WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-cost rfid networks

  1. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...

  2. Lightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eslam Gamal; Hashem, Mohamed; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology one of the most promising technologies in the field of ubiquitous computing. Indeed, RFID technology may well replace barcode technology. Although it offers many advantages over other identification systems, there are also associated security risks that are not easy to be addressed. When designing a real lightweight authentication protocol for low cost RFID tags, a number of challenges arise due to the extremely limited computational, storage and communication abilities of Low-cost RFID tags. This paper proposes a real mutual authentication protocol for low cost RFID tags. The proposed protocol prevents passive attacks as active attacks are discounted when designing a protocol to meet the requirements of low cost RFID tags. However the implementation of the protocol meets the limited abilities of low cost RFID tags.

  3. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  4. Lightweight Distance bound Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eslam Gamal; Hashem, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Almost all existing RFID authentication schemes (tag/reader) are vulnerable to relay attacks, because of their inability to estimate the distance to the tag. These attacks are very serious since it can be mounted without the notice of neither the reader nor the tag and cannot be prevented by cryptographic protocols that operate at the application layer. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising way to thwart relay attacks, by measuring the round trip time of short authenticated messages. All the existing distance bounding protocols use random number generator and hash functions at the tag side which make them inapplicable at low cost RFID tags. This paper proposes a lightweight distance bound protocol for low cost RFID tags. The proposed protocol based on modified version of Gossamer mutual authentication protocol. The implementation of the proposed protocol meets the limited abilities of low-cost RFID tags.

  5. Design and development of RFID and RFID-enabled sensors on flexible low cost substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a step-by-step discussion of the design and development of radio frequency identification (RFID) and RFID-enabled sensors on flexible low cost substrates for UHF frequency bands. Various examples of fully function building blocks (design and fabrication of antennas, integration with ICs and microcontrollers, power sources, as well as inkjet-printing techniques) demonstrate the revolutionary effect of this approach in low cost RFID and RFID-enabled sensors fields. This approach could be easily extended to other microwave and wireless applications as well. The first chapter de

  6. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an a

  7. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an a

  8. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an

  9. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    OpenAIRE

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an active mobile device to enforce centralized ACL-based access control policies. Selective RFID Jamming also solves a Differential Signal Analysis attack to which the RFID Blocker Tag is susceptible.

  10. Keep on Blockin’ in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    OpenAIRE

    Rieback, Melanie; Crispo, Bruno; Tanenbaum, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called “Selective RFID Jamming”. Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an active mobile device to enforce centralized ACL-based access control policies. Selective RFID Jamming also solves a Differential Signal Analysis attack to which the RFID Blocker Tag is susceptible.

  11. Cryptanalysis and enhancement of two low cost rfid authentication protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Jannati, Hoda

    2012-01-01

    Widespread attention is recently paid upon RFID system structure considering its ease of deployment over an extensive range of applications. Due to its several advantages, many technical articles are published to improve its capabilities over specific system implementations. Recently, a lightweight anti-de-synchronization RFID authentication protocol and a lightweight binding proof protocol to guard patient safety are proposed. This contribution provides enough evidence to prove the first introduced protocol vulnerability to de-synchronization attack. It also provides the other protocol's suffering from de-synchronization attack as well as tracking the movements of the tags. This paper also addresses appropriate solutions to fix the security flaws concerning the two described protocols for secure RFID applications.

  12. Security in RFID and sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsos, Paris

    2009-01-01

    Security in RFIDMulti-Tag RFID Systems, L. Bolotnyy and G. RobinsAttacking RFID Systems, P. Peris-Lopez, J.C. Hernandez-Castro, J.M. Estevez-Tapiador, and A. RibagordaRFID Relay Attacks: System Analysis,Modeling, and Implementation, A. Lima, A. Miri, and M. NevinsPhysical Privacy and Security in RFID Systems, L. Bolotnyy and G. RobinsAuthentication Protocols in RFID Systems, G. Pantelic, S. Bojanic, and V. TomaševicLightweight Cryptography for Low-Cost RFID Tags, P. Peris-Lopez, J.C.

  13. Managing RFID Sensors Networks with a General Purpose RFID Middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Ismael; Cerrada, Carlos; Cerrada, Jose A.; Heradio, Rubén; Valero, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    RFID middleware is anticipated to one of the main research areas in the field of RFID applications in the near future. The Data EPC Acquisition System (DEPCAS) is an original proposal designed by our group to transfer and apply fundamental ideas from System and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems into the areas of RFID acquisition, processing and distribution systems. In this paper we focus on how to organize and manage generic RFID sensors (edge readers, readers, PLCs, etc…) inside the DEPCAS middleware. We denote by RFID Sensors Networks Management (RSNM) this part of DEPCAS, which is built on top of two new concepts introduced and developed in this work: MARC (Minimum Access Reader Command) and RRTL (RFID Reader Topology Language). MARC is an abstraction layer used to hide heterogeneous devices inside a homogeneous acquisition network. RRTL is a language to define RFID Reader networks and to describe the relationship between them (concentrator, peer to peer, master/submaster). PMID:22969370

  14. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  15. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  16. A Low-Cost Audio Prescription Labeling System Using RFID for Thai Visually-Impaired People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertwiriyaprapa, Titipong; Fakkheow, Pirapong

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to develop a low-cost audio prescription labeling (APL) system for visually-impaired people by using the RFID system. The developed APL system includes the APL machine and APL software. The APL machine is for visually-impaired people while APL software allows caregivers to record all important information into the APL machine. The main objective of the development of the APL machine is to reduce costs and size by designing all of the electronic devices to fit into one print circuit board. Also, it is designed so that it is easy to use and can become an electronic aid for daily living. The developed APL software is based on Java and MySQL, both of which can operate on various operating platforms and are easy to develop as commercial software. The developed APL system was first evaluated by 5 experts. The APL system was also evaluated by 50 actual visually-impaired people (30 elders and 20 blind individuals) and 20 caregivers, pharmacists and nurses. After using the APL system, evaluations were carried out, and it can be concluded from the evaluation results that this proposed APL system can be effectively used for helping visually-impaired people in terms of self-medication.

  17. Managing RFID Sensors Networks with a General Purpose RFID Middleware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RFID middleware is anticipated to one of the main research areas in the field of RFID applications in the near future. The Data EPC Acquisition System (DEPCAS is an original proposal designed by our group to transfer and apply fundamental ideas from System and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems into the areas of RFID acquisition, processing and distribution systems. In this paper we focus on how to organize and manage generic RFID sensors (edge readers, readers, PLCs, etc… inside the DEPCAS middleware. We denote by RFID Sensors Networks Management (RSNM this part of DEPCAS, which is built on top of two new concepts introduced and developed in this work: MARC (Minimum Access Reader Command and RRTL (RFID Reader Topology Language. MARC is an abstraction layer used to hide heterogeneous devices inside a homogeneous acquisition network. RRTL is a language to define RFID Reader networks and to describe the relationship between them (concentrator, peer to peer, master/submaster.

  18. Cryptanalysis of two mutual authentication protocols for low-cost RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Mohammad Hassan; Alaghband, Mahdi R; 10.5121/ijdps.2011.2109

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is appearing as a favorite technology for automated identification, which can be widely applied to many applications such as e-passport, supply chain management and ticketing. However, researchers have found many security and privacy problems along RFID technology. In recent years, many researchers are interested in RFID authentication protocols and their security flaws. In this paper, we analyze two of the newest RFID authentication protocols which proposed by Fu et al. and Li et al. from several security viewpoints. We present different attacks such as desynchronization attack and privacy analysis over these protocols.

  19. Integration of RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miodrag; Bolic; Amiya; Nayak; Ivan; Stojmenovi.

    2007-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two important wireless technologies that have wide variety of applications and provide limitless future potentials. However,RFID and sensor networks almost are under development in parallel way. Integration of RFID and wireless sensor networks attracts little attention from research community. This paper first presents a brief introduction on RFID,and then investigates recent research works,new products/patents and applications that integrate RFID with sensor networks. Four types of integration are discussed. They are integrating tags with sensors,integrating tags with wireless sensor nodes,integrating readers with wireless sensor nodes and wire-less devices,and mix of RFID and sensors. New challenges and future works are discussed in the end.

  20. Multimedia Qos in low-cost home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Jansen, P.; Hanssen, F.; Hartel, P.H.; Hattink, T.; Sundramoorthy, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new mechanism to garantee quality of service for multimedia streams in low-cost home networks. Quality of service is based on a token, of which the route in the network is determined by a distributed scheduler. The network node that has the token –the active node– can send its

  1. Multimedia QoS in low-cost home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Jansen, P.; Hanssen, F.; Hartel, P.; Hattink, T.; Sundramoorthy, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new mechanism to guarantee quality of service for multimedia streams in low-cost home networks. Quality of service is based on a token, of which the route in the network is determined by a distributed scheduler. The network node that has the token -- the active node -- can sen

  2. Novel “Enhanced-Cognition” RFID Architectures on Organic/Paper Low-Cost Substrates Utilizing Inkjet Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of novel design and integration approaches for improved performance “enhanced-cognition” UHF passive and active radio frequency identification (RFID tags. Antenna design rules are explained for a variety of applications. A strategy that is currently under development for embedding power sources and integration of sensors and integrated circuits (ICs on low-cost organic substrates, such as liquid crystal polymer (LCP and paper, enabling the use of inkjet-printing capability for the UHF frequency band, is discussed in the paper. The proposed technologies could potentially revolutionize RFID tags allowing for integrated sensing capabilities for various applications such as security, military, logistics, automotion, and pharmaceutics.

  3. Low-cost RFID-based palm oil monitoring system (PMS): First prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiama, J. W.; Raman, V.; Patrick, T. H. H.

    2014-02-01

    Under collaboration with our local oil palm plantation enterprise, our research focuses on producing proof-of-concept by using RFID technology to monitor palm oil productivity. Passive RFID tags are used in the plantation field to uniquely identify each palm oil tree and their Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) production is collected and monitored by scanning the passive RFID tags using high frequency RFID scanners. This technology aims to convert the harvest data into digital information which can be processed and analyzed by PMS system and presented as informative outputs such as dynamic charts. This analyzed information is further used as input to a proprietary GIS system where it is mapped as color-coded spatial data which enables an accurate evaluation and monitoring of the overall plantation productivity.

  4. Implementation of Low-Cost UHF RFID Reader Front-Ends with Carrier Leakage Suppression Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Bin You; Bo Yang; Xuan Wen; Liangyu Qu

    2013-01-01

    A new ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID) reader’s front-end circuit which is based on zero-IF, single antenna structure and composed of discrete components has been designed. The proposed design brings a significant improvement of the reading performance by adopting a carrier leakage suppression (CLS) circuit instead of a circulator which is utilized by most of the conventional RF front-end circuit. Experimental results show that the proposed design improves both th...

  5. Low Cost Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Bridge monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Kalis, A; Tragas, P

    2012-01-01

    Continuous monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSN) are considered as one of the most promising means to harvest information from large structures in order to assist in structural health monitoring and management. At the same time, continuous monitoring WSNs suffer from limited network lifetimes...... the network increases. Therefore, in order for WSNs to be considered as an efficient tool to monitor the health state of large structures, their energy consumption should be reduced to a bare minimum. In this work we consider a couple of novel techniques for increasing the life-time of the sensor network......, related to both node and network architecture. Namely, we consider new node de-signs that are of low cost, low complexity, and low energy consumption. Moreover, we present a new net-work architecture for such small nodes, that would enable them to reach a base station at large distances from the network...

  6. Implementation of Low-Cost UHF RFID Reader Front-Ends with Carrier Leakage Suppression Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification (UHF RFID reader’s front-end circuit which is based on zero-IF, single antenna structure and composed of discrete components has been designed. The proposed design brings a significant improvement of the reading performance by adopting a carrier leakage suppression (CLS circuit instead of a circulator which is utilized by most of the conventional RF front-end circuit. Experimental results show that the proposed design improves both the sensitivity and detection range compared to the conventional designs.

  7. Low Cost Network Emulator with Ethernet and E1 Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Next Generation Networks (NGN are mainly built on the Internet Protocol (IP and Ethernet. Major challenge for emerging types of wired and wireless IP-based networks is to provide an adequate Quality of Service (QoS for different services. The quality of evaluation requires a detailed knowledge of the performance requirements for particular services and applications. The paper is primarily oriented to the end-to-end testing for the Ethernet-based terminal equipment. The low cost Ethernet network emulator was developed on the Department of Telecommunication Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The extension for emulation network with the E1 interfaces and TDM over IP transmission can be used with external converters.

  8. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  9. 基于PUF的高效低成本RFID认证协议%Low-cost RFID authentication protocol based on PUF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺章擎; 郑朝霞; 戴葵; 邹雪城

    2012-01-01

    The available security mechanisms for the low-cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are either defective or high-cost. Therefore, this paper proposed an efficient security authentication protocol for low-cost RFID system based on Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) and Linear Feedback Shift Register ( LFSR). The protocol provides strong security and can resist physical attack and tag clone with strong privacy.%已提出的针对低成本RFID系统的安全机制,要么存在安全缺陷,要么硬件成本太高.为此设计了一个基于物理不可克隆功能(PUF)的RFID安全认证协议,利用PUF和线性反馈移位寄存器(LFSR)实现了阅读器和标签之间强的安全认证,解决了已有安全协议存在的问题.安全性分析表明:该协议成本低、安全性高,能够抵抗物理攻击和标签克隆,并有极强的隐私性.

  10. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security, solve wat

  11. Starling flock networks manage uncertainty in consensus at low cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F Young

    Full Text Available Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors. We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks.

  12. Low Cost Time Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyeon; Hong, Won-Kee; Kim, Hie-Cheol

    A time synchronization protocol for WSN is required to compensate time discrepancy. Time discrepancy among sensor nodes inevitably happens in WSN due to several internal and external factors. In order to make WSN's own job done effectively, a time synchronization protocol should be designed to achieve low execution time and low network traffic as well as accurate synchronization. Several synchronization protocols have been proposed to provide accurate time synchronization but do not consider execution time and network traffic for time synchronization. This paper proposes MNTP; it provides rapid and accurate time synchronization in multi-hop communication range. It presents a new broadcast scheme and time stamping mechanism to achieve low execution time and low network traffic along with accurate synchronization. Evaluation results show that MNTP improves synchronization accuracy up to 22% in single-hop and 51% in multi-hop respectively. MNTP also has 67 times and 58 times lower execution time and network traffic when 300 nodes are deployed in 20 × 20m2 sensor field.

  13. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Contamination Detection in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Kumar CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the low cost and holistic approach to the water quality monitoring for drinking water distribution systems. Our approach is based on the development of low cost sensor nodes for real time water contamination monitoring using web based technology. The main sensor node consists of several electrochemical and optical sensors and emphasis is given on low cost, light-weight implementation, and reliable long time operation. We will interface the values of sensors to the internet by using the software python. The internet network would be used to monitoring the results of drinking water values.

  14. Security and privacy threats in RFID traceability network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu; Chao-Hsien

    2008-01-01

    To address security and privacy issues in radio frequency identification (RFID) traceability networks, a multi-layer privacy and security framework is proposed, which includes four facets: a security model, a communication protocol, access permission and privacy preservation. According to the security requirements that are needed in an RFID system, a security model that incorporates security requirements that include privacy of tag data, privacy of ownership, and availability of tag identity is introduced. ...

  15. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  16. Energy Efficient Approach in RFID Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal; Salwani Yaacob, Siti

    2016-11-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is among the key technology of Internet of Things (IOT). It is a sensor device that can monitor, identify, locate and tracking physical objects via its tag. The energy in RFID is commonly being used unwisely because they do repeated readings on the same tag as long it resides in the reader vicinity. Repeated readings are unnecessary because it only generate duplicate data that does not contain new information. The reading process need to be schedule accordingly to minimize the chances of repeated readings to save the energy. This will reduce operational cost and can prolong the tag's battery lifetime that cannot be replaced. In this paper, we propose an approach named SELECT to minimize energy spent during reading processes. Experiments conducted shows that proposed algorithm contribute towards significant energy savings in RFID compared to other approaches.

  17. Integration of an RFID Reader to a Wireless Sensor Network and using it to Identify an Individual Carrying RFID Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Bolivar; Skelton, Gordon; Bridges, Scott; Meghanathan, Natarajan; 10.5121/ijasuc.2010.1401

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to integrate an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) reader into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to authorize or keep track of people carrying RFID tags. The objective was accomplished by integrating hardware and software. The hardware consisted of two WSN nodes - the RFID node connected to one of the WSN nodes, and a computer connected to the other WSN node. For the RFID equipment, we used the SM130-EK kit, which included the RFID reader and the RFID tags; and for the WSN, we used the Synapse Network Evaluation kit, which included the two sensor nodes. The software consisted of a program module developed in Python to control the microprocessors of the nodes; and a database controlled by a simple program to manage the tag IDs of people wearing them. The WSN and RFID nodes were connected through I2C interfacing. Also, the work of sending commands to the RFID node, to make it read a tag and send it back to the computer, was accomplished by the Python code developed which also ...

  18. Forecasting low-cost housing demand in Pahang, Malaysia using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Yasmin Zainun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Low cost housing is one of the government main agenda in fulfilling nation’s housing need. Thus, it is very crucial to forecast the housing demand because of economic implication to national interest. Neural Networks (ANN is one of the tools that can predict the demand. This paper presents a work on developing   a model to forecast low-cost housing demand in Pahang, Malaysia using Artificial Neural Networks approach. The actual and forecasted data are compared and validate using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE. It was found that the best NN model to forecast low-cost housing in state of Pahang is 1-22-1 with 0.7 learning rate and 0.4 momentum rate. The MAPE value for the comparison between the actual and forecasted data is 2.63%. This model is helpful to the related agencies such as developer or any other relevant government agencies in making their development planning for low cost housing demand in Pahang.

  19. Study of the full-service and low-cost carriers network configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Lordan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The network strategies used by airline carriers have been a recurring subject in air transport research. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different operational characteristics of the airline and its route network configuration. Design/methodology/approach: The two main airline carrier typologies - Full-Service and Low-Cost carriers – are analysed using empirical models developed on complex network research relating them to the business model of the airlines. Findings and Originality/value: Just in Europe, one can differentiate between Full-Service and Low-Cost Carriers by complex network analyses. In this process, it has been also found that new concept Low-Cost Carriers, such as Vueling, have network properties closer to Full-Service Carriers. Research limitations/implications: This paper has a limited sample, as includes 26 airline case studies from Europe, United States and Asia. Practical implications: The analysis carried out in this research can help to the assessment of the evolution of the strategies of airline carriers, and has also operational implications, since the configuration of an airline route network can determine its resilience to attacks and errors. Social implications: A better understanding of the properties of airline route networks can benefit airlines, passengers and another stakeholders of the air transport industry. Originality/value: Current research on air transport networks has only considered the global or regional level, but few studies have addressed the study of airline transport networks, and its relationship with their business model.

  20. The strategic capability of Asian network airlines to compete with low-cost carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, James; O'Connell, John F.; Pitfield, David; Ryley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Never before have network airlines been so exposed and vulnerable to low-cost carriers (LCCs). While LCCs had 26.3% of all world seats in 2013, Southeast Asia had 57.7% and South Asia 58.4% – and these figures will only increase. There are many consequences of LCCs on network airlines, including inadequately meeting the expectations of customers, so increasing dissatisfaction, and not offering sufficient value-for-money. Clearly, it is fundamentally important for Asian network airlines to res...

  1. Implications of RFID in Location-Aware Wi-Fi Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhainy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is increasingly common. Its use for specific applications has been mandated by a number of major retailers, as well as by the U.S. government; however, core RFID technologies and networks lack consistent approaches to maximize the efficiency and security of RFID applications. The purpose…

  2. Implications of RFID in Location-Aware Wi-Fi Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhainy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is increasingly common. Its use for specific applications has been mandated by a number of major retailers, as well as by the U.S. government; however, core RFID technologies and networks lack consistent approaches to maximize the efficiency and security of RFID applications. The purpose…

  3. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Schopf, Jennifer M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Miller, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Telecommunications and Networking Services; Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  4. Smart City Surveillance Through Low-Cost Fiber Sensors in Metropolitan Optical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmpos, Michail; Argyris, Apostolos; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2014-05-01

    A continuously growing number of municipalities has optical fiber networks supporting communications at their disposal. These fiber installations can also be utilized to convey low data optical signals from a large number of deployed sensing elements, usually positioned in critical infrastructure locations, providing a variety of useful information. Such information can be used in the context of a "smart city" to provide citizens with higher-level services or even to proactively ensure public security and safety. This work demonstrates a fiber sensing network based on low-cost fiber Bragg grating sensors that are able to appropriately oversee diverse monitoring parameters.

  5. ARQ Security in Wi-Fi and RFID Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Elsabagh, Mohamed; Youssef, Moustafa; Gamal, Hesham El

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present two practical ARQ-Based security schemes for Wi-Fi and RFID networks. Our proposed schemes enhance the confidentiality and authenticity functions of these networks, respectively. Both schemes build on the same idea; by exploiting the statistical independence between the multipath fading experienced by the legitimate nodes and potential adversaries, secret keys are established and then are continuously updated. The continuous key update property of both schemes makes them capable of defending against all of the passive eavesdropping attacks and most of the currently-known active attacks against either Wi-Fi or RFID networks. However, each scheme is tailored to best suit the requirements of its respective paradigm. In Wi-Fi networks, we overlay, rather than completely replace, the current Wi-Fi security protocols. Thus, our Wi-Fi scheme can be readily implemented via only minor modifications over the IEEE 802.11 standards. On the other hand, the proposed RFID scheme introduces the firs...

  6. A Low Cost Platform for Sensor Network Applications and Educational Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Dikovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the design, key features and results obtained from the development of a generic platform usable for sensor network applications operational in the ISM band. The goal was to create an open source low cost platform suitable for use in educational environment. The platform should allow students to easily grasp the fundamentals of wireless sensor networks so special attention was paid to basic concepts related to their functioning. Two versions of this platform were designed, the first one being a proof of concept and the second one more adequate to field test and measurements. Practical aspects of implementation such as network protocol, power consumption, processing speed, media access are discussed.

  7. Image Network Generation of Uncalibrated Uav Images with Low-Cost GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Zhang, Zuxun; He, Jianan; Ke, Tao

    2016-06-01

    The use of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) images acquired by a non-metric digital camera to establish an image network is difficult in cases without accurate camera model parameters. Although an image network can be generated by continuously calculating camera model parameters during data processing as an incremental structure from motion (SfM) methods, the process is time consuming. In this study, low-cost global position system (GPS) information is employed in image network generation to decrease computational expenses. Each image is considered as reference, and its neighbor images are determined based on GPS coordinates during processing. The reference image and its neighbor images constitute an image group, which is used to generate a free network through image matching and relative orientation. Data are then transformed from the free network coordinate system of each group into the GPS coordinate system by using the GPS coordinates of each image. After the exterior elements of each image are determined in the GPS coordinate system, the initial image network is established. Finally, self-calibration bundle adjustment constrained by GPS coordinates is conducted to refine the image network. The proposed method is validated on three fields. Results confirm that the method can achieve good image network when accurate camera model parameters are unavailable.

  8. Optimization of RFID network planning using Zigbee and WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, Khalid; Ahmed, Aftab; Badrul-aisham, Bakhsh, Qadir

    2015-05-01

    Everyone wants to be ease in their life. Radio frequency identification (RFID) wireless technology is used to make our life easier. RFID technology increases productivity, accuracy and convenience in delivery of service in supply chain. It is used for various applications such as preventing theft of automobiles, tolls collection without stopping, no checkout lines at grocery stores, managing traffic, hospital management, corporate campuses and airports, mobile asset tracking, warehousing, tracking library books, and to track a wealth of assets in supply chain management. Efficiency of RFID can be enhanced by integrating with wireless sensor network (WSN), zigbee mesh network and internet of things (IOT). The proposed system is used for identifying, sensing and real-time locating system (RTLS) of items in an indoor heterogeneous region. The system gives real-time richer information of object's characteristics, location and their environmental parameters like temperature, noise and humidity etc. RTLS reduce human error, optimize inventory management, increase productivity and information accuracy at indoor heterogeneous network. The power consumption and the data transmission rate of the system can be minimized by using low power hardware design.

  9. An Implementation of Low Cost and Low-power Network Broadcast Data Transmission and Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qing-Ming; Shi, Min; He, Yi-Hua

    A connectivity and realization method for the one-to-many remote network data transmission and storage was introduced in this paper. 3D LED display array needs large size data to display a stereo picture. This method was used in 3D LED display array to resolve data secure transmission problem. Combining the Intel 28FJ3A series Flash and Ethernet control chip DM9000A,it applied the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Verilog HDL programming technology to the system, implemented synchronic display and storage of stereograph, and reached 100 Mbps in the network transmission .Testing shows that the system is of low-cost,low-power and high-speed.

  10. RFID Based Networked Gate Entry Control System (GECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Lal Raheja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an RFID based smart gate entry control system (GECS which is developed for theemployees of an organization to supervise and record their entry related activity. Entire system isdeveloped with low frequency RFID reader & passive tag at one end & network based applicationsoftware running at the other end. The developed application with back-end application softwareprovides solutions regarding employee presence in the organization, keep track their transaction, andcalculate total work duration within organization. Here we discussed data base technique & logic forautomatic report generation related to employee’s monthly presence activity. We also discussed aboutwhy & how SMTP code can be helpful to develop an auto E-mail delivery feature for the monthly reportto the concerned employee's institutional Head.

  11. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  12. A Portable Low-Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Olalekan; Mead, Iq; Bright, Vivien; Baron, Ronan; Saffell, John; Stewart, Gregor; Kaye, Paul; Jones, Roderic

    2013-04-01

    Outdoor air quality and its impact on human health and the environment have been well studied and it has been projected that poor air quality will surpass poor sanitation as the major course of environmental premature mortality by 2050 (IGAC / IGBP, release statement, 2012). Transport-related pollution has been regulated at various levels by enactment of legislations at local, national, regional and global stages. As part of the mitigation measures, routine measurements of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have to be established in areas where air quality problems are identified. In addition, emission inventories are also generated for different atmospheric environments including urban areas and airport environments required for air quality models. Whilst recognising that most of the existing sparse monitoring networks provide high temporal measurements, spatial data of these highly variable pollutants are not captured, making it difficult to adequately characterise the highly heterogeneous air quality. Spatial information is often obtained from model data which can only be constrained using measurements from the sparse monitoring networks. The work presented here shows the application of low-cost sensor networks aimed at addressing this missing spatial information. We have shown in previous studies the application of low-cost electrochemical sensor network instruments in monitoring road transport pollutants including CO, NO and NO2 in an urban environment (Mead et. al. 2012, accepted Atmospheric Environment). Modified versions of these instruments which include additional species such as O3, SO2, VOCs and CO2 are currently deployed at London Heathrow Airport (LHR) as part of the Sensor Network for Air Quality (SNAQ) project. Meteorology data such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction are also measured as well as size-speciated particulates (0.38 to 17.4 µm). A network of 50

  13. On the Use of Low-Cost Radar Networks for Collision Warning Systems Aboard Dumpers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Tomás González-Partida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of dumpers is one of the main causes of accidents in construction sites, many of them with fatal consequences. These kinds of work machines have many blind angles that complicate the driving task due to their large size and volume. To guarantee safety conditions is necessary to use automatic aid systems that can detect and locate the different objects and people in a work area. One promising solution is a radar network based on low-cost radar transceivers aboard the dumper. The complete system is specified to operate with a very low false alarm rate to avoid unnecessary stops of the dumper that reduce its productivity. The main sources of false alarm are the heavy ground clutter, and the interferences between the radars of the network. This article analyses the clutter for LFM signaling and proposes the use of Offset Linear Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (OLFM-CW as radar signal. This kind of waveform can be optimized to reject clutter and self-interferences. Jointly, a data fusion chain could be used to reduce the false alarm rate of the complete radar network. A real experiment is shown to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  14. Online learning algorithm for time series forecasting suitable for low cost wireless sensor networks nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martínez, Francisco; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma

    2015-04-21

    Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources.

  15. Online Learning Algorithm for Time Series Forecasting Suitable for Low Cost Wireless Sensor Networks Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pardo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources.

  16. RFID of next generation network for enhancing customer relationship management in healthcare industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ahmed; Qureshi, Muhammad Shuaib; Thayananthan, Vijey

    2017-07-25

    This paper aims to analyze possible next generation of networked radio frequency identification (NGN-RFID) system for customer relationship management (CRM) in healthcare industries. Customer relationship and its management techniques in a specific healthcare industry are considered in this development. The key objective of using NGN-RFID scheme is to enhance the handling of patients' data to improve the CRM efficiency in healthcare industries. The proposed NGN-RFID system is one of the valid points to improve the ability of CRM by analyzing different prior and current traditional approaches. The legacy of customer relationship management will be improved by using this modern NGN-RFID technology without affecting the novelty.

  17. A Low Cost High Density Sensor Network for Air Quality at London Heathrow Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, V.; Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Stewart, G.; Kaye, P.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric composition within urban areas has a direct effect on the air quality of an environment in which a large majority of people live and work. Atmospheric pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) can have a significant effect on human health. As such it is important to determine the potential exposure of individuals to these atmospheric constituents and investigate the processes that lead to the degradation of air quality within the urban environment. Whilst modelled pollutant levels on the local scale often suggest high degrees of spatial and temporal variability, the relatively sparse fixed site automated urban networks only provide low spatial resolution data that do not appear adequate in detecting such small scale variability. In this paper we demonstrate that measurements can now be made using networks of low-cost sensors that utilise a variety of techniques, including electrochemical and optical, to measure concentrations of atmospheric species. Once equipped with GPS and GPRS to determine position and transmit data respectively, these networks have the potential to provide valuable insights into pollutant variability inherent on the local or micro-scale. The methodology has been demonstrated successfully in field campaigns carried out in cities including London and Valencia, and is now being deployed as part of the Sensor Networks for Air Quality currently deployed at London Heathrow airport (SNAQ-Heathrow) which is outlined in the partner paper presented by Mead et al. (this conference). The SNAQ-Heathrow network of 50 sensor nodes will provide an unprecedented data set that includes measurements of O3, NO, NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, total VOCs, size-speciated PM as well as meteorological variables that include temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. This network will provide high temporal (20 second intervals) and spatial (50 sites within the airport area

  18. Low Cost Seismic Network Practical Applications for Producing Quick Shaking Maps in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yih Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two major earthquakes of ML greater than 6.0 occurred in Taiwan in the first half of 2013. The vibrant shaking brought landslides, falling rocks and casualties. This paper presents a seismic network developed by National Taiwan University (NTU with 401 Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS accelerators. The network recorded high quality strong motion signals from the two events and produced delicate shaking maps within one minute after the earthquake occurrence. The high shaking regions of the intensity map produced by the NTU system suggest damage and casualty locations. Equipped with a dense array of MEMS accelerometers, the NTU system is able to accommodate 10% signals loss from part of the seismic stations and maintain its normal functions for producing shaking maps. The system also has the potential to identify the rupture direction which is one of the key indices used to estimate possible damage. The low cost MEMS accelerator array shows its potential in real-time earthquake shaking map generation and damage avoidance.

  19. Practical Applications of Low Cost Seismic Network for Producing Quick Shaking Map in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Min

    2014-05-01

    Two major earthquakes of ML greater than 6.0 occurred in Taiwan in the first half of 2013. The vibrantly shakings brought landslides, falling rocks and casualties. This paper presents a seismic network developed by National Taiwan University (NTU) with 401 Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerators. The network recorded high quality strong motion signals of the two events and produced delicate shaking maps within one minute after the earthquake occurrence. The high shaking regions of the intensity map produced by the NTU system precisely indicate the locations of damages and casualties. Equipping with the dense array of MEMS accelerometers, the NTU system is able to accommodate 10% signals loss from part of the seismic stations and maintains its normal functions for producing shaking maps. The system also has the potential to identify the direction of rupture which is one of the key indices to estimate possible damages. The low cost MEMS accelerator array shows its potential in real-time earthquake shaking map generation and damage avoidance.

  20. Delivering an Intelligent Foundation for RFID: Maximizing Network Efficiency with Cisco RFID Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today s most anticipated technologies for a broad range of enterprises. Based on the promise of lower operating costs combined with more accurate product and asset information, organizations .Rfrom manufacturers to government agencies, retailers to healthcare providers , Rare introducing RFID technologies in the supply chain, for asset tracking and management, and for security and regulatory purposes.

  1. A Low Cost BLE Transceiver with RX Matching Network Reusing PA Load Inductor for WSNs Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Li, Bin; Huang, Mo; Zheng, Yanqi; Ye, Hui; Xu, Ken; Deng, Fangming

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX) matching network reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa. This allows the TRX-switch/matching network integration without significant performance degradation. The RX adopted a low-IF structure and integrated a single-ended low noise amplifier (LNA), a current bleeding mixer, a 4th complex filter and a delta-sigma continuous time (CT) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TX employed a two-point PLL-based architecture with a non-linear PA. The RX achieved a sensitivity of −93 dBm and consumes 9.7 mW, while the TX achieved a 2.97% error vector magnitude (EVM) with 9.4 mW at 0 dBm output power. This design was fabricated in a 0.11 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and the front-end circuit only occupies 0.24 mm2. The measurement results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed BLE transceiver for WSN applications. PMID:28422068

  2. ICE: A Scalable, Low-Cost FPGA-Based Telescope Signal Processing and Networking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, K.; Bender, A. N.; Cliche, J. F.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Griffin, S.; Hsyu, G.; Ittah, D.; Parra, J. Mena; Montgomery, J.; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T.; Siegel, S.; Smecher, G.; Tang, Q. Y.; Vanderlinde, K.; Whitehorn, N.

    We present an overview of the ‘ICE’ hardware and software framework that implements large arrays of interconnected field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based data acquisition, signal processing and networking nodes economically. The system was conceived for application to radio, millimeter and sub-millimeter telescope readout systems that have requirements beyond typical off-the-shelf processing systems, such as careful control of interference signals produced by the digital electronics, and clocking of all elements in the system from a single precise observatory-derived oscillator. A new generation of telescopes operating at these frequency bands and designed with a vastly increased emphasis on digital signal processing to support their detector multiplexing technology or high-bandwidth correlators — data rates exceeding a terabyte per second — are becoming common. The ICE system is built around a custom FPGA motherboard that makes use of an Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and ARM-based co-processor. The system is specialized for specific applications through software, firmware and custom mezzanine daughter boards that interface to the FPGA through the industry-standard FPGA mezzanine card (FMC) specifications. For high density applications, the motherboards are packaged in 16-slot crates with ICE backplanes that implement a low-cost passive full-mesh network between the motherboards in a crate, allow high bandwidth interconnection between crates and enable data offload to a computer cluster. A Python-based control software library automatically detects and operates the hardware in the array. Examples of specific telescope applications of the ICE framework are presented, namely the frequency-multiplexed bolometer readout systems used for the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Simons Array and the digitizer, F-engine, and networking engine for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and Hydrogen Intensity and Real-time Analysis eXperiment (HIRAX

  3. Design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag's location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag's ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  4. Long Reach RFID-over-Fiber Distribution and Collection Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    This paper presents an RFID-over-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags. This paper demonstrates a system, operating over distances up to 30km of optical fiber and 50m of wireless readability.......This paper presents an RFID-over-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags. This paper demonstrates a system, operating over distances up to 30km of optical fiber and 50m of wireless readability....

  5. Long Reach RFID-over-Fiber Distribution and Collection Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    This paper presents an RFID-over-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags. This paper demonstrates a system, operating over distances up to 30km of optical fiber and 50m of wireless readability.......This paper presents an RFID-over-Fiber wireless track and trace system using active RFID tags. This paper demonstrates a system, operating over distances up to 30km of optical fiber and 50m of wireless readability....

  6. System Virtualization and Efficient ID Transmission Method for RFID Tag Infrastructure Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Kuribayashi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of RFID tag which identifies a thing and an object will be expanded with progress of ubiquitoussociety, and it is necessary to study how to construct RFID network system as a social infrastructure likethe Internet. First, this paper proposes the virtualization method of RFID tag network system to enablethe same physical RFID network system to be used by multiple different service systems. The systemvirtualization not only reduces the system cost but also can dramatically reduce the installation space ofphysical readers and the operation cost. It is proposed that all equipments in the RFID network systemexcept RFID tag could be shared with the conventional virtual technologies. Then, this paper proposesthe conditional tag ID processing and the efficient tag ID transmission method which can greatly reducethe processing time and processing load in RFID tag Infrastructure network The conditional tag IDprocessing allows that tag ID is valid only at a certain time zone of day or in a certain area. The efficienttag ID transmission method uses the virtual network address of the service center as a part of the ID of anRF tag, which allows the direct ID forwarding to the service center.

  7. Low-cost ultrasonic distance sensor arrays with networked error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongjun; Zhao, Shulin; Jia, Zhiping; Chen, Tianzhou

    2013-09-05

    Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC) trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  8. Low-Cost Ultrasonic Distance Sensor Arrays with Networked Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhou Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Distance has been one of the basic factors in manufacturing and control fields, and ultrasonic distance sensors have been widely used as a low-cost measuring tool. However, the propagation of ultrasonic waves is greatly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. In order to solve the problem of inaccurate measurement, which is significant within industry, this paper presents a novel ultrasonic distance sensor model using networked error correction (NEC trained on experimental data. This is more accurate than other existing approaches because it uses information from indirect association with neighboring sensors, which has not been considered before. The NEC technique, focusing on optimization of the relationship of the topological structure of sensor arrays, is implemented for the compensation of erroneous measurements caused by the environment. We apply the maximum likelihood method to determine the optimal fusion data set and use a neighbor discovery algorithm to identify neighbor nodes at the top speed. Furthermore, we adopt the NEC optimization algorithm, which takes full advantage of the correlation coefficients for neighbor sensors. The experimental results demonstrate that the ranging errors of the NEC system are within 2.20%; furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 0.01% after three iterations of this method, which means that the proposed method performs extremely well. The optimized method of distance measurement we propose, with the capability of NEC, would bring a significant advantage for intelligent industrial automation.

  9. Microwatt-Powered, Low-Cost, Printed Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors for Distributed Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anthony P.; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2015-12-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of novel conductometric humidity sensors that employ an ultrathin film of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes as transducing element. The GO film is deposited with a shadow mask using an electrospray emitter operated at atmospheric pressure; no post treatments-including annealing or doping- were applied to the GO sensors. The Van der Pauw electrode structure used in the sensor had 50 μm linewidths separated by 600 μm and was fabricated with the lift-off metallization technique. In dynamic humidity tests conducted at atmospheric pressure, the sensor tracks the response of a commercial sensor and reacts to changes in humidity in less than 500 ms. There is a quadratic dependence of the relative humidity on the sensor resistance for the relative humidity range between 3% and 63%, with more than a three-fold change in resistance over the range. The power consumption of the sensor is less than 30 μW while drawing 7 μA, and less than 15 μW while drawing 5 μA. Our devices are promising candidates for deployment in a distributed sensor network due to their low cost, small size, and low power consumption.

  10. System Virtualization and Efficient ID Transmission Method for RFID Tag Infrastructure Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kuribayashi, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The use of RFID tag which identifies a thing and an object will be expanded with progress of ubiquitous society, and it is necessary to study how to construct RFID network system as a social infrastructure like the Internet. First, this paper proposes the virtualization method of RFID tag network system to enable the same physical RFID network system to be used by multiple different service systems. The system virtualization not only reduces the system cost but also can dramatically reduce the installation space of physical readers and the operation cost. It is proposed that all equipments in the RFID network system except RFID tag could be shared with the conventional virtual technologies. Then, this paper proposes the conditional tag ID processing and the efficient tag ID transmission method which can greatly reduce the processing time and processing load in RFID tag Infrastructure network The conditional tag ID processing allows that tag ID is valid only at a certain time zone of day or in a certain area. ...

  11. A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a...

  12. Low-cost RAU with Optical Power Supply Used in a Hybrid RoF IEEE 802.11 Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-09-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a low-cost RAU (Remote Antenna Unit) device. It was designed to work in a hybrid Wi-Fi/optical network based on the IEEE 802.11b/g standard. An unique feature of the device is the possibility of optical power supply.

  13. RFID-Enabled Navigation and Communication Networks for Long-Duration Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Virtual EM Inc. proposes a system that employs semi-passive RFID sensors with carbon nanotube inkjet-printed antenna and solar powered mesh-networked beacons. The...

  14. Access Control with RFID in the Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Elstrøm Holst; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2013-01-01

    , to the Internet is suggested. The solution uses virtual representations of objects by using low-cost, passive RFID tags to give objects identities on the Internet. A prototype that maps an RFID identity into an IPv6 address is constructed. It is illustrated how this approach can be used in access control systems...... based on open network protocols and packet filtering. The solution includes a novel RFID reader architecture that supports the internetworking of components of a future access control system based on network layer technology....

  15. Extending the coverage of the internet of things with low-cost nanosatellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, Vicente; Franck, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Recent technology advances have made CubeSats not only an affordable means of access to space, but also promising platforms to develop a new variety of space applications. In this paper, we explore the idea of using nanosatellites as access points to provide extended coverage to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. This study is mainly motivated by two facts: on the one hand, it is already obvious that the number of machine-type devices deployed globally will experiment an exponential growth over the forthcoming years. This trend is pushed by the available terrestrial cellular infrastructure, which allows adding support for M2M connectivity at marginal costs. On the other hand, the same growth is not observed in remote areas that must rely on space-based connectivity. In such environments, the demand for M2M communications is potentially large, yet it is challenged by the lack of cost-effective service providers. The traffic characteristics of typical M2M applications translate into the requirement for an extremely low cost per transmitted message. Under these strong economical constraints, we expect that nanosatellites in the low Earth orbit will play a fundamental role in overcoming what we may call the IoT digital divide. The objective of this paper is therefore to provide a general analysis of a nanosatellite-based, global IoT/M2M network. We put emphasis in the engineering challenges faced in designing the Earth-to-Space communication link, where the adoption of an efficient multiple-access scheme is paramount for ensuring connectivity to a large number of terminal nodes. In particular, the trade-offs energy efficiency-access delay and energy efficiency-throughput are discussed, and a novel access approach suitable for delay-tolerant applications is proposed. Thus, by keeping a system-level standpoint, we identify key issues and discuss perspectives towards energy efficient and cost-effective solutions.

  16. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  17. Security Protocol for Low-cost RFID System Based on PUF%基于PUF的低成本RFID系统安全协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灵; 闫大顺

    2010-01-01

    针对低成本无线射频识别(RFID)系统存在的安全性问题,提出一种基于PUF的低成本RFID安全协议.利用PUF的物理不可克隆性识别标签的身份,并利用线性反馈移位寄存器(LFSR)产生随机系列,加密阅读器与标签之间的通信,能抵抗重放攻击、跟踪攻击、物理攻击、窃听攻击等多种攻击.在Altera DE2板上使用FPGA实现PUF和LFSR,采用Quartus II 8.0编程.实验结果证明,该协议的执行时间和门电路数量能达到低成本标签的要求.

  18. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  19. Low-cost densification of permanent GPS networks for natural hazard mitigation: First tests on GSI's GEONET network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Chris; Han, Shaowei; Ge, Linlin; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hatanaka, Yuki; Abe, Kaoru

    2000-10-01

    Researchers from The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Australia, and from the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI), Japan, have commenced a joint project to develop, deploy and test an innovative hardware/software system design for an automatic, continuously-operated ground deformation monitoring system based on low-cost GPS receiver technology. Conventional continuously-operated GPS (CGPS) networks, such as the one established in Japan by GSI to precisely measure earth surface movement, are very expensive. The high cost being primarily due to the fact that dual-frequency receivers are used. Japan's nationwide GEONET network is the world's largest, numbering nearly 1000 receiver stations, with an average station spacing of the order of 30 km. In order to densify such CGPS networks (important when high spatial resolution for the monitoring of the deformation phenomenon is required), and to promote the use of the CGPS technique in lesser developed countries, a significantly cheaper system architecture is needed. The proposed design is an integrated, dual-mode network consisting of low-cost, single-frequency GPS receivers across the area of interest, surrounded by a sparser network of dual-frequency GPS receivers. Initial tests of data collected at selected stations in the GEONET network have already shown that through enhanced data processing algorithms a CGPS network containing both single-frequency and dual-frequency receivers would be able to deliver better than centimetre level accuracies, at considerably lower cost than present systems based exclusively on dual-frequency instrumentation. This paper reports the results of the first field test of this new CGPS system design, in the Tsukuba area of Japan, in August 1999. The test network consisted of: (a) several stations of the GEONET network surrounding (b) an inner network of four single-frequency Canadian Marconi GPS receivers installed by UNSW researchers. The data from both the GEONET and the UNSW

  20. An Envision of Low Cost Mobile Adhoc Network Test Bed in a Laboratory Environment Emulating an Actual MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitiket N Mhala

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Orchestrating a live field trial of wireless mobile networking involves significant cost andlogistical issues relating to mobile platforms, support personnel, network and experiment automation andsupport equipment. The significant cost and logistics required to execute such a field trial can also belimiting in terms of achieving meaningful test results that exercise a practical number of mobile nodesover a significant set of test conditions within a given time. There is no argument that field trials are animportant component of dynamic network testing. A field test of prototype will show whether simulationswere on right track or not, but that’s a big leap to take; going from the simulator directly to the realthing. In conceiving our work, we envisioned a mobile network emulation system that is low cost, flexibleand controllable. This paper describes our wireless MANET test bed under development which emulatesan actual MANET. Here, we focuses that, this test bed allows the users to automatically generatearbitrary logically network topologies in order to perform real time operations on adhoc network at arelatively low cost in a laboratory environment without having to physically move the nodes in the adhocnetwork. Thus, we try to “compress” wireless network so that it fits on a single table.

  1. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangcheol Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.

  2. Energy efficient cooperation in underlay RFID cognitive networks for a water smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Adnan; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Soong, Boon-Hee; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-09-30

    Shrinking water resources all over the world and increasing costs of water consumption have prompted water users and distribution companies to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment, there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones, Bluetooth devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices. In order to reduce the interference from our proposed RFID network for these primary devices, we have proposed a cooperating underlay RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water. These underlay RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2]. This work is an extension of our previous ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing a new system model and RFIDs. Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation, this scheme performs better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model's (HMM) multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed. This approach has been applied to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  3. An Envision of Low Cost Mobile Adhoc Network Test Bed in a Laboratory Environment Emulating an Actual MANET

    CERN Document Server

    Mhala, Nitiket N; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2305

    2010-01-01

    Orchestrating a live field trial of wireless mobile networking involves significant cost and logistical issues relating to mobile platforms, support personnel, network and experiment automation and support equipment. The significant cost and logistics required to execute such a field trial can also be limiting in terms of achieving meaningful test results that exercise a practical number of mobile nodes over a significant set of test conditions within a given time. There is no argument that field trials are an important component of dynamic network testing. A field test of prototype will show whether simulations were on right track or not, but that's a big leap to take; going from the simulator directly to the real thing. In conceiving our work, we envisioned a mobile network emulation system that is low cost, flexible and controllable. This paper describes our wireless MANET test bed under development which emulates an actual MANET. Here, we focuses that, this test bed allows the users to automatically gener...

  4. A novel architecture for cargos location and safety in networked RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dong-li; YUAN Zheng-wu; Byeong-Seob You; Sook-Kyung Cho; Hae-Young Bae

    2007-01-01

    Using Networked RFID equipped in warehouse or supermarket distribution, Enterprise information system (EIS) can gather and deal with cargos information. Nevertheless, when cargos are in traffic, the Networked RFID can't monitor the cargos any more as the products tagged aren't within range of a reader. This paper proposes a solution framework which combines Networked RFID and GPS tracking, and then equip with this system in container to make the cargos monitored even if the cargos are in traffic. This solution can solve the accurate consignments, position tracking and advanced theft happening through drilling holes in container. In addition, customhouse and checkpoint can get an electronic shipment manifest rapidly and safely when a vehicle gets through a checkpoint.

  5. A low cost strategy to monitor the expansion and contraction of the flowing stream network in mountainous headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assendelft, Rick; van Meerveld, Ilja; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Streams are dynamic features in the landscape. The flowing stream network expands and contracts, connects and disconnects in response to rainfall events and seasonal changes in catchment wetness. Sections of the river system that experience these wet and dry cycles are often referred to as temporary streams. Temporary streams are abundant and widely distributed freshwater ecosystems. They account for more than half of the total length of the global stream network, are unique habitats and form important hydrological and ecological links between the uplands and perennial streams. However, temporary streams have been largely unstudied, especially in mountainous headwater catchments. The dynamic character of these systems makes it difficult to monitor them. We describe a low-cost, do-it-yourself strategy to monitor the occurrence of water and flow in temporary streams. We evaluate this strategy in two headwater catchments in Switzerland. The low cost sensor network consists of electrical resistivity sensors, water level switches, temperature sensors and flow sensors. These sensors are connected to Arduino microcontrollers and data loggers, which log the data every 5 minutes. The data from the measurement network are compared with observations (mapping of the temporary stream network) as well as time lapse camera data to evaluate the performance of the sensors. We look at how frequently the output of the sensors (presence and absence of water from the ER and water level data, and flow or no-flow from the flow sensors) corresponds to the observed channel state. This is done for each sensor, per sub-catchment, per precipitation event and per sensor location to determine the best sensor combination to monitor temporary streams in mountainous catchments and in which situation which sensor combination works best. The preliminary results show that the sensors and monitoring network work well. The data from the sensors corresponds with the observations and provides information

  6. Low-Cost Hybrid ROADM Architectures for Scalable C/DWDM Metro Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Halima, Elbiaze

    2016-01-01

    be introduced to merge CWDM and DWDM traffic at the optical layer. This ensures two advantages: reduced initial investment and scalability for deploying DWDM channels in the future. This article presents various ROADM architectures, and explores the novel optical node architecture of hybrid C/DWDM networks......CWDM networks have proven to be a promising first-step metro and access network architecture, offering a significant cost advantage over DWDM due to the lower cost of lasers and the filters used in CWDM modules. If demand grows beyond the capacity covered by CWDM channels, DWDM network elements can......, consisting of CWDM, hybrid C/DWDM, and junction nodes connecting two rings. Evaluation has shown that the hybrid ROADM architecture is superior to other conventional ROADM architectures in terms of scalability and the initial cost of optical nodes and networks....

  7. Evaluating Small Spatial Scale Ozone Levels in Riverside, CA using a Low-Cost Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E.; Sadighi, K.; Lv, Q.; Gao, D.; Polidori, A.; Feenstra, B. J.; Henze, D. K.; Shang, L.; Dick, R.; Qu, Z.; Hannigan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ground-level ozone is an EPA criteria pollutant that causes negative human health effects, and damages plant life. Currently, it is the responsibility of individual states to designate attainment areas within their borders often by means of regional air quality boards. The goal of this project is to show that ozone has spatial and temporal variability on smaller scales than preexisting attainment areas and demonstrate the reliability of finer resolution air quality data using a low-cost sensor system (called a UPod) in the field. During the summer of 2015, thirteen UPods were collocated in Riverside, CA at the SCAQMD (South Coast Air Quality Management District) Rubidoux reference station for two weeks at the end of July. Following, the UPods were deployed throughout a small (10x10 km) region for two months then returned to Rubidoux for a post calibration. Ozone data was collected using e2v MiCS-2611 metal oxide sensors (SGX Tech.) at a frequency of about 4-6 times per minute - which were later minute averaged. Field normalization calibrations were generated converting sensor signal outputs (mV) to concentrations (ppbv) and cross-validation against reference-grade monitors in the field were 3-6.8 ppbv (RMSE) at minute resolution. Further analysis will include examining the data for statistical information through space and time exploring variability. Having cost effective, reliable and fine-resolution air quality data in a region displaying variability may help regulatory agencies make policy decisions that can impact people living on community scales.

  8. Low-Cost and Energy-Saving Wireless Sensor Network for Real-Time Urban Mobility Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoung Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost and energy-saving urban mobility monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The primary components of the proposed sensor unit are a Bluetooth sensor and a Zigbee transceiver. Within the WSN, the Bluetooth sensor captures the MAC addresses of Bluetooth units equipped in mobile devices and car navigation systems. The Zigbee transceiver transmits the collected MAC addresses to a data center without any major communications infrastructures (e.g., fiber optics and 3G/4G network. A total of seven prototype sensor units have been deployed on roadway segments in Newark, New Jersey, for a proof of concept (POC test. The results of the POC test show that the performance of the proposed sensor unit appears promising, resulting in 2% of data drop rates and an improved Bluetooth capturing rate.

  9. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors & Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Philip [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-06-09

    The research objective of this project is to design and demonstrate a low-cost, compact, easy-to-deploy, maintenance-free sensor node technology, and a network of such sensors, which enable the monitoring of multiphysical parameters and can transform today’s ordinary buildings into smart buildings with environmental awareness. We develop the sensor node and network via engineering and integration of existing technologies, including high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting, and ultralow-power integrated circuits (ICs) for sensing and wireless communication. Through integration and innovative power management via specifically designed low-power control circuits for wireless sensing applications, and tailoring energy-harvesting components to indoor applications, the target products will have smaller volume, higher efficiency, and much lower cost (in both manufacturing and maintenance) than the baseline technology. Our development and commercialization objective is to create prototypes for our target products under the CWRU-Intwine collaboration.

  10. Incorporating Low-Cost Seismometers into the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network for Earthquake Early Warning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Yi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dense seismic network can increase Earthquake Early Warning (EEW system capability to estimate earthquake information with higher accuracy. It is also critical for generating fast, robust earthquake alarms before strong-ground shaking hits the target area. However, building a dense seismic network via traditional seismometers is too expensive and may not be practical. Using low-cost Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS accelerometers is a potential solution to quickly deploy a large number of sensors around the monitored region. An EEW system constructed using a dense seismic network with 543 MEMS sensors in Taiwan is presented. The system also incorporates the official seismic network of _ Central Weather Bureau (CWB. The real-time data streams generated by the two networks are integrated using the Earthworm software. This paper illustrates the methods used by the integrated system for estimating earthquake information and evaluates the system performance. We applied the Earthworm picker for the seismograms recorded by the MEMS sensors (Chen et al. 2015 following new picking constraints to accurately detect P-wave arrivals and use a new regression equation for estimating earthquake magnitudes. An off-line test was implemented using 46 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from ML 4.5 - 6.5 to calibrate the system. The experimental results show that the integrated system has stable source parameter results and issues alarms much faster than the current system run by the CWB seismic network (CWBSN.

  11. Low-cost and low-power unidirectional torus network-on-chip with corner buffer power-gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tang, Xiantuo; Xing, Zuocheng; Liu, Hengzhu

    2016-08-01

    Network-on-chip (NoC) is one of critical communication architectures for the scaling of future many-core processors. The challenge for on-chip network is reducing design complexity to save both area and power while providing high performance such as low latency and high throughput. Especially, with increase of network size, both design complexity and power consumption have become the bottlenecks preventing proper network scaling. Moreover, as technology continuously scales down, leakage power takes up a larger fraction of total NoC power. It is increasingly important for a power-efficient NoC design to reduce the increasing leakage power. Power-gating, as a representative low-power technique, can be applied to an on-chip network for mitigating leakage power. In this paper, we propose a low-cost and low-power router architecture for the unidirectional torus network, and adopt an improved corner buffer structure for the inoffensive power-gating, which has minimal impact on network performance. Besides, an explicit starvation avoidance mechanism is introduced to guarantee injection fairness while decreasing its negative impact on network throughput. Simulation results with synthetic traffic show that our design can improve network throughput by 11.3% on average and achieve significant power-saving in low- and medium-load regions. In the SPLASH-2 workload simulation, our design can save on average 27.2% of total power compared to the baseline, and decrease 42.8% average latency compared to the baseline with power-gating.

  12. RFID Equivalent Model for Prediction of Functional and EMC Performances in Complex Aeronautic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Alexandre; Perraud, Richard; Peres, Gilles; Nguyen, Francois; Herlem, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Wireless networks are widely used in urban or office environments and are increasingly considered as an attractive solution for various aeronautic applications. Current investigations focus in particular on RFID technologies because of their widespread use, low cost and ease of installation. The objective of this publication is to propose a concept of RFID equivalent model to predict functional and EMC performances in complex aeronautic areas.

  13. Energy Efficient Low-Cost Virtual Backbone Construction for Optimal Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohaideen Pitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many prominent applications in wireless sensor networks which require collected information have to be routed to end nodes in an efficient manner. In general, weighted connected dominating Sets (WCDS based routing is a promising approach for enhancing the routing efficiency in sensor networks. Backbone has been used extensively in routing. Here an efficient WCDS algorithm for constructing a virtual backbone with low total cost, hop spanning ratio, and minimum number of dominators is proposed. We report a systematic approach, which has three phases. Initial phase considers the issues of revoking a partial CDS tree from a complete CDS tree. Secondary and final phases make the design of the complete algorithm by considering the determination of dominators using an iteration process. Our findings reveal better performance than the existing algorithms in terms of total cost, hop spanning ratio, and number of dominators.

  14. Design of a low-cost underwater acoustic modem for short- range sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    Small, dense, wireless sensor networks are beginning to revolutionize our understanding of the physical world by providing fine resolution sampling of the surrounding environment. The ability to have many small devices streaming real-time data physically distributed near the objects being sensed brings new opportunities to observe and act on the world which could provide significant benefits to mankind. While wireless sensor-net systems are beginning to be fielded in applications today on the...

  15. Mobile RFID of Wireless Mesh Network for Intelligent Safety Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwen-Fu Horng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Wi-Fi phone with RFID (Radio frequency identification of student entered the school, via Wireless Access Points (APs of school will transmit MAC address with RFID of Wi-Fi phone to Internet Data Center (IDC for server and then the message exchanged by using GSM (or 3G has been transmitted message (or mail to the mobile user of parents (or client user. The wireless access points support broadcasting multiple SSIDs, each of which can have a different set of security and network setting. The RADIUS server is used to authenticate the Wireless Access Point (AP and mobile nodes. In safety case system, we used the several authentication and encryption options for the WLAN. We will discuss the use of Wi-Fi protected Access (WPA, RFID, IP Security (IPSec, and Secure Socket Layer (SSL, and there are high Quality of service (QoS and performance.

  16. Low-cost design of next generation SONET/SDH networks with multiple constraints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karem, TR

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available . Integer Linear Programming approach SDH ring assignment problem primarily deals with ways of minimising the number of local rings that are interconnected by the backbone ring, generically referred to as federal ring. It is assumed that the total... amount of traffic on all the local rings must be less than or equal to the capacity of the backbone network. Each site on the local rings interconnected by federal rings must be connected by another special device back-to- back, and is known as Multi...

  17. Improved rapid magnitude estimation for a community-based, low-cost MEMS accelerometer network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Angela I.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Kaiser, Anna E.; Christensen, Carl M.; Yildirim, Battalgazi; Lawrence, Jesse F.

    2015-01-01

    Immediately following the Mw 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, over 180 Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) low‐cost micro‐electro‐mechanical systems accelerometers were deployed in the Canterbury region. Using data recorded by this dense network from 2010 to 2013, we significantly improved the QCN rapid magnitude estimation relationship. The previous scaling relationship (Lawrence et al., 2014) did not accurately estimate the magnitudes of nearby (estimates earthquake magnitudes within 1 magnitude unit of the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog magnitudes for 99% of the events tested, within 0.5 magnitude units for 90% of the events, and within 0.25 magnitude units for 57% of the events. These magnitudes are reliably estimated within 3 s of the initial trigger recorded on at least seven stations. In this report, we present the methods used to calculate a new scaling relationship and demonstrate the accuracy of the revised magnitude estimates using a program that is able to retrospectively estimate event magnitudes using archived data.

  18. Privacy-preserving telecardiology sensor networks: toward a low-cost portable wireless hardware/software codesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fei; Jiang, Meng; Wagner, Mark; Dong, De-Cun

    2007-11-01

    Recently, a remote-sensing platform based on wireless interconnection of tiny ECG sensors called Telecardiology Sensor Networks (TSN) provided a promising approach to perform low-cost real-time cardiac patient monitoring at any time in community areas (such as elder nursing homes or hospitals). The contribution of this research is the design of a practical TSN hardware/software platform for a typical U.S. healthcare community scenario (such as large nursing homes with many elder patients) to perform real-time healthcare data collections. On the other hand, due to the radio broadcasting nature of MANET, a TSN has the risk of losing the privacy of patients' data. Medical privacy has been highly emphasized by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This research also designs a medical security scheme with low communication overhead to achieve confidential electrocardiogram data transmission in wireless medium.

  19. Low cost and high performance GPON, GEPON and RFoG optical network pentaplexer module design using diffractive grating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Chi, Chang-Chia; Tarn, Chen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    A new architecture of a pentaplexer transceiver module which can be used in GPON/GEPON and RFoG triple play optical networks with supporting of the multiple optical wavelengths of 1310 nm, 1490 nm, 1550 nm, 1610 nm, and 1650 nm, is proposed. By using diffractive grating elements combing with market readily available GRIN (Gradient-Index) lens, grating, mirrors, beamsplitter, LDs (Laser Diodes), and PDs (Photodetectors), the proposed design have the advantages of low cost, high efficiency/performance, easy design and manufacturing, over the contemporary triplex transceivers which are made of multilayer filters or waveguides that increase the complexity of manufacturing and reduce the performance efficiency. With the proposed design, a pentaplexer system can accommodate GPON/GEPON, RFoG, and monitoring integration services, total five optical wavelength channels into a hybrid-integrated TO-CAN package platform with sufficient efficiency.

  20. Multiobjective RFID Network Optimization Using Multiobjective Evolutionary and Swarm Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of radio frequency identification (RFID technology generates the most challenging RFID network planning (RNP problem, which needs to be solved in order to operate the large-scale RFID network in an optimal fashion. RNP involves many objectives and constraints and has been proven to be a NP-hard multi-objective problem. The application of evolutionary algorithm (EA and swarm intelligence (SI for solving multiobjective RNP (MORNP has gained significant attention in the literature, but these algorithms always transform multiple objectives into a single objective by weighted coefficient approach. In this paper, we use multiobjective EA and SI algorithms to find all the Pareto optimal solutions and to achieve the optimal planning solutions by simultaneously optimizing four conflicting objectives in MORNP, instead of transforming multiobjective functions into a single objective function. The experiment presents an exhaustive comparison of three successful multiobjective EA and SI, namely, the recently developed multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm (MOABC, the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II, and the multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, on MORNP instances of different nature, namely, the two-objective and three-objective MORNP. Simulation results show that MOABC proves to be more superior for planning RFID networks than NSGA-II and MOPSO in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  1. ICE: a scalable, low-cost FPGA-based telescope signal processing and networking system

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, K; Cliche, J F; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Gilbert, A J; Griffin, S; Hsyu, G; Ittah, D; Parra, J Mena; Montgomery, J; Pinsonneault-Marotte, T; Siegel, S; Smecher, G; Tang, Q Y; Vanderlinde, K; Whitehorn, N

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the 'ICE' hardware and software framework that implements large arrays of interconnected FPGA-based data acquisition, signal processing and networking nodes economically. The system was conceived for application to radio, millimeter and sub-millimeter telescope readout systems that have requirements beyond typical off-the-shelf processing systems, such as careful control of interference signals produced by the digital electronics, and clocking of all elements in the system from a single precise observatory-derived oscillator. A new generation of telescopes operating at these frequency bands and designed with a vastly increased emphasis on digital signal processing to support their detector multiplexing technology or high-bandwidth correlators---data rates exceeding a terabyte per second---are becoming common. The ICE system is built around a custom FPGA motherboard that makes use of an Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA and ARM-based co-processor. The system is specialized for specific application...

  2. Monitoring meteorological spatial variability in viticulture using a low-cost Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matese, Alessandro; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Primicerio, Jacopo; Tomasi, Diego; Guidoni, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    In a long-term perspective, the current global agricultural scenario will be characterize by critical issues in terms of water resource management and environmental protection. The concept of sustainable agriculture would become crucial at reducing waste, optimizing the use of pesticides and fertilizers to crops real needs. This can be achieved through a minimum-scale monitoring of the crop physiologic status and the environmental parameters that characterize the microclimate. Viticulture is often subject to high variability within the same vineyard, thus becomes important to monitor this heterogeneity to allow a site-specific management and maximize the sustainability and quality of production. Meteorological variability expressed both at vineyard scale (mesoclimate) and at single plant level (microclimate) plays an important role during the grape ripening process. The aim of this work was to compare temperature, humidity and solar radiation measurements at different spatial scales. The measurements were assessed for two seasons (2011, 2012) in two vineyards of the Veneto region (North-East Italy), planted with Pinot gris and Cabernet Sauvignon using a specially designed and developed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The WSN consists of various levels: the Master/Gateway level coordinates the WSN and performs data aggregation; the Farm/Server level takes care of storing data on a server, data processing and graphic rendering. Nodes level is based on a network of peripheral nodes consisting of a sensor board equipped with sensors and wireless module. The system was able to monitor the agrometeorological parameters in the vineyard: solar radiation, air temperature and air humidity. Different sources of spatial variation were studied, from meso-scale to micro-scale. A widespread investigation was conducted, building a factorial design able to evidence the role played by any factor influencing the physical environment in the vineyard, such as the surrounding climate

  3. Energy Efficient Cooperation in Underlay RFID Cognitive Networks for a Water Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nasir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrinking water  resources all over the world and increasing  costs of water consumption  have prompted  water users  and distribution companies  to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient  smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment,  there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones,  Bluetooth  devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices.  In order to reduce the interference  from our proposed RFID network for these primary  devices, we have proposed a cooperating  underlay  RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water.  These underlay  RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2].  This work is an extension of our previous  ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing  a new system model and RFIDs.  Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary  network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation,  this scheme performs  better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model’s (HMM multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed.  This approach has been applied  to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes.

  4. An inquiry into the characteristics, applicability and prerequisites of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID solutions in transport networks and logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu Ovidiu Balint

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of intelligent solution represents the key factor for developing both the logistics sector and the economic environment. This paper analyses the Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID technology and its role in the Supply Chain Management (SCM especially in logistics and transport networks. The main objective is to demonstrate that RFID represents a solution for improving the transport networks and logistics sector by implementing various complex and intelligent solutions that can improve the actual economic environment

  5. High-Density, High-Resolution, Low-Cost Air Quality Sensor Networks for Urban Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, M. I.; Popoola, O. A.; Stewart, G.; Bright, V.; Kaye, P.; Saffell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring air quality in highly granular environments such as urban areas which are spatially heterogeneous with variable emission sources, measurements need to be made at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. Current routine air quality monitoring networks generally are either composed of sparse expensive installations (incorporating e.g. chemiluminescence instruments) or higher density low time resolution systems (e.g. NO2 diffusion tubes). Either approach may not accurately capture important effects such as pollutant "hot spots" or adequately capture spatial (or temporal) variability. As a result, analysis based on data from traditional low spatial resolution networks, such as personal exposure, may be inaccurate. In this paper we present details of a sophisticated, low-cost, multi species (gas phase, speciated PM, meteorology) air quality measurement network methodology incorporating GPS and GPRS which has been developed for high resolution air quality measurements in urban areas. Sensor networks developed in the Centre for Atmospheric Science (University of Cambridge) incorporated electrochemical gas sensors configured for use in urban air quality studies operating at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. It has been demonstrated that these sensors can be used to measure key air quality gases such as CO, NO and NO2 at the low ppb mixing ratios present in the urban environment (estimated detection limits work, a state of the art multi species instrument package for deployment in scalable sensor networks has been developed which has general applicability. This is currently being employed as part of a major 3 year UK program at London Heathrow airport (the Sensor Networks for Air Quality (SNAQ) Heathrow project). The main project outcome is the creation of a calibrated, high spatial and temporal resolution data set for O3, NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, VOCstotal, size-speciated PM, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. The network incorporates existing

  6. Determining Methane Leak Locations and Rates with a Wireless Network Composed of Low-Cost, Printed Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. J.; Kim, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ng, T. N.; Beck, V.; Ganguli, A.; Saha, B.; Daniel, G.; Lee, J.; Whiting, G.; Meyyappan, M.; Schwartz, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    We will present our progress on the development of a wireless sensor network that will determine the source and rate of detected methane leaks. The targeted leak detection threshold is 2 g/min with a rate estimation error of 20% and localization error of 1 m within an outdoor area of 100 m2. The network itself is composed of low-cost, high-performance sensor nodes based on printed nanomaterials with expected sensitivity below 1 ppmv methane. High sensitivity to methane is achieved by modifying high surface-area-to-volume-ratio single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with materials that adsorb methane molecules. Because the modified SWNTs are not perfectly selective to methane, the sensor nodes contain arrays of variously-modified SWNTs to build diversity of response towards gases with adsorption affinity. Methane selectivity is achieved through advanced pattern-matching algorithms of the array's ensemble response. The system is low power and designed to operate for a year on a single small battery. The SWNT sensing elements consume only microwatts. The largest power consumer is the wireless communication, which provides robust, real-time measurement data. Methane leak localization and rate estimation will be performed by machine-learning algorithms built with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations of gas plume formation. This sensor system can be broadly applied at gas wells, distribution systems, refineries, and other downstream facilities. It also can be utilized for industrial and residential safety applications, and adapted to other gases and gas combinations.

  7. A low cost sensor network approach to investigate spatio-temporal patterns of stream temperatures and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Understanding water and energy fluxes at the stream and catchment scale remains a challenging task. Within the CAOS-project-framework it is our aim to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of stream temperature and to deduce understanding about the underlying hydrological system. A low cost sensor network was installed in summer 2015 to monitor stream temperature and EC patterns in time and space. 90 HOBO temperature sensors, which were modified to additionally measure EC, were installed at 30 confluences across the Attert catchment (288 km²) in Luxembourg. The design of the sensor network allows for the investigation of three research questions: a) spatial patterns of stream temperatures and EC and their dynamics across the region b) estimation of relative streamflow contributions and their temporal dynamics by using simple mixing models and c) estimation of heat transport. The data will thus provide valuable insight in runoff contributions from different sub-catchments, and a combined analysis with distributed measurements of soil moisture and shallow groundwater will improve our process understanding by linking hillslope scale processes with stream responses. First results indicate that streams in different geologies show distinct temperature and EC patterns throughout the observation period. Differences are also found with respect to temporal dynamics both for longer periods as well as diurnal fluctuations. These differences are likely to be caused by differences in flow paths on the one hand (e.g. amount of groundwater contribution) and exposure to direct radiation on the other hand.

  8. Performance-Effective and Low-Complexity Redundant Reader Detection in Wireless RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Heau-Jo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problems of redundant RFID reader detection and coverage have instigated researchers to propose different optimization heuristics due to the rapid advance of technologies in large-scale RFID systems. In this paper, we present a layered elimination optimization (LEO which is an algorithm-independent technique aims to detect maximum amount of redundant readers that could be safely removed or turned off with preserving original RFID network coverage. A significant improvement of the LEO scheme is that amount of "write-to-tag" operations could be largely reduced during the redundant reader identification phase. Moreover, LEO is a distributed approach which does not need to collect global information for centralizing control, leading to no communications or synchronizations among RFID readers. To evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques, we have implemented the LEO technique along with other methods. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the LEO is reliable, effective, and efficient. The proposed techniques can provide reliable performance with detecting higher redundancy and has lower algorithm overheads.

  9. Design of a Mobile Low-Cost Sensor Network Using Urban Buses for Real-Time Ubiquitous Noise Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Alías, Francesc; Angulo, Ignacio

    2016-12-29

    One of the main priorities of smart cities is improving the quality of life of their inhabitants. Traffic noise is one of the pollutant sources that causes a negative impact on the quality of life of citizens, which is gaining attention among authorities. The European Commission has promoted the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END) to inform citizens and to prevent the harmful effects of noise exposure. The measure of acoustic levels using noise maps is a strategic issue in the END action plan. Noise maps are typically calculated by computing the average noise during one year and updated every five years. Hence, the implementation of dynamic noise mapping systems could lead to short-term plan actions, besides helping to better understand the evolution of noise levels along time. Recently, some projects have started the monitoring of noise levels in urban areas by means of acoustic sensor networks settled in strategic locations across the city, while others have taken advantage of collaborative citizen sensing mobile applications. In this paper, we describe the design of an acoustic low-cost sensor network installed on public buses to measure the traffic noise in the city in real time. Moreover, the challenges that a ubiquitous bus acoustic measurement system entails are enumerated and discussed. Specifically, the analysis takes into account the feature extraction of the audio signal, the identification and separation of the road traffic noise from urban traffic noise, the hardware platform to measure and process the acoustic signal, the connectivity between the several nodes of the acoustic sensor network to store the data and, finally, the noise maps' generation process. The implementation and evaluation of the proposal in a real-life scenario is left for future work.

  10. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

  11. Mutual Authentication Protocols for RFID Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashrar A. Omer; Johnson P. Thomas; Ling Zhu

    2008-01-01

    With the availability of low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, security becomes an increasing concern.However, such tags do not permit complex eryptographic functions due to their computational, communications, and storage limitations.In this paper, we investigate the security issues and requirements of RFID systems, and propose ultra-light weight and light weight protocols for low-cost RFID tags. The proposed protocols has been applied to a supply chain management system.

  12. A Review on Chipless RFID Tag Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for RFID tags has recently increased due to the development of the RFID. Over the past decade, great efforts have been devoted to the design of RFID tags without chip inside. The concept of chipless RFID tags appears to be a promising solution for low cost item tagging because the cost of active RFID tag depends mainly on the chip used in them. This paper presents the progress of the chipless RFID tag and introduces major studies in this filed. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are pointed out.

  13. Price rivalry in airline markets: A study of a successful strategy of a network carrier against a low-cost carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Fageda; Juan Luis Jiménez; Jordi Perdiguero

    2010-01-01

    Competition in airline markets may be tough. In this context, network carriers have two alternative strategies to compete with low-cost carriers. First, they may establish a low-cost subsidiary. Second, they may try to reduce costs using the main brand. This paper examines a successful strategy of the first type implemented by Iberia in the Spanish domestic market. Our analysis of data and the estimation of a pricing equation show that Iberia has been able to charge lower prices than rivals w...

  14. Design of RFID Cloud Services in a Low Bandwidth Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.T. Mo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies has significantly improved the efficiency of modern supply chains. Existing IT architecture is too rigid to allow new technologies such as RFID technologies to be implemented. With the aid of virtualisation and integrated with cloud services, infrastructure hardware and network devices can be consolidated into a physical device, reducing the cost of ownership. However, for such cloud services model to work correctly, a high speed network is required between each site and the cloud service provider. This poses huge challenges for real‐time system such as RFID‐enabled supply chains. Since modern supply chains operate on a global platform, it is almost impossible to assure availability of high speed networks across the global supply chain. This paper proposes two solutions to supplement the virtualisation and cloud services model. A sub‐cloud services solution, where each service is distributed across multiple hosts across different countries and regions is proposed to enhance accessibility to higher bandwidth networks. The second solution is the Queued Burst Device Compression system incorporates a compression service that compresses RFID data sets into much smaller packages. This solution is proved to work by a multiple‐in‐single‐out queuing model and is suitable for low bandwidth networks such as GPRS and 3G wireless environmenst.

  15. Low-cost sensors and crowd-sourced data: Observations of siting impacts on a network of air-quality instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Williams, David E

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost sensors offer the possibility of gathering high temporal and spatial resolution crowd-sourced data-sets that have the potential to revolutionize the ways in which we understand individual and population exposure to air pollution. However, one of the challenges associated with crowd-sourced data ('citizen science'), often from low-cost sensors, is that citizens may use sites strongly affected by local conditions, limiting the wider significance of the data. This paper examines results from a low-cost network measuring ground-level ozone to evaluate the impact of siting on data quality. Locations at both reference stations and at private homes or research centers were used, and thought of as a typical 'crowd-sourced' network. Two instruments were co-located at each site to determine intra-site variability and evaluated by standard performance statistics and local-scale activity logs. The wider application of the data for both regional Inter-site variability was evaluated to show-case the wider value and usefulness of crowd-sourced data. Analysis of intra-site variability showed little differences at most sites (data, but had minimal impact on standard reporting time-scales, and so did not pose as being significant limitations or errors. Inter-site evaluation demonstrated that dense networks of low-cost sensors can add value to existing networks, with minimal impact on the overall data-set quality. Sensors located in crowd-sourced locations nearby to regulatory analyzers were able to capture similar trends and concentrations, supporting their ability to report on wider conditions. Thus crowd-sourced approaches to monitoring (with suitable calibration and data quality control checks) may be an appropriate method for increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of air quality networks.

  16. Low-cost chemiresistive sensor for volatile amines based on a 2D network of a zinc(II) Schiff-base complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, S.; Oliveri, I. P.; Ruffino, F.; Maccarrone, G.; Di Bella, S.

    2016-10-01

    A marked chemiresistive behavior is revealed in a nanostructured material obtained by spin-coating a solution of a bis(salycilaldiminato)Zn(II) Schiff-base (ZnSB) complex. The resulting submicron 2D network exhibits reversible changes in absorbance and resistance under the cycles of absorption and desorption of a volatile amine. These results are explained in terms of a Lewis donor-acceptor interaction between the ZnSB (acceptor) and the chemisorbed amine (donor). The 2D network of ZnSB was employed as a sensing element to fabricate a low-cost device for the volatile amines detection, showing promising results for food spoilage detection.

  17. Biomimicry of symbiotic multi-species coevolution for discrete and continuous optimization in RFID networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Chen, Hanning; Jing, Shikai; Liu, Fang; Liang, Xiaodan

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, symbiosis as a rich source of potential engineering applications and computational model has attracted more and more attentions in the adaptive complex systems and evolution computing domains. Inspired by different symbiotic coevolution forms in nature, this paper proposed a series of multi-swarm particle swarm optimizers called PS(2)Os, which extend the single population particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to interacting multi-swarms model by constructing hierarchical interaction topologies and enhanced dynamical update equations. According to different symbiotic interrelationships, four versions of PS(2)O are initiated to mimic mutualism, commensalism, predation, and competition mechanism, respectively. In the experiments, with five benchmark problems, the proposed algorithms are proved to have considerable potential for solving complex optimization problems. The coevolutionary dynamics of symbiotic species in each PS(2)O version are also studied respectively to demonstrate the heterogeneity of different symbiotic interrelationships that effect on the algorithm's performance. Then PS(2)O is used for solving the radio frequency identification (RFID) network planning (RNP) problem with a mixture of discrete and continuous variables. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the reference algorithms for planning RFID networks, in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  18. Biomimicry of symbiotic multi-species coevolution for discrete and continuous optimization in RFID networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, symbiosis as a rich source of potential engineering applications and computational model has attracted more and more attentions in the adaptive complex systems and evolution computing domains. Inspired by different symbiotic coevolution forms in nature, this paper proposed a series of multi-swarm particle swarm optimizers called PS2Os, which extend the single population particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to interacting multi-swarms model by constructing hierarchical interaction topologies and enhanced dynamical update equations. According to different symbiotic interrelationships, four versions of PS2O are initiated to mimic mutualism, commensalism, predation, and competition mechanism, respectively. In the experiments, with five benchmark problems, the proposed algorithms are proved to have considerable potential for solving complex optimization problems. The coevolutionary dynamics of symbiotic species in each PS2O version are also studied respectively to demonstrate the heterogeneity of different symbiotic interrelationships that effect on the algorithm’s performance. Then PS2O is used for solving the radio frequency identification (RFID network planning (RNP problem with a mixture of discrete and continuous variables. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the reference algorithms for planning RFID networks, in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  19. RFID technology and the EPC network as enablers of mobile business: a case study in a retail supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamba, S.F.; Bendavid, Y.; Lefebvre, L.A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and the Electronic Product Code (EPC) network into one specific supply chain in the retail industry and investigate their potentials as enablers of Mobile Business (m-business).

  20. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems.

  1. Dynamics of person-to-person interactions from distributed RFID sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Colizza, Vittoria; Pinton, Jean-François; Vespignani, Alessandro; 10.1371/journal.pone.0011596

    2010-01-01

    Digital networks, mobile devices, and the possibility of mining the ever-increasing amount of digital traces that we leave behind in our daily activities are changing the way we can approach the study of human and social interactions. Large-scale datasets, however, are mostly available for collective and statistical behaviors, at coarse granularities, while high-resolution data on person-to-person interactions are generally limited to relatively small groups of individuals. Here we present a scalable experimental framework for gathering real-time data resolving face-to-face social interactions with tunable spatial and temporal granularities. We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess mutual proximity in a distributed fashion by exchanging low-power radio packets. We analyze the dynamics of person-to-person interaction networks obtained in three high-resolution experiments carried out at different orders of magnitude in community size. The data sets exhibit common statistical prope...

  2. Fuzzy Neural Network based RFID Positioning and Navigation Method for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wen Hong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID indoor positioning and navigation method based on fuzzy neural network. The proposed method is applied to a wheelchair home health care robot with wireless communication. One reader and four tags are used. Based on the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI data, the position of the robot can be determined. Further, to overcome the measurement error problem due to environmental parameter variation, a Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN is proposed to compensate the measurement data. The FNN automatically adjust the weight, the variance and the mean value to overcome effectively the environmental parameter variation. A back-propagation algorithm is developed to achieve self-learning. The successful experiment results show that the proposed system architecture and positioning system provide satisfactory accuracy and make home health care wheelchair robot positioning system available for navigation and guidance.

  3. A Low Cost Bluetooth Low Energy Transceiver for Wireless Sensor Network Applications with a Front-end Receiver-Matching Network-Reusing Power Amplifier Load Inductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Li, Bin; Huang, Mo; Zheng, Yanqi; Ye, Hui; Xu, Ken; Deng, Fangming

    2017-04-19

    In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX)-matching network-reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa. This allows the TRX-switch/matching network integration without significant performance degradation. The RX adopted a low-IF structure and integrated a single-ended low noise amplifier (LNA), a current bleeding mixer, a 4th complex filter and a delta-sigma continuous time (CT) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TX employed a two-point PLL-based architecture with a non-linear PA. The RX achieved a sensitivity of -93 dBm and consumes 9.7 mW, while the TX achieved a 2.97% error vector magnitude (EVM) with 9.4 mW at 0 dBm output power. This design was fabricated in a 0.11 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and the front-end circuit only occupies 0.24 mm². The measurement results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed BLE transceiver for WSN applications.

  4. Intelligent Networks Data Fusion Web-based Services for Ad-hoc Integrated WSNs-RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah Alshahrany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of variety of data fusion tools and techniques for big data processing poses the problem of the data and information integration called data fusion having objectives which can differ from one application to another. The design of network data fusion systems aimed at meeting these objectives, need to take into account of the necessary synergy that can result from distributed data processing within the data networks and data centres, involving increased computation and communication. This papers reports on how this processing distribution is functionally structured as configurable integrated web-based support services, in the context of an ad-hoc wireless sensor network used for sensing and tracking, in the context of distributed detection based on complete observations to support real rime decision making. The interrelated functional and hardware RFID-WSN integration is an essential aspect of the data fusion framework that focuses on multi-sensor collaboration as an innovative approach to extend the heterogeneity of the devices and sensor nodes of ad-hoc networks generating a huge amount of heterogeneous soft and hard raw data. The deployment and configuration of these networks require data fusion processing that includes network and service management and enhances the performance and reliability of networks data fusion support systems providing intelligent capabilities for real-time control access and fire detection.

  5. 一种低成本物理不可克隆函数结构的设计实现及其RFID应用%Design and I mpIe mentation of a Low-Cost PhysicaI UncIonabIe Function and Its AppIication in RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟强; 崔益军; 王成华

    2016-01-01

    Physical unclonable function (PUF)is a kind of new encryption primitive,which has the properties of an-ti-counterfeiting,unclonability and unpredictability.In this paper,a low-cost PUF design is presented along with its applica-tion into RFID systems.The PUF structure includes two parts:a key generator and a low-cost stream cipher that is used to hide the key.A novel post-processing module i.e.,majority voting,and a new multi-query protocol are introduced to im-prove the stability and reliability.The proposed reliable and low-cost PUF solution is well suitable for RFID applications.%物理不可克隆函数(PUF:Physical Unclonable Function)是一种新型的加密组件,具有防伪、不可克隆及不可预测等特性。本文提出了一种新型的低成本PUF,与传统PUF相比更适用于无线射频识别(Radio Frequency Iden-tification,RFID)系统。该PUF结构主要由上电密钥生成器和混合函数两部分构成。上电密钥生成器由比特生成器阵列构成,混合函数则由低成本流加密算法构成,其作用是隐藏密钥生成器,以提高安全性。此外,本文还提出了择多模块和多寻认证协议来改善PUF响应及其在RFID系统中的稳定性。实验表明,该PUF的硬件成本低并且具有很好的稳定性,非常适用于RFID系统等资源受限的应用场合。

  6. Hierarchical Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for RFID Network Planning Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel optimization algorithm, namely, hierarchical artificial bee colony optimization, called HABC, to tackle the radio frequency identification network planning (RNP problem. In the proposed multilevel model, the higher-level species can be aggregated by the subpopulations from lower level. In the bottom level, each subpopulation employing the canonical ABC method searches the part-dimensional optimum in parallel, which can be constructed into a complete solution for the upper level. At the same time, the comprehensive learning method with crossover and mutation operators is applied to enhance the global search ability between species. Experiments are conducted on a set of 10 benchmark optimization problems. The results demonstrate that the proposed HABC obtains remarkable performance on most chosen benchmark functions when compared to several successful swarm intelligence and evolutionary algorithms. Then HABC is used for solving the real-world RNP problem on two instances with different scales. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is superior for solving RNP, in terms of optimization accuracy and computation robustness.

  7. RFID vs.Wi-Fi ID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wireless networks and Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) have always been closely linked.One of Wi-Fi’s first applications was transferring data from portable RFID readers.But the popularity of RFID has led some to envision whole networks of readers embed- ded throughout a building’s infrastructure.Reva Systems had an- nounced what it calls a Tag Acquisition Network(TAN),an array of RFID readers that work with passive,batteryless tags.Meanwhile,

  8. RFID as an infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Yan; Li, Tao

    2014-01-01

    RFID (radio frequency identification) tags are becoming ubiquitously available in object tracking, access control, and toll payment. The current application model treats tags simply as ID carriers and deals with each tag individually for the purpose of identifying the object that the tag is attached to. The uniqueness of RFID as an Infrastructure is to change the traditional individual view to a collective view that treats universally-deployed tags as a new infrastructure, a new wireless platform on which novel applications can be developed. The book begins with an introduction to the problems of tag estimation and information collection from RFID systems, and explains the challenges. It discusses how to efficiently estimate the number of tags in a large RFID system, considering both energy cost and execution time. It then gives a detailed account on how to collect information from a sensor-augmented RFID network with new designs that significantly reduce execution time.

  9. Technologie RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Práce poskytuje přehled o problematice RFID technologií. Analyzuje historický vývoj RFID technologií, popisuje základní komponenty RFID systémů, normy spojené s RFID, bezpečnost RFID a trh RFID technologií. Dále se práce věnuje možnostem využití RFID technologií v různých oborech, zařazení RFID systémů do rámce podnikové informatiky a hodnotí efekty, které RFID technologie přináší. Práce také definuje doporučený postup pro zavádění RFID technologií do firmy....

  10. Technologie RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Práce poskytuje přehled o problematice RFID technologií. Analyzuje historický vývoj RFID technologií, popisuje základní komponenty RFID systémů, normy spojené s RFID, bezpečnost RFID a trh RFID technologií. Dále se práce věnuje možnostem využití RFID technologií v různých oborech, zařazení RFID systémů do rámce podnikové informatiky a hodnotí efekty, které RFID technologie přináší. Práce také definuje doporučený postup pro zavádění RFID technologií do firmy....

  11. Analysis of Supply Chain Network Using RFID Technique with Hybrid Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, P

    2010-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a dedicated short range communication technology. The term RFID is used to describe various technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. RFID is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using RFID tag. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been attracting considerable attention with the expectation of improved supply chain visibility for consumer goods, apparel, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as well as retailers and government procurement agencies. RFID technology is used today in many applications, including security and access control, transportation and supply chain tracking. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is now at the centre stage of Manufacturing and service organizations. According to the strategies in markets, supply chains and logistics are naturally being modelled as distributed systems. The economic importance has motivated both private companies and academic researchers to pursue the use of operati...

  12. Advancement in RFID security by proposed framework utilizing Random bit generator and sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As we realize that, progression in innovation needs the progressions in security. The development of RFID innovation expands step by step. To give security to the RFID framework, new approach or new thoughts we require in the field of security. The fundamental thought of my examination is to coordinate RFID and Sensor innovation to assemble a keen RFID security framework. Two situations of mix have been executed. In the first, we not expanded the read scope of the RFID system by adding wireless facility to RFID reader. Each RFID reader is furnished with a few sensors modules which can transmit information to and from the reader. RFID reader goes about as sensor hub: it receives the distinguishing proof of an item and sends it to the host application through sensor system. The second situation of reconciliation furnishes RFID readers with detecting capacity [1]. A few movement sensors are introduced close to every reader to identify the vicinity of a labeled article and to charge the reader action.

  13. Adaption of Cognitive Radio technology to low-cost and low-power wireless Personal Area Network devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, John; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2011-01-01

    The application of wireless personal area network (WPAN) and simple point-to-point wireless communication devices has increased drastically both in private household and in our workspaces in general over the last decade. Combined with the fact that the total number of wireless devices and associa......The application of wireless personal area network (WPAN) and simple point-to-point wireless communication devices has increased drastically both in private household and in our workspaces in general over the last decade. Combined with the fact that the total number of wireless devices...... discusses the challenges associated with the implementation of highly reliable low-power WPAN networks for the future and the adaption of Cognitive Radio technology as a potential solution. A brief status on the maturity of CR technology will be presented as an integral part of this discussion....

  14. 一种低成本无线传感器网络节点的设计%Design of low-cost node in wireless network system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成岩; 孙晶华

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost wireless sensor network node is designed based on low-power consumption PIC microcontroller and MEMS acceleration sensor. The design uses low-cost PIC16 series microcontrollers, PT2262 encoder software simulation, with the 12C interface acceler%基于PIC低功耗单片机与MEMS加速度传感器.设计了一种低成本的无线传感器网络节点。该设计采用性价比较高的PIC16系列单片机,软件模拟PT2262遥控编码器,配合12C接口加速度传感器、微型高频发射器件,实现了通用MCU无线传感器的节点方案,省去了昂贵的专用RF芯片,降低了系统成本。节点整体采用3.3V单节锂电池供电。实验结果表明,该方案具有可靠、灵活、低功耗、低成本的特点,可广泛应用于低速实时测量、监控防盗等场合。

  15. The Role of Telematic Practices in Computer Engineering: A Low-cost Remote Power Control in a Network Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Mateo Sanguino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a practical solution of e-learning laboratory devoted to the study of computer networks. This laboratory has been proven with two groups of students from the University of Huelva (Spain during two academic years. In order to achieve this objective, it has been necessary to create an entire network infrastructure that includes both the telematic access to the laboratory equipment and the remote power control. The interest of this work lies in an economical and simple system of remote control and telematic access with a twofold objective. On the one hand, to develop distance practices with attendance appearance by means of real hardware systems, not simulated. On the other hand, to reduce the power consumption regarding other proposals of remote labs with permanent power connection, providing herein an on demand connection only when required. As a result, a versatile and flexible laboratory has been put into practice whose basic network topology allows transferring traditional practices to telematic practices in a natural way and without harsh changes

  16. The science and technology case for a global network of compact, low cost ground-based laser heterodyne radiometers for column measurements of CO2 and CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Clarke, G.; Wilson, E. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Feng, L.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Ott, L. E.; Duncan, B. N.; Melroy, H.; McLinden, M.; DiGregorio, A.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in determining Earth's climate is well established. Recent technological developments in space-borne instrumentation have enabled us to observe changes in these gases to a precision necessary to infer for the responsible geographical fluxes. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), comprising a network of upward-looking Fourier transform spectrometers, was established to provide an accurate ground truth and minimize regional systematic bias. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a compact, low-cost laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) for global column measurements CO2 and CH4. This Mini-LHR is a passive instrument that uses sunlight as the primary light source to measure absorption of CO2 and CH4in the shortwave infrared near 1.6 microns. It uses compact telecommunications lasers to offer a low cost (RObotic NETwork (AERONET) which has more than 500 sites worldwide. In addition, the NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) provides both column and vertically resolved aerosol and cloud data in active remote sensing at nearly 50 sites worldwide. Tandem operation with AERONET/MPLNET provides a clear pathway for the Mini-LHR to be expanded into a global monitoring network for carbon cycle science and satellite data validation, offering coverage in cloudy regions (e.g., Amazon basin) and key regions such as the Arctic where accelerated warming due to the release of CO2 and CH4from thawing tundra and permafrost is a concern. These vulnerable geographic regions are not well covered by current space-based CO2 and CH4 measurements. We will present an overview of our instrument development and the implementation of a network based on current and future resources. We will also present preliminary Observing System Simulation Experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of a network Mini-LHR instruments in quantify regional CO2 fluxes, including an analysis of measurement sensitivity

  17. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carols H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    Eaton, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a project that applies a combination of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology, anticipatory theory, and a near-term value proposition based on diagnostics and process uptime to ensure the security and reliability of critical electrical power infrastructure. Representatives of several Eaton business units have been engaged to ensure a viable commercialization plan. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), American Electric Power (AEP), PEPCO, and Commonwealth Edison were recruited as partners to confirm and refine the requirements definition from the perspective of the utilities that actually operate the facilities to be protected. Those utilities have cooperated with on-site field tests as the project proceeds. Accomplishments of this project included: (1) the design, modeling, and simulation of the anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) that will be used to gather field information for the anticipatory application, (2) the design and implementation of hardware and software prototypes for laboratory and field experimentation, (3) stack and application integration, (4) develop installation and test plan, and (5) refinement of the commercialization plan.

  18. Shared networks of interpreter services, at relatively low cost, can help providers serve patients with limited english skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Leos, Ginelle Sanchez; Rathouz, Paul J; Fu, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Language barriers in health care-a large and growing problem in the United States-contribute to disparities in health care quality and outcomes in populations with limited English proficiency. Providing access to adequate interpreter services has been shown to reduce health disparities in these populations. However, many health care organizations do not provide such services because of the perceived high cost. In this observational study we calculated the costs incurred by a group of California public hospitals that formed a network to make trained interpreters available via videoconference and telephone. We found that encounters in this network where interpreters helped patients and providers communicate lasted an average of 10.6 minutes and cost an average of $24.86 per encounter. Such costs should be weighed against the likely alternatives, such as the opportunity costs of having other hospital staff act as ad hoc interpreters; medical errors that could result from inadequate interpretation; and the fact that not providing such services may leave providers out of compliance with federal law. We also discuss ways in which providers could be compensated for providing interpreter services.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Novel HomePlug-Based Solution for Low Cost and High Performance Smart Home Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.T.Bathaee; A.Fereidunian; A.Khajeh Amiri Hagh; H.Heydari

    2014-01-01

    As the smart home is the end-point power consumer, it is the major part to be controlled in a smart micro grid. There are so many challenges for implementing a smart home system in which the most important ones are the cost and simplicity of the implementation method. It is clear that the major share of the total cost is referred to the internal controlling system network; although there are too many methods proposed but still there is not any satisfying method at the consumers’ point of view. In this paper, a novel solution for this demand is proposed, which not only minimizes the implementation cost, but also provides a high level of reliability and simplicity of operation;feasibility, extendibility, and flexibility are other leading properties of the design.

  20. A reliable low cost integrated wireless sensor network for water quality monitoring and level control system in UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Khaleeq, Hyder; Abou-Elnour, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, wireless sensor network and real-time controlling and monitoring system are integrated for efficient water quality monitoring for environmental and domestic applications. The proposed system has three main components (i) the sensor circuits, (ii) the wireless communication system, and (iii) the monitoring and controlling unit. LabView software has been used in the implementation of the monitoring and controlling system. On the other hand, ZigBee and myRIO wireless modules have been used to implement the wireless system. The water quality parameters are accurately measured by the present computer based monitoring system and the measurement results are instantaneously transmitted and published with minimum infrastructure costs and maximum flexibility in term of distance or location. The mobility and durability of the proposed system are further enhanced by fully powering via a photovoltaic system. The reliability and effectiveness of the system are evaluated under realistic operating conditions.

  1. Classifying RFID attacks and defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Rieback, M.R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are one of the most pervasive computing technologies with technical potential and profitable opportunities in a diverse area of applications. Among their advantages is included their low cost and their broad applicability. However, they also present a nu

  2. Classifying RFID attacks and defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Rieback, M.R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are one of the most pervasive computing technologies with technical potential and profitable opportunities in a diverse area of applications. Among their advantages is included their low cost and their broad applicability. However, they also present a nu

  3. Classifying RFID attacks and defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Rieback, M.R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are one of the most pervasive computing technologies with technical potential and profitable opportunities in a diverse area of applications. Among their advantages is included their low cost and their broad applicability. However, they also present a

  4. Towards a Software Framework to Support Deployment of Low Cost End-to-End Hydroclimatological Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celicourt, P.; Piasecki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deployment of environmental sensors assemblies based on cheap platforms such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino have gained much attention over the past few years. While they are more attractive due to their ability to be controlled with a few programming language choices, the configuration task can become quite complex due to the need of having to learn several different proprietary data formats and protocols which constitute a bottleneck for the expansion of sensor network. In response to this rising complexity the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has sponsored the development of the IEEE 1451 standard in an attempt to introduce a common standard. The most innovative concept of the standard is the Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) which enables transducers to self-identify, self-describe, self-calibrate, to exhibit plug-and-play functionality, etc. We used Python to develop an IEEE 1451.0 platform-independent graphical user interface to generate and provide sufficient information about almost ANY sensor and sensor platforms for sensor programming purposes, automatic calibration of sensors data, incorporation of back-end demands on data management in TEDS for automatic standard-based data storage, search and discovery purposes. These features are paramount to make data management much less onerous in large scale sensor network. Along with the TEDS Creator, we developed a tool namely HydroUnits for three specific purposes: encoding of physical units in the TEDS, dimensional analysis, and on-the-fly conversion of time series allowing users to retrieve data in a desired equivalent unit while accommodating unforeseen and user-defined units. In addition, our back-end data management comprises the Python/Django equivalent of the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM) namely DjangODM that will be hosted by a MongoDB Database Server which offers more convenience for our application. We are also developing a data which will be paired with the data

  5. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wen Huang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS and Inertial Navigation System (INS using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can’t be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated.

  6. UHF front-end feeding RFID-based body sensor networks by exploiting the reader signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, M.; Colella, R.; Catarinucci, L.; Tarricone, L.; D'Amico, S.; Baschirotto, A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an integrated, high-sensitivity UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) power management circuit for body sensor network applications. The circuit consists of a two-stage RF-DC Dickson's rectifier followed by an integrated five-stage DC-DC Pelliconi's charge pump driven by an ultralow start-up voltage LC oscillator. The DC-DC charge pump interposed between the RF-DC rectifier and the output load provides the RF to load isolation avoiding losses due to the diodes reverse saturation current. The RF-DC rectifier has been realized on FR4 substrate, while the charge pump and the oscillator have been realized in 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Outdoor measurements demonstrate the ability of the power management circuit to provide 400 mV output voltage at 14 m distance from the UHF reader, in correspondence of -25 dBm input signal power. As demonstrated in the literature, such output voltage level is suitable to supply body sensor network nodes.

  7. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle; Williams, Ronald; Sharpe, Robert; Brown, Ryan; Garver, Daniel; Judge, Robert; Caudill, Motria; Rickard, Joshua; Davis, Michael; Weinstock, Lewis; Zimmer-Dauphinee, Susan; Buckley, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low-cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring networks with additional geographic and temporal measurement resolution, if the data quality were sufficient. To understand the capability of emerging air sensor technology, the Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project deployed low-cost, continuous, and commercially available air pollution sensors at a regulatory air monitoring site and as a local sensor network over a surrounding ˜ 2 km area in the southeastern United States. Collocation of sensors measuring oxides of nitrogen, ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and particles revealed highly variable performance, both in terms of comparison to a reference monitor as well as the degree to which multiple identical sensors produced the same signal. Multiple ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide sensors revealed low to very high correlation with a reference monitor, with Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.39 to 0.97, -0.25 to 0.76, and -0.40 to 0.82, respectively. The only sulfur dioxide sensor tested revealed no correlation (r 0.5), step-wise multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), or age of the sensor in number of sampling days could be used in a correction algorithm to improve the agreement. Maximum improvement in agreement with a reference, incorporating all factors, was observed for an NO2 sensor (multiple correlation coefficient R2adj-orig = 0.57, R2adj-final = 0.81); however, other sensors showed no apparent improvement in agreement. A four-node sensor network was successfully able to capture ozone (two nodes) and PM (four nodes) data for an 8-month period of time and show expected diurnal concentration patterns, as well as potential

  8. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  9. A double network gel as low cost and easy recycle adsorbent: Highly efficient removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) pollutants from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lin; Liu, Chengbin; Zhou, Guiyin; Xu, Rui; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2015-12-30

    A high strength of polyving alcohol/polyacrylic acid double network gel (PVA/PAA gel) adsorbent was successfully prepared by a simple two-step method in this study. The gel adsorbent possessed the advantages of low cost and high adsorptivity for heavy metals in solution. The maximum uptake capacities of PVA/PAA gel were 194.99 mg/g for Pb(II) and 115.88 mg/g for Cd(II) inferred from the Langmuir model at 303 K. At the concentration levels of Pb(II)<150 mg/L and Cd(II)<100mg/L, the Pb(II) and Cd(II) could be completely adsorbed, showing a great potential of removing heavy metals from wastewater. Simultaneously, the PVA/PAA gel adsorbent exhibited an excellent reusability. Even in the fifth cycle, the removal efficiencies of both Pb(II) and Cd(II) remained nearly 100%. Significantly, the gel adsorbent displayed a satisfactory performance of removing heavy metals in actual industrial effluent. The results reveal that the double network gel can be considered as a potential candidate for practical application.

  10. Comparison of the low-cost MEMS accelerometers used by the Quake-Catcher Network and traditional strong motion seismic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Kaiser, A. E.; Fry, B.; Chung, A. I.; Evans, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Accelerometers based on low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have improved swiftly, making the rapid deployment of dense seismic arrays possible. For example, the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) makes use of MEMS-based tri-axial sensors installed in homes and businesses to record earthquakes, with almost 2000 participants worldwide. QCN utilizes an open-source distributed-computing system, called the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC), to retrieve waveforms from continuous or triggered recordings back to the QCN server. Furthermore, the QCN approach can also be used to augment existing seismic networks for rapid-earthquake detection purposes, as well as studies on seismic source- and site-related phenomena. Following the 3 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake, 192 QCN stations were installed in a dense array to record the on-going aftershock sequence in and around the city of Christchurch. We examine the peak ground motions recorded during a M5.1 aftershock and find that peak ground acceleration (PGA) is spatially variable, but with a clear decay in amplitude with distance. In general, closely located GeoNet and QCN stations report similar PGA. Several QCN stations were located within 1 km of existing GeoNet stations, providing an opportunity to compare time series and amplitude spectra. For these closely spaced pairs of stations, the amplitude spectra observed from the horizontal components are highly correlated with average cross-correlation coefficients of 0.9 or higher. In addition, we find the correlation coefficient decreases with increasing distance between station pairs. In future work we will compare the instrumental sensitivity between traditional and MEMS-based sensors by conducting shake table tests of five different types of MEMS sensors at the Albuquerque Seismic Lab.

  11. Spatio-temporal measurement of indoor particulate matter concentrations using a wireless network of low-cost sensors in households using solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sameer; Li, Jiayu; Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Many households use solid fuels for cooking and heating purposes. There is currently a knowledge gap in our understanding of the variations in indoor air quality throughout the household as most of the studies focus on the areas in the close proximity of the cookstove. A low-cost wireless particulate matter (PM) sensor network was developed and deployed in households in Raipur, India to establish the spatio-temporal variation of PM concentrations. The data from multiple sensors were acquired in real-time with a wireless system. Data collected from the sensors agreed well (R(2) =0.713) with the reference data collected from a commercially available instrument. Low spatial variability was observed within the kitchen due to its small size and poor ventilation - a common feature of most rural Indian kitchens. Due to insufficient ventilation from open doors and windows, high PM concentrations similar to those found in the kitchen were also found in the adjoining rooms. The same household showed significantly different post-extinguished cookstove PM concentration decay rates (0.26mg/m(3)-min and 0.87mg/m(3)-min) on different days, owing to varying natural air exchange rates (7.68m(3)/min and 37.40m(3)/min).

  12. Research on High-Precision, Low Cost Piezoresistive MEMS-Array Pressure Transmitters Based on Genetic Wavelet Neural Networks for Meteorological Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel and effective compensation method by improving the hardware design and software algorithm to achieve optimization of piezoresistive pressure sensors and corresponding measurement systems in order to measure pressure more accurately and stably, as well as to meet the application requirements of the meteorological industry. Specifically, GE NovaSensor MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensors within a thousandth of accuracy are selected to constitute an array. In the versatile compensation method, the hardware utilizes the array of MEMS pressure sensors to reduce random error caused by sensor creep, and the software adopts the data fusion technique based on the wavelet neural network (WNN which is improved by genetic algorithm (GA to analyze the data of sensors for the sake of obtaining accurate and complete information over the wide temperature and pressure ranges. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using the 32-bit STMicroelectronics (STM32 microcontroller combined with an embedded real-time operating system µC/OS-II to make the output of the array of MEMS sensors be a direct digital readout. The results of calibration and test experiments clearly show that the GA-WNN technique can be effectively applied to minimize the sensor errors due to the temperature drift, the hysteresis effect and the long-term drift because of aging and environmental changes. The maximum error of the low cost piezoresistive MEMS-array pressure transmitter proposed by us is within 0.04% of its full-scale value, and it can satisfy the meteorological pressure measurement.

  13. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag.

  14. Binder-free highly conductive graphene laminate for low cost printed radio frequency applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Hu, Zhirun, E-mail: Z.Hu@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chen, Jia Cing; Chang, Kuo Hsin [BGT Materials Limited, Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Geim, Andre K. [Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Novoselov, Kostya S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate realization of printable radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna by low temperature processing of graphene ink. The required ultra-low resistance is achieved by rolling compression of binder-free graphene laminate. With compression, the conductivity of graphene laminate is increased by more than 50 times compared to that of as-deposited one. Graphene laminate with conductivity of 4.3 × 10{sup 4 }S/m and sheet resistance of 3.8 Ω/sq (with thickness of 6 μm) is presented. Moreover, the formation of graphene laminate from graphene ink reported here is simple and can be carried out in low temperature (100 °C), significantly reducing the fabrication costs. A dipole antenna based on the highly conductive graphene laminate is further patterned and printed on a normal paper to investigate its RF properties. The performance of the graphene laminate antenna is experimentally measured. The measurement results reveal that graphene laminate antenna can provide practically acceptable return loss, gain, bandwidth, and radiation patterns, making it ideal for low cost printed RF applications, such as RFID tags and wearable wireless sensor networks.

  15. Path to Low Cost Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Govyadinov, Alexander N; Kornilovitch, Pavel; Markel, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel concept for a low cost microfluidic platform utilizing materials and processes used in low cost thermal inkjet printing. The concept re-purposes the jetting elements to create pumps, mixers, and valves all necessary components for the transport of fluids in a broad range of microfluidic applications.

  16. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  17. Employing RFID for an Equipment Management System via Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly in combination with RFID to construct a set of power system equipment remote control, used first on the reader tags received after the use of Visual Basic in order to determine the signal and then transmits the signal via the RS232 cable to control circuit 8051 to control the instrument power switch. The topic is written in the Visual Basic RFID and uses features, such as personnel control systems, and access control systems, which are derived from the time of access control systems, several instrument control systems, and uses records stored in the form of functions, where the other circuit transmits signals to Visual Basic 8051, and then, by 8051, controls the instrument power switch.

  18. RFID Torque Sensing Tag System for Fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an RFID-based torque sensor that can be used to quickly monitor off the shelf fasteners including fasteners that are used in expensive satellites or other uses where fastener failure can be very costly. In one embodiment, an antenna, RFID ring and spring comprise a sensor tag that can be interrogated with an interrogation signal produced by an interrogator device. When sufficient torque is applied to the fastener, an RFID circuit is connected, and produces a radio frequency (RF) signal that can be read by the interrogator. In one embodiment, the RFID circuit does not transmit when the spring member is not compressed, thereby indicating insufficient tensioning of the fastener. The present invention offers the ability to remotely, quickly, and inexpensively verify that any number of fasteners are torqued properly upon initial installation. Where applicable, the present invention allows low cost monitoring over the life of the fastener.

  19. RFID-Enabled Sensor Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rida, Amin; Tentzeris, Manos

    2010-01-01

    RFID (radio-frequency identification) is an emerging communication system technology and one of the most rapidly growing segments of today's automatic identification data collection industry. This cutting-edge resource offers you a solid understanding of the basic technical principles and applications of RFID-enabled sensor systems. The book provides you with a detailed description of RFID and it's operation, along with a fundamental overview of sensors and wireless sensor networks. Moreover, this practical reference gives you step-by-step guidance on how to design RFID-enabled sensors that fo

  20. A PID Positioning Controller with a Curve Fitting Model Based on RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The global positioning system (GPS is an important research topic to solve outdoor positioning problems, but GPS is unable to locate objects accurately and precisely indoors. Some available systems apply ultrasound or optical tracking. This paper presents an efficient proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller with curve fitting model for mobile robot localization and position estimation which adopts passive radio frequency identification (RFID tags in a space. This scheme is based on a mobile robot carries an RFID reader module which reads the installed low-cost passive tags under the floor in a grid-like pattern. The PID controllers increase the efficiency of captured RFID tags and the curve fitting model is used to systematically identify the revolutions per minute (RPM of the motor. We control and monitor the position of the robot from a remote location through a mobile phone via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth network. Experiment results present that the number of captured RFID tags of our proposed scheme outperforms that of the previous scheme.

  1. Design of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor for RFID Tag Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilong Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an important technique for wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things. Recently, considerable research has been performed in the combination of public key cryptography and RFID. In this paper, an efficient architecture of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC Processor for RFID tag chip is presented. We adopt a new inversion algorithm which requires fewer registers to store variables than the traditional schemes. A new method for coordinate swapping is proposed, which can reduce the complexity of the controller and shorten the time of iterative calculation effectively. A modified circular shift register architecture is presented in this paper, which is an effective way to reduce the area of register files. Clock gating and asynchronous counter are exploited to reduce the power consumption. The simulation and synthesis results show that the time needed for one elliptic curve scalar point multiplication over GF(2163 is 176.7 K clock cycles and the gate area is 13.8 K with UMC 0.13 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS technology. Moreover, the low power and low cost consumption make the Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor (ECP a prospective candidate for application in the RFID tag chip.

  2. Design of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography processor for RFID tag chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Dongsheng; Zou, Xuecheng; Lin, Hui; Cheng, Jian

    2014-09-26

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an important technique for wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things. Recently, considerable research has been performed in the combination of public key cryptography and RFID. In this paper, an efficient architecture of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Processor for RFID tag chip is presented. We adopt a new inversion algorithm which requires fewer registers to store variables than the traditional schemes. A new method for coordinate swapping is proposed, which can reduce the complexity of the controller and shorten the time of iterative calculation effectively. A modified circular shift register architecture is presented in this paper, which is an effective way to reduce the area of register files. Clock gating and asynchronous counter are exploited to reduce the power consumption. The simulation and synthesis results show that the time needed for one elliptic curve scalar point multiplication over GF(2163) is 176.7 K clock cycles and the gate area is 13.8 K with UMC 0.13 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Moreover, the low power and low cost consumption make the Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor (ECP) a prospective candidate for application in the RFID tag chip.

  3. High Channel Count, Low Cost, Multiplexed FBG Sensor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; Kejian Guan; Joy Jiang; Liang Dong; Albert Li; Xiangdong Qiu; Jonathan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    With rich products development experience in WDM telecommunication networks, we introduce a few of high channel count, multiplexed FBG fiber optic sensor systems featured in reliable high performance and low cost.

  4. Integration Of Low-Cost Single-Frequency GPS Stations Using 'Spider' Technology Within Existing Dual-Frequency GPS Network at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat (West Indies): Processing And Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, K.; Palamartchouk, K.; Lahusen, R. G.; Young, K.; Voight, B.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty years ago, began the eruption of the explosive Soufrière Hills Volcano, dominating the southern part of the island of Montserrat, West Indies. Five phases of effusive activity have now occurred, characterized by dome building and collapse, causing numerous evacuations and the emigration of half of the population. Over the years, the volcano monitoring network has greatly expanded. The GPS network, started from few geodetic markers, now consists of 14 continuous dual frequency GPS stations, distributed on and around the edifice, where topography and vegetation allow. The continuous GPS time series have given invaluable insight into the volcano behavior, notably revealing deflation/inflation cycles corresponding to phases and pauses of effusive activity, respectively. In 2014, collaboration of the CALIPSO Project (Penn State; NSF) with the Montserrat Volcano Observatory enriched the GPS and seismic monitoring networks with six 'spider' stations. The 'spiders', developed by R. Lahusen at Cascades Volcano Observatory, are designed to be deployed easily in rough areas and combine a low cost seismic station and a L1-only GPS station. To date, three 'spiders' have been deployed on Soufrière Hills Volcano, the closest at ~1 km from the volcanic conduit, adjacent to a lava lobe on the dome. Here we present the details of GPS data processing in a network consisting of both dual and single frequency receivers ('spiders') using GAMIT/GLOBK software. Processing together single and dual frequency data allowed their representation in a common reference frame, and a meaningful geophysical interpretation of all the available data. We also present the 'spiders' time series along with the results from the rest of the network and examine if any significant deformation, correlating with other manifestations of volcanic activity, has been recorded by the 'spiders' since deployment. Our results demonstrate that low cost GNSS equipment can serve as valuable components in volcano

  5. A discrete multi-swarm optimizer for radio frequency identification network scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瀚宁; 朱云龙

    2014-01-01

    Due to the effectiveness, simple deployment and low cost, radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are used in a variety of applications to uniquely identify physical objects. The operation of RFID systems often involves a situation in which multiple readers physically located near one another may interfere with one another’s operation. Such reader collision must be minimized to avoid the faulty or miss reads. Specifically, scheduling the colliding RFID readers to reduce the total system transaction time or response time is the challenging problem for large-scale RFID network deployment. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use a successful multi-swarm cooperative optimizer called PS2O to minimize both the reader-to-reader interference and total system transaction time in RFID reader networks. The main idea of PS2O is to extend the single population PSO to the interacting multi-swarm model by constructing hierarchical interaction topology and enhanced dynamical update equations. As the RFID network scheduling model formulated in this work is a discrete problem, a binary version of PS2O algorithm is proposed. With seven discrete benchmark functions, PS2O is proved to have significantly better performance than the original PSO and a binary genetic algorithm. PS2O is then used for solving the real-world RFID network scheduling problem. Numerical results for four test cases with different scales, ranging from 30 to 200 readers, demonstrate the performance of the proposed methodology.

  6. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  7. An Authentication Protocol for RFID Tag and Its Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-ping Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RFID tag has limited calculation resources and small storage capacity, the wireless communication channel between RFID tag and reader is vulnerable to various malicious attacks. Aimed at these problems, a HMAC-based RFID lightweight authentication protocol is proposed in this paper, and some considerations about protocol implementation are made subsequently. In the new protocol, only the Hash function and XOR operation are used, so that the calculation capacity and storage space of RFID reader are utilized efficiently, the demand for the capacity of calculation and storage of tag are reduced. The protocol framework and the packet format are presented. The hardware implementation was done in Verilog HDL for an FPGA target device to get a fast prototype. The analysis of security and performance show that the new protocol can resist some malicious attacks, such as spoofing attack, replay attack, tracking, etc., and is suitable for low-cost RFID system.

  8. The adoption and implementation of RFID technologies in healthcare: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen; Chu, Chao-Hsien; Li, Zang

    2012-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology not only offers tracking capability to locate equipment, supplies and people in real time, but also provides efficient and accurate access to medical data for health professionals. However, the reality of RFID adoption in healthcare is far behind earlier expectation. This study reviews literature on the use of RFID in healthcare/hospitals following a formal innovation-decision framework. We aim to identify the common applications, potential benefits, barriers, and critical success factors. Our study facilitates quick assessment and provides guidance for researchers and practitioners in adopting RFID in medical arenas. Many earlier adopters in healthcare found RFID to be functional and useful in such areas as asset tracking and patient identification. Major barriers to adoption include technological limitations, interference concerns, prohibitive costs, lack of global standards and privacy concerns. Better designed RFID systems with low cost and privacy issues addressed are needed to increase acceptance of RFID in healthcare.

  9. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The combination of the "Heat island effect" coupled with higher frequencies of extreme events (e.g. heat waves) due to climate change is of great concern for human health in urban areas. Anomalies of summer 2003, mentioned as possible typical climate for the near future summers (Schär et al., 2004), caused about 7,000 deaths in Italy and over 35,000 in the whole Europe. Furthermore, more than 50% of world's population is living in urban areas and, given the unprecedented urbanization rate that is expected in the next future, cities will likely be exposed to a growing environmental pressure in the following decades. Accordingly, climate monitoring of urban areas is gradually becoming a key element of planning that cannot be disregarded for an efficient public health management and for the development of a city scale Heat Waves Warning System tool, which is based on meteorological forecast of both air temperatures and humidity at a synoptic scale (Pascal et al., 2006). Building on these premises, a low cost Mobile Weather Station (MWS), to be placed on urban public transport, has been assembled. This mobile station logs every minute both meteorological variables (i.e. temperature and air humidity) and air quality parameters (i.e. atmospheric CO2 concentration and noise detection); the geographical position of each MWS's measurement is also recorded thanks to the built-in GPS antenna. The system, equipped with a data logger for data storage based on the open-source hardware platform Arduino, can also transmit data in real time via GPRS. The quality of meteorological and environmental data acquired by MWS was evaluated both on pre-existing steady meteorological stations of the metropolitan area of Florence (Petralli et al., 2010), and on professional research-grade data logger (Campbell CR800), logging air temperature in a non-aspirated shield by means of sensors at fast (thermocouple) and slower (digital) time response. Two prototypes of stations were thus designed

  10. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN; csn.caltech.edu), operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009; qcn.stanford.edu; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  11. Designing a low-cost effective network for monitoring large scale regional seismicity in a soft-soil region (Alsace, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bès de Berc, M.; Doubre, C.; Wodling, H.; Jund, H.; Hernandez, A.; Blumentritt, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Seismological Observatory of the North-East of France (ObSNEF) is developing its monitoring network within the framework of several projects. Among these project, RESIF (Réseau sismologique et géodésique français) allows the instrumentation of broad-band seismic stations, separated by 50-100 km. With the recent and future development of geothermal industrial projects in the Alsace region, the ObSNEF is responsible for designing, building and operating a dense regional seismic network in order to detect and localize earthquakes with both a completeness magnitude of 1.5 and no clipping for M6.0. The realization of the project has to be done prior to the summer 2016Several complex technical and financial constraints constitute such a projet. First, most of the Alsace Région (150x150 km2), particularly the whole Upper Rhine Graben, is a soft-soil plain where seismic signals are dominated by a high frequency noise level. Second, all the signals have to be transmitted in near real-time. And finally, the total cost of the project must not exceed $450,000.Regarding the noise level in Alsace, in order to make a reduction of 40 dB for frequencies above 1Hz, we program to instrument into 50m deep well with post-hole sensor for 5 stations out of 8 plane new stations. The 3 remaining would be located on bedrock along the Vosges piedmont. In order to be sensitive to low-magnitude regional events, we plan to install a low-noise short-period post-hole velocimeter. In order to avoid saturation for high potentiel local events (M6.0 at 10km), this velocimeter will be coupled with a surface strong-motion sensor. Regarding the connectivity, these stations will have no wired network, which reduces linking costs and delays. We will therefore use solar panels and a 3G/GPRS network. The infrastructure will be minimal and reduced to an outdoor box on a secured parcel of land. In addition to the data-logger, we will use a 12V ruggedized computer, hosting a seed-link server for near

  12. RFID Key Establishment Against Active Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bringer, Julien; Cohen, Gérard; Kindarji, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to strengthen a very low cost solution for key agreement with a RFID device. Starting from a work which exploits the inherent noise on the communication link to establish a key by public discussion, we show how to protect this agreement against active adversaries. For that purpose, we unravel integrity $(I)$-codes suggested by Cagalj et al. No preliminary key distribution is required.

  13. A Low Cost Approach to Large Smart Shelf Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGA, D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years showed a growing interest in the use of RFID technology in applications like distribution and storage of goods, supply chain and inventory. This paper analyses the current smart shelf solutions and presents the experience of developing an automatic reading system for smart shelves. The proposed system addresses the problem of reading RFID tags from items placed on multiple shelves. It allows the use of standard low cost readers and tags and uses a single antenna that can be positioned in specific locations at repeatable positions. The system proposes an alternative to the approaches with multiple antennas placed in fixed position inside the shelf or around the shelves, offering a lower cost solution by means of dedicated electromechanical devices able to carry the antenna and the reader to the locations of interest along a rail system. Moreover, antenna position can be controlled for three axis of movement allowing for extra flexibility and complete coverage of the shelves. The proposed setup is a fully wireless one. It contains a standard reader, electromechanical positioning actuators and wireless communication and control hardware offering power from integrated batteries.

  14. Low-cost Truthful Energy-efficient Routing Protocol in Cognitive Selfish Ad Hoc Networks%感知无线电自私网络低开销诚实能效路由

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄佳茜; 倪卫明

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost truthful energy-efficient routing protocol is proposed in cognitive selfish ad hoc networks.Combining the routing cost with the interferences to primary user and their remaining energy,some payment is given to each relay node in lowest-cost path by using VCG mechanism to promote the cooperation between nodes and prove it is a dominant strategy that a node reflects its type truthfully in VCG mechanism.The simulations results show that this routing protocol can implement effectively low-cost truthful energy-efficient in cognitive selfish ad hoc networks and have better performance compared with existing routing protocols.%在感知无线电自私ad hoc网络环境下提出一种低代销的诚实能效路由(Lowest Cost Path,LCP),将路由的开销结合对主用户的干扰和节点剩余能量,利用格罗夫斯-克拉克-威科瑞(Vickrey-Clark-Groves,VCG)定价机制给LCP上每个中继节点以一定报酬促使节点之间的合作,并证明VCG机制下节点真实的反映自身的类型是一个占优策略。仿真结果表明,该路由算法有效实现了感知无线电自私ad hoc网络的诚实能效路由,与现有最短路径路由协议比较,该协议具有更好的性能。

  15. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo moro 2, Rome, I-00185 (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)

  16. Systems, Apparatuses and Methods for Beamforming RFID Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A radio frequency identification (RFID) system includes an RFID interrogator and an RFID tag having a plurality of information sources and a beamforming network. The tag receives electromagnetic radiation from the interrogator. The beamforming network directs the received electromagnetic radiation to a subset of the plurality of information sources. The RFID tag transmits a response to the received electromagnetic radiation, based on the subset of the plurality of information sources to which the received electromagnetic radiation was directed. Method and other embodiments are also disclosed.

  17. A low cost network of spectrometer radiation detectors based on the ArduSiPM a compact transportable Software/Hardware Data Acquisition system with Arduino DUE

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, Valerio; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede in some application cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution [1]. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network.

  18. Mobile RFID of Wireless Mesh Network for Intelligent Safety Care System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chwen-Fu Horng; Gwo-Jiun Horng; Chung-Shan Sun

    2009-01-01

    ... (or 3G) has been transmitted message (or mail) to the mobile user of parents (or client user). The wireless access points support broadcasting multiple SSIDs, each of which can have a different set of security and network setting...

  19. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  20. Low Cost Reversible Signed Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Sharmin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exponential advancement in reversible comp utation has lead to better fabrication and integration process. It has become very popular ove r the last few years since reversible logic circuit s dramatically reduce energy loss. It consumes less p ower by recovering bit loss from its unique input-o utput mapping. This paper presents two new gates called RC-I and RC-II to design an n-bit signed binary comparator where simulation results show that the p roposed circuit works correctly and gives significa ntly better performance than the existing counterparts. An algorithm has been presented in this paper for constructing an optimized reversible n-bit signed c omparator circuit. Moreover some lower bounds have been proposed on the quantum cost, the numbers of g ates used and the number of garbage outputs generated for designing a low cost reversible sign ed comparator. The comparative study shows that the proposed design exhibits superior performance consi dering all the efficiency parameters of reversible logic design which includes number of gates used, quantum cost, garbage output and constant inputs. This proposed design has certainly outperformed all the other existing approaches.

  1. Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment

    CERN Document Server

    White, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espionage using real data from online sources. Second, to mitigate corporate espionage in a retail store environment, we present a simple lowcost system called Mirage. Mirage uses additional programmable low cost passive RFID tags called honeytokens to inject noise in retail store inven-torying. Using a simple history based algorithm that controls activation and de-activation of honeytokens, Mirage randomizes sales and restocking trends. We evaluate Mirage in a real warehouse environment using a commercial off-the-shelf Motoro...

  2. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-07-29

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot.

  3. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. PMID:27483279

  4. Internal Location Based System for Mobile Devices Using Passive RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Vhatkar, Kapil N

    2010-01-01

    We have explored our own innovative work about the design & development of internal location-identification system for mobile devices based on integration of RFID and wireless technology. The function of our system is based on strategically located passive RFID tags placed on objects around building which are identified using an RFID reader attached to a mobile device. The mobile device reads the RFID tag and through the wireless network, sends the request to the server. The server resolves the request and sends the desired location-based information back to the mobile device. We had addressed that we can go through the RFID technology for internal location identification (indoor), which provides us better location accuracy because of no contact between the tag and the reader, and the system requires no line of sight. In this paper we had also focused on the issues of RFID technologies i.e. Non-line-of-sight & High inventory speeds.

  5. Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim

    2016-08-01

    RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.

  6. Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim

    2016-11-01

    RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.

  7. Leasing in low-cost carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, José Frederico Pais

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the use of aircraft leasing as a financing instrument in the low-cost carriers’ sector. These airlines have been showing a huge growth in the customers’ preferences, while aircraft leasing plays a relevant role in the financing options of airlines. In this study we determined that lease future commitments represent on average 80% of other debt commitments in low-cost carriers. Furthermore, we discovered that the leasing rate in low-cost ai...

  8. RFID-based wake-up system for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A.; Aguilar, J.; Blanc, S.; Serrano, J. J.

    2011-05-01

    A critical issue of Wireless Sensor Networks circuits is energy management. This work presents a Radio-Triggered Wake-Up solution designed and developed for WSN based systems. The proposed circuit manages, in a simple and efficient way, node switching between sleep mode and both receiving or transmitting active modes. It uses a HW hearing circuit, which lowers power consumption and avoids extra processing on the main microcontroller. The weak-up is selective with predefined recognition patterns without the microcontroller intervention. Furthermore, it is tiny in size, and the whole circuit is suitable for single CMOS chip integration. The circuit has been tested to demonstrate the Wake- Up proposal worthiness. With only 8.7 microwatts of power consumption (@ 3.0 Vdc) the system successfully Wake-Up nodes up to 15 meters away from the transmission source. This performance improves solutions presented in previous research works.

  9. A low cost DICOM review station for cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, MG; Dijk, WA; Waterbolk, TW; Mook, PH; van der Velde, W; van der Putten, N; Dassen, WRM; Baljon, MH; Murray, A; Swiryn, S

    1998-01-01

    A low-cost PC based DICOM multi modality review station for cardiac surgery has been developed for use during Minimally Invasive Coronary Surgery. This system is a Windows 95 networked PC for review of DICOM coronary catheterization, ultrasound and MRI cine's stored at a departmental image server.

  10. Estimating the Effects of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tagging Technologies on the Army’s War-Time Logistics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    with customers, and over 6 million people have used SpeedPass since its introduction (Booth-Thomas, 2003). Fast - food retailers, to include the Carl’s...operating costs (Brandel, 2003). Mark and Spencer, a gourmet take-out food retailer in England, uses RFID tags to track approximately 3.5 million... food trays and dollies (many are reusable), which are supplied to over 200 stores by 300 providers. Employee hands-on time has been reduced by 80

  11. 基于无线传感器网络节点的RFID系统节能研究%Research on energy-saving of RFID system based on wireless sensor networks node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昕; 吴颖; 张磊; 刘觉夫

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the energy efficiency of RFID system, an improved scheme based on the architecture of wireless sensor networks (WSNs)node is proposed. The scheme integrates RFID reader into wireless sensor node to replace the original sensor module, and form intelligent reader node. The energy-saving control mechanism of sensor node is used to make efficient use of the limited energy of RFID system. Matlab simulation results based on the experimental platform of SK-WSN-I WSNs node module and SK-RFID-TRF796X-II reader module show that energy-saving effect is improved in the proposed scheme.%为了提高射频识别(RFID)系统的能量利用效率,在无线传感器网络节点结构的基础上,提出一种改进方案,将RFID读写器集成到传感器节点中,取代原有的传感器模块,形成读写器智能节点,并利用传感器节点的节能控制机制实现RFID系统对有限能量的高效利用.以SK-WSN-I无线传感器网络节点和SK-RFID-TRF796X-II读写器模块作为实验平台,进行Matlab仿真,验证了改进方案的节能效果.

  12. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  13. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  14. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  15. Use of a dense monitoring network of low-cost instruments to observe local changes in the diurnal ozone cycles as marine air passes over a geographically isolated urban centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L F; Salmond, J A; Miskell, G; Alavi-Shoshtari, M; Grange, S K; Henshaw, G S; Williams, D E

    2017-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations in urban areas are spatially and temporally variable, influenced by chemical production, depletion through deposition and chemical titration processes and dispersion. To date, analysis of intra-urban variability of O3 concentrations, and the influence of local controls on production and depletion rates, has been limited due to the low spatial and/or temporal resolution of measurements. We demonstrate that measurements made using a carefully managed multi-sensor network of low-cost gas-sensitive semiconductor instruments are sufficiently precise to resolve subtle but significant variations in ozone concentration across a region. Ozone was measured at 12 sites in the isolated subtropical city of Auckland, New Zealand. Overall O3 concentrations in the Auckland region were low (annual mean: 19ppb) across all seasons, with a minimum in summer. Higher O3 concentrations (max. 57ppb) were observed when wind speeds were >5ms(-1) and from the W/SW, and were associated with maritime air masses. Ozone formation in the Auckland region is low, which is attributed to a combination of the low O3 background concentrations, the negligible contribution of long-range transport and the effect of NOx titration. Intra-urban variability showed that the lowest O3 concentrations were measured at the residential sites, particularly at night and during rush hours. Ozone depletion from reaction with traffic-generated NO explains the rush-hour minima but did not fully account for the low night-time values. The results suggest that night-time depletion may result from other processes such as the reaction of ozone with nitrite on surfaces such as concrete, pointing towards the need for further studies concerning the rate and mechanism of dry deposition at night in urban areas.

  16. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  17. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  18. NASA RFID Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick, Ph.D.; Kennedy, Timothy, Ph.D; Powers, Anne; Haridi, Yasser; Chu, Andrew; Lin, Greg; Yim, Hester; Byerly, Kent, Ph.D.; Barton, Richard, Ph.D.; Khayat, Michael, Ph.D.; Studor, George; Brocato, Robert; Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. D., Ph.D.; Gross, Julia; Phan, Chau; Ni, David, Ph.D.; Dusl, John; Dekome, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some potential uses for Radio Frequency Identification in space missions. One of these is inventory management in space, including the methods used in Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and Space Station. The potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost are reviewed. The use of Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking are examined such as that used in Sapphire DART The advantages of RFID in passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications are shown such as: Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities The potential for E-textiles for wireless and RFID are also examined.

  19. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Ádám Z; Akçay, Çağlar; Weiss, Talia; Haussmann, Mark F; Moore, Ignacio T; Bonier, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  20. Low cost audiovisual playback and recording triggered by radio frequency identification using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z. Lendvai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Playbacks of visual or audio stimuli to wild animals is a widely used experimental tool in behavioral ecology. In many cases, however, playback experiments are constrained by observer limitations such as the time observers can be present, or the accuracy of observation. These problems are particularly apparent when playbacks are triggered by specific events, such as performing a specific behavior, or are targeted to specific individuals. We developed a low-cost automated playback/recording system, using two field-deployable devices: radio-frequency identification (RFID readers and Raspberry Pi micro-computers. This system detects a specific passive integrated transponder (PIT tag attached to an individual, and subsequently plays back the stimuli, or records audio or visual information. To demonstrate the utility of this system and to test one of its possible applications, we tagged female and male tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor from two box-nesting populations with PIT tags and carried out playbacks of nestling begging calls every time focal females entered the nestbox over a six-hour period. We show that the RFID-Raspberry Pi system presents a versatile, low-cost, field-deployable system that can be adapted for many audio and visual playback purposes. In addition, the set-up does not require programming knowledge, and it easily customized to many other applications, depending on the research questions. Here, we discuss the possible applications and limitations of the system. The low cost and the small learning curve of the RFID-Raspberry Pi system provides a powerful new tool to field biologists.

  1. UHF electromagnetic structures inkjet printed on temperature sensitive substrates: A comparative study of conductive inks and sintering methods to enable low cost manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaauera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.J.; Zial, M.A.; Oyeka, D.; Turki, B.M.M.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of inkjet printing as a facile digital fabrication tool for the cost effective manufacture of UHF RFID transfer tattoo tags and Frequency Selective Surfaces on low-cost flexible and porous substrates. Electrical and morphological properties of conductive features

  2. UHF electromagnetic structures inkjet printed on temperature sensitive substrates: A comparative study of conductive inks and sintering methods to enable low cost manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaauera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.J.; Zial, M.A.; Oyeka, D.; Turki, B.M.M.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of inkjet printing as a facile digital fabrication tool for the cost effective manufacture of UHF RFID transfer tattoo tags and Frequency Selective Surfaces on low-cost flexible and porous substrates. Electrical and morphological properties of conductive features

  3. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  4. Reverse Engineering of RFID devices

    OpenAIRE

    Bokslag, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance and potential impact of both RFID and reverse engineering of RFID technology, followed by a discussion of common protocols and internals of RFID technology. The focus of the paper is on providing an overview of the different approaches to reverse engineering RFID technology and possible countermeasures that could limit the potential of such reverse engineering attempts.

  5. Passive Cryptanalysis of Unconditionally Secure Authentication Protocol for RFID Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abyaneh, Mohammad Reza Sohizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Alomair et al. proposed the first UnConditionally Secure mutual authentication protocol for low-cost RFID systems(UCS-RFID). The security of the UCS-RFID relies on five dynamic secret keys which are updated at every protocol run using a fresh random number (nonce) secretly transmitted from a reader to tags. Our results show that, at the highest security level of the protocol (security parameter= 512), inferring a nonce is feasible with the probability of 0.99 by eavesdropping(observing) about 90 runs of the protocol. Finding a nonce enable a passive attacker to recover all five secret keys of the protocol. To do so, we propose a three-phase probabilistic approach in this paper. Our attack recovers the secret keys with a probability that increases by accessing to more protocol runs. We also show that tracing a tag using this protocol is also possible even with less runs of the protocol.

  6. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...... expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... suitable option for a low-cost simulation of robotic surgery....

  7. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...... expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... suitable option for a low-cost simulation of robotic surgery....

  8. Low Cost, Advanced, Integrated Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Fushshilat, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the design of an AVR microcontroller training kit with a low cost and the additional feature of an integrated downloader. The main components of this device include: Microcontroller, terminal, I/O keypad, push button, LED, seven segment display, LCD, motor stepper, and sensors. The device configuration results in low cost and ease of use; this device is suitable for laboratories with limited funding. The device can also be used as a training kit for the teaching and learning of microcontrollers.

  9. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  10. Simplified, low cost below-knee prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijkusol, D

    1986-08-01

    Problems are encountered in using standard prostheses in developing countries, especially when the prostheses need repair and the amputees cannot come back to the workshop. Very simple, low cost and durable prostheses can solve this problem. The solution described has worked well with villagers in some rural areas of Thailand, where the inexpensive prosthesis permits walking bare-foot and through water and mud.

  11. Low-cost LANDSAT processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, N. L.; Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    LANDSAT analysis system is assembled from commercially available components at relatively low cost. Small-scale system is put together for price affordable for state agencies and universities. It processes LANDSAT data for subscene areas on repetitive basis. Amount of time required for processing decreases linearly with number of classifications desired. Computer programs written in FORTRAN IV are available for analyzing data.

  12. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  13. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  14. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  15. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  16. Research of the smart frequency adjustable bands RFID reader%一款灵巧宽频带RFID读写器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋; 范福玲; 常静; 杨益

    2015-01-01

    针对各种RFID标签工作频段不尽相同,技术标准不一致,而传统RFID读写器工作频带很窄且不支持多协议,造成对标签读取不便的问题,研究和设计了对多频段、多协议的电子标签兼容的RFID读写器。提出读写器工作频率可调和多通信协议的解决方案;在系统硬件中,微控制器采用ST公司的STM32 F103 VET6芯片,以TI公司低成本但配置灵活的CC1101作为射频收发模块;设计了频率可调的匹配网络;在软件上实现了读写器支持多种通信协议的功能。另外,还对具有尺寸缩减作用的弯折线偶极子天线设计做了仿真研究。该读写器具有适应性强,成本低等特点,给RFID的应用带来了便捷。%The frequency bands and the technical standards of the RFID tags are often different, and the RFID reader often has very narrow operating frequency bands and can’t support mutl-protocal, which will cause problems when the RFID reader read the data from the RFID tags. To overcome this problem, a smart multi-frequency bands and multi-protocol RFID reader is research and designed. The system scheme of the adjustable operating frequency and the multi-protocol of the RFID reader is proposed. In the hardware system, the ST’s STM32F103VET6 chips and the TI’s CC1101 chips are selected to configu-rated as the mcu and RF transceiver modules. The adjustable frequency matching network is also de-signed, and the multi-protocol functions are realized in the software system. In addition, the bending wire dipole antenna is studied and simulated to reduce the size of the antenna. The reader has a strong adapta-bility, low cost, which can bring the convenience of RFID applications.

  17. The Magic of RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roy; Want

    2008-01-01

    1 Introduction Many modern technologies give the impression that they work by magic, particularly when they operate automatically and their mechanisms are invisible. A technology called RFID (radio frequency identification), which is relatively new to the mass market

  18. Implementation of RFID Tracking across the Entire Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkka, Ville

    2013-01-01

    The use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tracking to improve the supply chain management (SCM) of today’s complex and geographically dispersed supply networks has been highlighted in the past 10 years. Even if the use of RFID technology to smooth certain supply chain operations has grown rapidly, the number of supply chain-wide tracking systems, which would be highly integrated with the operations across the whole supply chain, has remained low. The aim of this thesis is threefold...

  19. Design of a LOW Cost IC Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakot Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost Integrated Circuit (IC testing is now a burning issue in semiconductor technology. Conventional IC tester, Automatic Test Equipment (ATE, cannot cope with the today’s continuously increasing complexities in IC technology. Deterministic algorithm, which is an idea of 1960’s, is adopted in the ATE. Recently pseudo-random testing approach of IC testing has been emerged as an economically viable alternative to the expensive deterministic testing approach. This study introduces the design of a System-on-a-chip (Soc implementing pseudo-random test technique for low cost IC testing with reliable performance. It is capable of testing combinational circuits as well as sequential circuits with scan-port facilities efficiently. It can also be used for testing Printed Circuit Board (PCB interconnection faults.

  20. Noise Figure Evaluation Using Low Cost BIST

    CERN Document Server

    Negreiros, Marcelo; Susin, Altamiro A

    2011-01-01

    A technique for evaluating noise figure suitable for BIST implementation is described. It is based on a low cost single-bit digitizer, which allows the simultaneous evaluation of noise figure in several test points of the analog circuit. The method is also able to benefit from SoC resources, like memory and processing power. Theoretical background and experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  1. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  2. Integration of RFID and web service for assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Mehmet S; Kurtel, Kaan

    2012-08-01

    The number of people over 65 years old throughout most stable and prosperous countries in the world is increasing. Availability of their care in their own homes is imperative because of the economic reasons and their choices where to live (World Health Organization, Definition of an older or elderly person. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/ ; EQUIP-European Framework for Qualifications in Home Care Services for Older People, http://www.equip-project.com ; Salonen, 2009). "Recent advancement in wireless communications and electronics has enabled the development of low-cost sensor networks. The sensor networks can be utilized in various application areas." (Akyildiz, et al. 2002) These two statements show that there is a great promise in wireless technology and utilizing it in assisted living might be very beneficial to the elderly people. In this paper, we propose software architecture called Location Windows Service (LWS) which integrates the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and the web service to build an assisted living system for elderly people at home. This architecture monitors the location of elderly people without interfering in their daily activities. Location information messages that are generated as the elderly move from room to room indicate that the elderly person is fit and healthy and going about their normal life. The communication must be timely enough to follow elderly people as they move from room to room without missing a location. Unacknowledged publishing, subscription filtering and short location change messages are also included in this software model to reduce the network traffic in large homes. We propose some defense schemes being applied to the network environment of the assisted living system to prevent any external attacks.

  3. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  4. Panel: RFID Security and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kevin

    The panel on RFID security and privacy included Ross Anderson, Jon Callas, Yvo Desmedt, and Kevin Fu. Topics for discussion included the "chip and PIN" EMV payment systems, e-Passports, "mafia" attacks, and RFID-enabled credit cards. Position papers by the panelists appear in the following pages, and the RFID-enabled credit card work appears separately in these proceedings.

  5. Indoor localization using pedestrian dead reckoning updated with RFID-based fiducials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Samuel; Connell, Sean; Milligan, Ian; Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Chiang, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe a low-cost wearable system that tracks the location of individuals indoors using commonly available inertial navigation sensors fused with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags placed around the smart environment. While conventional pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) calculated with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is susceptible to sensor drift inaccuracies, the proposed wearable prototype fuses the drift-sensitive IMU with a RFID tag reader. Passive RFID tags placed throughout the smart-building then act as fiducial markers that update the physical locations of each user, thereby correcting positional errors and sensor inaccuracy. Experimental measurements taken for a 55 m × 20 m 2D floor space indicate an over 1200% improvement in average error rate of the proposed RFID-fused system over dead reckoning alone.

  6. SOA-based RFID public services infrastructure: architecture and its core services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Junfang; Li Ran; Luo Jin; Liu Yu

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) has prominent advantages compared with other auto-identification technologies. Combining RFID with network technology, physical object tracking and information sharing can possibly be carried out in an innovative way. Regarding open-loop RFID applications, RFID public services infrastructure (PSI) is presented, PSI architecture is designed, and service modules are implemented, and a demonstrative application system, blood management and traceability system, is studied to verify PSI. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed architecture and the usability of PSI framework software.

  7. Low Cost Simulator for Heart Surgery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocha e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Introduce the low-cost and easy to purchase simulator without biological material so that any institution may promote extensive cardiovascular surgery training both in a hospital setting and at home without large budgets. Methods: A transparent plastic box is placed in a wooden frame, which is held by the edges using elastic bands, with the bottom turned upwards, where an oval opening is made, "simulating" a thoracotomy. For basic exercises in the aorta, the model presented by our service in the 2015 Brazilian Congress of Cardiovascular Surgery: a silicone ice tray, where one can train to make aortic purse-string suture, aortotomy, aortorrhaphy and proximal and distal anastomoses. Simulators for the training of valve replacement and valvoplasty, atrial septal defect repair and aortic diseases were added. These simulators are based on sewage pipes obtained in construction material stores and the silicone trays and ethyl vinyl acetate tissue were obtained in utility stores, all of them at a very low cost. Results: The models were manufactured using inert materials easily found in regular stores and do not present contamination risk. They may be used in any environment and maybe stored without any difficulties. This training enabled young surgeons to familiarize and train different surgical techniques, including procedures for aortic diseases. In a subjective assessment, these surgeons reported that the training period led to improved surgical techniques in the surgical field. Conclusion: The model described in this protocol is effective and low-cost when compared to existing simulators, enabling a large array of cardiovascular surgery training.

  8. Measuring rainfall with low-cost cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamano, Paola; Cavagnero, Paolo; Croci, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In Allamano et al. (2015), we propose to retrieve quantitative measures of rainfall intensity by relying on the acquisition and analysis of images captured from professional cameras (SmartRAIN technique in the following). SmartRAIN is based on the fundamentals of camera optics and exploits the intensity changes due to drop passages in a picture. The main steps of the method include: i) drop detection, ii) blur effect removal, iii) estimation of drop velocities, iv) drop positioning in the control volume, and v) rain rate estimation. The method has been applied to real rain events with errors of the order of ±20%. This work aims to bridge the gap between the need of acquiring images via professional cameras and the possibility of exporting the technique to low-cost webcams. We apply the image processing algorithm to frames registered with low-cost cameras both in the lab (i.e., controlled rain intensity) and field conditions. The resulting images are characterized by lower resolutions and significant distortions with respect to professional camera pictures, and are acquired with fixed aperture and a rolling shutter. All these hardware limitations indeed exert relevant effects on the readability of the resulting images, and may affect the quality of the rainfall estimate. We demonstrate that a proper knowledge of the image acquisition hardware allows one to fully explain the artefacts and distortions due to the hardware. We demonstrate that, by correcting these effects before applying the image processing algorithm, quantitative rain intensity measures are obtainable with a good accuracy also with low-cost modules.

  9. RFID design fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl

  10. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  11. Low cost Michelson-Morley interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Kurmude, Vikrant

    2016-11-01

    The Michelson-Morley interferometer is an important and challenging experiment in many undergraduate as well as post-graduate physics laboratories. The apparatus required for this experiment is costly and delicate to handle. It also requires considerable skill to obtain a set of sharp fringes. This frontline presents a low cost (~US50) design of the experiment, which can be easily fabricated in any undergraduate laboratory. It is easy to handle as well as any part of this set up being easily replaced in case of any damage.

  12. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Roig, Ana B.; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David

    2014-05-01

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  13. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Belen [Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David [Inst. of Physics Applied to the Sciences and Technologies, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Roig, Ana B. [Department of Optics, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2014-05-27

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  14. RFID added value sensing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorjati, B.; Çetin, K.; Mihovska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a key technology for Europe. Since the initial emergence of the technology, there has been a noticeable shift away from RFID pilot projects of the early days, towards a broad deployment of RFID in order to increase the efficiency and innovation of processes....... Even though Europe is a leading player in the world of RFID technology, several challenges need to be addressed in order for RFID to reach its full potential. The funded under FP7 ICT project ASPIRE is one of the coordinated European efforts to further the advancement of this technology, in the areas...... of enabling technology development for RFID. In particular, the focus of ASPIRE is on design, development and adoption of an innovative, programmable, royalty-free, lightweight and privacy friendly RFID middleware....

  15. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  16. 基于RFID和ZigBee网络的通用分级考勤管理系统%Universal and Hierarchical Attendance Management System Based on RFID and ZigBee Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼英; 王能河; 张伟刚; 瞿少成

    2016-01-01

    【目的】针对考勤管理移动性差、数据难以共享、过于依赖网络和后台计算机等缺陷,设计一种基于射频识别技术(RFID)和ZigBee网络的通用分级管理考勤系统。【方法】基于 MFRC500与 STC89C52设计被动非接触式RFID考勤读卡子系统;采用CC2530设计ZigBee无线传感网络;基于 Linux/QT完成 ARM主控平台开发。【结果】系统实现多 RFID读卡子系统的自组网、子节点与主控平台的分级管理。【结论】测试表明,该系统部署灵活,能适应复杂的楼宇环境,且性价比较高,具有一定推广价值。%[Objective]A design of universal and hierarchical attendance system,which uses RFID and ZigBee network,is proposed to fix the shortcomings of attendance management.[Methods]Based on MFRC500 and STC89C52,a passive contactless RFID reader subsystem is designed. Multi-RFID reader subsystems can be attached by ZigBee wireless sensor network using CC2530.A master platform based on Linux/QT is developed.[Results]This system can achieve hierarchical attendance management for child node and host platform,respectively.Also a web background data management system is provided for data mining in future.[Conclusion]Experi-ments show that the system can be easily implemented and works stable in complex environ-ment.

  17. Intelligent Mobile Purchasing System with RFID Smart Phone and EPC Network%结合RFID Smart Phone和EPC网络的智能移动采购系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀中; 陈俊良; 赵涵捷; 蔡承勋

    2009-01-01

    近年来由于无线射频对象辨识技术(RFID)的快速发展,使低成本、可大量部署的与可涵盖大面积的无线射频对象识别器有突破性的进展.由读取器(Reader)、感应器(Transponder)与中介系统(Middleware System)3者串联而成的无线射频对象辨识架构,将形成未来生产线自动化、物料管理与物流业的新兴架构.由国际组织EPCglobal Inc.所倡导的EPC Network是RFID应用的标准科技,目前世界各大零售通路商如Wal-Mart、Tesco及Metro、P&G、Gillette等皆积极参与电子商品条形码EPC(Electronic Product Code)的应用.本论文针对RFID技术的EPC网络架构,实作一套综合RFID智能手机、EPC网络的智能移动采购系统.使用者以具有RFID Reader的智能手机进行采购,Content Web Server与ODS Server负责记录EPC Code的商品数据,透过EPC网络的Object Tracing功能将商品直接运送到使用者家中;或由家中的RFID冰箱主动通知使用者所需采购信息,传送至智能手机进行采购,完成电子交易.

  18. Low Cost Data Acquisition System for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sharma Gaurav Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the engineering education in India is increasing, so the demand of quality projects and quality research at the students level is also increasing. To make good hardware projects most of the time we need to acquire real time data. This acquisition is done through the dedicated device which is called Data Acquisition Device. In India there are very less no. of companies which are making the Data Acquisition Devices and the available devices are very costly for the students. Hence, there is need to provide students a cost effective or low cost device which can suite according to their proposed work. In this paper we have designed and implemented a prototype of Data Acquisition Device (DAQ using AVR microcontroller. The software for the DAQ device has been mode on MATLAB and LabView and the device has been tested for different tasks and under different conditions

  19. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  20. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  1. Low Cost Projection Environment for Immersive Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bourke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available As computer performance and graphics hardware continue to improve, the gamer is increasingly being presented with richer and more realistic visual environments. Viewing these virtual environments is generally still based upon display technology that does not exploit two very important characteristics of our visual system, namely stereoscopic vision that is responsible for the enhanced depth perception we see in the real world and a wide field of view that allows us to sense activity in our far peripheral vision. In what follows it will be argued that for immersive gaming a wide field of view is both functionally more useful and places less stress on the visual system than stereoscopic viewing. In order to support gaming with a wide vertical and horizontal field of view a low cost projection system will be introduced and the implications for game developers discussed.

  2. Development of low-cost rotational rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Skov, Kristian Thaarup

    2015-01-01

    Liquids with non-Newtonian properties are presented in many engineering areas as for example in membrane bioreactors where active sludge exhibits shear thinning properties. Therefore, the ability to determine the rheology’s dependence of shear is important when optimising systems with such liquids....... However, rheometers capable of determining the viscosity are often expensive and so a cheaper alternative is constructed with this exact capability. Using the principle of rotating rheometers, a low-cost rheometer was built to determine the rheology of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The general...... principles and assumptions behind and the physics are described. The rheometer was calibrated by comparison with measurements conducted on a Brookfield viscometer for Newtonian liquids. For validation measurements on non-Newtonian Xanthan Gum solutions were made and compared measurements on the Brookfield...

  3. How to Mobilize your Library at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Abarca Villoldo

    2012-09-01

    tools are available free of charge. In other words, these are low-cost tools that offer high returns to the user.

  4. The Study on Using Passive RFID Tags for Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Ting

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID is the technology that put an RFID tag on objects or people, so that they can be identified, tracked, and managed automatically. With its wide application in the automobile assembly industry, warehouse management and the supply chain network, RFID has been recognized as the next promising technology in serving the positioning purpose. Existing positioning technologies such as GPS are not available indoors as the terminal cannot get the signal from satellites. To enhance the availability of the positioning systems for indoors, the development of RFID positioning system for locating objects or people have became a hot topic in recent research. Compared with conventional active and high‐cost solutions, this paper studied the feasibility of using passive RFID tags for indoor positioning and object location detection to provide real time information for tracking movement. Results of experiment show that readability of the passive RFID positioning system is satisfactory, and it is a more cost effective solution when compared with other positioning technologies.

  5. Home Energy Management System Using NILM, Low-Cost HAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qasim Khalid; Naveed Arshad; Nasir Khan; Taha Hassan; Fahad Javed; Jahangir Ikram

    2014-01-01

    Home energy management systems (HEMs) are used to provide comfortable life for consumers as well as to save energy. An essential component of HEMs is a home area network (HAN) that is used to remotely control the electric devices at homes and buildings. Although HAN prices have dropped in recent years but they are still expensive enough to prohibit a mass scale deployments. In this paper, a very low cost alternative to the expensive HANs is presented. We have applied a combination of non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) and very low cost one-way HAN to develop a HEM. By using NILM and machine learning algorithms we find the status of devices and their energy consumption from a central meter and communicate with devices through the one-way HAN. The evaluations show that the proposed machine learning algorithm for NILM achieves up to 99%accuracy in certain cases. On the other hand our radio frequency (RF)-based one-way HAN achieves a range of 80 feet in all settings.

  6. Cluster-Based Multipolling Sequencing Algorithm for Collecting RFID Data in Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong; Chatterjee, Mainak

    2015-03-01

    With the growing use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), it is becoming important to devise ways to read RFID tags in real time. Access points (APs) of IEEE 802.11-based wireless Local Area Networks (LANs) are being integrated with RFID networks that can efficiently collect real-time RFID data. Several schemes, such as multipolling methods based on the dynamic search algorithm and random sequencing, have been proposed. However, as the number of RFID readers associated with an AP increases, it becomes difficult for the dynamic search algorithm to derive the multipolling sequence in real time. Though multipolling methods can eliminate the polling overhead, we still need to enhance the performance of the multipolling methods based on random sequencing. To that extent, we propose a real-time cluster-based multipolling sequencing algorithm that drastically eliminates more than 90% of the polling overhead, particularly so when the dynamic search algorithm fails to derive the multipolling sequence in real time.

  7. Radio frequency identification and sensors from rfid to chipless RFID

    CERN Document Server

    Perret, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the field of identification and sensors, more precisely the possibility of collecting information remotely with RF waves (RFID). The book introduces the technology of chipless RFID starting from classical RFID and barcode, and explores the field of identification and sensors without wire, without batteries, without chip, and with tags that can even be printed on paper. A technique for automatic design of UHF RFID tags is presented , aiming at making the tags as insensitive as possible to the environment (with the ability to increase the reading range reliability), or, co

  8. Duty-Cycle-Aware Minimum Energy Multicasting of Passive RFID Wake-up Radios for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavan Kumar Reddy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In duty-cycled wireless sensor networks, the nodes switch between active and dormant states, and each node determine its active/dormant schedule independently. This complicates the Minimum Energy Multicasting (MEM problem in wireless sensor networks both for one-to-many multicasting and for all-to-all multicasting. In the case of one-to-many multicasting, we present a formalization of the Minimum-Energy Multicasting Tree Construction and Scheduling (MEMTCS problem. We prove that MEMTCS problem is NP-hard and propose a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the MEMTCS problem. In the case of all-to-all multicasting, we prove that the Minimum-Energy Multicast Backbone Construction and Scheduling (MEMBCS problem is also NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm for it. Compared to duty cycling, wake-up radios save more energy by reducing unnecessary wake-ups and collisions.

  9. 基于CWDM实现高速LTE无线信号覆盖的低成本室内分布系统组网架构设计与研究%Research of Low Cost Indoor Distribution Networking Architecture Realized High Speed LTE Radio Signal Covering which Based on CWDM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了目前2G、3G室内无线分布系统的优势和弊端,提出了基于粗波分复用(CWDM)技术实现高速LTE无线信号覆盖的低成本室内分布系统的组网架构,并给出了其组网架构的优势。%In the paper,we analysed the advantages and disadvantages of the current 2G and 3G mobile communica-tion indoor distributed networking architecture,we proposed a low cost indoor LTE radio signal distribution networking architecture which based on CWDM technology,and we gave its advantages.

  10. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  11. Wireless Power in Passive RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shen

    2010-01-01

    Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) technology has many applications in various fields. Compared to a traditional Auto-ID system, the RFID technology has many advantages. Firstly, the identification of tags is more accurate and the distance is more flexible. Secondly, the maximum memory capacity of RFID tags can be several megabytes which is much more than that of the traditional Auto-ID’s. Thirdly, RFID has better performance in anti-pollution, because the data is saved in a chip wrapped b...

  12. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  13. Low-cost anodes for ammonia electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverston, Steven M.

    This research focused on the development of low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen, a reaction that has possible applications in hydrogen generation, direct ammonia fuel cells, water treatment, and sensors. Statistical design of experiments was used to help develop an efficient and scalable process for electrodeposition of platinum with a specific electrochemical surface area of over 25 m2 /g. Catalyst surface area and activity were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the material microstructure and morphology were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized electrodes were found to be active toward the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, particularly when supporting electrolyte was added. However, supporting electrolyte was not required in order to oxidize the ammonia. As proof of concept, a homemade direct ammonia fuel cell employing a commercial anion exchange membrane was tested at room temperature with gravity-fed fuel and without supporting electrolyte. At room temperature, with passive reactant supply and using dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the cell produced about one quarter the power of a direct methanol fuel cell that used active transport of humidified oxygen and preheated (50 °C) methanol. With continued development of the membrane, cathode and membrane electrode assembly, the passive direct ammonia fuel cell using anion exchange membrane could have performance similar to the equivalent direct methanol fuel cell, and it could benefit from many advantages of ammonia over methanol such as lower cost, higher energy density, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. PROSPECTS OF UKRAINE LOW-COST AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kasianova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to show that the budgetary development of aviation in the market of domestic flights in Ukraine will not only increase the use of the aircraft by the end user, but also maximize the profits for the domestic airlines. Methods: We used economic analysis methods to assess the costs for air travel. The necessity of the use of passengers load factor was justified, indicators of the efficiency of the airline were calculated. The advantages of the air transport compared to the rail transport were shown on the basis of a comparative analysis. Results: We considered the relationship between the volume of air traffic and the revenue of the potential clients. The feasibility of reducing prices on air tickets to the level of railway tariffs was proved. The concept of low cost airlines was defined, the factors to decrease the air travel prices were identified. Maximisation of the airline profits can be achieved with an affordable price, which will increase passenger traffic. Discussion: In Ukraine there is an urgent need for new solutions that would help airlines to successfully conduct its business and meet the needs of passengers on domestic routes. There is no doubt that in times of economic crisis, inflation has a significant impact on the real incomes of consumers, and this study proves the feasibility of establishing a low-budget domestic aviation and its use on domestic routes during the economic crisis.

  15. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  16. LOTUS: A low cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, I A; Jermak, H E; Barnsley, R M; Bates, S D; Clay, N R; Fitzsimmons, A; Jehin, E; Jones, G; Mottram, C J; Smith, R J; Snodgrass, C; de Val-Borro, M

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5x95 arcsec) and wide (5x25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Angstroms with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R=225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is less than 2 Angstroms rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its ...

  17. Low Cost Ozone Generation in Corona Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapkin, B.; Knijnik, A.; Korobtsev, S.; Medvedev, D.; Shiryaevsky, V.

    1998-10-01

    There is an interesting experimental result (S. Korobtsev, D. Medvedev et al , ISPC 13,1997, vol.2, p. 755. ) for low cost ozone generation (7-8 eV/molec in air) in streamer with dominant energy consumption in streamer channel (where molecular vibrations are excited). For explanation we considered the effect of vibrational pumping saturation, when vibrational energy was increased (due to the super-elastic processes) and the change of electron cross-sections due to vibrational excitation, which could also lead to efficiency growth. Boltzmann equation solution showed that both effects required too large energy consumption in discharge (>0.7 eV/mole). Thus we went to conclusion, that some direct energy transfer from vibrational degrees of freedom to electronic degrees should take place. One of the possible new mechanisms is the reaction: N2 (v)+N2 (v)=N2 (A)+N_2. Our numerical model of vibrational kinetic in air with this reaction showed that dependence of ozone generation cost upon energy consumption in streamer channel had a minimum with the value of the cost about 8-10 eV/molec.

  18. Low cost aluminium metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, G.

    2007-03-15

    Low cost, light weight Ultalite{reg_sign} is an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AL-MMC) which utilises wear resistant ceramic particles derived from flyash. Ultalite AL-MMC typically contains between 10 and 30 per cent ceramic particles, and is formulated for the manufacture of wear resistant automotive components. Due to its low density and ease of processing into net shape die casting, Ultalite AL-MMC provides weight savings of up to 60 per cent over components fabricated from cast iron, thereby providing improved fuel efficiency with reduced greenhouse emissions. The original flyash material was sourced from a black coal power station in Queensland, where it contained a wide range of particles sizes. To narrow the size range and to remove impurities, a proprietary pretreatment developed by Dr Thomas Robl and co-researchers at the University of Kentucky was employed. The University of Kentucky developed the technology for the classification and benefaction of flyash to produce high-grade Pozzolan, which is used in Portland Cement product. This technology is now being applied to the production of Ultalite AL-MMC. Testing performed by Dr Robl has shown that the proprietary technology can eliminate the hollow particles, extract detrimental carbon-based impurities and remove the extremely fine and coarse particles. All that remains are dense ceramic particles with an average particle size of approximately 30 {mu}m. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  20. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  1. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  2. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  3. Investigation of a new low cost and low consumption single poly-silicon memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Calenzo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented an investigation on a new low cost and voltage consumption single poly-silicon memory cell for passive RFID (Radio Frequency IDentificationapplications. This structure is low cost due to its single poly-silicon design. This memory cell has two particularities : the first one is that no deported capacitor is necessary to program this cell which allows to reduce the structure size to 1.1μm². The second one is the way the cell is erased. A Zener diode is used to generate carriers in order to be injected into the floating gate. This Zener diode is one of the key points for the functionality that has to be validated with some electrical trials. These trials permit to integrate and use the Zener diodes measured in simulations of the complete memory cell. This is done to validate the best candidate between the Zener diodes used for the cell and highlight the efficiency in consumption and rapidity to erase the cell. Besides, the writing and the reading cases are simulated in order to show the low consumption required by the cell during these phases.

  4. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  5. Interoperation of an UHF RFID Reader and a TCP/IP Device via Wired and Wireless Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Soo Jin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4 interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device.

  6. Interoperation of an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device via wired and wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jin, Ik Soo

    2011-01-01

    A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device.

  7. Interoperation of an UHF RFID Reader and a TCP/IP Device via Wired and Wireless Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jin, Ik Soo

    2011-01-01

    A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device. PMID:22346665

  8. PEM Low Cost Endplates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Martin; Clyens, S.; Steenstrup, F.R.; Christiansen, Jens [Danish Technological Institute. Plastics Technology, Taastrup (Denmark); Yde-Andersen, S. [IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In the project, an endplate for the PEM-type fuel cells has been developed. The initial idea was to use an injection mouldable fibre reinforced polymer to produce the endplate and thereby exploit the opportunities of greater geometrical freedom to reduce weight and material consumption. Different PPS/glass-fibre compounds were produced and tested in order to use the results to optimize the results on the computer through FEM simulations. As it turned out, it was impossible to achieve adequate stiffness for the endplates within the given geometrical limitations. At the relatively high temperatures at which the endplates operate the material simply goes to soft. Material focus shifted to fibre reinforced high strength concrete composite. Test specimens were produced and tested so the results again could be used for FEM-simulations which also accounted for the technical limitations the concrete composite has regarding casting ability. In the process, the way the endplate is mounted was also alternated to better accommodate the properties of the concrete composite. A number of endplates were cast in specially produced moulds in order to map the optimum process parameters, and a final endplate was tested at IRD Fuel Cells A/S. The field test was in many aspects successful. However, the gas sealing and the surface finish can be further improved. The weight may still be an issue for some applications, even though it is lower than the endplate currently used. This issue can be addressed in a future project. The work has resulted in a new endplate design, which makes the stack assembly simpler and with fewer components. The endplates fabrication involves low cost methods, which can be scaled up as demand of fuel cells begin to take off. (Author)

  9. Pallet Management System: A Study of the Implementation of UID/RFID Technology for Tracking Shipping Materials Within the Department of Defense Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    San Joaquin DFARS: Defense Federal Acquisition Regulations DI: Data Identifier DoD: Department of Defense EPC : Electronic Product Code FOD...provides a coherent and stable interface between RFID hardware operations and the flow of data elements—such as electronic product code ( EPC ...custody (government or contractor ), and • How it is marked. (DoD AT&L 2006) Figure 11. Data Included in the UID Registry (DoD AT&L 2006

  10. Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

  11. High Security at a Low Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    These devices will form wireless networks to communicate with one another, moreover their power consumption will be very low. It is not hard to predict that our modern society will depend on the correct operation of these devices, and the security of the network they are operating. Such sensor-based systems......, also known as "cyber-physical systems", achieve security by means of cryptographic protocols. In a simplistic setting where the power consumption should be minimum and the processing power is limited, it is more likely that all devices in the network will share the same cryptographic key. In this study......, we are working on the trade-off between two challenges: "the cryptographic key should be changed frequently to preserve security" and "the cryptographic key should be changed rarely to save power". We work on the ZigBee wireless sensor network standard, that offers the advantages of simple and low...

  12. A Low-cost, Installable Intelligent Helper Module for Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Sakib

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground vehicles are being intelligent day by day. But in today’s market the price of an autonomous, which is still in its experimental phase, or a semi-autonomous intelligent vehicular system is too high. Apart from the usage of expensive sensors, previously proposed vehicular networking systems for intelligent vehicles need network provider and communication towers like cellular communication networks which is both time consuming and costly to implement. Moreover, the mechatronics part, which controls the vehicle is very much different from a traditional intra-vehicular mechanism making it very difficult to convert a regular vehicle, e.g. a car, into an intelligent one. Due to these facts, these overpriced systems are not suitable for the underdeveloped countries where, these are somewhat more needed. In this paper, I have developed a very cheap intelligent system for providing guidance to the driver while driving. This module will not be connected to the hardware directly, which made it an easy-to-install ―helper module‖ for any kind of ground vehicles. However, this module will reduce the accident rate by collecting and analyzing surrounding data, communicating with nearby vehicles (peer to peer while overtaking and providing continuous guidelines for safe driving. Unlike other systems this could easily be deployed in the underdeveloped countries because of its ultra-low cost

  13. Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags: e0132530

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Rokunuzzaman; Mohammad Tariqul Islam; Haslina Arshad; Mandeep Jit Singh; Norbahiah Misran

    2015-01-01

      This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network...

  14. Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rokunuzzaman, Md; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina; Jit Singh, Mandeep; Misran, Norbahiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network...

  15. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  16. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne

    2006-12-26

    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  17. On the move with RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Scanology is an independent automatic identification specialist providing state of the art barcode and RFID solutions to our European customer base. Our knowledge of the present and what is yet to come allows us to provide honest, practical advice to clients transitioning from barcode to RFID. Scanology designs, builds, installs and services end-to-end sup-

  18. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  19. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, John [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  20. A low-cost acoustic permeameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Selker, John S.; Higgins, Chad W.

    2017-04-01

    Intrinsic permeability is an important parameter that regulates air exchange through porous media such as snow. Standard methods of measuring snow permeability are inconvenient to perform outdoors, are fraught with sampling errors, and require specialized equipment, while bringing intact samples back to the laboratory is also challenging. To address these issues, we designed, built, and tested a low-cost acoustic permeameter that allows computation of volume-averaged intrinsic permeability for a homogenous medium. In this paper, we validate acoustically derived permeability of homogenous, reticulated foam samples by comparison with results derived using a standard flow-through permeameter. Acoustic permeameter elements were designed for use in snow, but the measurement methods are not snow-specific. The electronic components - consisting of a signal generator, amplifier, speaker, microphone, and oscilloscope - are inexpensive and easily obtainable. The system is suitable for outdoor use when it is not precipitating, but the electrical components require protection from the elements in inclement weather. The permeameter can be operated with a microphone either internally mounted or buried a known depth in the medium. The calibration method depends on choice of microphone positioning. For an externally located microphone, calibration was based on a low-frequency approximation applied at 500 Hz that provided an estimate of both intrinsic permeability and tortuosity. The low-frequency approximation that we used is valid up to 2 kHz, but we chose 500 Hz because data reproducibility was maximized at this frequency. For an internally mounted microphone, calibration was based on attenuation at 50 Hz and returned only intrinsic permeability. We found that 50 Hz corresponded to a wavelength that minimized resonance frequencies in the acoustic tube and was also within the response limitations of the microphone. We used reticulated foam of known permeability (ranging from 2

  1. High Security at a Low Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    , also known as "cyber-physical systems", achieve security by means of cryptographic protocols. In a simplistic setting where the power consumption should be minimum and the processing power is limited, it is more likely that all devices in the network will share the same cryptographic key. In this study......In the future tiny devices with microcontrollers and sensors will be in charge of numerous activities in our lives. Tracking our energy consumption and CO2 emission, controlling our living conditions, enforcing security, and monitoring our health will be some examples of their functions...... These devices will form wireless networks to communicate with one another, moreover their power consumption will be very low. It is not hard to predict that our modern society will depend on the correct operation of these devices, and the security of the network they are operating. Such sensor-based systems...

  2. RFID security a lightweight paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Khattab, Ahmed; Amini, Esmaeil; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of security in the widely adopted, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The authors present the fundamental principles of RFID cryptography in a manner accessible to a broad range of readers, enabling them to improve their RFID security design. This book also offers the reader a range of interesting topics portraying the current state-of-the-art in RFID technology and how it can be integrated with today’s Internet of Things (IoT) vision. The authors describe a first-of-its-kind, lightweight symmetric authenticated encryption cipher called Redundant Bit Security (RBS), which enables significant, multi-faceted performance improvements compared to existing cryptosystems. This book is a must-read for anyone aiming to overcome the constraints of practical implementation in RFID security technologies.

  3. A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    AFFTC-PA-12423 A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) Pallavi Sandhiya AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA 2/20/13 A F...20-02-2013) 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/12 -- 10/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT...CC: 012100 14. ABSTRACT This paper details design, development and test of the Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) LCT2-040-2200

  4. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  5. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  6. 电子设备诊断系统中RFID系统与ZigBee网络混合组网的设计与实现%Design and Implementation about Hybrid Networking of ZigBee Network and RFID System in Electronic Equipment Diagnosis Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 龙兵; 刘震

    2012-01-01

    The traditional bar code recognition management system has poor real-time data and low automation, as well as a single wire communication between RFID management system and server, a wireless data transmission scheme which integrated RHD radio frequency identification system with health information into ZigBee wireless network is in troduced. The program integrated RFID reader and ZigBee terminal into ZigBee RFID nodes, so as to enable hybrid net- working. Actual test results show that the design can make a good combination between RHD system and ZigBee net- work, and solve limited distribution of traditional RFID readers. It has a certain practical value.%针对传统的条形码识别管理系统数据实时性差,自动化程度低,以及单一的RFID管理系统因为与服务器的有线通信而受到的诸多限制缺点,提出了一种将搜集电子设备健康信息的RFID射频识别系统整合到ZigBee无线网络中的无线数据传输方案。该方案将RFID阅读器和ZigBee终端集成为ZigBeeRFID节点,可实现两个网络的混合纽网。实际测试结果表明,本设计可以使RFID系统和ZigBee网络良好的结合,从而解决传统RFID阅读器布局受限的问题,具有一定的实用性和推广价值。

  7. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  8. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  9. Application of RFID in inventory management about experimental equipment%RFID 在实验设备库存管理中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 孟勤; 刘昕; 王睿

    2015-01-01

    为了提高实验设备库存管理的工作效率和资源的合理化配置水平,对射频识别技术(RFID)在实验设备库存管理中的应用进行了研究。首先,对基于 RFID 的实验设备库存管理业务流程进行了分析与优化,接着,设计了基于 B/S 与 C/S 分层混合结构的 RFID 实验设备库存管理系统总体架构,然后,提出了 RFID 系统与现有实验设备库存管理系统的集成方案,最后,采用多读头单工作站网络系统模型完成对 RFID 数据采集系统的实施部署,并成功地应用于吉林大学实验设备管理中心。实践结果表明,RFID 系统的应用极大地提高了管理效率和设备资源的利用率。%In order to improve the efficiency of inventory management about the experimental equipment,the application of radio frequency identification (RFID)technology in inventory management is researched.First, the business process of the inventory management is analyzed and optimized based on RFID.Then,the overall architecture of layered hybrid structures about RFID inventory management system is designed based on C/S and B/S .Then the integration scheme is proposed about the RFID system and the inventory management system.Last,the network system model of multi read head and single workstation is adopted to implement the RFID data acquisition system,and the RFID system is successfully applied by the Experimental Equipment Management Center of Jilin University.The practice shows that the application of RFID system has improved the efficiency of management and utilization ratio of the experimental equipment.

  10. Low Cost Star Couplers For Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.; Boiarski, A. A.

    1989-02-01

    Within the next 5 to 10 years optical fibers are expected to be used in automobile local area networks. For this application, both glass and plastic fibers have the potential to play a significant role. Under the hood, where the operating temperatures tend to be too high for plastic fibers, glass based fibers are likely to be used. Glass based fibers are also intended for use in fiber optic sensors, for example, in engine control systems. However, in general, the preferred fiber material is plastic due to economic considerations. In the case of optical fibers for a network within the passenger compartment, plastic optical fibers are adequate and several prototype systems have already been built and demonstrated. The principal reasons for considering the use of optical fibers are discussed in several papers (1-3). A key component in an optical fiber network is a star coupler. This paper will deal with the fabrication and test results of a prototype 7x7 transmissive star coupler developed at Battelle. The optical fiber diameter chosen for the development of the star coupler is a 1 mm diameter fiber manufactured by Mitsubishi (ESKA-40). Currently both 750 and 1000 micron diameter fibers are under consideration for the automobile but the technology reported here is capable of accommodating either fiber. The final choice of the fiber type will depend on several economic factors which are yet unknown.

  11. Impairment analysis of WDM-PON based on low-cost tunable lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael H.; Lawin, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    channel must be kept below 15%. Similar values result for the upstream pilot tones. In order to limit crosstalk, such systems require reduced launch power during wavelength tuning and can cover up to 40 km differential reach. These results confirm that WDM-PON based on low-cost lasers is a technically......WDM-PON is considered for next-generation broadband backhaul and radio access networking. Among different implementation choices, we propose to utilize low-cost tunable lasers at the remote sites, together with a centralized wavelength locker. Practical implementations require a transparently added...

  12. A Secure Code-Based Authentication Scheme for RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Chikouche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two essential problems are still posed in terms of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID systems, including: security and limitation of resources. Recently, Li et al.'s proposed a mutual authentication scheme for RFID systems in 2014, it is based on Quasi Cyclic-Moderate Density Parity Check (QC-MDPC McEliece cryptosystem. This cryptosystem is designed to reducing the key sizes. In this paper, we found that this scheme does not provide untraceability and forward secrecy properties. Furthermore, we propose an improved version of this scheme to eliminate existing vulnerabilities of studied scheme. It is based on the QC-MDPC McEliece cryptosystem with padding the plaintext by a random bit-string. Our work also includes a security comparison between our improved scheme and different code-based RFID authentication schemes. We prove secrecy and mutual authentication properties by AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications tools. Concerning the performance, our scheme is suitable for low-cost tags with resource limitation.

  13. Self-Powered Wireless Affinity-Based Biosensor Based on Integration of Paper-Based Microfluidics and Self-Assembled RFID Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mingquan; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a wireless, self-powered, affinity-based biosensor based on the integration of paper-based microfluidics with our previously reported method for self-assembling radio-frequency (RF) antennas. At the core of the proposed approach is a silver-enhancement technique that grows portions of a RF antenna in regions where target antigens hybridize with target specific affinity probes. The hybridization regions are defined by a network of nitrocellulose based microfluidic channels which implement a self-powered approach to sample the reagent and control its flow and mixing. The integration substrate for the biosensor has been constructed using polyethylene and the patterning of the antenna on the substrate has been achieved using a low-cost ink-jet printing technique. The substrate has been integrated with passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to demonstrate that the resulting sensor-tag can be used for continuous monitoring in a food supply-chain where direct measurement of analytes is typically considered to be impractical. We validate the proof-of-concept operation of the proposed sensor-tag using IgG as a model analyte and using a 915 MHz Ultra-high-frequency (UHF) RFID tagging technology.

  14. Documentation pckage for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Of Model 9977 packages at NTS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-02-20

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  15. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  16. Surveying free and low-cost survey software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; McClellan, Leah; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2006-06-01

    Surveys are widely used to gather health information from a sample of individuals. This brief report reviews 14 free and low-cost software packages (free or low-cost software options appropriate for questionnaire development are readily available. Questionnaire mode and complexity, data management and analytical needs, and computing environment are all important considerations in selecting survey software.

  17. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  18. Measurement errors with low-cost citizen science radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Bardají, Raúl; Piera, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The KdUINO is a Do-It-Yourself buoy with low-cost radiometers that measure a parameter related to water transparency, the diffuse attenuation coefficient integrated into all the photosynthetically active radiation. In this contribution, we analyze the measurement errors of a novel low-cost multispectral radiometer that is used with the KdUINO. Peer Reviewed

  19. Handbook of Low-Cost Simulation for Military Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Baeyer, A. von

    2000-01-01

    The EUCLID program enables the European Industry to develop and produce in a cost- effective way the systems that can fulfil future European military needs. One of the Research Technology Projects (RTP) within EUCLID is RTP 11.8, entitled: Low-cost Simulators. Low-cost simulators are defined as a ne

  20. Handbook of Low-Cost Simulation for Military Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Baeyer, A. von

    2000-01-01

    The EUCLID program enables the European Industry to develop and produce in a cost- effective way the systems that can fulfil future European military needs. One of the Research Technology Projects (RTP) within EUCLID is RTP 11.8, entitled: Low-cost Simulators. Low-cost simulators are defined as a

  1. A Low-Cost RSSI-Based Localization System for Wildlife Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Markus; Nowak, Thorsten; Patino-Studencki, Lucila; Robert, Jörg; Heuberger, Albert; Thielecke, Jörn

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a low-cost localization system for the high-resolution tracking of bats. The system bases on a ground network consisting of multiple low-cost receiver stations, and ultra-lightweight transmitters mounted on the bats. A main challenge of the received signal strength based localization is the limited dynamic range of the employed low-cost receivers. This challenge is solved using an efficient 2-stage differential correlation concept. It significantly improves the dynamic wrt. conventional power detection methods. In addition, this concept requires low processing power and is robust wrt. frequency offsets. Finally, this paper presents a performance evaluation employing reference measurements recorded in the rain forest of Panama.

  2. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-12-31

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to alarming consequences such as reporting acceptable air pollutant levels when they are above the limits deemed safe for human health. This article provides scientific guidance to the end-users for effectively deploying low-cost sensors for monitoring air pollution and people's exposure, while ensuring reasonable data quality. We review the performance characteristics of several low-cost particle and gas monitoring sensors and provide recommendations to end-users for making proper sensor selection by summarizing the capabilities and limitations of such sensors. The challenges, best practices, and future outlook for effectively deploying low-cost sensors, and maintaining data quality are also discussed. For data quality assurance, a two-stage sensor calibration process is recommended, which includes laboratory calibration under controlled conditions by the manufacturer supplemented with routine calibration checks performed by the end-user under final deployment conditions. For large sensor networks where routine calibration checks are impractical, statistical techniques for data quality assurance should be utilised. Further advancements and adoption of sophisticated mathematical and statistical techniques for sensor calibration, fault detection, and data quality assurance can indeed help to realise the promised benefits of a low-cost air pollution sensor network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potentials of RFID Application in Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foscht, Thomas; Kotzab, Herbert; Maloles III, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The willingness of retailers to adopt RFID systems, as well as finding optimal RFID applications has yet not been investigated. This paper examines the issues associated with the RFID adoption based on the results of a conjoint analysis. The conjoint measurement looked at the trade-off decisions...... among different possible set-ups of RFID applications in retailing companies. Considerable willingness to adopt, but low diffusion and a structure of preferences with respect to RFID features was shown throughout the examined retailing companies. Furthermore, differences were shown among different types...... of retailers in their preferences for RFID system features and clusters were implied....

  4. Efficient Key Management System for Large-scale Smart RFID Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fal Sadikin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to low-cost and its practical solution, the integration of RFID tag to the sensor node called smart RFID has become prominent solution in various fields including industrial applications. Nevertheless, the constrained nature of smart RFID system introduces tremendous security and privacy problem. One of them is the problem in key management system. Indeed, it is not feasible to recall all RFID tags in order to update their security properties (e.g. update their private keys. On the other hand, using common key management solution like standard TLS/SSL is too heavy-weight that can drain and overload the limited resources. Furthermore, most of existing solutions are highly susceptible to various threats reaching from privacy threats, physical attacks to various technics of Man-in-the-Middle attacks. This paper introduces novel key management system, tailored to the limited resources of smart RFID system. It proposes light-weight mutual authentication and identity protection to mitigate the existing threats.

  5. RFID sensor-tags feeding a context-aware rule-based healthcare monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; Esposito, Alessandra; Tarricone, Luciano; Zappatore, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Along with the growing of the aging population and the necessity of efficient wellness systems, there is a mounting demand for new technological solutions able to support remote and proactive healthcare. An answer to this need could be provided by the joint use of the emerging Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies and advanced software choices. This paper presents a proposal for a context-aware infrastructure for ubiquitous and pervasive monitoring of heterogeneous healthcare-related scenarios, fed by RFID-based wireless sensors nodes. The software framework is based on a general purpose architecture exploiting three key implementation choices: ontology representation, multi-agent paradigm and rule-based logic. From the hardware point of view, the sensing and gathering of context-data is demanded to a new Enhanced RFID Sensor-Tag. This new device, de facto, makes possible the easy integration between RFID and generic sensors, guaranteeing flexibility and preserving the benefits in terms of simplicity of use and low cost of UHF RFID technology. The system is very efficient and versatile and its customization to new scenarios requires a very reduced effort, substantially limited to the update/extension of the ontology codification. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by reporting both customization effort and performance results obtained from validation in two different healthcare monitoring contexts.

  6. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  7. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (vertical geophone with a natural frequency of 10 Hz, an Arduino or similar board, a 16-bit ADC capable of amplify and convert the output signal of the geophone. The latter, connected to a Raspberry Pi, gathers the data from the geophone using a Python script, slices it in 1-hour intervals and draws waveform and frequency spectrum graph for quick analysis with Matplotlib, a common graphing library in Python. The data can be gathered using several methods: If a Wi-Fi network is available, the instrument can be directly connected to the Internet and the data uploaded in real time. If there is no such connection available, a GSM shield can be used to upload the data, and in the worst-case scenario, the data can be accessed directly on the field via Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM. Obviously, there can be also

  8. Intersection Recognition and Guide-Path Selection for a Vision-Based AGV in a Bidirectional Flow Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xing

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vision recognition and RFID perception are used to develop a smart AGV travelling on fixed paths while retaining low-cost, simplicity and reliability. Visible landmarks can describe features of shapes and geometric dimensions of lines and intersections, and RFID tags can directly record global locations on pathways and the local topological relations of crossroads. A topological map is convenient for building and editing without the need for accurate poses when establishing a priori knowledge of a workplace. To obtain the flexibility of bidirectional movement along guide-paths, a camera placed in the centre of the AGV looks downward vertically at landmarks on the floor. A small visual field presents many difficulties for vision guidance, especially for real-time, correct and reliable recognition of multi-branch crossroads. First, the region projection and contour scanning methods are both used to extract the features of shapes. Then LDA is used to reduce the number of the features' dimensions. Third, a hierarchical SVM classifier is proposed to classify their multi-branch patterns once the features of the shapes are complete. Our experiments in landmark recognition and navigation show that low-cost vision systems are insusceptible to visual noises, image breakages and floor changes, and a vision-based AGV can locate itself precisely on its paths, recognize different crossroads intelligently by verifying the conformance of vision and RFID information, and select its next pathway efficiently in a bidirectional flow network.

  9. Intersection Recognition and Guide-path Selection for a Vision-based AGV in a Bidirectional Flow Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xing

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vision recognition and RFID perception are used to develop a smart AGV travelling on fixed paths while retaining low-cost, simplicity and reliability. Visible landmarks can describe features of shapes and geometric dimensions of lines and intersections, and RFID tags can directly record global locations on pathways and the local topological relations of crossroads. A topological map is convenient for building and editing without the need for accurate poses when establishing a priori knowledge of a workplace. To obtain the flexibility of bidirectional movement along guide-paths, a camera placed in the centre of the AGV looks downward vertically at landmarks on the floor. A small visual field presents many difficulties for vision guidance, especially for real- time, correct and reliable recognition of multi-branch crossroads. First, the region projection and contour scanning methods are both used to extract the features of shapes. Then LDA is used to reduce the number of the features’ dimensions. Third, a hierarchical SVM classifier is proposed to classify their multi-branch patterns once the features of the shapes are complete. Our experiments in landmark recognition and navigation show that low-cost vision systems are insusceptible to visual noises, image breakages and floor changes, and a vision-based AGV can locate itself precisely on its paths, recognize different crossroads intelligently by verifying the conformance of vision and RFID information, and select its next pathway efficiently in a bidirectional flow network.

  10. Security enhancement mechanism based on contextual authentication and role analysis for 2G-RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  11. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  12. Efficient DFSA Algorithm in RFID Systems for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Wen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID used in business applications and international business management fields can create and sustain the competitive advantage, which is also one of the wireless telecommunication techniques for recognizing objects to realize Internet of Things (IoT technologies. In construction of IoT network, the RFID technologies play the role of the front-end data collection via tag identification, as the basis of IoT. Hence, the adoption of RFID technologies is spurring innovation and the development of the IoT. However, in RFID system, one of the most important challenges is the collision resolution between the tags when these tags transmit their data to the reader simultaneously. Hence, in this paper I develop an efficient scheme to estimate the number of unidentified tags for Dynamic Framed Slotted Aloha (DFSA based RFID system, with the view of increasing system performance. In addition to theoretical analysis, simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme. The simulation results reveal the proposed scheme works very well in providing a substantial performance improvement in RFID system. The proposed algorithm promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while applying the RFID technologies to IoT.

  13. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system. PMID:22163983

  14. Low-Cost Medical Office Data Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Divinski, Jane

    1980-01-01

    This project is developing and demonstrating a low-cost microcomputer-based medical office data management system. The system is aimed at the specific needs of small primary care medical practices, in particular, those located in rural areas.

  15. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  16. (AJST) A LOW COST FIELD USABLE PORTABLE DIGITAL GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhartal PO, Jabalpur (M.P.)- 482004, India. 2Faculty of Electrical ... explains the design and development of a low cost portable Digital ... The paper explains the development of grain moisture meter based on ..... News, Vol. 103, pp 37-. 38.

  17. A Low Cost High Specific Stiffness Mirror Substrate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  18. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  19. Novel Low Cost Booster Propulsion Development and Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed contract effort is for the design, development and proof-of-concept demontration testing of a low cost, pressure-fed liquid rocket booster propulsion...

  20. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  1. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  2. sequential low cost interventions double hand hygiene rates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... RESULTS. OF A HAND HYGIENE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT CONDUCTED AT ... Conclusion: Our study showed that low-cost interventions involving ensuring ... defined as use of alcohol based hand rub or hand.

  3. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  4. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  5. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  6. Finding Low-Cost Medical Care (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a wellness center (such as for drug or alcohol counseling, for example). continue College Student Health Centers Heading off to college? Many universities offer a low-cost insurance plan that can ...

  7. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  8. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  9. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  10. Towards EPC compatible plastic RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Steudel, S.; Vicca, P.; Smout, S.; Beenhakkers, M.J.; Aerle, N.A.J.M. van; Furthner, F.; Putten, B. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2010-01-01

    A target application for plastic RFID tags is Electronic Product Coding (EPC). The EPC-specifications set some demanding requirements for RFID tags. In this work, we review the work that has been done to fulfill some of these specifications. We describe a complete 64-bit RFID tag that is inductively

  11. Towards EPC compatible plastic RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Steudel, S.; Vicca, P.; Smout, S.; Beenhakkers, M.J.; Aerle, N.A.J.M. van; Furthner, F.; Putten, B. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2010-01-01

    A target application for plastic RFID tags is Electronic Product Coding (EPC). The EPC-specifications set some demanding requirements for RFID tags. In this work, we review the work that has been done to fulfill some of these specifications. We describe a complete 64-bit RFID tag that is inductively

  12. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  13. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  14. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We

  15. Towards EPC compatible plastic RFID tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Steudel, S.; Vicca, P.; Smout, S.; Beenhakkers, M.J.; Aerle, N.A.J.M. van; Furthner, F.; Putten, B. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2010-01-01

    A target application for plastic RFID tags is Electronic Product Coding (EPC). The EPC-specifications set some demanding requirements for RFID tags. In this work, we review the work that has been done to fulfill some of these specifications. We describe a complete 64-bit RFID tag that is

  16. Low-cost failure sensor design and development for water pipeline distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K; Widdop, P D; Day, A J; Wood, A S; Mounce, S R; Machell, J

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new sensor which is low cost to manufacture and install and is reliable in operation with sufficient accuracy, resolution and repeatability for use in newly developed systems for pipeline monitoring and leakage detection. To provide an appropriate signal, the concept of a "failure" sensor is introduced, in which the output is not necessarily proportional to the input, but is unmistakably affected when an unusual event occurs. The design of this failure sensor is based on the water opacity which can be indicative of an unusual event in a water distribution network. The laboratory work and field trials necessary to design and prove out this type of failure sensor are described here. It is concluded that a low-cost failure sensor of this type has good potential for use in a comprehensive water monitoring and management system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

  17. Application of wireless sensor network technology in logistics information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xuhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Wenwen

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces the basic concepts of active RFID (WSN-ARFID) based on wireless sensor networks and analyzes the shortcomings of the existing RFID-based logistics monitoring system. Integrated wireless sensor network technology and the scrambling point of RFID technology. A new real-time logistics detection system based on WSN and RFID, a model of logistics system based on WSN-ARFID is proposed, and the feasibility of this technology applied to logistics field is analyzed.

  18. Characterization of polymer silver pastes for screen printed flexible RFID antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczek, Kamil; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Futera, Konrad; MłoŻniak, Anna; Kozioł, GraŻyna; Araźna, Aneta

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have become more and more popular in the last few years because of their wide application fields, such as supply chain management and logistics. To continue their development further investigations of new conductive materials for fabrication of RFID transponders' antennas are necessary to be carried out. These materials should provide high flexibility and good radiation performance of printed antennas. In this paper, two polymer silver pastes based on silver flakes were characterized with regard to manufacturing of flexible RFID antennas with screen printing technique. Foil and paper were used as a substrate materials. Surface profile of the printed antennas was measured using an optical profilometer and their resistance was measured with a four-point-probe method. Antenna flexibility was evaluated in cyclic bending tests and its performance with reflection coefficient measurements with the use of differential probe connected to a vector network analyzer. In addition, a maximum read distance of a fabricated RFID transponder was measured.

  19. A low-power RFID integrated circuits for intelligent healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shuenn-Yuh; Wang, Liang-Hung; Fang, Qiang

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents low-power radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for intelligent healthcare systems. With attention to power-efficient communication in the body sensor network, RF power transfer was estimated and the required low-power ICs, which are important in the development of a healthcare system with miniaturization and system integration, are discussed based on the RFID platform. To analyze the power transformation, this paper adopts a 915-MHz industrial, scientific, and medical RF with a radiation power of 70 mW to estimate the power loss under the 1-m communication distance between an RFID reader (bioinformation node) and a transponder (biosignal acquisition nodes). The low-power ICs of the transponder will be implemented in the TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The simulation result reveals that the transponder's IC can fit in with the link budget of the UHF RFID system.

  20. Application studies of RFID technology in the process of coal logistics transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bingqin; Chang, Xiaoming; Hao, Meiyan; Kong, Dejin

    2012-04-01

    For quality control problems in coal transport, RFID technology has been proposed to be applied to coal transportation process. The whole process RFID traceability system from coal production to consumption has been designed and coal supply chain logistics tracking system integration platform has been built, to form the coal supply chain traceability and transport tracking system and providing more and more transparent tracking and monitoring of coal quality information for consumers of coal. Currently direct transport and combined transport are the main forms of coal transportation in China. The means of transport are cars, trains and ships. In the booming networking environment of RFID technology, the RFID technology will be applied to coal logistics and provide opportunity for the coal transportation tracking in the process transportation.

  1. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  2. The Application of RFID Technologies in Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Meng

    2009-01-01

    RFID technologies have advanced greatly and deployed successfully in many industry sectors in recent years. Construction industry could benefit from the applications of RFID technologies but as yet has not found sufficient application areas. This project gives a comprehensive awareness of the RFID technologies, which focus on the investigation on the UK construction industry. The current status of RFID in construction and its potentials are specified in the analysis of questionnaires and case studies. Finally, basing on the investigations, some further tasks in developing RFID technologies are carried, including some recommendations, for the construction industry.

  3. INTENSIFYING THE SECURITY IN RFID SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Reena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although promising, RFID is not without its challenges, which arise from both technological and usage point of View. A common concern with RFID is data security. Data Security is a key area in RFID usage; with a limited number of public key cryptosystems on passive RFID platforms, the proposed algorithm makes use of Montgomery multiplication primitives to reduce the amount of computation required on the power constrained tag therefore making the proposition viable. Public key cryptography is being suggested for next generation RFID systems to reduce the number of possible attack vectors native to this type of technology. By estimating the area, power and time constraints of the RFID platform, it was determined that the area constraint was the critical variable in determining the maximum implementable security variable. Although the application of this algorithm has been targeted for passive HF RFID platforms, the algorithm could be used in other low power, sized constrained applications.

  4. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Gupta; Y Hayashi; A Jain; S Karthikeyan; S Kawakami; K C Ravindran; S C Tonwar

    2005-08-01

    A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discriminators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a timing error of 90 ps. It has an intrinsic double pulse resolution of 4 ns which is better than most commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  5. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    A new geometry of integrated inductors with low profile and low cost is presented in this paper. The new geometry integrates two inductors by stacking three I-cores. The middle I-core provides a shared low reluctance flux path. The air gaps are formed by separating the I-cores using copper foil...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  6. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  7. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  8. Geowall: Investigations into Low-Cost Stereo Display Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  9. A Holistic Approach for Low Cost Heliostat Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, A.; Randt, M.; F. Meier; Zaschke, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Buselmeier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The AutoR-project takes a holistic approach to reduce the cost of heliostat fields: Wireless control and energy supply enables to use smaller heliostats which need less steel per mirror area (but usually have high wiring cost). A low cost but high efficient drive system is chosen which reduces energy consumption to a minimum amount and leads to low cost for PV cell and energy storage. The usual boundary layer wind tunnels tests for heliostats are proven regarding energy spectra to avoid overs...

  10. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  11. Experimental assessment of an RFID-based crack sensor for steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Martínez-Castro, R.; Jang, S.; Nicholas, J.; Bansal, R.

    2017-08-01

    The use of welded steel cover plates had been a common design practice to increase beam section capacity in regions of high moment for decades. Many steel girder bridges with cover plates are still in service. Steel girder bridges are subject to cyclic loading, which can initiate crack formation at the toe of the weld and reduce beam capacity. Thus, timely detection of fatigue cracks is of utmost importance in steel girder bridge monitoring. To date, crack monitoring methods using in-house radio frequency identification (RFID)-based sensors have been developed to complement visual inspection and provide quantitative information of damage level. Offering similar properties at a reduced cost, commercial ultra-high frequency (UHF) passive RFID tags have been identified as a more financially viable option for pervasive crack monitoring using a dense array of sensors. This paper presents a study on damage sensitivity of low-cost commercial UHF RFID tags for crack detection and monitoring on metallic structures. Using backscatter power as a parameter for damage identification, a crack sensing system has been developed for single and multiple tag configurations for increased sensing pervasiveness. The effect on backscatter power of the existence and stage of crack propagation has been successfully characterized. For further automation of crack detection, a damage index based on the variation of backscatter power has also been established. The tested commercial RFID-based crack sensor contributes to the usage of this technology on steel girder bridges.

  12. A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicai Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems.

  13. A Modular Integrated RFID System for Inventory Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Bunker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in single-board computer technology have allowed for lightweight, power-efficient devices, such as the Raspberry Pi, to take the place of desktop PCs in certain applications. This has the potential to disrupt the way many current systems are structured, particularly for inventory management and control applications. In this paper, we explore the design and topology of a modular Radio frequency identification (RFID system for inventory management comprised of self-contained, autonomous scanning, and stationary control PCs in a handheld/portable configuration. While similar solutions for such a system may exist on the commercial market, this proposed development provides a template for an open source flexible, low-cost solution that can be easily expanded to meet the needs of businesses with large and small inventories.

  14. Silicon solar cells with low-cost substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotval, P.S.; Strock, H.B.

    1978-11-07

    Epitaxial and diffusion-type planar diodes and solar cells utilize low-cost refined metallurgical silicon substrates having a substantially higher impurity content than conventional high-cost, high purity semiconductor grade silicon. The epitaxial type products have an n-on-p-on-p substrate configuration, while the diffusion-type products have pentavalent impurities diffused therein to form a p-n junction in the low cost silicon substrate. One embodiment employs a multigrained refined metallurgical silicon (RMS) prepared by precipitating essentially iron-free silicon platelets from a solution of metallurgical grade silicon in molten aluminum, melting said refined platelets, in contact with a silica slag and pulling silicon boules from a melt of said refined metallurgical silicon (RMS). By directionally solidifying the refined silicon--slag melt, a multigrained, directionally solidified refined metallurgical silicon (DS/RMS) is obtained, with boules being pulled from a melt thereof for use as said low-cost substrate. The DS/RMS may also be re-melted and directionally solidified a second time with the boules being pulled from said twice directionally solidified material being a desirable, low-cost, single crystal material suitable for use as said substrate for planar diode and solar cell applications.

  15. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  16. A Holistic Approach for Low Cost Heliostat Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfahl, A.; Randt, M.; Meier, F.; Zaschke, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Buselmeier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The AutoR-project takes a holistic approach to reduce the cost of heliostat fields: Wireless control and energy supply enables to use smaller heliostats which need less steel per mirror area (but usually have high wiring cost). A low cost but high efficient drive system is chosen which reduces

  17. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents in the removal of Cr(VI) ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Generally, the result showed an increase in adsorption by Cr(VI) with increase in mass ...

  18. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  19. A Low-Cost Universal Integrated Interface for Capacitive Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidary, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the results of research on features, options and limitations of low-cost, high-performance, universal integrated interface for capacitive sensors. It concerns development-driven research, where the objectives of the research focus upon possible realization and application of the

  20. NEW MATERIAL FOR LOW-COST INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; VANDERVEEN, G; KALICHARAN, D; VANANDEL, MV; BARTMAN, G; WORST, JGF

    1994-01-01

    A UV-hardening lacquer material based on polyurethane, used in Philips compact disc lens systems, was tested as suitable material for low-cost intraocular lenses (IOLs). A slightly changed composition (code number I-0.5A) came out as the best and was subsequenly tested, with reference to poly(methyl

  1. Lead Removal from Water by Low Cost Adsorbents: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zahra, Naseem

    2012-01-01

    ..., industrial wastes and low cost synthetic oxides as adsorbents for the removal of poisonous lead from water. Keywords: Adsorption; Adsorbents; Lead; Water; Toxic. Introduction Lead and its toxicity Lead has environmental importance due to its well known toxicity [1] and intensive use in industries such as storage-battery manufacture, printing, pigment ...

  2. High-Efficiency Solar Cells on Low-Cost Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency solar cells made in thin epitaxial films grown on low-cost commercial silicon substrates. Cost of cells is much less than if high-quality single-crystal silicon were used for substrates and performance of cells is almost as good.

  3. The growth limits of the low cost carrier model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today, many low cost carriers (LCCs) continue to enjoy rapid growth and still have a fair number of new aircraft on order. There are signs however that the market for LCCs is limited, owing to increasing route density problems, primarily in Europe but seemingly also in North America: the fact that a

  4. development of low-cost educational materials for chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    This paper tries to highlight the principles and approaches towards the development of ... teacher educators in the design and development of low-cost educational tools from locally available ... The use of open-source and free software that ...

  5. Development and validation of a low-cost CTOD procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Weijde, G.D. van der

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost variation of CTOD testing is proposed. This variation follows BS7448, but has several nonstandard deviations, including: • Using a fixed notch width of 0.5 mm. • Using fatigue pre-cracks that are shorter than normal requirements to save the associated expense. • Using Single Edge Notched

  6. Low Cost Text Mining as a Strategy for Qualitative Researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy Rose; Christian Lennerholt

    2017-01-01

    .... In practice this turns out not to be so easy. We outline a design research approach for building a five stage process for low tech, low cost text mining, which includes insights from the text mining literature and an experiment with trend...

  7. Low-cost implementation of Differential GPS using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Svaton, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The thesis proposes the low-cost solution of Differential GPS using Arduino as a Master Control Unit. The thesis provides the methods of GPS position augmentation, which is available for varied applications such as drones or autonomous lawnmowers operated in a private sector. Used methods of GPS positioning accuracy improvements are based on a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) and pseudorange residuals.

  8. A low cost route to hexagonal mesostructured carbon molecular sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S S; Pinnavaia, T J

    2001-12-07

    A mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with a hexagonal framework structure (denoted C-MSU-H) has been prepared using a MSU-H silica template that can be assembled from a low cost soluble silicate precursor at near-neutral pH conditions.

  9. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  10. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...

  11. Improving RF Transmit Power and Received Signal Strength in 2.4 GHz ZigBee Based Active RFID System with Embedded Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'ad, F. A.; Ismail, W.; Jusoh, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the experiments and analysis conducted on 2.4 GHz embedded active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system that has been developed for the purposes of location tracking and monitoring in indoor and outdoor environments. Several experiments are conducted to test the effectiveness and performance of the developed system and two of them is by measuring the Radio Frequency (RF) transmitting power and Received Signal Strength (RSS) to prove that the embedded active RFID tag is capable to generate higher transmit power during data transmission and able to provide better RSS reading compared to standalone RFID tag. Experiments are carried out on two RFID tags which are active RFID tag embedded with GPS and GSM (ER2G); and standalone RFID tag communicating with the same active RFID reader. The developed ER2G contributes 12.26 % transmit power and 6.47 % RSS reading higher than standalone RFID tag. The results conclude that the ER2G gives better performance compared to standalone RFID tag and can be used as guidelines for future design improvements.

  12. RFID gaat belangrijke rol spelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitjes, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification technology (RFID), de opvolger van de streepjescode, gaat in de verslogistiek een belangrijke rol spelen. Dat stelt dr. Henri Luitjes, hoofd van de afdeling verpakken, transport en logistiek van Wageningen UR. Ingegaan wordt op begrippen als shell life, derving,

  13. RFID gaat belangrijke rol spelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luitjes, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification technology (RFID), de opvolger van de streepjescode, gaat in de verslogistiek een belangrijke rol spelen. Dat stelt dr. Henri Luitjes, hoofd van de afdeling verpakken, transport en logistiek van Wageningen UR. Ingegaan wordt op begrippen als shell life, derving, ketens

  14. 基于RFID的室内定位技术研究%Research of Indoor Positioning Technology Based on RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚明杰; 梁春美

    2015-01-01

    RFID (radio frequency identiifcation technology) with its non line-of-sight, non-contact, multi-objective, low cost, high efifciency, faster recognition and higher positioning accuracy characteristics and gradually become a dazzling \\"nova\\" positioning. This paper ifrst introduces the development of the RFID system, and then press the main component is introduced the classiifcation and function of RFID system working principle, put forward the application of RFID technology commonly used, at the same time, the paper points out the trend of the development of RFID technology.%RFID(射频识别技术)以其非视距,非接触,多目标,低成本,效率高,识别速度快,定位精度高等特点而逐渐成为一颗耀眼的“定位新星”。文章先介绍了RFID系统的发展状况,然后按各主要组件介绍其分类及功能,阐述RFID系统工作原理,提出了RFID常用技术的应用,同时对RFID技术未来的发展趋势进行展望。

  15. Directly Printable Organic ASK Based Chipless RFID Tag for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Habib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A chipless RFID tag with unique ASK encoding technique is presented in this paper. The coding efficiency is enhanced regarding tag capacity. The amplitude varia¬tions of the backscattered RFID signal is used for encoding data instead of OOK. Strips of different widths are used to have amplitude variations. The ASK technique is applied using three different substrates of Kapton®HN, PET, and paper. To incorporate ASK technique, dual polarized rhombic shaped resonators are designed. These tags operate in the frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz with size of 70 × 42 mm^2. The presented tags are flexible and offer easy printability. The paper-based decomposable organic tag appears as an ultra low-cost solution for wide scale tracking. This feature enables them to secure a prominent position in the emerging fields of IoT and green electronics.

  16. DEVELOPING A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORD WITH RFID CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan LICA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept underlying the pervasive communications systems is Internet of Objects, defined as a global network of smart objects, resulting in "attachment" of communication functions, data acquisition, data processing objects we interact with daily. Internet of Objects will be based on 4th generation of Internet systems. In such systems, each intelligent networked device must offer its users a number of services, which constitute a development of the current model of Web services. Such services will result from aggregation of micro services offered by each pervasive device connected to the Internet. Aggregating these micro services requires that each node in the network has the opportunity to present / expose its capabilities (so-called "advertising" in a standard way for client applications to be integrated into complex services. Therefore there appears the need to introduce a coding scheme to identity the nodes in the network, enabling the identification of their capabilities. An alternative to implementing such a system of encoding / identifying characteristics of network nodes is active RFID technology. The aim of this chapter is to develop a method to ensure the convergence of wireless sensor networks with active RFID systems within a pervasive hybrid network based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which satisfies the Internet of Objects network.

  17. The Design of a Lightweight RFID Middleware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqun Lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID middleware is often regarded as the central nervous system of RFID systems. In this paper, a lightweight RFID middleware is designed and implemented without the need of an Application Level Events (ALE structure, and its implementation process is described using a typical commerical enterprise. A short review of the current RFID middleware research and development is also included. The characteristics of RFID middleware are presented with a two-centric framework. The senarios of RFID data integration based on the simplified structure are provided to illuminats the design and implementation of the lightweight middleware structure and its development process. The lightweight middleware is easy to maintain and extend because of the simplified and streamlined structure and the short development cycle.

  18. Public Low-Cost Housing in Malaysia: Case Studies on PPR Low-Cost Flats in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh, Ai Tee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design quality of People's Housing Project (Program Perumahan Rakyat or PPR low cost high rise flats developed by the National Housing Department (Jabatan Perumahan Negara or JPN in Kuala Lumpur since the 1998. Quality Function Deployment method is used as a tool to analyze the current status and to prioritize the demanded quality from the selected PPR low-cost high rise flats' users. The study revealed that factors in determining a quality low-cost high-rise flat arranged in descending degrees of importance are house safety, provision of public amenities, unit internal environment, maintenance and surrounding environment, location, sanitary fittings, unit size, type of house, material used, unit internal layout, quality of workmanship, structure of the house and appearance. A Quality Chart for PPR low-cost high-rise flats in Kuala Lumpur was presented. Authority (47 per cent has the highest relative degree of importance in determining the quality of PPR flats, followed by Design Element (34 per cent and Quality of Living (19 per cent. Accordingly, the success of the schemes relies strongly on effective control and enforcement by the authorities. However, it can be improved by tackling on the Design Element (Architectural, whereby a revised typical unit layout plan and typical details have been proposed at the last section of the paper.

  19. Low-cost housing:Ideas and Concepts. Research report 2008 Recommendations for low-cost housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assade, Yasmim; Huisman, Maikel; Klaarenbeek, Jaap; Nycolaas, Renee; Valpoort, Beryl; Wiel, van de Bert

    2008-01-01

    This book is the final report of the first team of the project Design & Build Brazil. The objective of this project is to develop and build one or more prototypes of low-cost housing for poor people in or near Rio de Janeiro. Design & Build Brazil was initiated by Friso ten Holt and Menno Trautwein

  20. RFID Spatio-Temporal Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yonghui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency Identification (RFID technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items in supply chain, retail store, and asset management applications. The size and different characteristics of RFID data pose many interesting challenges in the current data management systems. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of RFID technology and highlight a few of the spatio-temporal data management challenges that we believe are suitable topics for exploratory research.

  1. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  2. Design and Implementation of a CoAP-Compliant Solution for RFID Inclusion in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Farris; Sara Pizzi; Antonella Molinaro; Antonio Iera

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements allowed widening the applicability scope of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology from item identification to sensor-enabled computation platforms. This feature, added to the native radio energy-harvesting capability and the extremely low power consumption, has attracted the interest of research and industrial communities and pushed them to include the RFID technology into a global network of interconnected objects, as envisaged by the Internet...

  3. Implementasi RFID pada Perusahaan Penyewaan Mobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Karmawan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an identification technology based on radio waves. At this time, we will describe the application of RFID technology in a rental car company. The study discusses about information about how to implement RFID within the enterprise, the role of RFID in the enterprise, how to use RFID, and everything else related to RFID in the enterprise. The main purpose of writing this paper is to make easy for reader finding information about general description of RFID and its application to a car rental company. Furthermore, methodology components are type and source of Data, data collection technique, hypotheses and data analysis technique. Finally, a conclusion is made that that RFID is an identification technology that is relatively new and feasible at the car rental company which is an alternative to barcodes that have been widely used. The presence of RFID also provides a very beneficial effect to the company, as has been displayed through charts of various aspects of the company in the results section.

  4. Pemanfaatan Sistem RFID sebagai Pembatas Akses Ruangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENDI HANDIAN RACHMAT

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pada penelitian ini, sistem RFID (Radio Frequency Identification dimanfaatkan sebagai kartu identifikasi personal pada sistem akses ruangan. Keberadaan sistem ini ditujukan untuk menjaga keamanan dan privasi ruangan dari seseorang yang tidak memiliki otoritas untuk memasuki ruangan tersebut. Melalui perancangan dan implementasi sistem akses ruangan ini, dilakukan evaluasi sistem kerja kunci elektrik berbasis komponen solenoid serta jarak dan posisi optimal pembacaan RFID tag guna memberikan kenyamanan pada pengguna ketika mengakses ruangan. RFID tag yang dipergunakan dalam sistem ini berbentuk kartu tipe EM4001 dan menyimpan kode unik yang digunakan sebagai identifikasi personal. Kode ini dibaca oleh RFID reader tipe ID-12 dan divalidasi otoritasnya dengan mikrokontroler ATMega32 untuk mengatur sistem kerja kunci elektrik yang dirancang sendiri menggunakan solenoid. Sistem ini dilengkapi pula dengan sistem database untuk pencatatan pengguna yang mengakses ruangan. Dari hasil pengujian, seluruh (100% RFID tag dapat dikenali oleh RFID reader dalam tiga posisi berbeda dengan jarak optimal sejauh 5 cm (vertikal dan 2 cm (horisontal. Keseluruhan (100% aktifitas pengguna yang mengakses ruangan dapat tercatat dalam sistem database. Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa teknologi RFID dapat digunakan secara nyaman dan aman sebagai alternatif sistem identifikasi personal untuk sistem akses ruangan. Kata Kunci : kunci elektrik, RFID, sistem akses ruangan, sistem database, solenoid. ABSTRACT In this research, RFID system was utilized as a personal identification security card in access room system. This system was aimed to secure a room and to have privacy from unauthorized person to enter the room. By designing and implementing the system, a solenoid based electric key system as well as an optimal distance and position of RFID tag were evaluated to know the most convenience condition for all users during accessing the room. RFID tag used in

  5. Handbook of smart antennas for RFID systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The Handbook of Smart Antennas for RFID Systems is a single comprehensive reference on the smart antenna technologies applied to RFID. This book will provide a timely reference book for researchers and students in the areas of both smart antennas and RFID technologies. It is the first book to combine two of the most important wireless technologies together in one book. The handbook will feature chapters by leading experts in both academia and industry offering an in-depth description of terminologies and concepts related to smart antennas in various RFID systems applications.

  6. Privacy Protection Research of Mobile RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification is one of the most controversial technologies at present.It is very difficult to detect who reads a tag incorporated into products owned by a person,a significant concern to privacy threats in RFID system arises from this reason.User privacy problem is prior considersion for mobile RFID service,because most mobile RFID service based on end-user service.Propose a solution for user privacy protection,which is a modification of EPC Class 1 Generation 2 protocol,and introduce a privacy protection scenario for mobile RFID service using this method.

  7. Design and application of new low-cost instruments for marine environmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Piermattei, Viviana; Madonia, Alice; Mainardi, Umberto

    2014-12-05

    The development of low-cost instrumentation plays a key role in marine environmental studies and represents one of the most innovative aspects of current oceanographic research. These kinds of devices can be used for several applications, ranging from vertical profilers to stand-alone systems, and can be installed on different platforms (buoys, Voluntary Observing Ships, underwater vehicles, etc.). The availability of low-cost technologies enables the realization of extended observatory networks for the study of marine physical and biological processes through an integrated approach merging in situ observations, forecasting models and remotely sensed data. We present new low-cost sensors and probes developed to measure marine temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter fluorescence, focusing on sensing strategies, general architecture, laboratory trials, in situ tests and comparison with standard instruments. Furthermore, we report the expendable (New T-FLaP), vertical profiler (T-FLaPpro) and stand-alone (Spectra) applications of these technological developments that were tested during several oceanographic surveys in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Design and Application of New Low-Cost Instruments for Marine Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marcelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of low-cost instrumentation plays a key role in marine environmental studies and represents one of the most innovative aspects of current oceanographic research. These kinds of devices can be used for several applications, ranging from vertical profilers to stand-alone systems, and can be installed on different platforms (buoys, Voluntary Observing Ships, underwater vehicles, etc.. The availability of low-cost technologies enables the realization of extended observatory networks for the study of marine physical and biological processes through an integrated approach merging in situ observations, forecasting models and remotely sensed data. We present new low-cost sensors and probes developed to measure marine temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll a and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter fluorescence, focusing on sensing strategies, general architecture, laboratory trials, in situ tests and comparison with standard instruments. Furthermore, we report the expendable (New T-FLaP, vertical profiler (T-FLaPpro and stand-alone (Spectra applications of these technological developments that were tested during several oceanographic surveys in the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  10. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  11. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  12. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  13. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  14. Low-cost silicon wafer dicing using a craft cutter

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2014-05-20

    This paper reports a low-cost silicon wafer dicing technique using a commercial craft cutter. The 4-inch silicon wafers were scribed using a crafter cutter with a mounted diamond blade. The pre-programmed automated process can reach a minimum die feature of 3 mm by 3 mm. We performed this scribing process on the top polished surface of a silicon wafer; we also created a scribing method for the back-unpolished surface in order to protect the structures on the wafer during scribing. Compared with other wafer dicing methods, our proposed dicing technique is extremely low cost (lower than $1,000), and suitable for silicon wafer dicing in microelectromechanical or microfluidic fields, which usually have a relatively large die dimension. The proposed dicing technique is also usable for dicing multiple project wafers, a process where dies of different dimensions are diced on the same wafer.

  15. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  16. Price discrimination strategy of low-cost airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The main objective of this research was to determine whether the prices of airline tickets increase monotonically over time. The authors analyzed the market share of low-cost airlines during the period after the Serbian air transport deregulation of the lines connecting Belgrade to other worldwide destinations. In the observed period, Wizz Air achieved the highest increase in market share. This airline held a monopoly over all lines except the Belgrade-Rome line in the observed period. Based on the theorem on monotonic function, Spearman's coefficient, and data on Wizz Air's airfare changes for the Belgrade-Rome line, the results indicate a correlation between the time of ticket purchase and its price, but the prices of low-cost airline tickets do not monotonically increase over time.

  17. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haberman, D.P. [DCH Technology, Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  18. Development of a low cost, portable solar hydrogen generation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kyle; Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, Ashok; Wingo, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen is a clean energy source that is environmentally friendly and safe. It is well known that electrolysis is a common method used to produce hydrogen. Other high cost methods for hydrogen production can be countered by the development of this low cost pulse width modulated circuit, using direct current provided by naturally existing solar energy as a power source. Efforts are being made in the scientific community to produce a low cost, portable, solar hydrogen generating device for a number of clean energy applications such as fuel cells and energy storage. Proof of concept has already been tested in the laboratory and a small prototype system is being designed and fabricated in the workshop at Alabama A&M University. Our results of this study and details of the electronic circuit and the prototype are presented.

  19. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  20. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  1. AN ELECTRONIC DESIGN OF A LOW COST BRAILLE HANDGLOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sivakumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper documents a new design for a BrailleHand glove, comprising of a majority of electrical components,the design aims to produce a product to perform vibrations insix position of blind’s person right hand. A low cost and robustdesign will provide the blind with an affordable and reliable toolalso it produce the new technique and communications methodfor blind persons.

  2. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  3. Low Cost Interactive Electronic Whiteboard Using Nintendo Wii Remote

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The application of interactive whiteboard offers extensive benefits in the learning and teaching process for classroom environment. The high cost associated with commercial interactive whiteboard may hinder its application in primary or secondary school, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study describes the methods used to create a low cost interactive and viable electronic whiteboard by using the capabilities of the Nintendo Wiimotes. It also looks at the poss...

  4. A varactor tuned low-cost 24 GHz harmonic VCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Olbrich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a low-cost 24 GHz VCO that is based on a microstrip design combined with discrete packaged devices. The output frequency is generated by a harmonic oscillator. The tunabilty was reached using a varactor diode. Two versions of the VCO were built, one has a wide tuning range of 1.1 GHz and the other one has a high output power of 3.7 dBm.

  5. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  6. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source, is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data-collec...... of the system is illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperature in a lake....

  7. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Quadrotor schematic showing rotor direction of rotation (From [2])................3 Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from...Some examples are the Walkera UFO #5, Walkera UFO #8, Dragonfly, and Alien Air Jump Jet. Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from Walkera...the X- UFO made by Silverlit Electronics used small mechanical gyros. These were relatively cheap due to low-cost labor, but suffered from mechanical

  8. Design of Low-Cost Impact Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human form dummies may be used as targets in some types of training exercises. In order to assess performance on target, it may be necessary to know...the time and location of all impacts upon the targets. A sparring dummy can provide a desirable target as well as house an impact reporting system.A...low-cost, self-contained impact reporting system has been designed within the form factor of a sparring dummy . The design goal of this system was to

  9. Design and Experiments of Low Cost Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adha Imam Cahyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a teleoperation system consists of two planar SCARA manipulators is developed. The manipulators are constructed using basic low cost aluminum bars as well as cheap electronic circuitry and software. Modeling, system identification, individual control and teleoperation control are proposed. Finally, experiments are also performed to verify the effectiveness of the design.Index Terms—Teleoperation systems, PID control, System identification, position control.

  10. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  11. ANTESEDEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA LOW COST CARRIER AIRLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Harlan

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  12. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, S

    2011-01-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software

  13. Low-cost on-chip clock jitter measurement scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Omana, Martin; Rossi, Daniele; Giaffreda, Daniele; Metra, Cecilia; Mak, T.M.; Raman, Asifur; Tam, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost, on-chip clock jitter digital measurement scheme for high performance microprocessors. It enables in situ jitter measurement during the test or debug phase. It provides very high measurement resolution and accuracy, despite the possible presence of power supply noise (representing a major source of clock jitter), at low area and power costs. The achieved resolution is scalable with technology node and can in principle be increased as much as desired, at lo...

  14. Project GeoWSN: High precision but low-cost GNSS landslide monitoring in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel; Brandstätter, Michael; Kühtreiber, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    At present, GNSS monitoring of landslides is an accepted and approved method to detect movements of slopes at risk in the sub-centimetre level. However, high-precision geodetic GNSS-receivers are expensive, therefore this monitoring method is not widely applied. Recently low-cost GNSS-receivers are conquering the geodetic market and are well suited for a cost effective and yet precise GNSS-monitoring. During the project GeoWSN, which was funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), an applicable low-cost monitoring system was developed at Graz University of Technology. The system is based on a so-called Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of low-cost GNSS-receivers, temperature and humidity sensors and inertial measurement units. Additionally energy-harvesting technologies and power-saving algorithms provide that the system is energy- autarkic. For real-time applications, a communication link between the sensor nodes is implemented. The relative positioning method RTK (Real Time Kinematic) is applied to reach the highest possible accuracy. The GeoWSN sensor nodes enable the detection of possible movements in the real-time processed positions of the sensor nodes. To ensure a real-time evaluation and interpretation of the data, the current status of the slope can be acquired by a local warning centre. Therefore, affected people can be warned within a short latency. Several test-scenarios have shown the acceptance of the system at the warning centre of Styria, Austria. This contribution should give an overview of the main idea of a low-cost warning system and results of the project GeoWSN.

  15. Design of low-cost resonant mode sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, Robert; Turmezei, P.; Mollinger, Jeff R.; Bossche, Andre

    2001-11-01

    This study introduces a novel design for low-cost MEMS devices, which exploit the benefits of resonant operation and maintain stable performance. Resonant devices provide high sensitivity and convenient signal processing. The drawback of the method is the sensitivity to undesired environmental effects and aging. The environment induced degradation processes and the long-term stability of thin film resonators were investigated previously. The two major reliability problems were stiffening effect and degrading shock response, both affecting the mechanical resonance frequency. Based on these results, new, low-cost pressure sensors and accelerometers were designed and fabricated. The structures are based on locally reinforced silicon nitride membranes, and double-clamped 3-D silicon nitride bridges as sensing elements. This double mechanical structure allows separate optimization of the membrane and the bridges for the workload and for the most efficient driving and sensing. The 3-D bridges work as mechanical amplifiers, resulting in higher detection efficiency. The reliability tests indicated, that a low-cost atmospheric packaging is efficient, thus the bridges do not require vacuum encapsulation with multiple-wafer process. External mechanical and thermal excitation combined with piezoresistive and optical detection methods are implemented in the different sensors. Differential detection using reference resonators allow compensation for thermal, environment- and aging-induced stresses.

  16. Development of a Pneumatically Driven Cell for Low Cost Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Valdiero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the development of a pneumatically driven manufacturing cell for low cost automation applications. This cell can be used in innovative applications as a low cost alternative to increase production and quality in industry. The state of the art shows that technological advances in computing have made possible a drop in equipment prices, making them more accessible. The aim of this work is to develop automation through a classic methodology for a manufacturing cell to minimize errors and facilitate the sequential logic conception. This experimental prototype has been developed at the UNIJUI with financial support by public organizations and companies. Pneumatic actuator used in bench driven has the following advantages: its maintenance is easy and simple, is of relatively low cost, self-cooling properties, and good power density (power/dimension rate, and is fast acting with high acceleration and installation flexibility. However, there are difficulties of control logic due to the complex systems. The sequential controller strategy design considers the pneumatic system, experimental results, and performance of the proposed control strategy.

  17. Low-cost integrated multiple-sensor electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Gerard C. M.; van der Goes, Frank M.; de Jong, Paul C.; Li, Xiujun; Toth, Ferry N.

    1998-07-01

    The paper reviews the architecture and design of low-cost high-performance sensor systems. These systems consist of a number of multiplexed sensor elements, sensor-specific front-ends, modifies and microcontroller or digital signal processors (DSPs). Important properties that act as focus points for the system design are: adaptability, accuracy, dynamic range, speed, power consumption, reliability and costs. To enable low-cost design and implementation, a universal set-up, using universal components, is used. Universal sensor interfaces with front-ends for resistive, capacitive, resistive-bridge sensing elements, as well as voltage-, current- and charge-generating sensing elements are discussed. The analog sensor signals are converted to analog signals in the time domain using period-modulated oscillators. The A/D conversion of the time-domain signal can be implemented in the microcontroller or DSP. It is shown that, also in this case, the principles of the sigma- delta converters can be applied. As an example the paper deals with a systematic approach to the design of reliable, high-performance low-cost capacitive sensors. The problems and their solutions of both the physical- and the electrical-signal processing are discussed. The examples consider the application of capacitive sensors in position detectors, liquid-level detectors and personnel detectors.

  18. A miniature, low cost CTD system for coastal salinity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ivanov, Stanislav Z.; Fries, David P.

    2007-11-01

    In this work we describe a small, low cost conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) system for measurements of salinity in coastal waters. The system incorporates three low cost expendable sensors, a novel planar four-electrode conductivity cell, a planar resistive temperature device and a piezoelectric pressure sensor. The conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device were fabricated using novel printed circuit board (PCB) microelectromechanical (MEMS) techniques combined with a new thin-film material, liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Printed circuit board techniques allow for mass production of the sensors, thereby lowering the cost of the system. The three sensors are packaged so that they are independent of one another and can be quickly replaced if bio-fouled or damaged. Deployments in Bayboro Harbor, St Petersburg, FL demonstrate that the novel CTD systems are capable of obtaining highly resolved in situ salinity measurements comparable to measurements obtained using commercially available instruments. The estimated accuracies for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors are ±1.47%, ±0.546 °C and ±0.02 bar, respectively. This work indicates that a small, low cost CTD system with expendable/replaceable sensors can be used to provide accurate, precise and highly resolved conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements in a coastal environment.

  19. Smart Parking System Using Location Technology Based on Distributed RFID Sensing Network%基于分布式RFID网络定位的智能停车场设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈由甲; 蔡坚勇; 陈月梅; 吴庆祥

    2012-01-01

    在停车场内采用了一种新型的分布式RFID感应定位网络,可对入场车辆进行简单的轨迹跟踪,再利用文中介绍的定位算法,对车辆的停车位置进行区域性定位,同时可实现剩余车位数的统计,用于停车引导信息的发布.提出的设计方案不仅能实现停车场的智能管理与引导功能,还可以提供车辆的停放位置信息,为车主取车提供便利.并且利用软件对系统设计进行了仿真,进一步验证了相关算法的有效性.%A novel distributed RFID sensing network is introduced into the parking system , which can perform the tracking of incoming vehicle, locate their parking position based on the algorithm we proposed, and calculate the number of empty parking space for the guiding system. Compared with other technology) this design could realize the smart parking management and intelligent guidance by lower cost, furthermore, it brings great convenience for the owners to find their cars. Meanwhile, the software simulation of this system is performed , which demonstrates the validity of the algorithm.

  20. Design of Compact Trapezoidal Bow-Tie Chipless RFID Tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel compact design of a low cost fully printable slot-loaded bowtie chipless RFID tag. The tag consists of two trapezoidal metallic patches loaded with multiple slot resonators. Slots with similar size or adjacent frequencies are loaded alternately on two bow-tie patches to double the number of data bits within the UWB frequency band without increasing the mutual coupling between slots. A coding capacity of 12 bits is obtained with 12 slots within a reasonable size of 35 mm × 33 mm. RCS of the tag has been given by simulation. Measurements have been done using a bistatic radar configuration in the frequency domain and transmission coefficient is measured. The agreement between the simulation and measurement validates this new concept of design. This tag has high data capacity and low cost and can be directly printed on product such as personal ID, credit cards, paper, and textile because it needs only one conductive layer.

  1. Using Ensemble Decisions and Active Selection to Improve Low-Cost Labeling for Multi-View Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Umaa; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve low-cost labeling in terms of training set reliability (the fraction of correctly labeled training items) and test set performance for multi-view learning methods. Co-training is a popular multiview learning method that combines high-confidence example selection with low-cost (self) labeling. However, co-training with certain base learning algorithms significantly reduces training set reliability, causing an associated drop in prediction accuracy. We propose the use of ensemble labeling to improve reliability in such cases. We also discuss and show promising results on combining low-cost ensemble labeling with active (low-confidence) example selection. We unify these example selection and labeling strategies under collaborative learning, a family of techniques for multi-view learning that we are developing for distributed, sensor-network environments.

  2. Measuring NO, NO2, CO2 and O3 with low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Graf, Peter; Hüglin, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Inexpensive sensors measuring ambient gas concentrations can be integrated in sensor units forming dense sensor networks. The utilized sensors have to be sufficiently accurate as the value of such networks directly depends on the information they provide. Thus, thorough testing of sensors before bringing them into service and the application of effective strategies for performance monitoring and adjustments during service are key elements for operating the low-cost sensors that are currently available on the market. We integrated several types of low-cost sensors into sensor units (Alphasense NO2 B4/B42F/B43F, Alphasense NO B4, SensAir CO2 LP8, Aeroqual O3 SM50), run them in the field next to instruments of air quality monitoring stations and performed tests in the laboratory. The poster summarizes our findings regarding the achieved sensor accuracy, methods to improve sensor performance as well as strategies to monitor the current state of the sensor (drifts, sensitivity) within a sensor network.

  3. [Making a low cost IPSec router on Linux and the assessment for practical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiki, M; Horio, M

    2001-09-01

    We installed Linux and FreeS/WAN on a PC/AT compatible machine to make an IPSec router. We measured the time of ping/ftp, only in the university, between the university and the external network. Between the university and the external network (the Internet), there were no differences. Therefore, we concluded that CPU load was not remarkable at low speed networks, because packets exchanged via the Internet are small, or compressions of VPN are more effective than encoding and decoding. On the other hand, in the university, the IPSec router performed down about 20-30% compared with normal IP communication, but this is not a serious problem for practical use. Recently, VPN machines are becoming cheaper, but they do not function sufficiently to create a fundamental VPN environment. Therefore, if one wants a fundamental VPN environment at a low cost, we believe you should select a VPN router on Linux.

  4. Temporal and Location Based RFID Event Data Management and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Liu, Peiya

    Advance of sensor and RFID technology provides significant new power for humans to sense, understand and manage the world. RFID provides fast data collection with precise identification of objects with unique IDs without line of sight, thus it can be used for identifying, locating, tracking and monitoring physical objects. Despite these benefits, RFID poses many challenges for data processing and management. RFID data are temporal and history oriented, multi-dimensional, and carrying implicit semantics. Moreover, RFID applications are heterogeneous. RFID data management or data warehouse systems need to support generic and expressive data modeling for tracking and monitoring physical objects, and provide automated data interpretation and processing. We develop a powerful temporal and location oriented data model for modeling and queryingRFID data, and a declarative event and rule based framework for automated complex RFID event processing. The approach is general and can be easily adapted for different RFID-enabled applications, thus significantly reduces the cost of RFID data integration.

  5. An Assessment of RFID Applications in Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gładysz Bartłomiej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of Cyber Physical Systems and an Internet of Things with indication of RFID position in those concepts was outlined. Research program related to assessment of RFID technology was presented. Author deducted on problems related to RFID implementations and RFID essentially for logistics of manufacturing companies. Research goals and problems were formulated. Tools, techniques, models and methods that could be utilized were proposed and discussed. Research was focused on design of a new method to support early decision making phases for RFID application in logistics of manufacturing companies. Author stated that literature and practice lacks of complex method to answer if RFID is strategically important for the company, which processes should be RFID-supported, how RFID-supported processes should be designed and if RFID-support is rational. Framework for assessment of RFID technology with illustrative example was discussed.

  6. Making the most of RFID in libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of radio frequency identification (RFID) over other technologies used in libraries is usually seen to be its ability to combine the functions of the barcode and the security tag, but with the added advantage of not needing line of sight. This book considers the benefits of installing RFID technology; and work with vendors.

  7. RFID biedt ook perspectief voor laanbomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltissen, A.H.M.C.; Sluis, van der B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Binnenkort zijn CC-karren elektronisch te registreren met RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) en deze technologie biedt ook mogelijkheden voor de laanbomenketen. Uit onderzoek door PPO blijkt dat zowel de kweker als de klant voordeel kan behalen met RFID. Er zijn echter nog veel praktische vragen

  8. RFID Technologies : emerging issues and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we will present the results of a technology and policy assessment we have performed on emerging issues and policy challenges of RFID technologies. RFID is a basic component of the future internet of things. A balanced view on opportunities and threats, on drivers and barriers is needed

  9. RFID in Retail: New approaches, new viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan Kroon; Christian Vrijlandt; Sander de Ridder; drs. Frans van den Reep

    2008-01-01

    RFID technology is a promising technology currently finding its way into the field of customer interaction strategy, supply chain accuracy and inventory management. Primarily, RFID tags are seen as substitutes of traditional barcodes, yet they can add a lot of value and functionality. Where barcodes

  10. Optimalization of selected RFID systems Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestenicky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes procedure for maximization of RFID transponder read range. This is done by optimalization of magnetics field intensity at transponder place and by optimalization of antenna and transponder coils coupling factor. Results of this paper can be used for RFID with inductive loop, i.e. system working in near electromagnetic field.

  11. Smart Idlers: RFID in conveyor belt monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) is a technology that offers unique identifi cation of objects and processes. It can actively or passively communicate and, in combination with sensors, it can capture more detailed physical information. RFID technology has been integrated into our daily life.

  12. Orientation Sensing Using Multiple Passive RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the inclination of an object can be valuable information in a supply chain application, e.g. when handling orientation sensitive objects. In this work we present a method for sensing the inclination using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology. The method requires standard RFID...

  13. RFID biedt ook perspectief voor laanbomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltissen, A.H.M.C.; Sluis, van der B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Binnenkort zijn CC-karren elektronisch te registreren met RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) en deze technologie biedt ook mogelijkheden voor de laanbomenketen. Uit onderzoek door PPO blijkt dat zowel de kweker als de klant voordeel kan behalen met RFID. Er zijn echter nog veel praktische vragen

  14. Smart Idlers: RFID in conveyor belt monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identifi cation (RFID) is a technology that offers unique identifi cation of objects and processes. It can actively or passively communicate and, in combination with sensors, it can capture more detailed physical information. RFID technology has been integrated into our daily life.

  15. RFID Technologies : emerging issues and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we will present the results of a technology and policy assessment we have performed on emerging issues and policy challenges of RFID technologies. RFID is a basic component of the future internet of things. A balanced view on opportunities and threats, on drivers and barriers is needed

  16. RFID in Retail: New approaches, new viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Jan; Ridder, Sander de; Reep, Frans van der; Vrijlandt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    RFID technology is a promising technology currently finding its way into the field of customer interaction strategy, supply chain accuracy and inventory management. Primarily, RFID tags are seen as substitutes of traditional barcodes, yet they can add a lot of value and functionality. Where barcodes

  17. RFID Application in Global Container Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the problems of container transportation, then analyzes the RFID application in container transportation management. It gives some suggestions to improve the trade actuality, ensure the trade security and promote the efficiency of logistics. Although there are some limitations to generalize this technology, the cheap standardized RFID system will serve global ports with the development of the information technology.

  18. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-12-24

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  19. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol. PMID:28029119

  20. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3 to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  1. Symmetric Encryption Based Privacy using Lightweight Cryptography for RFID Tags

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    RFID technology emerged as the promising technology for its ease of use and implementation in the ubiquitous computing world. RFID is deployed widely in various applications that use automatic identification and processing for information retrieval. The primary components of an RFID system are the RFID tag (active and passive), the reader and the back-end server (database). Cost is the main factor that drove RFID tags to its immense utilization in which passive tags dominate in...

  2. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  3. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  4. RFID Applications: An Introductory and Exploratory Study

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsan, Kamran; Kingston, Paul

    2010-01-01

    RFID is not a new technology and has passed through many decades of use in military, airline, library, security, healthcare, sports, animal farms and other areas. Industries use RFID for various applications such as personal/vehicle access control, departmental store security, equipment tracking, baggage, fast food establishments, logistics, etc. The enhancement in RFID technology has brought advantages that are related to resource optimization, increased efficiency within business processes, and enhanced customer care, overall improvements in business operations and healthcare. Our research is part of a big project; its aim is to produce a model for mobile technology implementation of hospital patients' movement process. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the main RFID components, i.e. the tag, antenna and reader. The results of the investigations conducted on the three RFID components will be used to develop our research model.

  5. RFID reader immunity test against electrostatic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.

  6. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  7. KUNCI PINTU OTOMATIS MENGGUNAKAN APLIKASI RFID CARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Wiharta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi Radio Frequency Identification (RFID banyak dikembangkan dewasa ini. Salah satu  aplikasi RFID yang dikembangkan disini adalah sebagai kunci pintu otomatis. RFID Reader digunakan untuk membaca ID yang terdapat pada kartu EM4100. Reader bekerja pada level tegangan 5V DC dengan frekuensi 125 KHz. Koneksi RFID Reader menggunakan media udara (wireless. Saat RFID tag didekatkan pada Reader maka reader akan membaca ID yang terdapat pada kartu. Output Reader merupakan input pada microcontroller AT89C51. Format data keluaran yang digunakan adalah ABA Track2 10 Desimal. Input data dari RFID  Reader akan dibaca, disimpan, dan dibandingkan. Output dari microcontroller dihubungkan pada transistor PNP 9012 yang digunakan sebagai saklar dan  terhubung dengan relay untuk menggerakkan kunci. Keadaan awal relay dan transistor adalah normally close dan cut-off, dan bekerja secara flip – flop sesuai dengan input dari microcontroller.

  8. RFID技术在仓储物流行业中的应用研究%Research of application of RFID technology in logistics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺彩玲; 殷锋社

    2013-01-01

    RFID technology is one of the most promising information technology in twenty-firstCentury.With the combined with the traditional network,RFID technology show great market potential,especially in the field of inventory and logistics management,the huge application value of RFID.Analysis of the application of RFID technology,workflow,RFID technology,RFID technology principle and application characteristics,the realization of PC and RFID identification reader serial communication.For other manufacturers of PLC and RFID system also has the certain reference value,has a positive significance for promoting the application of the technology%RFID技术是21世纪最有发展前景的信息技术之一.随着与传统网络的结合,RFID技术展现出巨大的市场应用潜力,特别在库存和物流管理领域,RFID的应用价值巨大.分析了RFID技术应用工作流程、RFID技术应用工作原理、RFID技术应用特点,并实现了PC与RFID识别读写器串行通讯.对于其它厂家的PLC和RFID系统也有一定的参考价值,对于促进该技术的推广应用具有一定的积极意义.

  9. Implement of Test Acquisition Information Transmission Based on RFID%基于 RFID 的测试采集结果信息传输设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小建; 张峤; 张大伟

    2016-01-01

    RFID 以其频段、安全性和方便性的优势在舰船测试数据传输中可代替非军方使用的 Wifi、红外、蓝牙等无线传输网络和不利于现场测试操作的有线传输网络,进行测试结果的数据传输:手持设备以数字示波器为例,介绍 RFID数据传输的总体方案、软硬件组成及各模块的工作模式。测试数据的传输需要内部通信协议和信息帧等必不可少的软件构成,并以测试驱动程序和接口软件为底层支持。整个系统通过 RFID 模块由设备端 RFID 无线传输数据送至主控机端 RFID,并在主控机管理软件主面板上显示测试结果,最终实现测试数据从测试设备到主控机的测试数据的无线传输。%Because of the frequency range,security and accessibility,RFID may take the place of wireless transmission network such as Wifi、infrared and bluetooth which are not suitable for military and wired network which is inconvenient for test operation,and it carries out the data transmission:Take digital oscilloscope for example as test equipment, introduce the general planning、software and hardware structure of data transmision and the work mode of each module of RFID.Test data transmission needs critical software structure such as internal communication protocol and information frame,and use test drivers and interface software as base support.The entire system sends the data wireless from RFID module of test equipments to RFID module of PMA ,and show the test result through main panel of virtual instrument on PMA.Finally finish the wireless transmission from test equipment to PMA.

  10. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  11. Low cost production of disposable microfluidics by blister packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2007-01-01

    Large scale production of disposable microfluidics mostly is accomplished by injection moulding techniques today. A cost effective alternative to injection moulding might be vacuum thermoforming of polymer films. Vacuum thermoforming is the basis for medical and pharmaceutical packaging such as pharmaceutical blister packs. It allows for cheap and reliable forming of polymer films and thus seems suitable for the fabrication of disposables. Our goal is to investigate and demonstrate the potential of vacuum thermoforming for the fabrication of microtechnology components. For this purpose we have developed a simple low cost process allowing for the fabrication of disposable microfluidics by vacuum thermoforming.

  12. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  13. A Low-Cost Easy-Operation Hexapod Walking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical design of an hybrid hexapod walking machine that has been designed and built at LARM: Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics in Cassino. Basic characteristics are investigated in order to design a leg system with suitable low-cost modular components. Moreover, special care has been addressed in proposing an architecture that can be easily operated by a PLC with on-off logic. Experimental tests are reported in order to show feasibility and operational capability of proposed design.

  14. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  15. Coverage Options for a Low cost, High Resolution Optical Constellation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M E; Levett, W.; Graham, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the range of coverage options available to TopSat like small satellites, both singly and in a small constellation. TopSat is a low-cost, high resolution and image quality, optical small satellite, due for launch in October 2004. In particular, the paper considers the use of tuned, repeat ground track orbits to improve coverage for selected ground targets, at the expense of global coverage. TopSat is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of small satellites for high valu...

  16. Low-cost thermoforming of micro fluidic analysis chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmüller, R.; Rummler, Z.; Schaller, Th; Schomburg, W. K.

    2002-07-01

    We present a new method for the low-cost manufacture of micro fluidic devices from polymers for single use. Within a one-step or two-step process inside a hot embossing press, micro channels are thermoformed into a thin plastic film and welded on to a thicker plastic film or sheet. Sterile, hermetically sealed micro fluidic structures were fabricated from polystyrene for easy opening immediately before use. It even appears to be possible to produce micro fluidic analysis chips from polymers on a coil from which single devices are cut off for use.

  17. Low-cost commodity depth sensor comparison and accuracy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Timo; Bodensteiner, Christoph; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Low cost depth sensors have been a huge success in the field of computer vision and robotics, providing depth images even in untextured environments. The same characteristic applies to the Kinect V2, a time-of-flight camera with high lateral resolution. In order to assess advantages of the new sensor over its predecessor for standard applications, we provide an analysis of measurement noise, accuracy and other error sources with the Kinect V2. We examined the raw sensor data by using an open source driver. Further insights on the sensor design and examples of processing techniques are given to completely exploit the unrestricted access to the device.

  18. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  19. Assessing Levels of Attention Using Low Cost Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Per; Petersen, Michael Kai; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    2016-01-01

    apply mobile eye tracking in an in-depth study over 2 weeks with nearly 10.000 observations to assess pupil size changes, related to attentional aspects of alertness, orientation and conflict resolution. Visually presenting conflicting cues and targets we hypothesize that it’s feasible to measure...... the allocated effort when responding to confusing stimuli. Although such experiments are normally carried out in a lab, we have initial indications that we are able to differentiate between sustained alertness and complex decision making even with low cost eye tracking “in the wild”. From a quantified self...

  20. A Low-Cost Remote Healthcare Monitor System Based on Embedded Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we propose a scheme about a low-cost remote healthcare monitor system based on embedded server between home and hospital. In the scheme, we design an embedded server based on an ARM9 microprocessor. The embedded server supplies all kinds of interfaces such as GPIO interfaces, serial interfaces. These interfaces can acquire all kinds of physiology signals such as Electrocardiograph, heart rate, respiration wave, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature and so on through connecting the sensor modules. The network is based on local area network and adopts the Browser/Server model. Each home with an embedded server is as a server endpoint and the hospital is as a Browser endpoint. Every embedded server owns an independent static internet protocol address. The doctors can easily acquire patients’ physiology information through writing patients’ internet protocol address on any computer browser. The embedded server can store patients’ physiology information using database in an 8 GB SD card. The doctor can download the database information into the local computers. The system can conveniently upgrade all software in the embedded server only on a remote hospital computer. The remote healthcare monitor system based on embedded server has advantages of low-cost, convenience and feasibility.

  1. Facilitating participatory steps for planning and implementing low-cost improvements in small workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, practical means of facilitating participatory steps taken in workplace improvement programs in small workplaces were reviewed. The reviewed programs included those organized by partners of our Asian inter-country network for small enterprises, construction sites, home workplaces and agricultural farms. Trainers who commonly acted as facilitators were found to play multiple roles in helping managers, workers and farmers take initiative and achieve immediate improvements. The participatory steps were more successfully facilitated when the trainers supported (a) building on local good practice, (b) focusing on a range of basic ergonomics principles, and (c) stepwise progress through feedback of achievements. The use of action-oriented toolkits comprising low-cost action checklists and group work guides was commonly helpful. The locally adjusted nature of the toolkits seemed essential. Trainers could thus help people build local initiative, plan and implement low-cost ideas through serial group work steps and confirm benefits in a stepwise manner. The review of the results suggested that a local network of trainers trained in the use of locally adjusted toolkits was vital for facilitating effective improvements in different small workplaces.

  2. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  3. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  4. Flight results of a low-cost attitude determination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, John C.; Cutler, James W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents flight results of the attitude determination system (ADS) flown on the Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellites, RAX-1 and RAX-2, which are CubeSats developed to study space weather. The ADS sensors include commercial-off-the-shelf magnetometers, coarse sun sensors (photodiodes), and a MEMs rate gyroscope. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is used for attitude estimation. On-orbit calibration was developed and applied to compensate for sensor and alignment errors, and attitude determination accuracies of 0.5° 1-σ have been demonstrated on-orbit. The approach of using low-cost sensors in conjunction with on-orbit calibration, which mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration and high-tolerance alignment during spacecraft assembly, reduces the time and cost associated with the subsystem development, and provides a low-cost solution for modest attitude determination requirements. Although the flight results presented in this paper are from a specific mission, the methods used and lessons learned can be used to maximize the performance of the ADS of any vehicle while minimizing the pre-flight calibration and alignment requirements.

  5. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  6. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Conghua [TreadStone Technologies, Inc.

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  7. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  8. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  9. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  10. Kinetic Gait Analysis Using a Low-Cost Insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Adam M; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Hayes, Heather A; Foreman, K Bo; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, knee flexion/extension, and knee abduction/adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all >0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally >0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individual's home.

  11. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  12. Development of Low-Cost Current Controlled Stimulator for Paraplegics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizan Masdar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A spinal cord injury (SCI has a severe impact on human life in general as well as on the physical status and condition. The use of electrical signals to restore the function of paralyzed muscles is called functional electrical stimulation (FES. FES is a promising way to restore mobility to SCI by applying low-level electrical current to the paralyzed muscles so as to enhance that person’s ability to function and live independently. However, due to the limited number of commercially available FES assisted exerciser systems and their rather high cost, the conventional devices are unaffordable for most peoples. It is also inconvenient because of wired based system that creates a limitation in performing exercise. Thus, this project is concerned with the development of low-cost current controlled stimulator mainly for the paraplegic subjects. The developed device is based on a microcontroller, wireless based system using Zigbee module, voltage-to-current converter circuit and should produce proper monopolar and bipolar current pulses, pulse trains, arbitrary current waveforms, and a trigger output for FES applications. This device has been developed as in the new technique of the stimulator development with low cost and one of the contributing factors in Rehabilitation Engineering for patients with SCI.

  13. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  14. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  15. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  16. a Low Cost Pressure Wave Generator Using Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughley, A. J.; Haywood, D. J.; Wang, C.

    2008-03-01

    The high cost of Pressure Wave Generators (PWGs) is a major barrier to the more widespread use of high-efficiency pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. This paper describes the development and testing of a low-cost industrial-style PWG which employs metal diaphragms. The use of diaphragms removes the need for rubbing or clearance seals, and eliminates contamination problems by hermetically separating the gas circuit and the lubricated driving mechanism. A conventional low-cost electric motor is used for power input, via a novel high-efficiency kinematic linkage. A first prototype of the diaphragm PWG produced 3.2 kW of PV power with a measured electro-acoustic efficiency of 72%. Accelerated testing predicts a diaphragm life time in excess of 40,000 hours. An additional advantage of the use of diaphragms is the ability to directly cool the gas in the compression space. This eliminates or significantly reduces the requirement for an after cooler, and further decreases the cost of the whole cryocooler system. A pulse tube cryocooler has been successfully run at Industrial Research Ltd to 59K with the diaphragm PWG and no aftercooler. Another pulse tube cryocooler with the diaphragm PWG is undergoing development at Cryomech, the results of which will be given in another presentation.

  17. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  18. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Using a Low Cost Flight Simulation Environment for Interdisciplinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia; ALi, Syed F.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary education is increasingly being emphasized for engineering undergraduates. However, often the focus is on interaction between engineering disciplines. This paper discusses the experience at Tuskegee University in providing interdisciplinary research experiences for undergraduate students in both Aerospace Engineering and Psychology through the utilization of a low cost flight simulation environment. The environment, which is pc-based, runs a low-cost of-the-shelf software and is configured for multiple out-of-the-window views and a synthetic heads down display with joystick, rudder and throttle controls. While the environment is being utilized to investigate and evaluate various strategies for training novice pilots, students were involved to provide them with experience in conducting such interdisciplinary research. On the global inter-disciplinary level these experiences included developing experimental designs and research protocols, consideration of human participant ethical issues, and planning and executing the research studies. During the planning phase students were apprised of the limitations of the software in its basic form and the enhancements desired to investigate human factors issues. A number of enhancements to the flight environment were then undertaken, from creating Excel macros for determining the performance of the 'pilots', to interacting with the software to provide various audio/video cues based on the experimental protocol. These enhancements involved understanding the flight model and performance, stability & control issues. Throughout this process, discussions of data analysis included a focus from a human factors perspective as well as an engineering point of view.

  20. Low-cost space platforms for detection and tracking technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Robert M.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and applications of inexpensive satellite platforms capable of carrying dedicated sensor packages into low earth orbit on primary or shared launch services. These satellites permit achievement of rapid operational status by employing standard buses with fixed options for orbit and power. The satellites may be configured for experimental or operational missions with lifetimes up to several years. Low cost satellites can satisfy a range of mission requirements in the areas of surveillance, drug interdiction, environmental and geophysical observations, immigration control, fisheries law enforcement, remote sensing, real-time communications, store-and-forward communications, and technology testing. These satellites may be equipped for location determination missions with ID and homing transponders and tagged objects or persons. The satellites' size, power, and weight budgets are appropriately rated for the types of dedicated mission scenarios noted above. For applications requiring continuous visibility or high availability, constellations of satellites may be both appropriate and cost-effective. Orbital parameters are determined by the launch vehicle and the requirements of the primary payload. Geographical service areas are determined by the orbital footprint, the parameters of which are determined by the mission requirements and the selection of launch vehicle. The satellites' small size permits their launch on any of several launch vehicles in domestic or international inventory. Integral to each satellite is a communications and control package which, when coupled with companion low cost earth terminals, provides programmable mission scenarios under operator control. These satellites permit rapid implementation of operational systems within tight fiscal constraints.

  1. Low-cost and biocompatible long-period fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Olmos, Jorge A.; Oropeza-Ramos, Laura; Hernández-Cordero, Juan

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induced by a polymeric microstructure is demonstrated. LPFGs are induced on a tapered optical fiber (TOF) when a periodic micro-grating comes into contact with the thin region of the fiber. The micro-grating device is made using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an inexpensive, nontoxic and optically transparent polymer that is extensively used in microfluidics, organic electronics and biotechnological applications. Soft lithography, along with molds built from thermoplastic polystyrene sheets, makes the fabrication straightforward and extremely low-cost. Additionally, no precision machining is necessary and the resolution of the microstructures is limited only by the resolution of the laser printer used for patterning the polystyrene sheets. The TOF and the micro-grating were dimensionally characterized using optical microscopy and white light interferometry, respectively. Variations on the optical spectrum due to pressure and temperature were observed and their magnitudes were similar to those obtained using metallic microstructures. Thus, LPFGs can be made in an inexpensive and expeditious way using PDMS and TOFs. These polymeric devices can be integrated into microfluidic and other labon- a-chip systems where biocompatibility is a valuable characteristic.

  2. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  3. Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Tarchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar systems are largely employed for surveillance of wide and remote areas; the recent advent of drones gives the opportunity to exploit radar sensors on board of unmanned aerial platforms. Nevertheless, whereas drone radars are currently available for military applications, their employment in the civilian domain is still limited. The present research focuses on design, prototyping, and testing of an agile, low-cost, mini radar system, to be carried on board of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs or tethered aerostats. In particular, the paper faces the challenge to integrate the in-house developed radar sensor with a low-cost navigation board, which is used to estimate attitude and positioning data. In fact, a suitable synchronization between radar and navigation data is essential to properly reconstruct the radar picture whenever the platform is moving or the radar is scanning different azimuthal sectors. Preliminary results, relative to tests conducted in preoperational conditions, are provided and exploited to assert the suitable consistency of the obtained radar pictures. From the results, there is a high consistency between the radar images and the picture of the current environment emerges; finally, the comparison of radar images obtained in different scans shows the stability of the platform.

  4. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heye Reemt Bogena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8. Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process.

  5. Research on Cloud Manufacturing Resource-Aware and Access Technology Using RFID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Lv; ChuanXia Zhou; JiShuai Shi; Lei Liu

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous development of cloud manufacturing technology, in order to solve more complex manufacturing problem and conduct large-scale networked manufacturing, combining with the characteristic of discrete manufacturing enterprise ’ s demands and RFID ( Radio Frequency Identification ) , a kind of RFID-based cloud manufacturing resource-aware and access technology is proposed. Firstly, the architecture of the cloud manufacturing system and RFID system is briefly introduced. Then, the key technologies of manufacturing resource-aware and access technology are analyzed, including anti-collision technology, reader management technology and so on. Finally, taking the manufacturing of the key components in discrete manufacturing enterprise as an example, the practicality and feasibility of the technology is verified. The results show that the application of this technology provides a strong guarantee for the sharing and collaboration of manufacturing resources and capacity in the discrete manufacturing industry.

  6. A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguila, Pau; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Martin, Ferran; Bonache, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm). The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags. PMID:27455274

  7. A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Zuffanelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm. The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags.

  8. Optical incremental rotary encoder in low-cost-design; Optischer inkrementaler Drehgeber in Low-Cost-Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, David; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Optik; Seybold, Jonathan; Mayer, Volker [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Kueck, Heinz [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Zeitmesstechnik, Fein- und Mikrotechnik

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new concept for low-cost optical encoders to come up to meet the increasing demand for inexpensive rotary sensors. The principal idea is to use a micro patterned plastic disc with metal coating, as it is used for Compact Discs or DVDs. Such encoder discs can be manufactured by an efficient injection compression moulding process. With this well established technique it is possible to achieve highly precise micro patterns while running a cost effective process for high volume production. (orig.)

  9. Ambient and laboratory evaluation of a low-cost particulate matter sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K E; Whitaker, J; Petty, A; Widmer, C; Dybwad, A; Sleeth, D; Martin, R; Butterfield, A

    2017-02-01

    Low-cost, light-scattering-based particulate matter (PM) sensors are becoming more widely available and are being increasingly deployed in ambient and indoor environments because of their low cost and ability to provide high spatial and temporal resolution PM information. Researchers have begun to evaluate some of these sensors under laboratory and environmental conditions. In this study, a low-cost, particulate matter sensor (Plantower PMS 1003/3003) used by a community air-quality network is evaluated in a controlled wind-tunnel environment and in the ambient environment during several winter-time, cold-pool events that are associated with high ambient levels of PM. In the wind-tunnel, the PMS sensor performance is compared to two research-grade, light-scattering instruments, and in the ambient tests, the sensor performance is compared to two federal equivalent (one tapered element oscillating microbalance and one beta attenuation monitor) and gravimetric federal reference methods (FEMs/FRMs) as well as one research-grade instrument (GRIMM). The PMS sensor response correlates well with research-grade instruments in the wind-tunnel tests, and its response is linear over the concentration range tested (200-850 μg/m(3)). In the ambient tests, this PM sensor correlates better with gravimetric methods than previous studies with correlation coefficients of 0.88. However additional measurements under a variety of ambient conditions are needed. Although the PMS sensor correlated as well as the research-grade instrument to the FRM/FEMs in ambient conditions, its response varies with particle properties to a much greater degree than the research-grade instrument. In addition, the PMS sensors overestimate ambient PM concentrations and begin to exhibit a non-linear response when PM2.5 concentrations exceed 40 μg/m(3). These results have important implications for communicating results from low-cost sensor networks, and they highlight the importance of using an

  10. KARAKTERISTIK DAN MOTIVASI WISATAWAN DOMESTIK PENGGUNA LOW COST CARRIER PADA MASKAPAI PENERBANGAN LION AIR DI BANDARA INTERNASIONAL NGURAH RAI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roels Ni Made Sri Puspa Dewi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Low Cost Carrier has a tight competition, nowadays. There are more product offering to interest tourist which one is cheap ticket price or be familiar call Low Cost Carrier. Which one company in Indonesia applying Low Cost Carrier is Lion Air company. The aims of this study is to determine how the characteristics and motivation domestic tourists used Low Cost Carrier at Lion Air in Ngurah Rai International Airport Bali. The study was conducted at Lion Air. The object of this research was the characteristics and motivation of tourists who as means of transport choose Low Cost Carrier. Sample of respondents was 105 respondents. The collected data were observation, questionnaire, interview, literature study and documentation. The questionnaires was used as measuring the characteristics and motivation domestic tourists. The research was conducted using descriptive qualitative technique. The result of this research is domestic tourist characteristic used Lion Air divided into trip descriptor and tourist descriptor. By trip descriptor the tourist has short time to holiday around 3 untill 3 days with purposes of the trip is family trip with period using Lion Air around 2 untill more than 5 times. By tourist descriptor the tourists using Lion Air was teenager or adolescent with average income less than one million. Tourist motivation seen from push factor used Lion Air is cheaper ticket price while pull factor is there are more discount offering by Lion Air. Tourist motivation divided into intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsically, domestic tourist motivation used Lion Air by using Maslow theory is Social needs. While extrinsically is nowadays trends used airlines which applying Low Cost Carrier. Recommendation for Lion Air is to improve airlines network to avoid the delay of Lion Airlines.

  11. Activity Recognition Using Fusion of Low-Cost Sensors on a Smartphone for Mobile Navigation Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Saeedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost inertial and motion sensors embedded on smartphones have provided a new platform for dynamic activity pattern inference. In this research, a comparison has been conducted on different sensor data, feature spaces and feature selection methods to increase the efficiency and reduce the computation cost of activity recognition on the smartphones. We evaluated a variety of feature spaces and a number of classification algorithms from the area of Machine Learning, including Naive Bayes, Decision Trees, Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine classifiers. A smartphone app that performs activity recognition is being developed to collect data and send them to a server for activity recognition. Using extensive experiments, the performance of various feature spaces has been evaluated. The results showed that the Bayesian Network classifier yields recognition accuracy of 96.21% using four features while requiring fewer computations.

  12. A NOVEL DESIGN OF LOW COST REAL TIME VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.M.Kamaraju

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A low cost GPRS based vehicle navigation system is developed using ARM processor for real time application. The main core of the system is an embedded hardware along with Java/J2EE. The embedded device communicates with GSM network which is accessible from anywhere .This system eliminates large maintenance. In PC, Java programming is used for getting the data from serial port and given to the database (SQLSERVER.In the front end, programming code is written in J2EE.The latitudes and longitudes are received through GSM network and stored in the data base .With the help of these values the vehicle avigation can be seen on google map.

  13. Location-based tracking using long-range passive RFID and ultrawideband communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid

    2013-03-01

    Reliable positioning capability is a crucial need for first responders in emergency and disaster situations. Lack of a dependable positioning system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. Indoor localization and navigation poses many challenges for search and rescue teams (i.e. firefighters) such as inability to determine their exact location and communicate with the incident commander outside the building. Although RF navigation and tracking systems have many advantages over other technologies, the harsh indoor RF environment demands new ways of developing and using RF sensor and communication systems. A new approach, proposed recently [1-4], employs passive RFID for geo-location and tracking of a first responder. However, because conventional passive RFID tags have limited communications ranges, a very large number of these tags will be required to fully cover a large multi-storied building without any dead spots. Another technical challenge for conventional RF communications is the transmission of data from the mobile RFID platform (the tag reader) to the outside command and control node, as the buildings walls impose challenges such as attenuation and multipath. In this paper, we introduce a mobile platform architecture that makes optimal use of long-range passive tags, and takes advantage of the frequency diversity of Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems for a reliable, robust and yet low-cost infrastructure.

  14. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  15. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  16. Research of RFID middleware model with CEP based on SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Ma, Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    RFID middleware is regarded as the nerve of RFID systems. Firstly this paper analysis and discuss relatively mature RFID middleware, and propose a RFID middleware which based on service-oriented architecture. Then in this paper we introduce the CEP (complex event processing), and it is a new technology for event and data processing. With the widespread usage of RFID technology, complex event processing becomes a very important part in RFID application. Through introducing its work, we indicate the basis of introducing CEP to RFID middleware. We focus on the complex event processing technology in RFID data processing, and present a based on CEP data processing model, and study cache, Event Filter and Complex Event Builder key technologies. Moreover, a query language for detecting RFID complex events is also introduced.

  17. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA, which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes.

  18. Towards a Low-Cost Remote Memory Attestation for the Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyu; He, Xiaofei; Yu, Wei; Lin, Jie; Li, Rui; Yang, Qingyu; Song, Houbing

    2015-08-21

    In the smart grid, measurement devices may be compromised by adversaries, and their operations could be disrupted by attacks. A number of schemes to efficiently and accurately detect these compromised devices remotely have been proposed. Nonetheless, most of the existing schemes detecting compromised devices depend on the incremental response time in the attestation process, which are sensitive to data transmission delay and lead to high computation and network overhead. To address the issue, in this paper, we propose a low-cost remote memory attestation scheme (LRMA), which can efficiently and accurately detect compromised smart meters considering real-time network delay and achieve low computation and network overhead. In LRMA, the impact of real-time network delay on detecting compromised nodes can be eliminated via investigating the time differences reported from relay nodes. Furthermore, the attestation frequency in LRMA is dynamically adjusted with the compromised probability of each node, and then, the total number of attestations could be reduced while low computation and network overhead can be achieved. Through a combination of extensive theoretical analysis and evaluations, our data demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve better detection capacity and lower computation and network overhead in comparison to existing schemes.

  19. Low cost composite structures for superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, C. (General Dynamics Space Magnetics, San Diego, CA (United States)); McColskey, D. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)); Acree, R. (Phillips Lab., Edwards Air Force Base, CA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    As part of the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage/Engineering Test Model (SMES-ETM) programs, design, analysis, fabrication and test programs were conducted to evaluate the low cost manufacturing of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) beams for usage as major components of the structural and electrical insulation systems. These studies utilized pultrusion process technologies and vinylester resins to produce large net sections at costs significantly below that of conventional materials. Demonstration articles incorporating laminate architectures and design details representative of SMES-ETM components were fabricated using the pultrusion process and epoxy, vinylester, and polyester resin systems. The mechanical and thermal properties of these articles were measured over the temperature range from 4 K to 300 K. The results of these tests showed that the pultruded, vinylester components have properties comparable to those of currently used materials, such as G-10, and are capable of meeting the design requirements for the SMES-ETM system.

  20. Low-cost home experiments and demonstrations in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.; Serna, J.; Piquero, G.

    2005-10-01

    More than 60 demonstrations and basic experiments in Optics have been compiled. They can be carried out by secondary and university students in the classroom or at home, and have been conceived considering low cost and easy-to-get materials. The goal is to offer didactic resources, showing that Optics can be taught in an attractive and amusing way. The experiments try to stimulate scientific curiosity, and generate interest in the observation of our physical world. The work could be collected as a book, where each demonstration would be contained in one or two pages, including a title, a list of the required materials and a concise explanation about what to do and observe. Associated with the experimental content, we propose a web page, namely, http://www.ucm.es/info/expoptic, that accepts experiments sent by anyone interested in Optics, which can be used as a forum to interchange information on this educational topic.