a high quality volume image. During reconstruction, we utilized a Cholesky decomposition based orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm to find a sparse representation on this dictionary basis of each patch in the reconstructed image, in order to regularize the image quality. To accelerate the time-consuming sparse coding in the 3D case, we implemented our algorithm in a parallel fashion by taking advantage of the tremendous computational power of GPU. Evaluations are performed based on a head-neck patient case. FDK reconstruction with full dataset of 364 projections is used as the reference. We compared the proposed 3D dictionary learning based method with a tight frame (TF) based one using a subset data of 121 projections. The image qualities under different resolutions in z-direction, with or without statistical weighting are also studied. Results: Compared to the TF-based CBCT reconstruction, our experiments indicated that 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction is able to recover finer structures, to remove more streaking artifacts, and is less susceptible to blocky artifacts. It is also observed that statistical reconstruction approach is sensitive to inconsistency between the forward and backward projection operations in parallel computing. Using high a spatial resolution along z direction helps improving the algorithm robustness. Conclusion: 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is able to sense the structural information while suppressing noise, and hence to achieve high quality reconstruction. The GPU realization of the whole algorithm offers a significant efficiency enhancement, making this algorithm more feasible for potential

  2. WE-G-18A-04: 3D Dictionary Learning Based Statistical Iterative Reconstruction for Low-Dose Cone Beam CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, T [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Yan, H; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, Steve B. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lou, Y [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Xu, Q; Mou, X [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a 3D dictionary learning based statistical reconstruction algorithm on graphic processing units (GPU), to improve the quality of low-dose cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging with high efficiency. Methods: A 3D dictionary containing 256 small volumes (atoms) of 3x3x3 voxels was trained from a high quality volume image. During reconstruction, we utilized a Cholesky decomposition based orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm to find a sparse representation on this dictionary basis of each patch in the reconstructed image, in order to regularize the image quality. To accelerate the time-consuming sparse coding in the 3D case, we implemented our algorithm in a parallel fashion by taking advantage of the tremendous computational power of GPU. Evaluations are performed based on a head-neck patient case. FDK reconstruction with full dataset of 364 projections is used as the reference. We compared the proposed 3D dictionary learning based method with a tight frame (TF) based one using a subset data of 121 projections. The image qualities under different resolutions in z-direction, with or without statistical weighting are also studied. Results: Compared to the TF-based CBCT reconstruction, our experiments indicated that 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction is able to recover finer structures, to remove more streaking artifacts, and is less susceptible to blocky artifacts. It is also observed that statistical reconstruction approach is sensitive to inconsistency between the forward and backward projection operations in parallel computing. Using high a spatial resolution along z direction helps improving the algorithm robustness. Conclusion: 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is able to sense the structural information while suppressing noise, and hence to achieve high quality reconstruction. The GPU realization of the whole algorithm offers a significant efficiency enhancement, making this algorithm more feasible for potential

  3. Comprehensive low-dose imaging of carotid and coronary arteries with a single-injection dual-source CT angiography protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognolini, A.; Arellano, C.S.; Marfori, W.; Heidari, G.; Sayre, J.W.; Krishnam, M.S.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of a fast single-bolus combined carotid and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients (18 women and 15 men) with a median age of 61 ± 14 years old (range 37–87 years) with known or suspected atherosclerotic disease were enrolled in this prospective study. A single breath-hold, single biphasic injection protocol (50 ml at 3 ml/s, 50 ml at 5 ml/s, 50 ml saline flush at 5 ml/s) was used for combined CTA imaging of the supra-aortic (SAA) and coronary arteries (CA) on a 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) machine. Helical CTA acquisition of the SAA was followed by prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA. Subjective (four-point scale) image quality and objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) measurements were performed. Vascular disease was graded on a four-point scale (grade 1: absent; grade 2: mild, grade 3: moderate; grade 4: severe). The radiation dose was recorded for each patient. Results: The average enhancement and subjective quality score of SAA and CA segments were 396 HU/358 HU and 1.2 ± 0.3/1.72 ± 0.4, respectively. The SNR was 27.1 ± 1.7 in the SAA and 21.6 ± 1.6 in the CA (p < 0.0001). The CNR was 18.1 ± 1.2 and 15.9 ± 1.8, respectively (p = 0.4). Four percent of SAA and 14% of CA segments (mostly due to peri-venous streak artefacts and small calibre, respectively) produced non-diagnostic images. SAA findings were as follows: 26/33 (79%) patients showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) had grade 2 and 1/33 (3%) had grade 3 disease. CA findings were as follows: 25/33 (76%) showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) patients had grade 2 and 2/33 (6%) had grade 3 disease. Five patients had disease in both districts. The average radiation dose for the combined CTA angiogram was 4.3 ± 0.6 mSv. Conclusion: A fast, low-dose combined DSCT angiography protocol appears technically feasible for imaging carotid and

  4. Comprehensive low-dose imaging of carotid and coronary arteries with a single-injection dual-source CT angiography protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognolini, A; Arellano, C S; Marfori, W; Heidari, G; Sayre, J W; Krishnam, M S; Ruehm, S G

    2014-03-01

    To assess the feasibility of a fast single-bolus combined carotid and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in asymptomatic patients. Thirty-three consecutive patients (18 women and 15 men) with a median age of 61 ± 14 years old (range 37-87 years) with known or suspected atherosclerotic disease were enrolled in this prospective study. A single breath-hold, single biphasic injection protocol (50 ml at 3 ml/s, 50 ml at 5 ml/s, 50 ml saline flush at 5 ml/s) was used for combined CTA imaging of the supra-aortic (SAA) and coronary arteries (CA) on a 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) machine. Helical CTA acquisition of the SAA was followed by prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA. Subjective (four-point scale) image quality and objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) measurements were performed. Vascular disease was graded on a four-point scale (grade 1: absent; grade 2: mild, grade 3: moderate; grade 4: severe). The radiation dose was recorded for each patient. The average enhancement and subjective quality score of SAA and CA segments were 396 HU/358 HU and 1.2 ± 0.3/1.72 ± 0.4, respectively. The SNR was 27.1 ± 1.7 in the SAA and 21.6 ± 1.6 in the CA (p grade 2 and 1/33 (3%) had grade 3 disease. CA findings were as follows: 25/33 (76%) showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) patients had grade 2 and 2/33 (6%) had grade 3 disease. Five patients had disease in both districts. The average radiation dose for the combined CTA angiogram was 4.3 ± 0.6 mSv. A fast, low-dose combined DSCT angiography protocol appears technically feasible for imaging carotid and coronary atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Guan Yubao; Li Chuanxing; Wu Peihong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: The CT examinations of 12 patients with pathologically proven pulmonary MALT lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. Evaluated imaging findings included number, distribution, shape, attenuation and other associated findings of each lesion were evaluated. Results: Thirty-two pulmonary lesions, including consolidations, masses, nodules and lesions with ground glass attenuation, were identified in 12 patients. Multiple lesions were founded in 10 of 12 patients and solitary lesion in 2 patients. Multiple lesions found in one lung in 2 patients, and multiple lesions found in both lungs in 8 patients. Ten cases demonstrated 21 consolidation lesions with air bronchogram, and one of the ten cases demonstrated two lesions with airway dilatation. Three cases demonstrated 5 masses or nodular lesions, 3 of these 5 lesions showed air bronchogram. Two cases demonstrated 6 ground glass attenuation lesions. One case showed mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma usually appears as multiple bilateral consolidations, masses, nodules with air bronchogram or lesions with ground- glass attenuation at CT imaging. The imaging findings described above and with an indolent clinical course may suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. (authors)

  6. CT findings of pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Peng Yun; Zhou Chunjun; Zhao Shunying

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to study the CT findings of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent children. Methods: CT scan and clinical data of 21 immunocompetent children with proven pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results: The CT scans demonstrated 1 mm subpleural nodule in the lingula of left lung in 1 patient and multiple nodules in 20 patients.Of 20 patients with multiple nodules, peripheral or subpleural distribution was found in 12 patients,and diffuse distribution in 8 patients. Of 20 patients with multiple nodules,Nodules of < 10 mm was found in 18 patients,< 3 mm in 14 patients, and > 10 mm in 2 patients. Round nodular with smooth margin was detected in 15 of 20 patients with multiple nodules. Lymphadenopathy was found in 17 patients including 3 patients with mild contrast enhancement and 2 patients with circular enhancement. Extrapulmonary lesions distributing in liver, spleen, kidney, and the nervous system were found in 14 patients. In follow-up, 1 patient died and 20 patients fully recovered. Conclusions: Pulmonary multiple nodules with lymphadenopathy is the characteristic CT findings in immunocompetent children with pulmonary cryptococcosis which is prone to involve multiple extra-pulmonary organs. (authors)

  7. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Tobino, Kazunori; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Doi, Tokuhide; Hoshika, Yoshito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm 2 and 5–10 mm 2 and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL CO /VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p CO /VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  8. Emphysema quantification on low-dose CT using percentage of low-attenuation volume and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions: Effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Mizuho, E-mail: nmizuho@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki, E-mail: sumatsu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro, E-mail: sshin@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu, E-mail: hkoyama@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko, E-mail: yasuko1.fujisawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki, E-mail: naoki.sugihara@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Emphysema quantification (LAV% and D) was affected by image noise on low-dose CT. • For LAV% and D, AIDR 3D improved agreement of quantification on low-dose CT. • AIDR 3D has the potential to quantify emphysema accurately on low-dose CT. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing (AIDR 3D) for quantification of two measures of emphysema: percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Method and materials: : Fifty-two patients who underwent standard-dose (SDCT) and low-dose CT (LDCT) were included. SDCT without AIDR 3D, LDCT without AIDR 3D, and LDCT with AIDR 3D were used for emphysema quantification. First, LAV% was computed at 10 thresholds from −990 to −900 HU. Next, at the same thresholds, linear regression on a log–log plot was used to compute the power law exponent (D) for the cumulative frequency-size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess whether AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D. Results: The mean relative differences in LAV% between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 3.73%–88.18% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were −6.61% to 0.406%. The mean relative differences in D between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 8.22%–19.11% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were 1.82%–4.79%. AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT at thresholds from −930 to −990 HU for LAV% and at all thresholds for D. Conclusion: AIDR 3D improved the consistency between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D.

  9. 111In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT in Pulmonary Carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Spanu, Angela; Danieli, Roberta; Dore, Francesca; Piras, Bastiana; Falchi, Antonio; Tavolozza, Mario; Madeddu, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Orazio

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In-pentetreotide incremental value in pulmonary carcinoid (PC) diagnosis compared to contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (ceCT). We enrolled 81 patients with ascertained PC, 39 at initial staging and 42 in follow-up; the primary tumor had already been excised in 68 cases. Single Photon emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) images were reconstructed with the iterative method and fused with non-enhanced Computed tomography (CT) images. Primary PC or metastatic lesions were ascertained in 55/81 patients and SPECT/CT was positive in 50/55 cases, while ceCT was positive in 44/55. Comparing SPECT/CT with ceCT results, we found a sensitivity of 96 vs. 87.5%, and specificity of 92% vs. 97% for the detection of primary lesion or recurrent disease. A total of 198 lesions were ascertained at SPECT/CT, while 161 at ceCT, with values of sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 84.6% for SRS and 75.2% and 90.5% respectively. (111)In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT proved to be more sensitive and accurate than ceCT, thus enhancing its role in evaluating patients with PC. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Learning COPD Sensitive Filters in Pulmonary CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ashraf, Haseem

    2009-01-01

    textural differences that discriminate subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from healthy smokers, and it is expected that emphysema plays a major part in this. The proposed texture based approach achieves an 69% classification accuracy which is significantly better than RA’s 55...

  11. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, F.; Ono, A.; Ando, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Ishii, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sato, H.; Kira, A.; Otabe, M.; Mori, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20–88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Results: Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities

  12. 3D-CT angiography with ultrafast CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Imakita, Satoshi; Yamada, Naoaki; Takase, Kei; Iino, Misako; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    1995-01-01

    The usefulness of 3D-CT angiography (3D-CTA) with ultrafast CT (UFCT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was evaluated. UFCT was carried out in 10 patients with PTE (acute: 5 cases, chronic: 5 cases) and one case with pulmonary artery thrombosis secondary to pulmonary hypertension with atrial septal defect. CT scanning was performed with Imatron C-100XL and C-150L. For the imaging, single-slice step volume scan mode was used with scan time of 100 msec and slice thickness of 6 mm. Contiguous axial images were obtained after contrast enhancement with slice interval of 6 mm. 3D-CTA was reconstructed from 2D-CT images with workstation, and was compared with pulmonary angiograms (PAG) or operative findings. The images of 3D-CTA had good quality and they were more useful than 2D-CT images in better understanding of the configuration and the extent of the thrombi. In comparison with PAG, 3D-CTA gave equivalent information in terms of central pulmonary emboli. Moreover, 3D-CTA had advantages over PAG in demonstrating both the blood lumen and the thrombus on the same image with capability of multi-directional displays. 3D-CTA with UFCT is the useful non-invasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of PTE. (author)

  13. Asbestos Surveillance Program Aachen (ASPA): initial results from baseline screening for lung cancer in asbestos-exposed high-risk individuals using low-dose multidetector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Marco; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Hering, K.G.; Sirbu, H.; Zschiesche, W.; Knoll, Lars; Felten, Michael K.; Kraus, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of lung cancer in a high-risk asbestos-exposed cohort using low-dose MDCT. Of a population of 5,389 former power-plant workers, 316 were characterized as individuals at highest risk for lung cancer according to a lung-cancer risk model including age, asbestos exposure and smoking habits. Of these 316, 187 (mean age: 66.6 years) individuals were included in a prospective trial. Mean asbestos exposure time was 29.65 years and 89% were smokers. Screening was performed on a 16-slice MDCT (Siemens) with low-dose technique (10/20 mAs eff. ; 1 mm/0.5 mm increment). In addition to soft copy PACS reading analysis on a workstation with a dedicated lung analysis software (LungCARE; Siemens) was performed. One strongly suspicious mass and eight cases of histologically proven lung cancer were found plus 491 additional pulmonary nodules (average volume: 40.72 ml, average diameter 4.62 mm). Asbestos-related changes (pleural plaques, fibrosis) were visible in 80 individuals. Lung cancer screening in this high-risk cohort showed a prevalence of lung cancer of 4.28% (8/187) at baseline screening with an additional large number of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Low-dose MDCT proved to be feasible in this highly selected population. (orig.)

  14. Reliability analysis of visual ranking of coronary artery calcification on low-dose CT of the thorax for lung cancer screening: comparison with ECG-gated calcium scoring CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Sung, Yon Mi; Cho, So Hyun; Park, Young Nam; Choi, Hye-Young

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is frequently detected on low-dose CT (LDCT) of the thorax. Concurrent assessment of CAC and lung cancer screening using LDCT is beneficial in terms of cost and radiation dose reduction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reliability of visual ranking of positive CAC on LDCT compared to Agatston score (AS) on electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated calcium scoring CT. We studied 576 patients who were consecutively registered for health screening and undergoing both LDCT and ECG-gated calcium scoring CT. We excluded subjects with an AS of zero. The final study cohort included 117 patients with CAC (97 men; mean age, 53.4 ± 8.5). AS was used as the gold standard (mean score 166.0; range 0.4-3,719.3). Two board-certified radiologists and two radiology residents participated in an observer performance study. Visual ranking of CAC was performed according to four categories (1-10, 11-100, 101-400, and 401 or higher) for coronary artery disease risk stratification. Weighted kappa statistics were used to measure the degree of reliability on visual ranking of CAC on LDCT. The degree of reliability on visual ranking of CAC on LDCT compared to ECG-gated calcium scoring CT was excellent for board-certified radiologists and good for radiology residents. A high degree of association was observed with 71.6% of visual rankings in the same category as the Agatston category and 98.9% varying by no more than one category. Visual ranking of positive CAC on LDCT is reliable for predicting AS rank categorization.

  15. Assessment of pulmonary hypertension by CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, Sebastian; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Heussel, Claus P.; Fink, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Borst, Mathias M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent World Health Organization (WHO) classification the group of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) comprises the classic primary pulmonary hypertension and several conditions with definite or very high risk factors to develop pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therapeutic advances drive the need for a comprehensive pre-therapeutic evaluation for optimal treatment. Furthermore, follow-up examinations need to be performed to monitor changes in disease status and response to therapy. Up to now, the diagnostic imaging work-up of PH comprises mainly echocardiography, invasive right heart catheterization and ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Due to technical advances helical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became more important in the evaluation and for differential diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Both modalities are reviewed and recommendations for clinical use are given. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of pulmonary ventilation patterns by nonradioactive Xe enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Harima, Yoko; Kobayashi, Akitomo; Hasegawa, Takeo

    1984-01-01

    To assess the patterns of regional pulmonary ventilation in conjunction with pulmonary blood flow, pulmonary Xe enhanced CT was performed in 26 patients with interstitial disorders including 3 with chest irradiation and 23 with old myocardial infarction and in 2 control patients. Washout time was short and its patterns were not influenced by an increased or decreased blood flow in the control group. In the group with chest irradiation, a decreased blood flow and slight disturbance were seen in the affected lung, while an increased blood flow and a slightly increased resistance of the pulmonary periphery were suspected in the opposite lung. Furthermore, a prolonged washout and relative reduction of the washout seemed to be reflective of the interstitial degeneration and decreased blood flow, respectively. In the group with old myocardial infarction, the prolongation of washout became marked because of a decreased blood flow caused by venous congestion. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. CT diagnosis of primary lung cancer coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Joo; Kim, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Chul

    1992-01-01

    When bronchogenic carcinoma is coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis, it is difficult to differentiate bronchogenic carcinoma from pulmonary tuberculosis radiographically. Thus, the object of this study is to define differential diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma by computed tomography. We analyzed CT scans of 27 patients with radiologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis and mass of which twelve cases were pulmonary tuberculosis and fifteen cases were primary lung cancer. The location of parenchymal infiltration and the mass was the same in 60%(9/15) of the primary lung cancer in cases and 83%(10/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The common location of the mass was the both upper lobes in 92%(11/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 53%(8/15) of the primary lung cancer cases. The common locations of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy were 4R, 2R of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 4R, 10R of the primary lung cancer cases. In the feature of post enhanced lymph nodes, homogenous increased density was more frequent in primary lung cancer. Measurements of the maximum thickness part of the cavity wall was not a reliable indication of malignancy

  18. Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Zheng, Y.; Zhao, J.; Liu, T.; Gao, L.; Gu, Z.; Wu, G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer. Material and Methods Peri-implant bone defects (8 mm in diameter, 4 mm in depth) were created

  19. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Katsutoshi, E-mail: kando@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Tobino, Kazunori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshio-Machi, Iizuka-City, Fukuoka 820-8505 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Doi, Tokuhide [Fukuoka Clinic, 7-18-11 Umeda, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo 123-0851 (Japan); Hoshika, Yoshito [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm{sup 2} and 5–10 mm{sup 2} and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p < 0.05). Pulmonary function correlated negatively with LAA% (p < 0.001) in both groups, yet the correlation with %CSA was significant only in COPD (p < 0.001). When the same analysis was conducted in two groups with equal levels of LAA% and DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  20. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zaifang; Li Hongbing; Cheng Shoulin; Li Qixiang; Huang Zhen; Zeng Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  1. CT pulmonary angiography: increasingly diagnosing less severe pulmonary emboli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Schissler

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether the observed increase in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA utilization has resulted in increased detection of pulmonary emboli (PEs with a less severe disease spectrum.Trends in utilization, diagnostic yield, and disease severity were evaluated for 4,048 consecutive initial CTPAs performed in adult patients in the emergency department of a large urban academic medical center between 1/1/2004 and 10/31/2009. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE findings and peak serum troponin levels were evaluated to assess for the presence of PE-associated right ventricular (RV abnormalities (dysfunction or dilatation and myocardial injury, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression.268 CTPAs (6.6% were positive for acute PE, and 3,780 (93.4% demonstrated either no PE or chronic PE. There was a significant increase in the likelihood of undergoing CTPA per year during the study period (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.07, P<0.01. There was no significant change in the likelihood of having a CTPA diagnostic of an acute PE per year (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95-1.11, P = 0.49. The likelihood of diagnosing a less severe PE on CTPA with no associated RV abnormalities or myocardial injury increased per year during the study period (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.75, P = 0.01.CTPA utilization has risen with no corresponding change in diagnostic yield, resulting in an increase in PE detection. There is a concurrent rise in the likelihood of diagnosing a less clinically severe spectrum of PEs.

  2. CT Pulmonary Angiography: Increasingly Diagnosing Less Severe Pulmonary Emboli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schissler, Andrew J.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Kulon, Michal E.; Pearson, Gregory D. N.; Green, Robert A.; Stetson, Peter D.; Brenner, David J.; D'Souza, Belinda; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Schluger, Neil W.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether the observed increase in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) utilization has resulted in increased detection of pulmonary emboli (PEs) with a less severe disease spectrum. Methods Trends in utilization, diagnostic yield, and disease severity were evaluated for 4,048 consecutive initial CTPAs performed in adult patients in the emergency department of a large urban academic medical center between 1/1/2004 and 10/31/2009. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings and peak serum troponin levels were evaluated to assess for the presence of PE-associated right ventricular (RV) abnormalities (dysfunction or dilatation) and myocardial injury, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results 268 CTPAs (6.6%) were positive for acute PE, and 3,780 (93.4%) demonstrated either no PE or chronic PE. There was a significant increase in the likelihood of undergoing CTPA per year during the study period (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.07, P<0.01). There was no significant change in the likelihood of having a CTPA diagnostic of an acute PE per year (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95–1.11, P = 0.49). The likelihood of diagnosing a less severe PE on CTPA with no associated RV abnormalities or myocardial injury increased per year during the study period (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10–1.75, P = 0.01). Conclusions CTPA utilization has risen with no corresponding change in diagnostic yield, resulting in an increase in PE detection. There is a concurrent rise in the likelihood of diagnosing a less clinically severe spectrum of PEs. PMID:23776522

  3. Estimation of regional intrapulmonary moisture volumes by pulmonary CT numbers in CT views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Takaaki; Kato, Shiro; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the regional intrapulmonary moisture volume in normal lungs, lungs with congestion, and lungs with increased blood flow, a series of 42 subjects underwent transverse computed tomography (CT) scanning performed at a total of 17 points corresponding to the upper (7), middle (3), and lower (7) lung fields. The subjects were divided into group I (n = 24, with left-sided heart failure), group II (n = 8, with left-to-right shunt heart disease), and group III (n = 10, normals). In group I, the pulmonary peripheral minus CT numbers were inversely correlated with the pulmonary wedge mean pressure and pulmonary arterial mean pressure; and were linearly correlated with pulmonary blood flow (PBF). In group II, they were inversely correlated with PBF and left-to-right shunt volume. The pulmonary pheripheral CT numbers were significantly higher in both groups I and II than group III. In group III, these CT numbers were higher in the posterior field than the anterior field in supine position. (Hou, H.L.)

  4. Pulmonary infections after kidney transplantation: analysis of CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Feng; Liu Shiyuan; Li Li; Gao Xin; Liu Kai; Li Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the CT findings in patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and to determine the characteristic features in different infections. Methods: The medical records were reviewed in 446 patients with pulmonary infection after kidney transplantation and 121 patients who had pulmonary thin-section CT were included in this study. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were interpreted independently by two thoracic radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: (1) Time course: 65 (14.6%) patients initially had pulmonary infection in the first 30 days, 147 (32.9%) between 1 and 3 months, 91 (20.4%) between 3 and 6 months, 23 (5.2%) between 6 and 12 months, 120 (26.9%)after 12 months of transplantation. In the first month after procedure, bacterial infection (4/5,80.0%) was the most common infection, bacterial (34/41,82.9%), mixed (19/41,46.3%) and vires infections (11/41,26.8%) were seen commonly 1 to 6 months following transplant, the incidence of fungal (14/38, 36.8%) and mycobacterial (5/38,13.2%) infections was increased after 12 months of transplantation. (2)Pathogens: Bacterial (34,28%) and mixed infections (34,28%) were the most common, followed by fungus infection (9, 7%), TB(7,6%)and cytomegalovims (5,4%). (3)CT findings: Ground-glass attenuations (69,57.0%) was the most common findings of pneumonia, followed by reticular or linear opacities (68,56.2%), nodules (66,54.5%), pleural thickening (41,33.9%), consolidations (31,25.6%), tree-in-bud patterns (24, 19.8%), pleural effusion (22,18.2%), and bronchovascular bundle thickening (16,13.2%). Ground-glass attenuation was commonly seen in cytomegalovims pneumonia (4,80.0%), and nodule was commonly observed in bacterial infection (23,67.6%), tree-in-bud pattern was the most common finding in pulmonary tuberculosis(4, P=0.049). There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of

  5. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic adequacy of lung scintigraphy with that of pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) in the care of pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient characteristics, radiology report content, additional imaging performed, final diagnosis, and diagnostic adequacy were recorded for pregnant patients consecutively referred for lung scintigraphy or pulmonary CTA according to physician preference. Measurements of pulmonary arterial enhancement were performed on all pulmonary CTA images of pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy and pulmonary CTA studies deemed inadequate for diagnosis at the time of image acquisition were further assessed, and the cause of diagnostic inadequacy was determined. The relative contribution of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the heart was measured on nondiagnostic CTA images and compared with that on CTA images of age-matched nonpregnant women, who were the controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pulmonary CTA examinations were performed on 25 pregnant patients, and 25 lung scintigraphic studies were performed on 25 pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy was more frequently adequate for diagnosis than was pulmonary CTA (4% vs 35.7%) (p = 0.0058). Pulmonary CTA had a higher diagnostic inadequacy rate among pregnant than nonpregnant women (35.7% vs 2.1%) (p < 0.001). Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava was identified in eight of 10 nondiagnostic pulmonary CTA studies. CONCLUSION: We found that lung scintigraphy was more reliable than pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava is a common finding at pulmonary CTA of pregnant patients.

  6. Low dose epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter the BEIR committee has reviewed low-dose irradiation studies since the BEIR III report. They have considered the carcinogenic effectiveness of low-LET in populations exposed to radiation from a number of different sources: diagnostic radiography; fallout from nuclear weapons testing; nuclear installations; radiation in the workplace and high levels of natural background radiation

  7. Protection from pulmonary tissue damage associated with infection of cynomolgus macaques by highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by low dose natural human IFN-α administered to the buccal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David R; Carter, William A; Stouch, Bruce C; Stittelaar, Koert J; Thoolen, Robert J M M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Mitchell, William M

    2014-10-01

    Using an established nonhuman primate model for H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza virus infection in humans, we have been able to demonstrate the prophylactic mitigation of the pulmonary damage characteristic of human fatal cases from primary influenza virus pneumonia with a low dose oral formulation of a commercially available parenteral natural human interferon alpha (Alferon N Injection®). At the highest oral dose (62.5IU/kg body weight) used there was a marked reduction in the alveolar inflammatory response with minor evidence of alveolar and interstitial edema in contrast to the hemorrhage and inflammatory response observed in the alveoli of control animals. The mitigation of severe damage to the lower pulmonary airway was observed without a parallel reduction in viral titers. Clinical trial data will be necessary to establish its prophylactic human efficacy for highly pathogenic influenza viruses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic and immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Ikezoe, Junpei; Johkoh, Tsuyoshi

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the CT features of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic or immunocompromised patients, we reviewed CT of the chest in 42 adult patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Forty-two had some underlying diseases or immunocompromised conditions (31 diabetes mellitus, 6 malignancies, 2 long-term steroid therapy, 2 pneumoconiosis, and one anorexia nervosa). In diabetic or immunocompromised patients, a high incidence of non-segmental distribution (27%) and multiple small cavities in a cavitary lesion (45%) was observed. Unusual localization of the lesions such as lower lung field disease was observed in 18% of cases (the incidence of unusual localization in patients with no underlying disease was equal to diabetic or immunocompromised patients). (author)

  9. CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic and immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Ikezoe, Junpei; Johkoh, Tsuyoshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the CT features of pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic or immunocompromised patients, we reviewed CT of the chest in 42 adult patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Forty-two had some underlying diseases or immunocompromised conditions (31 diabetes mellitus, 6 malignancies, 2 long-term steroid therapy, 2 pneumoconiosis, and one anorexia nervosa). In diabetic or immunocompromised patients, a high incidence of non-segmental distribution (27%) and multiple small cavities in a cavitary lesion (45%) was observed. Unusual localization of the lesions such as lower lung field disease was observed in 18% of cases (the incidence of unusual localization in patients with no underlying disease was equal to diabetic or immunocompromised patients). (author).

  10. Experimental estimation of regional lung water volume by histogram of pulmonary CT numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shiro; Momoki, Shigeru; Asai, Toshihiko; Shimada, Takeshi; Tamano, Masahiro; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were made to assess the ability of pulmonary CT numbers to quantitatively determine regional water volume in cases of pulmonary congestion or edema associated with left heart failure. In vitro experiment revealed a good linear correlation between the volume of injected water and the determined CT number of polyethylene tube packed with sponge. In the subsequent in vivo experiment with 10 adult mongrel dogs, lung water volumes obtained by pulmonary CT numbers were found to be consistent with the actual volumes. Pulmonary CT numbers for water volume proved to become parameters to quantitatively evaluate pulmonary congestion or edema. (Namekawa, K)

  11. CT findings of pulmonary edema: comparison of various causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Jae Kyo; Song, Jae Woo

    1999-01-01

    To access the CT findings of pulmonary edema and to compare them, according to the cause. CT findings (thin section, 20 ; thick section, 16) of pulmonary edema in 36 patients [cardiac disease (group 1, n=20), renal disease (group 2, n=13), ARDS (group 3, n=3)] were analyzed and compared. There were 21 men and 15 women ranging in age from 27 to 77 years. Distribution (even, central, or peripheral) and patterns of pulmonary edema were compared between the three groups. The distribution of edema, appearing as consolidation or ground-glass opacity, was even in 75% (n=15) of group 1, even in 46% (n=6) and central in 38% (n=5) of group 2, and peripherally predominant in 100% (n=3) of group 3. Interlobular septal thickening was seen in 80% (n=16), 69% (n=9), and 0% of group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Centrilobular ground-glass opacity was noted in six patients. In spite of various findings and considerable overlapping of the findings of pulmonary edema, the distribution and pattern of edema differed according to the cause, and this can be helpful for differential diagnosis

  12. Effects of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.

    2001-01-01

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  13. Preliminary evaluation of lung care software of 16-slice helical CT in the study of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Jin Zhengyu; Yan Hongzhen; Wang Yun; Zhang Yunqing; Wang Linhui; Zhu Haifeng; Liang Jixiang; Qi Bing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the auxiliary diagnostic ability and applicability of the Lung Care software for the study of the pulmonary nodules. Methods: Fifty-six patients underwent low-dose CT scan with 1.5 mm collimation, 4 mm reconstruction interval, and 4 mm reconstruction slice in group A, and with 1.5 mm collimation, 2 mm reconstruction interval, and 2 mm reconstruction slice in group B. 12 patients underwent low-dose CT with 0.75 mm collimation, 0.75 mm reconstruction interval, and 0.75 mm reconstruction slice in group C. The nodules detected in groups A, B, and C were analyzed by r-MPR or VOI of the Lung Care software to distinguish the true pulmonary nodules from the vessels. The volume and density distribution of the true pulmonary nodules in groups A, B, and C were measured with the Lung Care software. Results: It was difficult to observe the diffuse pulmonary nodules by r-MPR or VOI of the Lung Care software. The images of each patient in group C were too many to be applied in the clinic. There was statistically consistent in the observation of pulmonary nodules between r-MPR and VOI, but the coincidence was not good (Kappa=0.369, P=0.002). There was statistically significant difference in showing faint nodules between r-MPR and VOI (P=0.001), r-MPR was better than VOI. There was statistically significant difference between group A and B in showing = 3.886, P=0.045), but no statistically significant difference in showing 5-10 mm nodules (χ 2 =0.170, P=0.680). The volume and density distribution of most 5 - ≤20 mm nodules were successfully measured with the Lung Care software, whereas those of most 2 =5.811, P=0.016) and 5-10 mm nodules (χ 2 =13.500, P 10 - ≤20 mm nodules (χ 2 =0.000, P=1.000). Conclusion: For distinguishing the true pulmonary nodules from others, the Lung Care software is suitable for the well-edged pulmonary nodules and most faint nodules, but not suitable for the nodules such as ground-glass opacity. For measuring the volume and

  14. Effect of reconstruction algorithm on image quality and identification of ground-glass opacities and partly solid nodules on low-dose thin-section CT: Experimental study using chest phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kono, Atsushi A.; Kusaka, Akiko; Konishi, Minoru; Yoshii, Masaru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of reconstruction algorithm on identification and image quality of ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and partly solid nodules on low-dose thin-section CT. Materials and methods: A chest CT phantom including simulated GGOs and partly solid nodules was scanned with five different tube currents and reconstructed by using standard (A) and newly developed (B) high-resolution reconstruction algorithms, followed by visually assessment of identification and image quality of GGOs and partly solid nodules by two chest radiologists. Inter-observer agreement, ROC analysis and ANOVA were performed to compare identification and image quality of each data set with those of the standard reference. The standard reference used 120 mA s in conjunction with reconstruction algorithm A. Results: Kappa values (κ) of overall identification and image qualities were substantial or almost perfect (0.60 < κ). Assessment of identification showed that area under the curve of 25 mA reconstructed with reconstruction algorithm A was significantly lower than that of standard reference (p < 0.05), while assessment of image quality indicated that 50 mA s reconstructed with reconstruction algorithm A and 25 mA s reconstructed with both reconstruction algorithms were significantly lower than standard reference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Reconstruction algorithm may be an important factor for identification and image quality of ground-glass opacities and partly solid nodules on low-dose CT examination.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose 256-slice multi-detector coronary CT angiography using iterative reconstruction in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Yuke; Yu, Mei; Guo, Qiyong [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shenyang (China); Fan, Weipeng [Central Hospital of Anshan, Department of Radiology, Anshan (China); Vembar, Mani [CT Clinical Science Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of low-dose coronary CTA with iterative reconstruction (IR) in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with suspected CAD. Ninety-six patients with suspected CAD underwent low-dose prospective electrocardiogram-gated coronary CTA, with images reconstructed using IR. Image quality (IQ) of coronary segments were graded on a 4-point scale (4, excellent; 1, non-diagnostic). With invasive coronary angiography (ICA) considered the ''gold standard'', the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of coronary CTA were calculated on segment-, vessel- and patient-based levels. The patient data were divided into two groups (Agatston scores of ≥ 400 and <400). The differences in diagnostic performance between the two groups were tested. Diagnostic image quality was found in 98.1 % (1,232/1,256) of segments. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 90.8 %, 95.3 %, 81.8 %, 97.8 % and 94.3 % (segment-based) and 97.2 %, 83.3 %, 94.6 %, 90.9 % and 93.8 % (patient-based). Significant differences between the two groups were seen in specificity, PPV and accuracy (92.1 % vs. 97.9 %, 76.0 % vs. 86.7 %, 91.7 % vs. 96.6 %, P < 0.05; segment-based). The average effective dose was 1.30 ± 0.15 mSv. Low-dose prospective coronary CTA with IR can acquire satisfactory image quality and show high diagnostic accuracy in patients with suspected CAD; however, blooming continues to pose a challenge in severely calcified segments. (orig.)

  16. Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girinsky, Theodore, E-mail: girinsky@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paumier, Amaury [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent [Department of Hematology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Leroy-Ladurie, Francois [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson (France); Ghalibafian, Mithra [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2-103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%-97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

  17. Low-Dose Radiation Treatment in Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma: A Plausible Approach? A Single-Institution Experience in 10 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Paumier, Amaury; Ferme, Christophe; Hanna, Colette; Ribrag, Vincent; Leroy-Ladurie, François; Ghalibafian, Mithra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To propose an alternative approach for treatment of pulmonary marginal zone lymphoma, using a very small radiation dose (2 × 2 Gy) delivered exclusively to tumor sites. Methods and Materials: Patients had localized pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification. The 6-MV radiation treatments were delivered using tumor-limited fields, except in cases of diffuse bilateral involvement. Two daily fractions of 2 Gy were delivered to tumor-limited fields using a 6-MV linear accelerator. Results: Ten patients with pulmonary MALT lymphoma entered the study. All but 1 had localized tumor masses. The median follow-up was 56 months (range, 2–103 months). Complete remission or an unconfirmed complete remission was obtained in 60% of patients within the first 2 months, and two additional partial responses were converted into a long-term unconfirmed complete remission. All patients are well and alive, no local progression was observed, and the 5-year progression-free survival rate was 87.5% (95% confidence interval 49%–97%). Conclusions: Our results suggest that extremely low radiation doses delivered exclusively to tumor sites might be a treatment option in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.

  18. A prospective study of whether radiation pneumonitis is influenced by low-dose irradiated lung volume in primary lung cancer with chronic pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Yuzuru; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Masuda, Noriyuki; Yoshimura, Hirokuni

    2007-01-01

    The current study prospectively investigated the optimal dose-volume condition in cases of lung cancer with chronic pulmonary disease compared to those without chronic pulmonary disease. Cases of primary lung cancer treated with intended curative radiation therapy were registered in the current study. Their fraction size was limited to 2-3 Gy, so-called standard fractionation. They were prescribed a total dose of 60 Gy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC; n=17) and a total dose of 54 Gy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC; n=4). Of the 21 patients enrolled in this study, 4 had chronic pulmonary disease (study arm), and the others had no chronic pulmonary disease (control arm). Seven received chemotherapy. Symptomatic radiation pneumonitis occurred in 5. Of the four patients in the study arm, two (50%) experienced symptomatic radiation pneumonitis; only 3 of the 17 patients in the control arm (17.6%) experienced symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. Furthermore, the median V 20 of patients who experienced symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in the study arm was 14%, which was higher than that of patients with no symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in the study arm, 5.8%. On the other hand, in the control arm, the median V 20 of patients with symptomatic radiation pneumonitis was 14.2%, about the same as that of patients with no symptomatic radiation pneumonitis in the control arm, 15.1%. The current study suggested that, as much as 15% of V 20 , might play an important role in cases of lung cancer with chronic pulmonary disease. (author)

  19. Optimal Monochromatic Energy Levels in Spectral CT Pulmonary Angiography for the Evaluation of Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huawei; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Jia; Hua, Xiaolan; Xu, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the optimal monochromatic spectral CT pulmonary angiography (sCTPA) levels to obtain the highest image quality and diagnostic confidence for pulmonary embolism detection. Methods The Institutional Review Board of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine approved this study, and written informed consent was obtained from all participating patients. Seventy-two patients with pulmonary embolism were scanned with spectral CT mode in the arterial phase. One hundred and one sets of virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. Image noise, clot diameter and clot to artery contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from seven sets of VMS images at selected monochromatic levels in sCTPA were measured and compared. Subjective image quality and diagnostic confidence for these images were also assessed and compared. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results The lowest noise and the highest image quality score for the VMS images were obtained at 65 keV. The VMS images at 65 keV also had the second highest CNR value behind that of 50 keV VMS images. There was no difference in the mean noise and CNR between the 65 keV and 70 keV VMS images. The apparent clot diameter correlated with the keV levels. Conclusions The optimal energy level for detecting pulmonary embolism using dual-energy spectral CT pulmonary angiography was 65–70 keV. Virtual monochromatic spectral images at approximately 65–70 keV yielded the lowest image noise, high CNR and highest diagnostic confidence for the detection of pulmonary embolism. PMID:23667583

  20. Neglectable benefit of searching for incidental findings in the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) using low-dose multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiel, J.C.M. van de; Wang, Y.; Xu, D.M.; Zaag-Loonen, H.J. van der; Jagt, E.J. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Klaveren, R.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the frequency and spectrum of incidental findings (IFs) and their clinical implications in a high risk population for lung cancer undergoing low-dose multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) screening for lung cancer. Scans of 1,929 participants were evaluated for lung lesions and IFs by two radiologists. IFs were categorised as not clinically relevant or possibly clinically relevant. Findings were considered possibly clinically relevant if they could require further evaluation or could have substantial clinical implications. All possibly clinically relevant IFs were reviewed by a third radiologist, who determined its clinical relevance. Of all 1,929 participants, 1,410 (73%) had not clinically relevant IFs and 163 (8%) had possibly clinically relevant IFs of which 129 (79%) were indeed considered clinically relevant. Additional imaging was performed mainly by ultrasound (112 of 118, 96%). All but one lesion were concluded to be benign, mostly cysts (n = 115, 80%). Only 21 (1%) participants had findings with clinical implications. In one participant a malignancy was found, yet without any clinical benefit since no curative treatment was possible. Based on our results, we advise against systematically searching for and reporting of IFs in lung cancer screening studies using low-dose MDCT. (orig.)

  1. Patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis on FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, Michael; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Mekinian, Arsène; Khafagy, Abrahim; Nicolas, Patrick; Vessieres, Annie; Brauner, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to describe patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) on FDG-PET/CT. Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of TB and who underwent FDG-PET/CT between January 2009 and June 2010 were included. Clinical, biological and imaging data were reviewed. TB was proven either on bacteriological or histopathological studies (n = 13) or on a clinical and imaging basis (n = 3). Results: Sixteen patients (11 men; median age 56, range 22–84 years) were included. Two distinct patterns were identified. In the lung pattern (9/16), patients had predominantly pulmonary symptoms (6/9 patients, 67%) with a parenchymal involvement: uptakes on lung consolidation ± cavitation surrounded by micronodules. Mediastino-hilar lymph nodes were slightly enlarged (15 mm, 10–27) with moderate uptake (3.9, 2.5–13.4). In the lymphatic pattern (7/16), patients had predominantly systemic symptoms (5/7 cases, 71%) and all had extra-thoracic involvement. Mediastino-hilar lymph nodes were more enlarged (30 mm, 18–35, p = 0.03) and with higher uptake (6.8, 5.7–16.8, p = 0.034) than in the lung pattern. Conclusion: We identified two distinct patterns of pulmonary TB on FDG-PET/CT. The lung pattern related to a restricted and slight hypermetabolic infection and the lymphatic pattern related to a systemic and intense infection. Combined interpretation of PET and CT findings improves the specificity of images, especially for the lung pattern

  2. Patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis on FDG-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussan, Michael, E-mail: michael.soussan@avc.aphp.fr [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny (France); Brillet, Pierre-Yves [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Radiology, CHU Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny (France); Mekinian, Arsène [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Jean Verdier, Bondy (France); Khafagy, Abrahim [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Radiology, CHU Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny (France); Nicolas, Patrick [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Pharmacology, CHU Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny (France); Vessieres, Annie [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Bacteriology, CHU Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny (France); Brauner, Michel [Université Paris 13, Faculté de médecine SMBH, Department of Radiology, CHU Avicenne, 125 rue de Stalingrad, 93000 Bobigny (France)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: This study aims to describe patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) on FDG-PET/CT. Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of TB and who underwent FDG-PET/CT between January 2009 and June 2010 were included. Clinical, biological and imaging data were reviewed. TB was proven either on bacteriological or histopathological studies (n = 13) or on a clinical and imaging basis (n = 3). Results: Sixteen patients (11 men; median age 56, range 22–84 years) were included. Two distinct patterns were identified. In the lung pattern (9/16), patients had predominantly pulmonary symptoms (6/9 patients, 67%) with a parenchymal involvement: uptakes on lung consolidation ± cavitation surrounded by micronodules. Mediastino-hilar lymph nodes were slightly enlarged (15 mm, 10–27) with moderate uptake (3.9, 2.5–13.4). In the lymphatic pattern (7/16), patients had predominantly systemic symptoms (5/7 cases, 71%) and all had extra-thoracic involvement. Mediastino-hilar lymph nodes were more enlarged (30 mm, 18–35, p = 0.03) and with higher uptake (6.8, 5.7–16.8, p = 0.034) than in the lung pattern. Conclusion: We identified two distinct patterns of pulmonary TB on FDG-PET/CT. The lung pattern related to a restricted and slight hypermetabolic infection and the lymphatic pattern related to a systemic and intense infection. Combined interpretation of PET and CT findings improves the specificity of images, especially for the lung pattern.

  3. Pulmonary CT angiography: optimization of contrast enhancement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lianju; Tang Guangjian; Fu Jiazhen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To derive and evaluate the formula of exactly calculating the contrast dosage used during pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). Methods: Time density curves in 27 patients who underwent CTPA were collected and analyzed,the formula for calculating contrast dosage during CTPA was derived. 68 patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE) clinically but no PE on CTPA were divided randomly into group A, with bolus tracing technique (n=26), and group B, with small dose injection contrast test (SDCT) (n=42). The CT values of the right main pulmonary artery (RMPA), right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV), right posterior basal PA, right lower PV (RLPV) and the aorta were calculated. The total contrast dosage and the hard beam artifact in the SVC were compared between the two groups.Student's t test, Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results: The ratio of the time from starting injection to enhancement peak of caudal end of SVC and the time to enhancement peak of the main pulmonary trunk was 0.65 ±0.09 (about 2/3), the formula for contrast dosage calculation was derived as (DTs/3 + STs/2) FR ml/s. The CT values of RMPA and RLPA between the two groups [(301 ±117), (329 ± 122) and (283 ±95), (277 ±98) HU respectively] were not significantly different (t=1.060, P=0.292; t=2.056, P=0.044), but the differences of CT values in the paired PA and PV between the two groups (median were 22.5, 58.0 and 170.5, 166.5 HU respectively) were significant (U=292, P=0.001 and U=325, P=0.005), contrast artifact of the SVC (grade 1-3) in group B (n=34, 7, 1 respectively) was significantly less than in group A (n=11, 10, 5 respectively, χ 2 =10.714, P=0.002), the contrast dosage injected in group A was ( 87.6 ± 7.3) ml, and in group B was (40.0 ±5.4) ml (P<0.01). Conclusion: CTPA with SDCT technique is superior to that with conventional bolus tracing technique regarding contrast dosage and contrast artifact in the SVC. (authors)

  4. The value of FDG-PET/CT in assessing single pulmonary nodules in patients at high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagna, Olga; Solomonov, Anna; Fruchter, Oren; Keidar, Zohar; Bar-Shalom, Rachel; Israel, Ora; Yigla, Mordechai; Guralnik, Luda

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether PET/low-dose CT (ldCT) using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) improves characterization of indeterminate single pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in patients at high risk of lung cancer. Retrospective analysis of 307 patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT for indeterminate SPNs identified 93 (70 men, age range 46-90 years) at high risk of lung cancer (age >40 years, minimum 10 pack-year smokers). SPNs were evaluated for the presence and intensity of FDG avidity and ldCT patterns. The performance of visual and semiquantitative FDG-PET/ldCT algorithms for characterization of SPNs was compared to that of ldCT. Incongruent FDG-PET and ldCT patterns were analyzed for significance in further patient management. Malignancy was diagnosed in 38% patients. FDG avidity defined 33 SPNs as true-positive (TP) and 2 as false-negative (FN) (malignant), and 41 as true-negative (TN) and 17 as false-positive (FP) (benign). For SUVmax of 2.2 (by ROC analysis) there were 27 TP, 8 FN, 48 TN and 10 FP SPNs. LdCT defined 34 TP, 1 FN, 28 TN and 30 FP lesions. Of the FP lesions on ldCT, 60% were FDG-negative. Visual PET/ldCT analysis had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 70%, an accuracy of 80%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 66%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95% as compared to 77%, 83%, 81%, 73%, 86% for semiquantitative PET/ldCT and 97%, 48%, 66%, 53%, 96% for ldCT, respectively. Both PET/ldCT algorithms had statistically significantly higher specificity and accuracy than ldCT. Semiquantitative analysis showed significantly higher PPV and lower sensitivity and NPV than found with ldCT. A single screening procedure encompassing FDG-PET and ldCT may improve screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients. The significantly improved specificity may potentially reduce FP ldCT results and further unnecessary invasive procedures. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary embolism: spiral CT evaluation; Embolie pulmonaire: apport de la tomodensitometrie helicoidale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senac, J.P.; Vernhet, H.; Bousquet, C.; Giron, J.; Pieuchot, P.; Durand, G.; Benezet, O.; Aubas, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1995-06-01

    Purpose: Spiral computed tomography was compared retrospectively with digital substraction pulmonary angiography (PA) in 45 patients suspected of having acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Materials and method : 45 patients in whom the presence of acute or chronic pulmonary embolism was suspected underwent examination by spiral CT and PA. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was based on the direct visualization of intraluminal clots. The study of the agreement between the two methods was based on the Kappa test. In 35 cases, pulmonary emboli were proved. Acute pulmonary emboli were present in 28 cases and chronic in 7 cases. Results: Spiral computed tomography represents an excellent way to detect acute pulmonary embolism. In the chronic form, spiral CT is better than PA to detect intraluminal clots. However, Spiral CT can fail to detect small emboli in the peripheral arterial bed. In the 10 patients without pulmonary embolism, the spiral CT proved diagnosis pulmonary oedema (n=3), lymphangi-carcinoma (n=4), pleural effusion (n=3). Conclusion: This study suggest that the spiral CT examination is accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary embolism specifically in case of suspected important embolism. The advantages of spiral CT are multiple (non invasive, wide diagnosis spectrum). However, may be a limitation to is use is insufficient distal thrombi detection. This eventuality (5 to 10% in the Pioped study) justify the practice of pulmonary angiography. Spiral CT improvements should reduce this insufficiency in the next future. (Authors). 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Case report: Isolated unilateral pulmonary vein atresia diagnosed on 128-slice multidetector CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary venous atresia is an uncommon entity that is generally believed to be congenital. Most patients present in infancy or childhood with recurrent chest infections or hemoptysis. Pulmonary angiography is usually used for definitive diagnosis. However, the current multislice CT scanners may obviate the need for pulmonary angiography. We report two cases diagnosed using 128-slice CT angiography. On the CT angiography images both these cases demonstrated absent pulmonary veins on the affected side, with a small pulmonary artery and prominent bronchial or other systemic arterial supply.

  7. Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxiao; Zheng, Yuanna; Zhao, Juan; Liu, Tie; Gao, Lixia; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wu, Gang

    2012-01-01

    To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer. Peri-implant bone defects (8 mm in diameter, 4 mm in depth) were created surrounding SLA-treated titanium implants (3.1 mm in diameter, 10 mm in length) in minipig's calvaria. We administrated collagen sponges with adsorbed low-dose (30 ng/mm(3) ) BMP2/7 to treat the defects using BMP2, BMP7 or no BMP as controls.2, 3 and 6 weeks after implantation, we adopted micro-computer tomography to evaluate the micro-architectures of new bone using the following parameters: relative bone volume (BV/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), connectivity density, and structure mode index (SMI). Bone implant contact (BIC) was also revealed histologically. Consistent with 2 and 3 weeks, after 6 weeks post-operation, BMP2/7 resulted in significantly higher BV/TV (63.033 ± 2.055%) and significantly lower SMI (-4.405 ± 0.500) than BMP2 (BV/TV: 43.133 ± 2.001%; SMI: -0.086 ± 0.041) and BMP7 (BV/TV: 41.467 ± 1.850%; SMI: -0.044 ± 0.016) respectively. Significant differences were also found in Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp at all time points. At 2 weeks, BMP2/7 resulted in significantly higher BIC than the controls. Low-dose BMP2/7 heterodimer facilitated more rapid bone regeneration in better quality in peri-implant bone defects than BMP2 and BMP7 homodimers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Non-severe pulmonary embolism: Prognostic CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Anne-Line; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Hohn, Noelie; Carpentier, Francoise; Pernod, Gilles; Ferretti, Gilbert R.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively evaluate CT cardiovascular parameters and pulmonary artery clot load score as predictors of 3-month mortality in patients with clinically non-severe pulmonary embolism (PE). We included 226 CT positive for PE in hemodynamically stable patients (112 women; mean age 67.1 years ±16.9). CT were independently reviewed by two observers. Results were compared with occurrence of death within 3 months using Cox regression. Twenty-four (10.6%) patients died, for whom 9 were considered to be due to PE. Interobserver agreement was moderate for the shape of interventricular septum (κ = 0.41), and for the ratio between the diameters of right and left ventricle (RV/LV) (κ = 0.76). Observers found no association between interventricular septum shape and death. A RV/LV diameter ratio >1 was predictive of death (OR, 3.83; p 1 is predictive of death when the embolic burden is low (<40%).

  9. Pulmonary instillation of low doses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice leads to particle retention and gene expression changes in the absence of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husain, Mainul; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Guo, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We investigated gene expression, protein synthesis, and particle retention in mouse lungs following intratracheal instillation of varying doses of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to rutile nano-TiO2 via single intratracheal instillations of 18, 54, and 162......μg/mouse. Mice were sampled 1, 3, and 28days post-exposure. The deposition of nano-TiO2 in the lungs was assessed using nanoscale hyperspectral microscopy. Biological responses in the pulmonary system were analyzed using DNA microarrays, pathway-specific real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), gene-specific q...

  10. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis demonstrated with cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passen, Edward; Feng, Zekun

    2015-01-01

    Right-sided infective endocarditis involving the pulmonary valve is rare. This pictorial essay discusses the use and findings of cardiac CT combined with delayed chest CT and noncontrast chest CT of pulmonary valve endocarditis. Cardiac CT is able to show the full spectrum of right-sided endocarditis cardiopulmonary features including manifestations that cannot be demonstrated by echocardiography. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the use of automatic exposure control and automatic tube potential selection in low-dose cerebrospinal fluid shunt head CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N.; Bagade, Swapnil; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hicks, Brandon; McKinstry, Robert C. [Barnes Jewish Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vyhmeister, Ross [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos [Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, PA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    Cerebrospinal fluid shunts are primarily used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Shunt complications may necessitate multiple non-contrast head CT scans resulting in potentially high levels of radiation dose starting at an early age. A new head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection has been implemented at our institution to reduce radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in radiation dose achieved by this protocol compared with a protocol with fixed parameters. A retrospective sample of 60 non-contrast head CT scans assessing for cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction was identified, 30 of which were performed with each protocol. The radiation doses of the two protocols were compared using the volume CT dose index and dose length product. The diagnostic acceptability and quality of each scan were evaluated by three independent readers. The new protocol lowered the average volume CT dose index from 15.2 to 9.2 mGy representing a 39 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 35-44 %) and lowered the dose length product from 259.5 to 151.2 mGy/cm representing a 42 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 34-50 %). The new protocol produced diagnostically acceptable scans with comparable image quality to the fixed parameter protocol. A pediatric shunt non-contrast head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection reduced patient radiation dose compared with a fixed parameter protocol while producing diagnostic images of comparable quality. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of the use of automatic exposure control and automatic tube potential selection in low-dose cerebrospinal fluid shunt head CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Adam N; Vyhmeister, Ross; Bagade, Swapnil; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hicks, Brandon; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; McKinstry, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid shunts are primarily used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Shunt complications may necessitate multiple non-contrast head CT scans resulting in potentially high levels of radiation dose starting at an early age. A new head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection has been implemented at our institution to reduce radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in radiation dose achieved by this protocol compared with a protocol with fixed parameters. A retrospective sample of 60 non-contrast head CT scans assessing for cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction was identified, 30 of which were performed with each protocol. The radiation doses of the two protocols were compared using the volume CT dose index and dose length product. The diagnostic acceptability and quality of each scan were evaluated by three independent readers. The new protocol lowered the average volume CT dose index from 15.2 to 9.2 mGy representing a 39 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 35-44 %) and lowered the dose length product from 259.5 to 151.2 mGy/cm representing a 42 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 34-50 %). The new protocol produced diagnostically acceptable scans with comparable image quality to the fixed parameter protocol. A pediatric shunt non-contrast head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection reduced patient radiation dose compared with a fixed parameter protocol while producing diagnostic images of comparable quality.

  13. Trapping volumetric measurement by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Effect of CT threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Huishu [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Duan, Jianghui [Medical School, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Yipeng; Shen, Ning; He, Bei [Department of Respiration Internal Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various computed tomography (CT) thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements by multidetector CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods: Twenty-three COPD patients were scanned with a 64-slice CT scanner in both the inspiratory and expiratory phase. CT thresholds of −950 Hu in inspiration and −950 to −890 Hu in expiration were used, after which trapping volumetric measurements were made using computer software. Trapping volume percentage (Vtrap%) under the different CT thresholds in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase was compared and correlated with lung function.Results: Mean Vtrap% was similar under −930 Hu in the expiratory phase and below −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase, being 13.18 ± 9.66 and 13.95 ± 6.72 (both lungs), respectively; this difference was not significant (P= 0.240). Vtrap% under −950 Hu in the inspiratory phase and below the −950 to −890 Hu threshold in the expiratory phase was moderately negatively correlated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity and the measured value of forced expiratory volume in one second as a percentage of the predicted value.Conclusions: Trapping volumetric measurement with multidetector CT is a promising method for the quantification of COPD. It is important to know the effect of various CT thresholds on trapping volumetric measurements.

  14. CT and pathologic correlation acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Ma Daqing; Zhang Yansong; Guan Yansheng; Yang Jun; Liu Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the CT characteristics and pathology of acute miliary pulmonary tuberculosis (AMPT). Methods: The CT features of AMPT in 25 cases were analyzed retrospectively, and the CT features in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive patients were compared by 2-sided exact probability Chi-square test. Two lung specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method. HRCT scans, gross specimen section (80-150 μm) and histologic section (5 μm) were performed on dry lung specimens and CT-pathologic correlation was conducted. The distribution of micronodules in the secondary lobule on HRCT and pathology in one specimen was evaluated by Chi-square test. Results: Twenty five patients with AMPT were included in this study, including 11 HIV-seropositive patients and 14 HIV- seronegative patients. HRCT showed diffuse micronodules randomly distributed throughout both lungs in 25 patients, and ground-glass opacity (17 patients) was the predominant complicated finding. Coalescence of nodules and consolidation in HIV-seropositive patients (5 and 6 patients) were markedly higher than that in HIV-seronegative patients (none). In lung specimens, most nodules located in the lung parenchyma between the central bronchovascular bundle and the perilobular structures (792 and 560 nodules), which located in the interlobular septum pathologically. The distribution of micronodules in the secondary lobule showed on HRCT (1060 nodules) and pathology (864 nodules) was not significantly difference (χ 2 =2.814, P>0.05) . HRCT showed ground-glass opacities when ARDS occurred, which were pulmonary edema, inflammation and hyaline membrane on alveolar wall pathologically. Conclusions: The HRCT characteristic of nodule distribution in AMPT is random. ARDS should be suspected when diffuse ground-glass opacities appear on HRCT. (authors)

  15. CT assessment of subtypes of pulmonary emphysema in females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togami, Taro; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kameyama, Reiko; Murota, Makiko; Kimura, Naruhide; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro; Satoh, Katashi

    2011-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study examining the prevalence and subtypes of pulmonary emphysema (PE) identified by computed tomography (CT) in females. We reviewed the records of 1,687 female subjects who had undergone CT. They were divided into the following 2 age groups: group A (<50 years) and group B (≥50 years). PE was diagnosed by the presence of low-attenuation areas using visual assessment (grades 0-3) on CT images. Two subtypes of PE were observed: centrilobular emphysema (CLE) and paraseptal emphysema (PSE). PE was divided into the following 3 categories: I (CLE or CLE-predominant); II (CLE and PSE of equal extent); and III (PSE or PSE-predominant). PE was found in 64 of 274 smokers (23.3%) and 54 of 1,413 non-smokers (3.8%). In smoking subjects, when grades 1 and 2 were grouped together as mild PE, the mean age for CT grade 3 (severe PE) was significantly higher than that for mild PE. In group A, category III predominated, whereas category I was more prevalent in group B, in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. A high incidence of PE was found in smoking subjects as compared with non-smoking subjects. PSE predominated in younger subjects, whereas CLE predominated in older subjects. (author)

  16. Automatic detection of pulmonary nodules at spiral CT: clinical application of a computer-aided diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Fiebich, Martin; Saidi, Mustafa; Diederich, Stefan; Heindel, Walter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) workstation with automatic detection of pulmonary nodules at low-dose spiral CT in a clinical setting for early detection of lung cancer. Eighty-eight consecutive spiral-CT examinations were reported by two radiologists in consensus. All examinations were reviewed using a CAD workstation with a self-developed algorithm for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules. The algorithm is designed to detect nodules with diameters of at least 5 mm. A total of 153 nodules were detected with at least one modality (radiologists in consensus, CAD, 85 nodules with diameter <5 mm, 68 with diameter ≥5 mm). The results of automatic nodule detection were compared to nodules detected with any modality as gold standard. Computer-aided diagnosis correctly identified 26 of 59 (38%) nodules with diameters ≥5 mm detected by visual assessment by the radiologists; of these, CAD detected 44% (24 of 54) nodules without pleural contact. In addition, 12 nodules ≥5 mm were detected which were not mentioned in the radiologist's report but represented real nodules. Sensitivity for detection of nodules ≥5 mm was 85% (58 of 68) for radiologists and 38% (26 of 68) for CAD. There were 5.8±3.6 false-positive results of CAD per CT study. Computer-aided diagnosis improves detection of pulmonary nodules at spiral CT and is a valuable second opinion in a clinical setting for lung cancer screening despite of its still limited sensitivity. (orig.)

  17. Nutrient intake and nutrient patterns and risk of lung cancer among heavy smokers: results from the COSMOS screening study with annual low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Bellomi, Massimo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Palli, Domenico; Veronesi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    The role of nutrients in lung cancer aetiology remains controversial and has never been evaluated in the context of screening. Our aim was to investigate the role of single nutrients and nutrient patterns in the aetiology of lung cancer in heavy smokers. Asymptomatic heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) were invited to undergo annual low-dose computed tomography. We assessed diet using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and collected information on multivitamin supplement use. We performed principal component analysis identifying four nutrient patterns and used Cox proportional Hazards regression to assess the association between nutrients and nutrients patterns and lung cancer risk. During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 178 of 4,336 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer by screening. We found a significant risk reduction of lung cancer with increasing vegetable fat consumption (HR for highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.31–0.80; P-trend = 0.02). Participants classified in the high “vitamins and fiber” pattern score had a significant risk reduction of lung cancer (HR = 0.57; 95 % CI = 0.36–0.90, P-trend = 0.01). Among heavy smokers enrolled in a screening trial, high vegetable fat intake and adherence to the “vitamin and fiber” nutrient pattern were associated with reduced lung cancer incidence.

  18. Quantitative CT analysis of honeycombing area in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Correlations with pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Ogawa, Emiko; Tho, Nguyen Van; Ryujin, Yasushi; Nagao, Taishi; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 official statement of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) mentions that the extent of honeycombing and the worsening of fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in IPF are associated with the increased risk of mortality. However, there are few reports about the quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis of honeycombing area. In this study, we first proposed a computer-aided method for quantitative CT analysis of honeycombing area in patients with IPF. We then evaluated the correlations between honeycombing area measured by the proposed method with that estimated by radiologists or with parameters of PFTs. Chest HRCTs and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of 36 IPF patients, who were diagnosed using HRCT alone, were retrospectively evaluated. Two thoracic radiologists independently estimated the honeycombing area as Identified Area (IA) and the percentage of honeycombing area to total lung area as Percent Area (PA) on 3 axial CT slices for each patient. We also developed a computer-aided method to measure the honeycombing area on CT images of those patients. The total honeycombing area as CT honeycombing area (HA) and the percentage of honeycombing area to total lung area as CT %honeycombing area (%HA) were derived from the computer-aided method for each patient. HA derived from three CT slices was significantly correlated with IA (ρ=0.65 for Radiologist 1 and ρ=0.68 for Radiologist 2). %HA derived from three CT slices was also significantly correlated with PA (ρ=0.68 for Radiologist 1 and ρ=0.70 for Radiologist 2). HA and %HA derived from all CT slices were significantly correlated with FVC (%pred.), DLCO (%pred.), and the composite physiologic index (CPI) (HA: ρ=-0.43, ρ=-0.56, ρ=0.63 and %HA: ρ=-0.60, ρ=-0.49, ρ=0.69, respectively). The honeycombing area measured by the proposed computer-aided method was correlated with that estimated by expert radiologists and with parameters of PFTs. This quantitative CT analysis of

  19. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Oda, Seitaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokuyasu, Shinichi [Philips Electronics, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  1. Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Marco; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Katoh, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Gietema, H.A.; Prokop, Mathias; Czech, Andre; Diederich, Stefan; Bakai, Annemarie; Salganicoff, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of an automated volumetry software for phantom pulmonary nodules across various 16-slice multislice spiral CT (MSCT) scanners from different vendors. A lung phantom containing five different nodule categories (intraparenchymal, around a vessel, vessel attached, pleural, and attached to the pleura), with each category comprised of 7-9 nodules (total, n = 40) of varying sizes (diameter 3-10 mm; volume 6.62 mm 3 -525 mm 3 ), was scanned with four different 16-slice MSCT scanners (Siemens, GE, Philips, Toshiba). Routine and low-dose chest protocols with thin and thick collimations were applied. The data from all scanners were used for further analysis using a dedicated prototype volumetry software. Absolute percentage volume errors (APE) were calculated and compared. The mean APE for all nodules was 8.4% (±7.7%) for data acquired with the 16-slice Siemens scanner, 14.3% (±11.1%) for the GE scanner, 9.7% (±9.6%) for the Philips scanner and 7.5% (±7.2%) for the Toshiba scanner, respectively. The lowest APEs were found within the diameter size range of 5-10 mm and volumes >66 mm 3 . Nodule volumetry is accurate with a reasonable volume error in data from different scanner vendors. This may have an important impact for intraindividual follow-up studies. (orig.)

  2. Atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins: a rare and dismal anomaly identified on cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang-Hyub; Koo, Hyun Jung; Cho, Young Hoon; Lee, Eunsol [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Imaging findings of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia have not been described. To describe cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia. Three newborns with bilateral pulmonary vein atresia were encountered at our institution during a period of 8 years. We evaluated prenatal echocardiographic findings, clinical presentations, postnatal echocardiographic findings, chest radiographic findings, cardiac CT findings and clinical outcomes. All newborns presented immediately after birth with severe cyanosis, respiratory distress and acidosis that were unresponsive to medical management. Prenatal and postnatal echocardiographic studies and chest radiography were misleading, inconclusive or nonspecific in making the diagnosis in these children; however cardiac CT clearly demonstrated atresia of the bilateral pulmonary veins with multiple small mediastinal collateral veins and pulmonary edema. Surgical treatments were not feasible for this anomaly. Their clinical outcomes were universally dismal and all infants died within 3 days. Cardiac CT provides an accurate diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary vein atresia and leads to prompt treatment decision in these children. (orig.)