WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-cost detection method

  1. A novel low-cost detection method for screening of arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontàs, Clàudia; Vera, Ruben; Batalla, Anna; Kolev, Spas D; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, a novel and simple detection system for As inorganic species contained in groundwater is presented. To reach the required detection limit, the proposed methodology is based on two steps: first is the transport and preconcentration of the inorganic arsenic species using a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) system and second is the formation of a coloured complex, the absorbance of which is measured. Different parameters related to the membrane composition and the transport kinetics have been studied, and it was found that membranes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a polymer, and Aliquat 336 as a carrier, ensured efficient arsenic transport when the carrier content was at least 31 % (w/w). The implementation of the designed PIM in a special device that contained only 5 mL of the stripping solution (0.1 M NaCl) allowed As preconcentration from a 100-mL water sample, thus facilitating its detection with the colorimetric method. The new method developed here was validated, and its analytical figures of merit were determined, i.e. limit of detection of 4.5 μg L(-1) at 820 nm and a relative standard deviation within the range 8-10 %. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of different water samples from Catalonia region with naturally occurring As.

  2. A Low-Cost Imaging Method for the Temporal and Spatial Colorimetric Detection of Free Amines on Maize Root Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc H. Doan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates are important mediators in the interactions that occur between plants and microorganisms in the soil, yet much remains to be learned about spatial and temporal variation in their production. This work outlines a method utilizing a novel colorimetric paper to detect spatial and temporal changes in the production of nitrogen-containing compounds on the root surface. While existing methods have made it possible to conduct detailed analysis of root exudate composition, relatively less is known about where in the root system exudates are produced and how this localization changes as the root grows. Furthermore, there is much to learn about how exudate localization and composition varies in response to stress. Root exudates are chemically diverse secretions composed of organic acids, amino acids, proteins, sugars, and other metabolites. The sensor utilized for the method, ninhydrin, is a colorless substance in solution that reacts with free amino groups to form a purple dye. A detection paper was developed by formulating ninhydrin into a print solution that was uniformly deposited onto paper with a commercial ink jet printer. This “ninhydrin paper” was used to analyze the chemical makeup of root surfaces from maize seedlings grown vertically on germination paper. Through contact between the ninhydrin paper and seedling root surfaces, combined with images of both the seedlings and dried ninhydrin papers captured using a standard flatbed scanner, nitrogen-containing substances on the root surface can be localized and concentration of signal estimated for over 2 weeks of development. The method was found to be non-inhibiting to plant growth over the analysis period although damage to root hairs was observed. The method is sensitive in the detection of free amines at concentrations as little as 140 μM. Furthermore, ninhydrin paper is stable, showing consistent color changes up to 2 weeks after printing. This relatively simple, low-cost

  3. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center.

  4. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belen; Espinosa, Julian; Roig, Ana B.; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David

    2014-05-01

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  5. Low cost subpixel method for vibration measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Belen [Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Espinosa, Julian; Perez, Jorge; Acevedo, Pablo; Mas, David [Inst. of Physics Applied to the Sciences and Technologies, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Roig, Ana B. [Department of Optics, Univ. Alicante P.O. Box, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2014-05-27

    Traditional vibration measurement methods are based on devices that acquire local data by direct contact (accelerometers, GPS) or by laser beams (Doppler vibrometers). Our proposal uses video processing to obtain the vibration frequency directly from the scene, without the need of auxiliary targets or devices. Our video-vibrometer can obtain the vibration frequency at any point in the scene and can be implemented with low-cost devices, such as commercial cameras. Here we present the underlying theory and some experiments that support our technique.

  6. A low-cost, label-free DNA detection method in lab-on-chip format based on electrohydrodynamic instabilities, with application to long-range PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakité, Mohamed Lemine Youba; Champ, Jerôme; Descroix, Stephanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Amblard, François; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-21

    In order to evolve from a "chip in the lab" to a "lab on a chip" paradigm, there is still a strong demand for low-cost, portable detection technologies, notably for analytes at low concentrations. Here we report a new label-free DNA detection method with direct electronic read, and apply it to long-range PCR. This method uses a nonlinear electrohydrodynamic phenomenon: when subjected to high electric fields (typically above 100 V cm(-1)), suspensions of large polyelectrolytes, such as long DNA molecules, create "giant" dynamic concentration fluctuations. These fluctuations are associated with large conductivity inhomogeneities, and we use here a contact-mode local conductivity detector to detect these fluctuations. In order to decouple the detection electronics from the high voltage excitation one, an original "doubly symmetric" floating mode battery-operated detection scheme was developed. A wavelet analysis was then applied, to unravel from the chaotic character of the electohydrodynamic instabilities a scalar signal robustly reflecting the amplification of DNA. As a first proof of concept, we measured the products of the off-chip amplification of 10 kbp DNA from lambda phage DNA, achieving a sensitivity better than 100 fg DNA in the original 50 μl sample. This corresponds to the amplification products of less than 100 initial copies of target DNA. The companion enabling technologies developed to implement this new concept, i.e. the doubly symmetric contact conductivity detection and wavelet analysis, may also find various other applications in lab-on-chips.

  7. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Salai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study (n=5, we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97% correlated, low average error (2.2% data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study (n=46 included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices.

  8. Novel approach for low-cost muzzle flash detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskoboinik, Asher

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost muzzle flash detection based on CMOS sensor technology is proposed. This low-cost technology makes it possible to detect various transient events with characteristic times between dozens of microseconds up to dozens of milliseconds while sophisticated algorithms successfully separate them from false alarms by utilizing differences in geometrical characteristics and/or temporal signatures. The proposed system consists of off-the-shelf smart CMOS cameras with built-in signal and image processing capabilities for pre-processing together with allocated memory for storing a buffer of images for further post-processing. Such a sensor does not require sending giant amounts of raw data to a real-time processing unit but provides all calculations in-situ where processing results are the output of the sensor. This patented CMOS muzzle flash detection concept exhibits high-performance detection capability with very low false-alarm rates. It was found that most false-alarms due to sun glints are from sources at distances of 500-700 meters from the sensor and can be distinguished by time examination techniques from muzzle flash signals. This will enable to eliminate up to 80% of falsealarms due to sun specular reflections in the battle field. Additional effort to distinguish sun glints from suspected muzzle flash signal is made by optimization of the spectral band in Near-IR region. The proposed system can be used for muzzle detection of small arms, missiles and rockets and other military applications.

  9. Low Cost Optical Sensing Device for Fuel Detection in Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Papadopoulou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the development of a new, very low cost, simple to manufacture and use, optical sensing device for remote, on line detection of the type of fuels used in ships, is presented. The main goal of this optical sensing device is the on line detection of the fuel optical absorption that is used by the ship. The basic operating principle of the proposed sensor is based on different absorption in the range of visible spectrum between bunker diesel and fuel oil. Experimental measurements, using monochromatic laser light or white led light, have shown that the proposed sensor can distinguish very accurately the difference between the two types of oil, giving the advantage to detect the type of fuel.

  10. Lab-on-Blu-ray: Low-cost analyte detection on a disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Burger, Robert;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present for the first time a centrifugal microfluidic system for the detection of analytes in blood using a low cost (< 10$) blu-ray pickup head for detection. The microfluidic operations are carried out on a disk, while the detection method is based on optical measurements of th...

  11. Low-cost EEG-based sleep detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hal, Bryan; Rhodes, Samhita; Dunne, Bruce; Bossemeyer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A real-time stage 1 sleep detection system using a low-cost single dry-sensor EEG headset is described. This device issues an auditory warning at the onset of stage 1 sleep using the "NeuroSky Mindset," an inexpensive commercial entertainment-based headset. The EEG signal is filtered into low/high alpha and low/high beta frequency bands which are analyzed to indicate the onset of sleep. Preliminary results indicate an 81% effective rate of detecting sleep with all failures being false positives of sleep onset. This device was able to predict and respond to the onset of drowsiness preceding stage 1 sleep allowing for earlier warnings with the result of fewer sleep-related accidents.

  12. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  13. Low cost mobile explosive/drug detection devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, T.; Bendahan, J.

    1999-06-01

    Inspection technologies based on Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA®) and/or Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) are the basis for relatively compact and low-cost, material-sensitive devices for a wide variety of inspection needs. The TNA allows the use of either isotropic neutron sources such as a 252Cf, or electronic neutron generators such as the d-T sealed neutron generator tubes. The latter could be used in a steady state mode or in slow (>μs) pulsing mode, to separate the thermal neutron capture signatures following the pulse from the combination of the FNA plus TNA signatures during the pulse. Over the years, Ancore Corporation has built and is continuing to develop a variety of inspection devices based on its TNA and FNA technologies: SPEDS—an explosive detection device for small parcels, portable electronics, briefcases and other similar carry-on items; MDS—a system for the detection or confirmation of buried mines; VEDS—a system for the detection of varied amounts of explosives and/or drugs concealed in passenger vehicles, pallets, lightly loaded trucks or containers, etc.; ACD—a device to clear alarms from a primary, non-specific explosive detection system for passenger luggage. The principle and performance of these devices will be shown and discussed.

  14. Detection of Salmonella in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fachmann, Mette Sofie Rousing; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey;

    2017-01-01

    peptone water, and a real-time PCR compatible sample preparation method, based on filtration, centrifugation, and enzymatic digestion, followed by fast cycling real-time PCR detection. The method was validated in an un-paired, comparative study against the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL...

  15. Detection of Salmonella enterica in meat in less than 5 hours by a low-cost and non-complex sample preparation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fachmann, Mette Sofie Rousing; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    detection in fresh meat usually include >16 h of culture enrichment, in few cases meat, consisting of a 3-h enrichment in standard buffered......) reference culture method 187. Pork meat samples (n=140) were either artificially contaminated with Salmonella at levels: 0, 1-10 and 10-100 CFU/25 g, or naturally contaminated. Cohen's Kappa for degree of agreement between the rapid method and the reference was 0.64 and the relative accuracy, sensitivity......, and help contribute to improved food safety. While the cost of analysis and hands-on time of the presented rapid method were comparable to reference culture methods, the fast product release by this method can provide the meat industry with a competitive advantage. Not only will the abattoirs save costs...

  16. Investigation of a low cost method to quantify cosmetic defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Thomas; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-01-01

    For many patients, the motivation in seeking treatment is the improvement of their appearance rather than to correct an underlying skeletal deformity, so cosmetic concerns and the psychosocial impacts of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are important factors in the clinical decision-making process. In the current environment of evidence based medicine there is a growing need to quantify back surface shape and general body asymmetry with the objective of producing an agreed scoring to be used in developing treatment plans and assessing outcomes but to date many clinics continue to rely on qualitative or expensive methods to describe cosmetic deformity. In November 2010, Microsoft® Corporation launched the low cost Kinect™ camera with 18 million units sold (as at January 2012) throughout the world. The device incorporates proprietary light coding technology that reconstructs the three dimensional location of an estimated 50,000 projected points illuminating objects within its field of view in approximately 1/30th of a second. The aim of the research was to investigate the capabilities of a low cost, reliable and inherently safe apparatus based on Kinect depth sensing and video technology to simultaneously acquire back surface shape and the locations of bony landmarks with the goal of providing data to describe cosmetic defect. Work has been completed using both the apparatus and a commercially available optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, U.K.) to acquire data from a test object representing an unaffected human torso. Results were obtained to compare tri-dimensional bony landmark reconstruction accuracy and combined with analyses of point cloud data to describe back shape. Early indications are that the proposed apparatus has potential to be a clinically useful tool.

  17. Low-cost space platforms for detection and tracking technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Robert M.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and applications of inexpensive satellite platforms capable of carrying dedicated sensor packages into low earth orbit on primary or shared launch services. These satellites permit achievement of rapid operational status by employing standard buses with fixed options for orbit and power. The satellites may be configured for experimental or operational missions with lifetimes up to several years. Low cost satellites can satisfy a range of mission requirements in the areas of surveillance, drug interdiction, environmental and geophysical observations, immigration control, fisheries law enforcement, remote sensing, real-time communications, store-and-forward communications, and technology testing. These satellites may be equipped for location determination missions with ID and homing transponders and tagged objects or persons. The satellites' size, power, and weight budgets are appropriately rated for the types of dedicated mission scenarios noted above. For applications requiring continuous visibility or high availability, constellations of satellites may be both appropriate and cost-effective. Orbital parameters are determined by the launch vehicle and the requirements of the primary payload. Geographical service areas are determined by the orbital footprint, the parameters of which are determined by the mission requirements and the selection of launch vehicle. The satellites' small size permits their launch on any of several launch vehicles in domestic or international inventory. Integral to each satellite is a communications and control package which, when coupled with companion low cost earth terminals, provides programmable mission scenarios under operator control. These satellites permit rapid implementation of operational systems within tight fiscal constraints.

  18. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  19. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Low-Cost Cooling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, M.

    2016-12-01

    An estimated 1.2 billion people in the world do not have access to constant supply of electricity. The goal of this research project is experimental investigation of cooling mechanisms for low cost refrigeration without constant supply of electricity. Experimental investigations were performed in 3 separate phases: 1) We first tested common literature method of evaporative cooling mechanism of the pot-in-pot refrigeration system, developed by Mohammed Bah Abba. Experiments showed that the cooling power of the original system is theoretically limited to the wet bulb temperature, and in an environment with 70º F ambient temperature, cooling never exceeded 7-8 degrees. 2) Next, we conducted an experimental study of heat transfer processes through the use of a simple glass model. The results of the glass model showed that thorough insulation and ice were crucial to improving cooling. Hence, we incorporated the use of ice and insulating fabrics in the system. This improved the existing methods by 2x but required much maintenance, with constant watering of sand and replacement of ice packs. Our next set of experiments with a 60-liter clay pot filled with water and 3.5-8 kg ice blocks showed that more than 20 degree cooling can be achieved with moderate amount of ice and insulation for over a few days. 3) Next, we used HOBO temperature sensors, a 60-liter pot, water, ice, and several layers of insulation, and proved that with proper insulation and even just one 8-kg block of ice, the system yielded a greater cooling for over two weeks, with temperatures ranging from 61.8 and 68.9 ºF even when the ambient temperature was as high as 109º F. The temperature inside the system stayed relatively constant, with changes only corresponding to day and night. Additional experimentation showed that initial cooling was proportional to the amount of ice put in the system, and thus with double the ice, temperatures could reach as low as 34.9 ºF. This research proves that the

  1. Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Marlene K.; Dentz, Holly N.; Achando, Beryl; Mureithi, MaryAnne; Wolfe, Tim; Null, Clair; Pickering, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement. PMID:27956654

  2. Geo-mapping and Visual Stitching to Support Landmine Detection Using a Low-cost UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Colorado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an aerial system applied for the terrain mapping and geo-detection of explosive landmine-like objects. In practice in Colombia, a large percentage of the anti-personnel mines that still remain across the country are hand-crafted and partially exposed on the terrain’s surface so that they can be triggered. This scenario facilitates the use of a vision-based approach for the detection of these artifacts. Our goal is to integrate computer vision algorithms within a low-cost UAV robot suited for the Colombian scenario. The aerial system enables: (i terrain mapping based on a visual stitching method to generate a mosaic image of the covered terrain, and (ii the visual detection of landmine-like objects in real-time. Despite the hardware drawbacks and the camera limitations of the used UAV, we demonstrate that our low-cost platform could be used as a complementary tool for demining missions in Colombia. After briefly reviewing the state of the art regarding the use of robots for mine clearance, we present a field report that confirms the feasibility of our aerial-based system featuring in approximate scenarios.

  3. Amperometric Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores: A Portable, Low-Cost Approach to the ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Peckham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody-based detection assays are generally robust, a desirable characteristic for in-the-field use. However, to quantify the colorimetric or fluorescent signal, these assays require expensive and fragile instruments which are ill-suited to in-the-field use. Lateral flow devices (LFDs circumvent these barriers to portability but suffer from poor sensitivity and subjective interpretation. Here, an antibody-based method for detecting Bacillus anthracis spores via amperometric signal generation is compared to ELISA and LFDs. This amperometric immunoassay uses antibody conjugated to magnetic beads and glucose oxidase (GOX along with the electron mediator 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP for production of a measurable current from a 0.4 V bias voltage. With similar sensitivity to ELISA, the assay can be completed in about 75 minutes while being completely powered and operated from a laptop computer. Immunoassay amperometry holds promise for bringing low-cost, quantitative detection of hazardous agents to the field.

  4. A Low-Cost Method for Multiple Disease Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Bhaskar, Sonia; Montanari, Andrea

    Recently, in response to the rising costs of healthcare services, employers that are financially responsible for the healthcare costs of their workforce have been investing in health improvement programs for their employees. A main objective of these so called "wellness programs" is to reduce the incidence of chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, with the goal of reducing future medical costs. The majority of these wellness programs include an annual screening to detect individuals with the highest risk of developing chronic disease. Once these individuals are identified, the company can invest in interventions to reduce the risk of those individuals. However, capturing many biomarkers per employee creates a costly screening procedure. We propose a statistical data-driven method to address this challenge by minimizing the number of biomarkers in the screening procedure while maximizing the predictive power over a broad spectrum of diseases. Our solution uses multi-task learning and group dimensionality reduction from machine learning and statistics. We provide empirical validation of the proposed solution using data from two different electronic medical records systems, with comparisons to a statistical benchmark.

  5. Automatic teleaudiometry: a low cost method to auditory screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campelo, Victor Eulálio Sousa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The auditory screening' benefits has been demonstrated, however these programs has been restricted to the big centers. Objectives: (a Developing a auditory screening method to distance; (b Testing its accuracy and comparing to the screening audiometry test (AV. Method: The teleaudiometry (TA, consists in a developed software, installed in a computer with phone TDH39. It was realized a study in series in 73 individuals between 17 and 50 years, being 57,%% of the female sex, they were randomly selected between patients and companions of the Hospital das Clínicas. Before were subjected to a symptom questionnaire and otoscopy, the individuals realized the tests of TA AV, with scanning in 20dB in the frequencies of 1,2 and 4kHz following the ASHA (1997 protocol and to the gold standard test of audiometry of pure tones in soundproof booth in aleatory order. Results: the TA has lasted average 125+11s and the AV 65+18s. 69 individuals (94,5% declaring to be found difficult or very easy to performing the TA and 61 (83,6% have considered easy or very easy the AV. The accuracy results of TA and AV were respectively: sensibility (86,7% / 86,7%, specificity (75,9%/ 72,4% and negative predictive value (95,7% / 95,5%, positive predictive value (48,1% / 55,2%. Conclusion: The teleaudiometry has showed a good option as an auditory screening method, presenting accuracy next to screening audiometry. In comparison with this method, the teleaudiometry has presented a similar sensibility, major specificity, negative predictive value and endurance time and, under positive predictive value.

  6. Partial Discharge Detection Using Low Cost RTL-SDR Model for Wideband Spectrum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, H.; Lazaridis, Pavlos; Upton, D.

    2016-01-01

    an optimal approach for PD signal analysis, and are very costly. In this paper an RTLSDR (Software Defined Radio) based spectrum analyser has been proposed in order to provide a potentially low cost solution for PD detection and monitoring. Initially, a portable spectrum analyser has been used for PD...

  7. A low-cost FMCW radar for footprint detection from a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, David; Taylor, Paul; Hunt, Allan

    2015-05-01

    Footprint and human trail detection in rugged all-weather environments is an important and challenging problem for perimeter security, passive surveillance and reconnaissance. To address this challenge a low-cost, wideband, frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar operating at 33.4GHz - 35.5GHz is being developed through a Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate Phase I SBIR and has been experimentally demonstrated to be capable of detecting footprints and footprint trails on unimproved roads in an experimental setting. It uses a low-cost digital signal processor (DSP) that makes important operating parameters reconfigurable and allows for frequency sweep linearization, a key technique developed to increase footprint signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper discusses the design, DSP implementation and experimental results of a low-cost FMCW radar for mobile footprint detection. A technique for wideband sweep linearization is detailed along with system performance metrics and experimental results showing receive-SNR from footprint trails in sand and on unimproved dirt roads. Results from a second stepped frequency CW (SFCW) Ka-band system are also shown, verifying the ability of both systems to detect footprints and footprint trails in an experimental setting. The results show that there is sufficient receive-SNR to detect even shallow footprints (~1cm) using a radar based detection system in Ka-band. Field experimental results focus on system proof of concept from a static position with mobile results also presented highlighting necessary improvements to both systems.

  8. An Instantaneous Low-Cost Point-of-Care Anemia Detection Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Punter-Villagrasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a small, compact and portable device for point-of-care instantaneous early detection of anemia. The method used is based on direct hematocrit measurement from whole blood samples by means of impedance analysis. This device consists of a custom electronic instrumentation and a plug-and-play disposable sensor. The designed electronics rely on straightforward standards for low power consumption, resulting in a robust and low consumption device making it completely mobile with a long battery life. Another approach could be powering the system based on other solutions like indoor solar cells, or applying energy-harvesting solutions in order to remove the batteries. The sensing system is based on a disposable low-cost label-free three gold electrode commercial sensor for 50 µL blood samples. The device capability for anemia detection has been validated through 24 blood samples, obtained from four hospitalized patients at Hospital Clínic. As a result, the response, effectiveness and robustness of the portable point-of-care device to detect anemia has been proved with an accuracy error of 2.83% and a mean coefficient of variation of 2.57% without any particular case above 5%.

  9. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  10. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Low-Cost Impact Detection and Location for Automated Inspections of 3D Metallic Based Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Portilla, Marina P.; Somolinos, José A.; Morales, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new low-cost means to detect and locate mechanical impacts (collisions) on a 3D metal-based structure. We employ the simple and reasonably hypothesis that the use of a homogeneous material will allow certain details of the impact to be automatically determined by measuring the time delays of acoustic wave propagation throughout the 3D structure. The location of strategic piezoelectric sensors on the structure and an electronic-computerized system has allowed us to determine the instant and position at which the impact is produced. The proposed automatic system allows us to fully integrate impact point detection and the task of inspecting the point or zone at which this impact occurs. What is more, the proposed method can be easily integrated into a robot-based inspection system capable of moving over 3D metallic structures, thus avoiding (or minimizing) the need for direct human intervention. Experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26029951

  12. Trend-Residual Dual Modeling for Detection of Outliers in Low-Cost GPS Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojian; Cui, Tingting; Fu, Jianhong; Peng, Jianwei; Shan, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Low-cost GPS (receiver) has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories. This paper proposes a model-based GPS trajectory cleaner. Rather than examining speed and acceleration or assuming a pre-determined trajectory model, we first use cubic smooth spline to adaptively model the trend of the trajectory. The residuals, i.e., the differences between the trend and GPS measurements, are then further modeled by time series method. Outliers are detected by scoring the residuals at every GPS trajectory point. Comparing to the conventional procedures, the trend-residual dual modeling approach has the following features: (a) it is able to model trajectories and detect outliers adaptively; (b) only one critical value for outlier scores needs to be set; (c) it is able to robustly detect unapparent outliers; and (d) it is effective in cleaning outliers for GPS trajectories with low sample rates. Tests are carried out on three real-world GPS trajectories datasets. The evaluation demonstrates an average of 9.27 times better performance in outlier detection for GPS trajectories than thresholding and Kalman-based techniques.

  13. Trend-Residual Dual Modeling for Detection of Outliers in Low-Cost GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost GPS (receiver has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories. This paper proposes a model-based GPS trajectory cleaner. Rather than examining speed and acceleration or assuming a pre-determined trajectory model, we first use cubic smooth spline to adaptively model the trend of the trajectory. The residuals, i.e., the differences between the trend and GPS measurements, are then further modeled by time series method. Outliers are detected by scoring the residuals at every GPS trajectory point. Comparing to the conventional procedures, the trend-residual dual modeling approach has the following features: (a it is able to model trajectories and detect outliers adaptively; (b only one critical value for outlier scores needs to be set; (c it is able to robustly detect unapparent outliers; and (d it is effective in cleaning outliers for GPS trajectories with low sample rates. Tests are carried out on three real-world GPS trajectories datasets. The evaluation demonstrates an average of 9.27 times better performance in outlier detection for GPS trajectories than thresholding and Kalman-based techniques.

  14. Ultraminiaturized assay for rapid, low cost detection and quantification of clinical and biochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we report a simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost ultraminiaturized assay technique for quantitative detection of 1 μl of clinical or biochemical sample on a novel ultraminiaturized assay plate (UAP). UAP is prepared by making tiny cavities on a polypropylene sheet. As UAP cannot immobilize a biomolecule through absorption, we have activated the tiny cavities of UAP by 1-fluoro-2-nitro-4-azidobenzene in a photochemical reaction. Activated UAP (AUAP) can covalently immobilize any biomolecule having an active nucleophilic group such as amino group. Efficacy of AUAP is demonstrated by detecting human IgE, antibody of hepatitis C virus core antigen and oligonucleotides. Quantification is performed by capturing the image of the colored assay solution and digitally quantifying the image by color saturation without using costly NanoDrop spectrophotometer. Image - based detection of human IgE and an oligonucleotide shows an excellent correlation with absorbance - based assay (recorded in a NanoDrop spectrophotometer); it is validated by Pearson's product-moment correlation with correlation coefficient of r = 0.9545088 and r = 0.9947444 respectively. AUAP is further checked by detecting hepatitis C virus Ab where strong correlation of color saturation with absorbance with respect to concentration is observed. Ultraminiaturized assay successfully detects target oligonucleotides by perfectly hybridizing with their respective complementary oligonucleotide probes but not with a random oligonucleotide. Ultraminiaturized assay technique has substantially reduced the requirement of reagents by 100 times and assay timing by 50 times making it a potential alternative to conventional method.

  15. Detecting Forward-Scattered Radio Signals from Atmospheric Meteors Using Low-Cost Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snjegota, Ana; Rattenbury, Nicholas James

    2017-02-01

    The forward scattering of radio signals from atmospheric meteors is a known technique used to detect meteor trails. This article outlines the project that used the forward-scattering technique to observe the 2015 August, September, and October meteor showers, as well as sporadic meteors, in the Southern Hemisphere. This project can easily be replicated in any part of the world and is a suitable, low-cost project designed for students who are interested in astronomy.

  16. Towards a Low-Cost Mobile Subcutaneous Vein Detection Solution Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Juric

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature. The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  17. Towards a low-cost mobile subcutaneous vein detection solution using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Simon; Flis, Vojko; Debevc, Matjaz; Holzinger, Andreas; Zalik, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Excessive venipunctures are both time- and resource-consuming events, which cause anxiety, pain, and distress in patients, or can lead to severe harmful injuries. We propose a low-cost mobile health solution for subcutaneous vein detection using near-infrared spectroscopy, along with an assessment of the current state of the art in this field. The first objective of this study was to get a deeper overview of the research topic, through the initial team discussions and a detailed literature review (using both academic and grey literature). The second objective, that is, identifying the commercial systems employing near-infrared spectroscopy, was conducted using the PubMed database. The goal of the third objective was to identify and evaluate (using the IEEE Xplore database) the research efforts in the field of low-cost near-infrared imaging in general, as a basis for the conceptual model of the upcoming prototype. Although the reviewed commercial devices have demonstrated usefulness and value for peripheral veins visualization, other evaluated clinical outcomes are less conclusive. Previous studies regarding low-cost near-infrared systems demonstrated the general feasibility of developing cost-effective vein detection systems; however, their limitations are restricting their applicability to clinical practice. Finally, based on the current findings, we outline the future research direction.

  18. Phase-sensitive detection in the undergraduate lab using a low-cost microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, K. D.

    2016-07-01

    Phase-sensitive detection is an important experimental technique that allows signals to be extracted from noisy data. Commercial lock-in amplifiers, often used for phase-sensitive detection, are expensive and host a bewildering array of controls that may intimidate a novice user. Low-cost microcontrollers such as the Arduino family of devices might seem like a good match for learning about such devices, but making a self-contained device that includes a reference signal, a voltage input, a signal mixer, a filter, and a display is difficult. Here, we present the construction of a phase-sensitive detector (PSD) using an Arduino.

  19. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Bravo, José María; Pérez-Miralles, Juan; Estrada, Héctor; Fernández-Navajas, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain). Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research. PMID:22438711

  20. Development of a Low-Cost Airborne Ultrasound Sensor for the Detection of Brick Joints behind a Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fernández-Navajas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive methods are of great interest for the analysis of cultural heritage. Among the different possible techniques, this paper presents a low cost prototype based on the emission and reception of airborne ultrasound without direct contact with the test specimen. We successfully performed a method test for the detection of brick joints under a XVth century Renaissance fresco of the Metropolitan Cathedral of the city of Valencia (Spain. Both laboratory and in situ results are in agreement. Using this prototype system, an early moisture detection system has been installed in the dome that supports the fresco. The result is encouraging and opens interesting prospects for future research.

  1. Low-cost, real-time, continuous flow PCR system for pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carballo, B Leticia; McGuiness, Ian; McBeth, Christine; Kalashnikov, Maxim; Borrós, Salvador; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a portable and low cost point-of-care (POC) PCR system for quantitative detection of pathogens. Our system is based on continuous flow PCR which maintains fixed temperatures zones and pushes the PCR solution between two heated areas allowing for faster heat transfer and as a result, a faster PCR. The PCR system is built around a 46.0 mm × 30.9 mm × 0.4 mm disposable thermoplastic chip. In order to make the single-use chip economically viable, it was manufactured by hot embossing and was designed to be compatible with roll-to-roll embossing for large scale production. The prototype instrumentation surrounding the chip includes two heaters, thermal sensors, and an optical system. The optical system allows for pathogen detection via real time fluorescence measurements. FAM probes were used as fluorescent reporters of the amplicons generated during the PCR. To demonstrate the function of the chip, two infectious bacteria targets were selected: Chlamydia trachomatis and Escherichia coli O157:H7. For both bacteria, the limit of detection of the system was determined, PCR efficiencies were calculated, and different flow velocities were tested. We have demonstrated successful detection for these two bacterial pathogens highlighting the versatility and broad utility of our portable, low-cost, and rapid PCR diagnostic device.

  2. Boron film thickness determination to develop a low cost neutron using Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila; Raele, Marcus P.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Siqueira, Paulo de T.D.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron measurement is important for safety and security of workers at nuclear facilities. As neutron is an uncharged particle, for its detection is necessary to use a converter material that interacts with the neutron and produce a charged particle, which is easy to detect. One of the converter candidates is natural boron composed by about 20% of Boron-10, which capture a low energy neutron ejecting an energetic alpha particle and a lithium ion. A neutron detector can be developed applying a boron thin film over a silicon photodiode, which is charged particle sensitive. For this reason is important to determine the optimal film thickness. We have used an empirical solution for the boron film thickness evaluation; furthermore we developed, using Monte Carlo method (MCNP6), a model to simulate the alpha particles propagation through the detector. Our goal was to ensure the best production and transference of alpha particles to silicon region. The film thickness ranged between 0 to 5.5 μm, the neutron energy was also varied. The optimal thickness value will be used to develop a prototype of a low cost neutron detector. (author)

  3. Detection and quantification of hogwash oil in soybean oils using low-cost spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Cichelli, A.; Xing, J.; Yang, X.; Sun, W.; Yuan, L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the detection and quantification of hogwash oil in soybean oils by means of absorption spectroscopy. Three types of soybean oils were adulterated with different concentrations of hogwash oil. The spectra were measured in the visible band using a white LED and a low-cost spectrometer. The measured spectra were processed by means of multivariate analysis to distinguish the adulteration and, for each soybean oil, to quantify the adulterant concentration. Then the visible spectra were sliced into two bands for modeling a simple setup made of two LEDs only. The successful results indicate potentials for implementing a smartphone-compatible device for self-assessment of soybean oil quality.

  4. Improved breast cancer biomarker detection through a simple, high frequency, low cost external proficiency testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tawny; Wolber, Robert; Garratt, John; Kalloger, Steven; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-12-01

    We describe a simple, low cost, high frequency immunohistochemistry external proficiency testing program, and show how its use can lead to improved breast cancer biomarker detection. Over a 30 month period in British Columbia, Canada, we used tissue microarray slides to follow the performance of twelve clinical laboratories in nine separate external proficiency testing runs. Sensitivity for detection of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 were calculated for each laboratory, biomarker, and run. Mean sensitivities for detection of ER, PR, and HER2 were 97.1%, 84.8%, and 90.7%, respectively. HER2 sensitivity improved over time, from 87.0% to 92.9% (p=0.04), with a trend towards improvement seen for PR (81.9-88.1%, p=0.13). ER sensitivities were high throughout the test period. Improvements occurred without mandating any specific laboratory changes. This simple, low cost, high frequency external proficiency testing program is highly sustainable and can be implemented in any multi-institutional group or region.

  5. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  6. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  7. Low-Cost, Disposable, Flexible and Highly Reproducible Screen Printed SERS Substrates for the Detection of Various Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Li; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Juhua; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhou, Li; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong; Roy, Vellaisamy A. L.

    2015-05-01

    Ideal SERS substrates for sensing applications should exhibit strong signal enhancement, generate a reproducible and uniform response, and should be able to fabricate in large-scale and low-cost. Herein, we demonstrate low-cost, highly sensitive, disposable and reproducible SERS substrates by means of screen printing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on a plastic PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates. While there are many complex methods for the fabrication of SERS substrates, screen printing is suitable for large-area fabrication and overcomes the uneven radial distribution. Using as-printed Ag substrates as the SERS platform, detection of various commonly known chemicals have been done. The SERS detection limit of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is higher than the concentration of 1 × 10-10 M. The relative standard deviation (RSD) value for 784 points on the detection of R6G and Malachite green (MG) is less than 20% revealing a homogeneous SERS distribution and high reproducibility. Moreover, melamine (MA) is detected in fresh liquid-milk without additional pretreatment, which may accelerate the application of rapid on-line detection of MA in liquid milk. Our screen printing method highlights the use of large-scale printing strategies for the fabrication of well-defined functional nanostructures with applications well beyond the field of SERS sensing.

  8. A low cost method for hard x-ray grating interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Lei, Yaohu; Liu, Xin; Huang, Jianheng; Zhao, Zhigang; Guo, Jinchuan; Li, Ji; Niu, Hanben

    2016-12-01

    Grating interferometry is advantageous over conventional x-ray absorption imaging because it enables the detection of samples constituted by low atomic number elements (low-Z materials). Therefore, it has a potential application in biological science and medical diagnostics. The grating interferometry has some critical optics components such as absorption gratings which are conventionally manufactured by the lithography, electroplating, and molding (LIGA) technique and employing gold as the absorbent material in it. However, great challenge lies in its implementations for practical applications because of the cost and difficulty to achieve high aspect ratio absorbing grating devices. In this paper, we present a low-cost approach that involves using the micro-casting technique with bismuth (Bi) as the absorber in source grating and as well as filling cesium iodide thallium(CsI:Tl) in a periodically structured scintillator. No costly facilities as synchrotron radiation are required and cheap material is used in our approach. Our experiment using these components shows high quality complementary images can be obtained with contrast of absorption, phase and visibility. This alternative method conquers the limitation of costly grating devices for a long time and stands an important step towards the further practical application of grating interferometry.

  9. Low-cost backpack-portable robot system for mine and UXO detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Carl V.; Arabian, Adam K.

    2002-08-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has developed a prototype backpack-portable robot system for mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection and identification. The robot system is compact, lightweight and is estimated to be inexpensive to construct. The robot has been designed with an inexpensive, highly accurate, wide bandwidth time-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor for the detection and identification of metal components in mines and UXO. The robot can be configured for autonomous or person-in-the-loop control. The robot system can be configured with additional light-weight and low-cost mine and UXO sensors such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) and chemical explosive detectors.

  10. Low-cost lightweight airborne laser-based sensors for pipeline leak detection and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frish, Michael B.; Wainner, Richard T.; Laderer, Matthew C.; Allen, Mark G.; Rutherford, James; Wehnert, Paul; Dey, Sean; Gilchrist, John; Corbi, Ron; Picciaia, Daniele; Andreussi, Paolo; Furry, David

    2013-05-01

    Laser sensing enables aerial detection of natural gas pipeline leaks without need to fly through a hazardous gas plume. This paper describes adaptations of commercial laser-based methane sensing technology that provide relatively low-cost lightweight and battery-powered aerial leak sensors. The underlying technology is near-infrared Standoff Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (sTDLAS). In one configuration, currently in commercial operation for pipeline surveillance, sTDLAS is combined with automated data reduction, alerting, navigation, and video imagery, integrated into a single-engine single-pilot light fixed-wing aircraft or helicopter platform. In a novel configuration for mapping landfill methane emissions, a miniaturized ultra-lightweight sTDLAS sensor flies aboard a small quad-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

  11. Phase-Sensitive Detection in the undergraduate lab using a low-cost microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, K D

    2015-01-01

    Phase-sensitive detection (PSD) is an important experimental technique that allows signals to be extracted from noisy data. PSD is also used in modulation spectroscopy and is used in the stabilization of optical sources. Commercial lock-in amplifiers that use PSD are often expensive and host a bewildering array of controls that may intimidate a novice user. Low-cost microcontrollers such as the Arduino family of devices seem like a good match for learning about PSD; however, making a self-contained device (reference signal, voltage input, mixing, filtering, and display) is difficult, but in the end the project teaches students "tricks" to turn the Arduino into a true scientific instrument.

  12. Low-cost detection of RC-IED activation signals in VHF band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Suarez, Victor Hugo; Marulanda B., Jose Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    The proliferation of Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices (RC-IED) is a growing threat around the world. The ease of construction and low cost of these devices are transforming common things in lethal tramps. The fight against this threats normally involves the use of sophisticated and expensive equipment of Electronic Warfare based on high speed DSP systems, just to detect the presence of detonation signals. In this work is showed how to find activation signals based on the characteristic of the power in a specific band and the previous knowledge about the detonation signals. As proof of concept we have taken the information about the RC-IEDs used in the Colombian conflict and develop an algorithm to find detonation signals based on the measured power in frequencies between 136 MHz and 174 MHz (2 meter civil band)

  13. A Better Engineering Design: Low Cost Assistance Kit for Manual Wheelchair Users with Enhanced Obstacle Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryvendra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a better engineering design of an assistance kit for manual wheelchair users. The design is aimed to enhance the detection of obstacles in the travelling path of the wheelchair user at low cost. This is facilitated by microcontroller and sensor technologies. The proposed design provides the intended user with obstacle detection, light detection, a light emitting diode (LED emergency light system, and an emergency alarm system. The microcontroller is the main controller that receives input from the sensors and produces output to the light crystal display (LCD screen, the LED emergency light system, and the emergency alarm system. An ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the presence of obstacles directly behind the wheelchair. If any obstacle exists behind the wheelchair within a set range, the system will alert the wheelchair user through different alarm sounds. In the case of absence of light, the LED emergency light system is activated and turns on a light source, which is attached to the wheelchair to provide a bright and clear path for the user. The distance between the obstacle and the wheelchair, and the status of the LED emergency light system are displayed on the LCD screen.

  14. Rapid, Low-Cost Detection of Zika Virus Using Programmable Biomolecular Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A; Takahashi, Melissa K; Braff, Dana; Lambert, Guillaume; Lee, Jeong Wook; Ferrante, Tom; Ma, Duo; Donghia, Nina; Fan, Melina; Daringer, Nichole M; Bosch, Irene; Dudley, Dawn M; O'Connor, David H; Gehrke, Lee; Collins, James J

    2016-05-19

    The recent Zika virus outbreak highlights the need for low-cost diagnostics that can be rapidly developed for distribution and use in pandemic regions. Here, we report a pipeline for the rapid design, assembly, and validation of cell-free, paper-based sensors for the detection of the Zika virus RNA genome. By linking isothermal RNA amplification to toehold switch RNA sensors, we detect clinically relevant concentrations of Zika virus sequences and demonstrate specificity against closely related Dengue virus sequences. When coupled with a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based module, our sensors can discriminate between viral strains with single-base resolution. We successfully demonstrate a simple, field-ready sample-processing workflow and detect Zika virus from the plasma of a viremic macaque. Our freeze-dried biomolecular platform resolves important practical limitations to the deployment of molecular diagnostics in the field and demonstrates how synthetic biology can be used to develop diagnostic tools for confronting global health crises. PAPERCLIP.

  15. A robust, low-cost approach to Face Detection and Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Jyoti, Divya; Vaidya, Pallavi; Roja, M Mani

    2011-01-01

    In the domain of Biometrics, recognition systems based on iris, fingerprint or palm print scans etc. are often considered more dependable due to extremely low variance in the properties of these entities with respect to time. However, over the last decade data processing capability of computers has increased manifold, which has made real-time video content analysis possible. This shows that the need of the hour is a robust and highly automated Face Detection and Recognition algorithm with credible accuracy rate. The proposed Face Detection and Recognition system using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) accepts face frames as input from a database containing images from low cost devices such as VGA cameras, webcams or even CCTV's, where image quality is inferior. Face region is then detected using properties of L*a*b* color space and only Frontal Face is extracted such that all additional background is eliminated. Further, this extracted image is converted to grayscale and its dimensions are resized to 128 x 128...

  16. Detection of food-borne pathogens by nanoparticle technology coupled to a low-cost cell reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiseux, Isabelle; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Gallant, Pascal; Bourqui, Pascal; Cao, Honghe; Vernon, Marci; Johnson, Roger; Chen, Shu; Mermut, Ozzy

    2010-02-01

    The detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic microorganisms at low cost are of great interest to the agro-food industry. We have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detection of food-borne pathogens based on use of nanoparticles alongside a low cost fluorescence cell reader for the bioassay. The nanoparticles are coupled with antibodies that allow specific recognition of the targeted Listeria in either a liquid or food matrix. The bioconjugated nanoparticles (FNP) contain thousands of dye molecules enabling significant amplification of the fluorescent signal emitted from each bacterium. The developed fluorescence Cell Reader is an LED-based reader coupled with suitable optics and a camera that acquires high resolution images. The dedicated algorithm allowed the counting of each individual nanoparticles-fluorescent bacterial cells thus enabling highly sensitive reading. The system allows, within 1 hour, the recovery and counting of 104 to 108 cfu/mL of Listeria in pure culture. However, neither the Cell Reader nor the algorithm can differentiate between the FNPs specifically-bound to the target and the residual unbound FNPs limiting sensitivity of the system. Since FNPs are too small to be washed in the bioassay, a dual tagging approach was implemented to allow online optical separation of the fluorescent background caused by free FNPs.

  17. WT-BIRD. A Low Cost Solution for Detecting Bird Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Eecen, P.J.; Nijdam, R.J.; Korterink, H.; Scholtens, H.H. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    The large-scale implementation of wind energy is hampered to a large extent by the unknown effects that wind turbines may have on the environment. The collision of birds with turbines and the distortion of the migration routes are in that respect points of great concern. The title project focused on developing a reliable and cheaper method for counting bird collisions in order to obtain more insight in the actual size of the problem, especially in offshore applications for which no alternative detection method is available. The report describes the work that has been performed to meet the objective 'developing and demonstrating a system that determines a bird collision against a wind turbine and with which it is possible to determine the bird species'. The system had to meet among others the following specifications: the system should be low cost in order to be competitive with manual counting methods; analysis of recorded data by e.g. ornithologist should not be labour intensive, meaning that only actual collisions should be recorded and no false data should be stored; the system should be able to operate under all weather and visibility conditions; the system should operate in offshore wind farms for long periods in a reliable manner and data should be accessible remotely. The assembly of the prototypes has been carried out in this project successfully. They behaved robust and reliable during the field tests and only minor problems have been identified. Two major problems have not been solved completely in this project: (1) triggering: birds can collide against rotors and towers in many different ways. The tests that have been performed with shooting tennis balls against the flat side of rotor blades and throwing sand bags against the tower did not cover the entire range of possible bird impacts. Secondly, the variety of possible microphone configurations and background noises for especially larger turbines is bigger than originally expected. The

  18. Development of a low cost, high resolution position detection system for photonic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sambit Bikas; Roy, Basudev; Banerjee, Ayan

    2011-01-01

    A photonic force microscope comprises of an optically trapped micro-probe and a position detection system to track the motion of the probe. In this paper, we report the use of the optical pick-up head of a compact disc player as an extremely low cost yet accurate position sensor for photonic force microscopy. The size of the quadrant photo-IC in the pick-up head makes it ideal to work with a 1:1 image of a micron-sized probe in the microscope back-focal plane after the standard magnification by the trapping objective lens. This is an advantage over most commercial quadrant photodiodes or position sensitive detectors where it is difficult to image only the probe since such detectors require larger beams. This warrants external magnification optics leading to losses that may be significant in back-focal plane detection where the signal level directly off the probe is already very weak. Using a commercially available spare pick-up head, we demonstrate that the detector could measure absolute displacements with a...

  19. Low-Cost Sensor Network for Contamination Detection in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Kumar CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the low cost and holistic approach to the water quality monitoring for drinking water distribution systems. Our approach is based on the development of low cost sensor nodes for real time water contamination monitoring using web based technology. The main sensor node consists of several electrochemical and optical sensors and emphasis is given on low cost, light-weight implementation, and reliable long time operation. We will interface the values of sensors to the internet by using the software python. The internet network would be used to monitoring the results of drinking water values.

  20. Manufacture of patient-specific vascular replicas for endovascular simulation using fast, low-cost method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Taihei; Ohta, Makoto; Namba, Katsunari; Watanabe, Eiju; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-12-01

    Patient-specific vascular replicas are essential to the simulation of endovascular treatment or for vascular research. The inside of silicone replica is required to be smooth for manipulating interventional devices without resistance. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of patient-specific silicone vessels with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. We show that the surface of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) model printed by the 3D printer can be smoothed by a single dipping in ABS solvent in a time-dependent manner, where a short dip has less effect on the shape of the model. The vascular mold is coated with transparent silicone and then the ABS mold is dissolved after the silicone is cured. Interventional devices can pass through the inside of the smoothed silicone vessel with lower pushing force compared to the vessel without smoothing. The material cost and time required to fabricate the silicone vessel is about USD $2 and 24 h, which is much lower than the current fabrication methods. This fast and low-cost method offers the possibility of testing strategies before attempting particularly difficult cases, while improving the training of endovascular therapy, enabling the trialing of new devices, and broadening the scope of vascular research.

  1. A low-cost method applicable worldwide for remotely mapping lava dome growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, Estelle

    2017-07-01

    Lava dome growth and collapse represents both a significant hazard, as it can trigger pyroclastic density currents, and a monitoring challenge, limiting monitoring to a few known active volcanoes. Here, I propose a new differencing technique based on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) amplitude images to quantify the extent of lava dome growth. This differencing technique, which is both low cost and can be utilized worldwide, is applied to SAR amplitude images at Mount St. Helens and validated using 2004-2008 aerial photography observations. Difference of amplitude images accurately characterize the dome growth location. The low ground resolution of the 2004-2008 SAR data leads to underestimation by 10 to 15% of the dome extent, but the accuracy of this method will increase with the improved resolution of current and future SAR missions. Amplitude images are a low-level SAR product available from all SAR satellites, mostly freely, making the proposed method ideal for systematic, low-cost monitoring of lava dome growth worldwide with minimum processing required.

  2. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  3. Development of low cost instrumentation for non-invasive detection of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannath, A.; Rutt, H. N.

    2007-02-01

    A new clinical diagnostic instrument for urea breath test (UBT) based non-invasive detection of Helicobacter Pylori is presented here. Its compact and low cost design makes it an economical and commercial alternative for the more expensive Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS). The instrument is essentially a two channel non-dispersive IR spectrometer that performs high precision ratio measurements of the two carbon isotopomers ( 12CO II and 13CO II) present in exhaled breath. A balanced absorption system configuration was designed where the two channel path lengths would roughly be in the ratio of their concentrations. Equilibrium between the transmitted channel intensities was maintained by using a novel feedback servo mechanism to adjust the length of the 13C channel cell. Extensive computational simulations were performed to study the effect of various possible interferents and their results were considered in the design of the instrument so as to achieve the desired measurement precision of 1%. Specially designed gas cells and a custom made gas filling rig were also developed. A complete virtual interface for both instrument control and data acquisition was implemented in LABVIEW. Initial tests were used to validate the theory and a basic working device was demonstrated.

  4. Architectural design for a low cost FPGA-based traffic signal detection system in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ignacio; Salvador, Rubén; Alarcón, Jaime; Moreno, Félix

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we propose an architecture for an embedded traffic signal detection system. Development of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) is one of the major trends of research in automotion nowadays. Examples of past and ongoing projects in the field are CHAMELEON ("Pre-Crash Application all around the vehicle" IST 1999-10108), PREVENT (Preventive and Active Safety Applications, FP6-507075, http://www.prevent-ip.org/) and AVRT in the US (Advanced Vision-Radar Threat Detection (AVRT): A Pre-Crash Detection and Active Safety System). It can be observed a major interest in systems for real-time analysis of complex driving scenarios, evaluating risk and anticipating collisions. The system will use a low cost CCD camera on the dashboard facing the road. The images will be processed by an Altera Cyclone family FPGA. The board does median and Sobel filtering of the incoming frames at PAL rate, and analyzes them for several categories of signals. The result is conveyed to the driver. The scarce resources provided by the hardware require an architecture developed for optimal use. The system will use a combination of neural networks and an adapted blackboard architecture. Several neural networks will be used in sequence for image analysis, by reconfiguring a single, generic hardware neural network in the FPGA. This generic network is optimized for speed, in order to admit several executions within the frame rate. The sequence will follow the execution cycle of the blackboard architecture. The global, blackboard architecture being developed and the hardware architecture for the generic, reconfigurable FPGA perceptron will be explained in this paper. The project is still at an early stage. However, some hardware implementation results are already available and will be offered in the paper.

  5. Low cost, robust and real time system for detecting and tracking moving objects to automate cargo handling in port terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, V.; Repiso, E.; Sanfeliu, A.; Vissers, J.; Kwakkernaat, M.

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking moving objects for autonomous cargo handling in port terminals using a perception system which input data is a single layer laser scanner. A computationally low cost and robust Detection and Tracking Moving Objects (DATMO) algorithm

  6. Low cost, robust and real time system for detecting and tracking moving objects to automate cargo handling in port terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, V.; Repiso, E.; Sanfeliu, A.; Vissers, J.; Kwakkernaat, M.

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking moving objects for autonomous cargo handling in port terminals using a perception system which input data is a single layer laser scanner. A computationally low cost and robust Detection and Tracking Moving Objects (DATMO) algorithm

  7. Evaluation of a low cost wireless heat ratio method system for measuring transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, D.; Boyer, B.; Aishlin, P. S.; Bowling, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    For decades, environmental measurements in remote locations have consisted of sensors hard wired to loggers that send data to central servers via radio, satellite, or cellular telemetry. This model of data collection is effective when all sensors are located in close proximity to the central data logger, such as on a weather station. Frequently, however, in order to adequately capture the spatial heterogeneity associated with environmental processes (e.g., transpiration, soil moisture, or snow depth), it is necessary to install many sensors 10's to 100's of meters from a central data logging station. This presents a practical and financial obstacle when considering the cost of cabling and conduit, in addition to the potential data collection and data quality problems associated with long cable runs. We offer a solution to this persistent challenge with a hybrid datalogging system that combines the power and reliability of Campbell Scientific logging and telemetry equipment with low cost Xbee radios and Arduino based data logging platforms. To evaluate the promise of this hybrid datalogging concept we developed a new generation of low cost, homemade heat ratio sapflux sensors and tested them at a forested site in the Wasatch Mountains, near Salt Lake City, Utah. We present data from this test site, heat ratio method sensor construction details, and example code that merges the capabilities of Arduino and Campbell Scientific datalogging systems.

  8. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  9. Low-cost Evaporator Protection Method against Corrosion in a Pulverized Coal Fired Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Krzysztof Dyjakon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion processes appearing on the watertubes in a combustion chamber of pulverized coal-fired boilers require permanent control and service. Subject to the power plant strategy, different anti-corrosion protection methods can be applied. Technical-economical analysis has been performed to evaluate and support the decisions on maintenance and operation services. The paper presents and discusses results of the application of an air protection system in boiler OP-230 in view of anti-corrosion measures. It is indicated that a low-cost protection method of watertubes (evaporator against corrosion can be efficient and lead to financial savings in comparison to the standard procedure of replacement of watertube panels.

  10. A comparison of attitude propagation and parameterization methods for low-cost UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Robert Taylor

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent an increasingly important and prolific technology in today's world, finding use in myriad applications across multiple domains, including civil, commercial, military, and research environments. Control of these aircraft requires fundamental information on the vehicle's position and orientation in space. Attitude determination algorithms calculate this spatial orientation by propagating the attitude kinematic equations that estimate the current attitude based on previous estimates along with information about the vehicle's angular velocities. Within the domain of low-cost UAVs, numerous options exist for the choice of 1) propagation algorithms, 2) attitude representation, and 3) the assumptions about the behavior of the angular velocity vector between samples within the discrete-time hardware of the embedded system typically running the estimation algorithms. This thesis examines the impact of these three variables upon propagated attitude estimates with respect to accuracy, computational efficiency, and noise response. Noise response is evaluated in terms of the algorithm's ability to track an underlying clean signal in spite of inputs corrupted by additive Gaussian noise. Various propagation methods are evaluated across four attitude representations: the direction cosine matrix, Euler angles, quaternions, and the angle-axis or eigen-axis parameterization. Lastly, the nature of angular velocity (constant, linear, and quadratic) is evaluated in terms of accuracy, computational efficiency, and noise resilience. The algorithms were tested using simulated angular velocity inputs from analytic functions as well as flight test data from low-cost, fixed wing UAVs. Implementation was done in Matlab as well as Simulink-based test modules to evaluate algorithm performance. The quaternion parameterization proved most beneficial across all three test metrics, though the DCM representation was only slightly deficient in terms of

  11. Schistosoma mansoni in a low-prevalence area in Brazil: the importance of additional methods for the diagnosis of hard-to-detect individual carriers by low-cost immunological assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis diagnosis is based on the detection of eggs in the faeces, which is laborious and lacks sensitivity, especially for patients with a low parasite burden. Immunological assays for specific antibody detection are available, but they usually demonstrate low sensitivity and/or specificity. In this study, two simple immunological assays were evaluated for the detection of soluble Schistosoma mansoni adult worm preparation (SWAP and egg-specific IgGs. These studies have not yet been evaluated for patients with low parasite burdens. Residents of an endemic area in Brazil donated sera and faecal samples for our study. The patients were initially diagnosed by a rigorous Kato-Katz analysis of 18 thick smears from four different stool samples. The ELISA-SWAP was successful for human diagnosis with 90% sensitivity and specificity, confirming the Kato-Katz diagnosis with nearly perfect agreement, as seen by the Kappa index (0.85. Although the ELISA-soluble S. mansoni egg antigen was 85% sensitive, it exhibited low specificity (80%; Kappa index: 0.75 and was more susceptible to cross-reactivity. We believe that immunological assays should be used in conjunction with Kato-Katz analysis as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis for patients with low infection burdens, which are usually hard to detect.

  12. Investigation of Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source ...

  13. Investigation of a Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source P...

  14. Study of Low Cost and Environmentally Friendly Fruit Nursery Paper Using a Printing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyun Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit nursery paper is a protective technical paper that is used in agriculture to improve the percentage of the fruit that meets quality standards and the fruit’s exterior qualities, such as the smooth surface finish and fruit color. In this work, a more efficient and environmentally friendly method, i.e., the printing method, was proposed in order to minimize environmental pollution, reduce the loss of carbon black, and lower the high production cost caused by the traditional method of directly adding carbon black. The effects of printing pressure and inking amount on the properties of the fruit nursery paper were investigated. The durability and safety of the fruit nursery paper produced by the printing method were also studied. The optimal inking amount and printing pressure under laboratory conditions were 1 mL and 350 N, respectively. The amount of ink transferred to the paper surface increased with increasing printing pressure, which led to better opacity but slightly decreased porosity and softness. A more important finding was that the fruit nursery paper produced by the printing method had excellent durability, and the properties can satisfy the requirements of the end use and safety standards of 94/62/EC stipulated by the Europeon Parliament and Councile directive. Based on these low-cost, environmentally friendly characteristics, the development of this new fruit nursery paper could be beneficial.

  15. A simple, low-cost method to monitor duration of ground water pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, S; Perrin, J; Wajid, M; Mascre, C; Dewandel, B

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring ground water withdrawals for agriculture is a difficult task, while agricultural development leads frequently to overexploitation of the aquifers. To fix the problem, sustainable management is required based on the knowledge of water uses. This paper introduces a simple and inexpensive direct method to determine the duration of pumping of a well by measuring the temperature of its water outlet pipe. A pumping phase is characterized by a steady temperature value close to ground water temperature. The method involves recording the temperature of the outlet pipe and identifying the different stages of pumping. It is based on the use of the low-cost and small-size Thermochron iButton temperature logger and can be applied to any well, provided that a water outlet pipe is accessible. The temperature time series are analyzed to determine the duration of pumping through manual and automatic posttreatments. The method was tested and applied in South India for irrigation wells using electricity-powered pumps. The duration of pumping obtained by the iButton method is fully consistent with the duration of power supply (1.5% difference).

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of low cost UAV generated topography for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    With the recent explosion in the use and availability of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms and development of easy to use structure from motion software, UAV based photogrammetry is increasingly being adopted to produce high resolution topography for the study of surface processes. UAV systems can vary substantially in price and complexity, but the tradeoffs between these and the quality of the resulting data are not well constrained. We look at one end of this spectrum and evaluate the effectiveness of a simple low cost UAV setup for obtaining high resolution topography in a challenging field setting. Our study site is the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge that we have monitored with terrestrial Lidar since 2009. The site presents challenges for the generation and analysis of high resolution topography, including vertical gorge walls, vegetation, wide variation in surface roughness, and a complicated 3D morphology. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV-derived topography, we compare it with terrestrial Lidar data collected during the same survey period. Our UAV setup combines a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter with a 16 megapixel Canon Powershot camera for a total platform cost of less than $850. The quadcopter is flown manually, and the camera is programmed to take a photograph every 5 seconds, yielding 200-250 pictures per flight. We measured ground control points and targets for both the Lidar scans and the aerial surveys using a Leica RTK GPS with 1-2 cm accuracy. UAV derived point clouds were obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software. We conducted both Lidar and UAV surveys before and after a summer typhoon season, allowing us to evaluate the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of one to several meters. We find that this simple UAV setup can yield point clouds with an average accuracy on the order of 10 cm compared to the Lidar point clouds. Well-distributed and accurately located ground

  17. A Performance Improvement Method for Low-Cost Land Vehicle GPS/MEMS-INS Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global positioning system (GPS technology is well suited for attitude determination. However, in land vehicle application, low-cost single frequency GPS receivers which have low measurement quality are often used, and external factors such as multipath and low satellite visibility in the densely built-up urban environment further degrade the quality of the GPS measurements. Due to the low-quality receivers used and the challenging urban environment, the success rate of the single epoch ambiguity resolution for dynamic attitude determination is usually quite low. In this paper, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS—inertial navigation system (INS-aided ambiguity resolution method is proposed to improve the GPS attitude determination performance, which is particularly suitable for land vehicle attitude determination. First, the INS calculated baseline vector is augmented with the GPS carrier phase and code measurements. This improves the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP, resulting in better quality of the unconstrained float solution. Second, the undesirable float solutions caused by large measurement errors are further filtered and replaced using the INS-aided ambiguity function method (AFM. The fixed solutions are then obtained by the constrained least squares ambiguity decorrelation (CLAMBDA algorithm. Finally, the GPS/MEMS-INS integration is realized by the use of a Kalman filter. Theoretical analysis of the ADOP is given and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can significantly improve the quality of the float ambiguity solution, leading to high success rate and better accuracy of attitude determination.

  18. A performance improvement method for low-cost land vehicle GPS/MEMS-INS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Li, Ercui; Qin, Honglei; Ling, Keck Voon; Xue, Rui

    2015-03-09

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology is well suited for attitude determination. However, in land vehicle application, low-cost single frequency GPS receivers which have low measurement quality are often used, and external factors such as multipath and low satellite visibility in the densely built-up urban environment further degrade the quality of the GPS measurements. Due to the low-quality receivers used and the challenging urban environment, the success rate of the single epoch ambiguity resolution for dynamic attitude determination is usually quite low. In this paper, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-inertial navigation system (INS)-aided ambiguity resolution method is proposed to improve the GPS attitude determination performance, which is particularly suitable for land vehicle attitude determination. First, the INS calculated baseline vector is augmented with the GPS carrier phase and code measurements. This improves the ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP), resulting in better quality of the unconstrained float solution. Second, the undesirable float solutions caused by large measurement errors are further filtered and replaced using the INS-aided ambiguity function method (AFM). The fixed solutions are then obtained by the constrained least squares ambiguity decorrelation (CLAMBDA) algorithm. Finally, the GPS/MEMS-INS integration is realized by the use of a Kalman filter. Theoretical analysis of the ADOP is given and experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can significantly improve the quality of the float ambiguity solution, leading to high success rate and better accuracy of attitude determination.

  19. Low cost methodology for estrogens monitoring in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Diana L D; Silva, Carla Patrícia; Otero, Marta; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2013-10-15

    A new low cost methodology for estrogens' analysis in water samples was developed in this work. Based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, the developed method is fast, cheap, easy-to-use, uses low volumes of organic solvents and has the possibility of a large number of samples to be extracted in parallel. Under optimum conditions (sample volume: 8 mL; extraction solvent: 200 μL of chlorobenzene; dispersive solvent: 2000 μL of acetone), the enrichment factor and extraction recoveries were 145 and 72% for 17β-estradiol (E2) and 178 and 89% for 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), respectively. Limits of detection of 2.0 ng L(-1) for E2 and 6.5 ng L(-1) for EE2 were achieved, allowing the detection and quantification of these compounds in surface and waste water samples with concentrations from 12 to 32 ng L(-1) for E2 and from 11 to 18 ng L(-1) for EE2. Also, recovery tests were performed to evaluate possible matrix effects. Recoveries between 98% and 106% were obtained using humic acids (HA) to simulate the effect of organic matter, and between 86% and 120% in real water samples.

  20. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2009-11-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an adhesion promoter for the AZ 9260 photoresist and as an undercutting material to produce mushroom-shaped fibers. The benefits to this process are ease of fabrication, wide range of potential layer thicknesses, no special surface treatment requirements to demold silicone adhesives and easy stripping of the full mold if process failure does occur. Sylgard® 184 silicone is used to cast full sheets of biomimetic dry adhesives off 4" diameter wafers, and different fiber geometries are tested for normal adhesion properties. Additionally, failure modes of the adhesive during fabrication are noted and strategies for avoiding these failures are discussed. We use this fabrication method to produce different fiber geometries with varying cap diameters and test them for normal adhesion strengths. The results indicate that the cap diameters relative to post diameters for mushroom-shaped fibers dominate the adhesion properties.

  1. A Rapid and Low-Cost Nonlithographic Method to Fabricate Biomedical Microdevices for Blood Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are electrical/mechanical systems that offer the ability to work with minimal sample volumes, short reactions times, and have the possibility to perform massive parallel operations. An important application of microfluidics is blood rheology in microdevices, which has played a key role in recent developments of lab-on-chip devices for blood sampling and analysis. The most popular and traditional method to fabricate these types of devices is the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS soft lithography technique, which requires molds, usually produced by photolithography. Although the research results are extremely encouraging, the high costs and time involved in the production of molds by photolithography is currently slowing down the development cycle of these types of devices. Here we present a simple, rapid, and low-cost nonlithographic technique to create microfluidic systems for biomedical applications. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to perform cell free layer (CFL measurements and the formation of microbubbles in continuous blood flow.

  2. Evaluating the accuracy of low cost UAV generated topography and its effectiveness for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen

    2015-04-01

    With the recent explosion in the use and availability of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms and development of easy to use structure from motion (SfM) software, UAV based photogrammetry is increasingly being adopted to produce high resolution topography for the study of surface processes. UAV systems can vary substantially in price and complexity, but the tradeoffs between these and the quality of the resulting data are not well constrained. We look at one end of this spectrum and evaluate the effectiveness of a simple low cost UAV setup for obtaining high resolution topography in a challenging field setting. Our study site is the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a rapidly eroding bedrock gorge that we have monitored with terrestrial Lidar since 2009. The site presents challenges for the generation and analysis of high resolution topography, including vertical gorge walls, vegetation, wide variation in surface roughness, and a complicated 3D morphology. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the UAV-derived topography, we compare it with terrestrial Lidar data collected during the same survey period. Our UAV setup combines a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter with a 16 megapixel Canon Powershot camera for a total platform cost of less than 850. The quadcopter is flown manually, and the camera is programmed to take a photograph every 4 seconds, yielding 200-250 pictures per flight. We measured ground control points and targets for both the Lidar scans and the aerial surveys using a Leica RTK GPS with 1-2 cm accuracy. UAV derived point clouds were obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software. We conducted both Lidar and UAV surveys before and after the 2014 typhoon season, allowing us to evaluate the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of one to several meters. The accuracy of the SfM point clouds depends strongly on the characteristics of the surface being considered, with vegetation and small scale texture causing inaccuracies. However, we

  3. High Quality, Low Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Grown by the Electrochemical Solution Growth Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seacrist, Michael [SunEdison Inc., St. Peters, MO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The objective of this project was to develop the Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) method conceived / patented at Sandia National Laboratory into a commercially viable bulk gallium nitride (GaN) growth process that can be scaled to low cost, high quality, and large area GaN wafer substrate manufacturing. The goal was to advance the ESG growth technology by demonstrating rotating seed growth at the lab scale and then transitioning process to prototype commercial system, while validating the GaN material and electronic / optical device quality. The desired outcome of the project is a prototype commercial process for US-based manufacturing of high quality, large area, and lower cost GaN substrates that can drive widespread deployment of energy efficient GaN-based power electronic and optical devices. In year 1 of the project (Sept 2012 – Dec 2013) the overall objective was to demonstrate crystalline GaN growth > 100um on a GaN seed crystal. The development plan included tasks to demonstrate and implement a method for purifying reagent grade salts, develop the reactor 1 process for rotating seed Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG) of GaN, grow and characterize ESG GaN films, develop a fluid flow and reaction chemistry model for GaN film growth, and design / build an improved growth reactor capable of scaling to 50mm seed diameter. The first year’s project objectives were met in some task areas including salt purification, film characterization, modeling, and reactor 2 design / fabrication. However, the key project objective of the growth of a crystalline GaN film on the seed template was not achieved. Amorphous film growth on the order of a few tenths of a micron has been detected with a film composition including Ga and N, plus several other impurities originating from the process solution and hardware. The presence of these impurities, particularly the oxygen, has inhibited the demonstration of crystalline GaN film growth on the seed template. However, the

  4. A Low-Cost Production Method of FeSi2 Power Generation Thermoelectric Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takahide; Kato, Masahiko; Yoneda, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    A method is proposed to reduce the production cost of power generation thermoelectric modules. FeSi2 is employed as the thermoelectric material because of its low cost, low environmental load, and oxidation resistance. The raw materials were prepared in the composition of Fe0.96Si2.1Co0.04 for n-type and Fe0.92Si2.1Mn0.08 for p-type, which were added with 0.5 wt.% Cu as the starting materials. They were sintered without pressure at 1446 K to be formed into elements. The Seebeck coefficient and resistivity at room temperature were determined to be -182 μV/K and 0.13 mΩm for n-type, and 338 μV/K and 1.13 mΩm for p-type, respectively. The brazing conditions of the direct joining between the element and the solder were examined. Pastes of BNi-6, BNi-7 or TB-608T were tried as the solder. TB-608T was useable for metallizing of insulation substrates and joining of thermoelectric elements in order to manufacture thermoelectric modules. The joining strength was determined to be 50 MPa between the alumina plate and the elements. No mechanical failure was observed in the modules after repetition of 10 or more exposures to a heat source of 670 K. No change was found in the internal resistance. The present production method will provide modules with high durability and low production cost, which will enable high-power multi-stage cascade modules at a reasonable cost.

  5. A four-filter method for outsourcing to low-cost countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, D.J.F.; van Nieulande, V.

    2010-01-01

    Many companies face the challenge of outsourcing to low-cost countries. Still, many managers seem to be uncertain about (1) which inputs should be selected for this exercise; (2) which countries are preferred; and (3) whether to deal directly with suppliers or through a local distributor or agent.

  6. netPICOMAG: a low-cost turn-key magnetometer for aurora detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, I.; Connors, M.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work on development of a compact, low-cost, fluxgate magnetometer, dubbed PICOMAG, yielded a 1-nanotesla resolution, 1-second cadence instrument, suitable for research or teaching solar/terrestrial physics. With a low-cost magnetic instrument and the wider availability of Internet connectivity in the auroral zone (of Canada for example), the potential exists to fill gaps in spatial coverage that still plague auroral geomagnetic research. Thus, the ability to widely distribute accurate, low cost magnetometers was the motivating factor to develop PICOMAG. NetPICOMAG was developed in the effort to refine PICOMAG into a turn-key magnetometer data collection system that is self contained, simple to install and requires zero-maintenance. Once the unit is placed in the ground and connected to the Internet, it locks onto a GPS time signal and begins to transmit magnetic field measurements back to a central data repository, where it is archived, processed and plotted for public viewing via the World Wide Web. It is envisaged (among many other uses) that science teachers can use real scientific data provided by netPICOMAG in teaching the interactions between the sun and the Earth's magnetic field, manifesting itself in the phenomenon known as the northern lights. As such, netPICOMAG can be aptly described and is being promoted as an aurora detector. The netPICOMAG unit is based around three spatially oriented Speake and Company FGM-3/3h series magnetic field sensors that each emit a pulse stream whose frequency is related to the magnetic field along these three axes, and is nearly linearly related to magnetic field perturbations relevant to auroral studies. The individual pulse frequencies are measured by two PIC18F252 programmable microcontrollers. The measurements are combined with a GPS timestamp from a Garmin GPS 18 LVC GPS receiver, and transmitted as plain text as UDP datagrams by a Rabbit Semiconductor RCM4010 8-bit, networked microcontroller module. The self

  7. Safe and private pedestrian detection by a low-cost fiber optic specklegram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cuevas, A.; Rodriguez-Cobo, L.; Lomer, M.; Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

    2017-04-01

    Surveillance is becoming more and more important in the recent years. In many cities, cameras have been set to look after parks, streets, roads, facilities and so on, however this fact is rising concerns about privacy. In this work, an alternative surveillance method which gather at once security and privacy has been propose and tested. Based on fiber optic specklegram technology; a system consisting of a fiber optic, a coherent light source and a photodetector has been placed under a carpet for detecting people walking over it and its accuracy, regarding measuring the steps, have been measured. Results suggest that using low exposed geometries along the carpet and basic processing methods, it is possible to detect with more than 95% of accuracy the number of steps done by the person walking over the carpet.

  8. Development of low-cost inverted microscope to detect early growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MODS culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Zimic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay for rapid, low-cost detection of tuberculosis and multidrug resistant tuberculosis depends upon visualization of the characteristic cording colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid media. This has conventionally required an inverted light microscope in order to inspect the MODS culture plates from below. Few tuberculosis laboratories have this item and the capital cost of $5,000 for a high-end microscope could be a significant obstacle to MODS roll-out. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that the precise definition provided by costly high-specification inverted light microscopes might not be necessary for pattern recognition. SIGNIFICANCE: In this work we describe the development of a low-cost artesenal inverted microscope that can operate in both a standard or digital mode to effectively replace the expensive commercial inverted light microscope, and an integrated system that could permit a local and remote diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  9. A Low-Cost Teaching Model of Inguinal Canal: A Useful Method to Teach Surgical Concepts in Hernia Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Frederico; Ceresoli, Marco; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Inguinal canal anatomy and hernia repair is difficult for medical students and surgical residents to comprehend. Methods: Using low-cost material, a 3-dimensional inexpensive model of the inguinal canal was created to allow students to learn anatomical details and landmarks and to perform their own simulated hernia repair. In order to…

  10. Rapid and low-cost biosensor for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaifan, Ghadeer A R Y; Alhogail, Sahar; Zourob, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S. aureus proteases on a specific peptide substrate, sandwiched between magnetic nanobeads and gold surface on top of a paper support. An external magnet was fixed on the back of the sensor to accelerate the cleavage of the magnetic nanobeads-peptide moieties away from the sensor surface upon test sample dropping. The colour change resulting from the dissociation of the magnetic nanobeads moieties was detected by the naked eye and analysed using ImageJ analysis software for the purpose of quantitative measurement. Experimental results showed detection limits as low as 7, 40 and 100 CFU/mL for S. aureus in pure broth culture, and inoculated in food produces and environmental samples, respectively upon visual observation. The specificity of the sensor was examined by blind testing a panel of food-contaminating pathogens (Listeria monocytogenesis 19115 and E. coli O157:H7), clinical isolates (methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Candida albicans) and standard (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15692) pathogens. Negative read-out was observed by the naked eye for all tested isolates except for MRSA. Moreover, this sensing tool requires minute's time to obtain the results. In conclusion, this sensing platform is a powerful tool for the detection of S. aureus as a potential point-of-care diagnostic platform in hospitals and for use by regulatory agencies for better control of health-risks associated with contaminated food

  11. Implementation of a Low-Cost Automated LED Photometer for Enzymatic Reaction Detection to Teach Basic Bioelectronics Technologies in Vocational High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huai-Yi; Nieh, Hwa-Ming; Yang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Yu-Kung; Chung, Jui-Hsu; Liou, Je-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a home-assembled, low-cost blue light-emitting diode (LED) photometer that uses simple and low-cost hardware and software, costing about US $150. This 425-nm wavelength photometer is controlled by an 89C51 microcontroller chip. Glucose concentration detection experiments involving enzyme coupling reactions were carried out to…

  12. Implementation of a novel efficient low cost method in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, S.; Sepehry, N.; Shamshirsaz, M.; Vaghasloo, Y. A.

    2017-05-01

    In active structural health monitoring (SHM) methods, it is necessary to excite the structure with a preselected signal. More studies in the field of active SHM are focused on applying SHM on higher frequency ranges since it is possible to detect smaller damages, using higher excitation frequency. Also, to increase spatial domain of measurements and enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR), the amplitude of excitation signal is usually amplified. These issues become substantial where piezoelectric transducers with relatively high capacitance are used and consequently, need to utilize high power amplifiers becomes predominant. In this paper, a novel method named Step Excitation Method (SEM) is proposed and implemented for Lamb wave and transfer impedance-based SHM for damage detection in structures. Three different types of structure are studied: beam, plate and pipe. The related hardware is designed and fabricated which eliminates high power analog amplifiers and decreases complexity of driver significantly. Spectral Finite Element Method (SFEM) is applied to examine performance of proposed SEM. In proposed method, by determination of impulse response of the system, any input could be applied to the system by both finite element simulations and experiments without need for multiple measurements. The experimental results using SEM are compared with those obtained by conventional direct excitation method for healthy and damaged structures. The results show an improvement of amplitude resolution in damage detection comparing to conventional method which is due to achieving an SNR improvement up to 50%.

  13. A practicable method for color classification using low-cost remission/reflection sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Robert; Ibraheem, Issa; Madritsch, Christian V.; Kabirpanthi, Neel; Römhild, Dieter; Starke, Dietmar; Mannheim, Volker; Schwab, Werner; Krohn, Jørgen; Randa, Jan; Klinger, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    A low-cost sensor platform (MORES Sensor) was combined with a microcontroller to build up an embedded solution which e.g. allows for a small hand-held Color Estimation System for blind people. The color sensor used here measures the intensity response of a surface caused by radiation with a specific wavelength in the range of visible light. This radiation is realized by means of three LEDs, red, green, and blue, so that the response intensity values create an R'G'B' color space, which differs from the standardized RGB color space due to the wavelengths of the LEDs. By adjusting the measured response of the LEDs to the known spectral response of the individual color panels of the Macbeth Color Checker Chart (MCCC) a corresponding set of coordinates can be constructed for this particular R'G'B' color space. Owing to this approach, it is possible to obtain reasonable color classification results, which can be compared to those of far more complex and expensive systems. The verification of the results was done by using the standardized MCCC together with commercial vision solutions (RGB camera in combination with PC software). Moreover, some comparison tests also prove the practicality of the here described low-cost color sensor solution.

  14. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  15. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  16. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  17. Low-cost rapid detection of rifampicin resistant tuberculosis using bacteriophage in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Peter G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a serious public health problem. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, defined as resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid, has been reported in all regions of the world. Current phenotypic methods of assessing drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis are slow. Rapid molecular methods to detect resistance to rifampicin have been developed but they are not affordable in some high prevalence countries such as those in sub Saharan Africa. A simple multi-well plate assay using mycobacteriophage D29 has been developed to test M. tuberculosis isolates for resistance to rifampicin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of this technology in Kampala, Uganda. Methods In a blinded study 149 M. tuberculosis isolates were tested for resistance to rifampicin by the phage assay and results compared to those from routine phenotypic testing in BACTEC 460. Three concentrations of drug were used 2, 4 and 10 μg/ml. Isolates found resistant by either assay were subjected to sequence analysis of a 81 bp fragment of the rpoB gene to identify mutations predictive of resistance. Four isolates with discrepant phage and BACTEC results were tested in a second phenotypic assay to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations. Results Initial analysis suggested a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.5% respectively for the phage assay used at 4 and 10 μg/ml when compared to the BACTEC 460. However, further analysis revealed 4 false negative results from the BACTEC 460 and the phage assay proved the more sensitive and specific of the two tests. Of the 39 isolates found resistant by the phage assay 38 (97.4% were found to have mutations predictive of resistance in the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene. When used at 2 μg/ml false resistant results were observed from the phage assay. The cost of reagents for testing each isolate was estimated to be 1.3US$ when testing a batch of 20

  18. Feasibility Analysis of Low Cost Graphical Processing Units for Electromagnetic Field Simulations by Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhari, A V; Gupta, M R

    2013-01-01

    Among several techniques available for solving Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) problems, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is one of the best suited approaches when a parallelized hardware platform is used. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of implementing the FDTD method using the NVIDIA GT 520, a low cost Graphical Processing Unit (GPU), for solving the differential form of Maxwell's equation in time domain. Initially a generalized benchmarking problem of bandwidth test and another benchmarking problem of 'matrix left division is discussed for understanding the correlation between the problem size and the performance on the CPU and the GPU respectively. This is further followed by the discussion of the FDTD method, again implemented on both, the CPU and the GT520 GPU. For both of the above comparisons, the CPU used is Intel E5300, a low cost dual core CPU.

  19. Low-cost digital impedance meter for the detection of micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, C J; Clavin, O E; Spinelli, J C; Valentinuzzi, M E; Gallo, B V

    1988-10-01

    The digital impedance meter is a microprocessor-based instrument able to detect, quantify and identify micro-organisms. The equipment makes use of the bipolar technique of measuring the impedance modulus of six cells containing inoculated culture broth. It performs temperature compensation automatically. Growth curves are stored in memory as time course events and can be displayed on any suitable device.

  20. Detecting Forward-Scattered Radio Signals from Atmospheric Meteors Using Low-Cost Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snjegota, Ana; Rattenbury, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    The forward scattering of radio signals from atmospheric meteors is a known technique used to detect meteor trails. This article outlines the project that used the forward-scattering technique to observe the 2015 August, September, and October meteor showers, as well as sporadic meteors, in the Southern Hemisphere. This project can easily be…

  1. An evaluation of the effectiveness of low-cost UAVs and structure from motion for geomorphic change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen L.

    2017-02-01

    The measurement of topography and of topographic change is essential for the study of many geomorphic processes. In recent years, structure from motion (SfM) techniques applied to photographs taken by camera-equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has become a powerful new tool for the generation of high resolution topography. The variety of available UAV systems continues to increase rapidly, but it is not clear whether increased UAV sophistication translates into improved quality of the calculated topography. To evaluate the lower end of the UAV spectrum, a simple low cost UAV was deployed to calculate high resolution topography in the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, a site with a complicated 3D morphology and a wide range of surface types, making it a challenging site for topographic measurement. Terrestrial lidar surveys were conducted in parallel with UAV surveys in both June and November 2014, enabling an assessment of the reliability of the UAV survey to detect geomorphic changes in the range of 30 cm to several meters. A further UAV survey was conducted in June 2015 in order to quantify changes resulting from the 2015 spring monsoon. To evaluate the accuracy of the UAV derived topography, it was compared to terrestrial lidar data collected during the same survey period using the cloud-to-cloud comparison algorithm M3C2. The UAV-generated point clouds match the lidar point clouds well, with RMS errors of 30-40 cm; however, the accuracy of the SfM point clouds depends strongly on the characteristics of the surface being considered, with vegetation, water, and small scale texture causing inaccuracies. The lidar and SfM data yield similar maps of change from June to November 2014, with the same areas of geomorphic change detected by both methods. The SfM-generated change map for November 2014 to June 2015 indicates that the 2015 spring monsoon caused erosion throughout the gorge and highlights the importance of event-driven erosion in the Daan River. The

  2. Advanced methods of low cost mission design for Jovian moons exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grushevskii, Alexey; Koryanov, Victor; Tuchin, Andrey; Golubev, Yury; Tuchin, Denis

    2016-07-01

    DeltaV-low-cost gravity assists tours mission design of for the Jovian Moons exploration is considered (orbiters and probes around Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto), taking radiation hazard into account. Limited dynamic opportunities of using flybys require multiple gravity assists. Relevance of regular creation of optimum scenarios - sequences of passing of celestial bodies with definition of conditions of their execution is obvious. This work is devoted to the description of criteria for creation of such chains. New Multi-Tisserand coordinates [1,2] for this purpose are introduced for the best study of features for the radiation hazard decrease and the spacecraft asymptotic velocity reduction. One of main problems of the Jovian system mission design (JIMO, JUICE, Laplas P) is that the reduction of the asymptotic velocity of the spacecraft with respect to the satellite for the Jovian moon's capture is impossible. A valid reason is in the invariance of Jacobi integral and Tisserand parameter in a restricted three-body model (RTBP) [3]. Furthermore, the same-body flybys tour falls into the hazard radiation zone according the Tisserand-Poincaré graph. Formalized beam's algorithm to overcome this "problem of the ballistic destiny" with using full ephemeris model and with several coupled RTBP engaging has been implemented. Withal low-cost reduction of the spacecraft asymptotic velocity for the capture of the moon is required. The corresponding numerical scheme was developed with using Tisserand-Poincaré graph and the simulation of tens of millions of options. The Delta V-low cost searching was utilized also with help of the modeling of the multiple rebounds (cross gravity assists) of the beam of trajectories. The techniques are developed by the authors specifically to the needs of the mission "Laplas P" of Roscosmos. If we have answers to the questions "what kind of gravity assists", we need answer on the question "when". New Multi-Tisserand coordinates for this

  3. A low-cost method for estimating energy expenditure during soccer refereeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, Luca Paolo; Padulo, Johnny; Zuliani, Andrea; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to apply a validated bioenergetics model of sprint running to recordings obtained from commercial basic high-sensitivity global positioning system receivers to estimate energy expenditure and physical activity variables during soccer refereeing. We studied five Italian fifth division referees during 20 official matches while carrying the receivers. By applying the model to the recorded speed and acceleration data, we calculated energy consumption during activity, mass-normalised total energy consumption, total distance, metabolically equivalent distance and their ratio over the entire match and the two halves. Main results were as follows: (match) energy consumption = 4729 ± 608 kJ, mass normalised total energy consumption = 74 ± 8 kJ · kg(-1), total distance = 13,112 ± 1225 m, metabolically equivalent distance = 13,788 ± 1151 m and metabolically equivalent/total distance = 1.05 ± 0.05. By using a very low-cost device, it is possible to estimate the energy expenditure of soccer refereeing. The provided predicting mass-normalised total energy consumption versus total distance equation can supply information about soccer refereeing energy demand.

  4. Low cost method for manufacturing a data acquisition system with USB connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, V.; Dobre, R. A.; Popovici, E.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of designing and manufacturing an electronic system the digital oscilloscope plays an essential role but it also represents one of the most expensive equipment present on the typical workbench. In order to make electronic design more accessible to students and hobbyists, an affordable data acquisition system was imagined. The paper extensively presents the development and testing of a low cost, medium speed, data acquisition system which can be used in a wide range of electronic measurement and debugging applications, assuring also great portability due to the small physical dimensions. Each hardware functional block and is thoroughly described, highlighting the challenges that occurred as well as the solutions to overcome them. The entire system was successfully manufactured using high quality components to assure increased reliability, and high frequency PCB materials and techniques were preferred. The measured values determined based on test signals were compared to the ones obtained using a digital oscilloscope available on the market and differences less than 1% were observed.

  5. Image stacking approach to increase sensitivity of fluorescence detection using a low cost complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) webcam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Optical technologies are important for biological analysis. Current biomedical optical analyses rely on high-cost, high-sensitivity optical detectors such as photomultipliers, avalanched photodiodes or cooled CCD cameras. In contrast, Webcams, mobile phones and other popular consumer electronics use lower-sensitivity, lower-cost optical components such as photodiodes or CMOS sensors. In order for consumer electronics devices, such as webcams, to be useful for biomedical analysis, they must have increased sensitivity. We combined two strategies to increase the sensitivity of CMOS-based fluorescence detector. We captured hundreds of low sensitivity images using a Webcam in video mode, instead of a single image typically used in cooled CCD devices.We then used a computational approach consisting of an image stacking algorithm to remove the noise by combining all of the images into a single image. While video mode is widely used for dynamic scene imaging (e.g. movies or time-lapse photography), it is not used to capture a single static image, which removes noise and increases sensitivity by more than thirty fold. The portable, battery-operated Webcam-based fluorometer system developed here consists of five modules: (1) a low cost CMOS Webcam to monitor light emission, (2) a plate to perform assays, (3) filters and multi-wavelength LED illuminator for fluorophore excitation, (4) a portable computer to acquire and analyze images, and (5) image stacking software for image enhancement. The samples consisted of various concentrations of fluorescein, ranging from 30 μM to 1000 μM, in a 36-well miniature plate. In the single frame mode, the fluorometer's limit-of-detection (LOD) for fluorescein is ∼1000 μM, which is relatively insensitive. However, when used in video mode combined with image stacking enhancement, the LOD is dramatically reduced to 30 μM, sensitivity which is similar to that of state-of-the-art ELISA plate photomultiplier-based readers. Numerous medical

  6. On the Use of a Low-Cost Thermal Sensor to Improve Kinect People Detection in a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lazkano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Detecting people is a key capability for robots that operate in populated environments. In this paper, we have adopted a hierarchical approach that combines classifiers created using supervised learning in order to identify whether a person is in the view-scope of the robot or not. Our approach makes use of vision, depth and thermal sensors mounted on top of a mobile platform. The set of sensors is set up combining the rich data source offered by a Kinect sensor, which provides vision and depth at low cost, and a thermopile array sensor. Experimental results carried out with a mobile platform in a manufacturing shop floor and in a science museum have shown that the false positive rate achieved using any single cue is drastically reduced. The performance of our algorithm improves other well-known approaches, such as C4 and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG.

  7. On the Use of a Low-Cost Thermal Sensor to Improve Kinect People Detection in a Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperregi, Loreto; Sierra, Basilio; Castrillón, Modesto; Lorenzo, Javier; Martínez-Otzeta, Jose María; Lazkano, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Detecting people is a key capability for robots that operate in populated environments. In this paper, we have adopted a hierarchical approach that combines classifiers created using supervised learning in order to identify whether a person is in the view-scope of the robot or not. Our approach makes use of vision, depth and thermal sensors mounted on top of a mobile platform. The set of sensors is set up combining the rich data source offered by a Kinect sensor, which provides vision and depth at low cost, and a thermopile array sensor. Experimental results carried out with a mobile platform in a manufacturing shop floor and in a science museum have shown that the false positive rate achieved using any single cue is drastically reduced. The performance of our algorithm improves other well-known approaches, such as C4 and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). PMID:24172285

  8. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  9. Low-Cost Mapping and Publishing Methods for Landscape Architectural Analysis and Design in Slum-Upgrading Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rekittke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The research project “Grassroots GIS” focuses on the development of low-cost mapping and publishing methods for slums and slum-upgrading projects in Manila. In this project smartphones, collaborative mapping and 3D visualization applications are systematically employed to support landscape architectural analysis and design work in the context of urban poverty and urban informal settlements. In this paper we focus on the description of the developed methods and present preliminary results of this work-in-progress.

  10. A Ubiquitous and Low-Cost Solution for Movement Monitoring and Accident Detection Based on Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Felisberto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The low average birth rate in developed countries and the increase in life expectancy have lead society to face for the first time an ageing situation. This situation associated with the World’s economic crisis (which started in 2008 forces the need of equating better and more efficient ways of providing more quality of life for the elderly. In this context, the solution presented in this work proposes to tackle the problem of monitoring the elderly in a way that is not restrictive for the life of the monitored, avoiding the need for premature nursing home admissions. To this end, the system uses the fusion of sensory data provided by a network of wireless sensors placed on the periphery of the user. Our approach was also designed with a low-cost deployment in mind, so that the target group may be as wide as possible. Regarding the detection of long-term problems, the tests conducted showed that the precision of the system in identifying and discerning body postures and body movements allows for a valid monitorization and rehabilitation of the user. Moreover, concerning the detection of accidents, while the proposed solution presented a near 100% precision at detecting normal falls, the detection of more complex falls (i.e., hampered falls will require further study.

  11. A new low-cost method for difficult airway management in non-missile-penetrating cervical spine injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taopheeq B Rabiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessing and maintaining the airway in penetrating cervical spine injury is a challenge for anaesthetists globally. This is more so in resource-poor settings, where advanced techniques for intubation in difficult airway situations are unavailable. We describe a new, low-cost, easily adaptable method of managing the airway used in a middle-aged man who sustained screw driver injury to the cervical spine with C4 Brown-Séquard syndrome. The deployment of readily available and cheap materials led to successful anaesthesia management of the patient.

  12. Preliminary measurement results of biotinylated BSA detection of a low cost optical cavity based biosensor using differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Peter; Joy, Cody; Bujana, Antonio; Rho, DongGee; Kim, Seunghyun

    2016-03-01

    We report an optical cavity based biosensor using a novel differential detection method for point-of-care applications. Two laser diodes allow for multiplexing capability along with the ability to enhance the responsivity using differential detection. The laser wavelengths are chosen so that the optical intensities of two lasers change monotonically with opposite slopes upon the adsorption of desired biomarkers. The cavity width, PMMA thickness, and silver thickness have been optimized to achieve a large change in scaled differential value. We chose biotinylated BSA detection with Avidin as a receptor molecule to demonstrate the proposed design. Avidin is attached directly to the PMMA layer by physisorption. Then, biotinylated BSA is introduced to the sample and the intensities of the laser diodes are measured by a sCMOS camera. A change in the scaled differential value will correlate to the binding of biotinylated BSA. In this presentation, we will discuss simulation results, fabrication procedures, and preliminary measurement results.

  13. A low-cost dielectric spectroscopic system using metamaterial open horn-ring resonator-inspired BSF and detection circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Ratnesh; Patel, Piyush N.

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity in a lower microwave band dielectric spectroscopic system is relatively less compared to that of millimeter wave and terahertz system. This work reports modeling and development of an epsilon-negative metamaterial resonator-inspired microwave band-stop filter as a prototype device and its detection circuitry for the spectroscopic analysis of dielectric samples in S-band. The device structure consists of a diamond-shaped patch with a complementary open split horn-ring resonator, fabricated on a Neltech substrate of relative permittivity ( ɛ r = 3.2). The measured transmission coefficient at 2.2 GHz and simulated result at 2.24 GHz demonstrate an excellent accuracy in the device fabrication. A low-cost connector-type microwave signal detection system was assembled for the real-time transduction of device signal into an equivalent DC voltage. Further, a single channel cavity developed using polydimethylsiloxane was placed over the resonator gap for analyzing the perturbation effect of electric field intensity on the resonance and circuit output DC level for different dielectric samples under test. The performed calibrations show linearity up to 82.5 % in the device response.

  14. Low-cost label-free electrical detection of artificial DNA nanostructures using solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Joon; Jung, Joohye; Lee, Keun Woo; Yoon, Doo Hyun; Jung, Tae Soo; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-11-13

    A high-sensitivity, label-free method for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) was developed. Double-crossover (DX) DNA nanostructures with different concentrations of divalent Cu ion (Cu(2+)) were immobilized on an In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) back-channel surface, which changed the electrical performance of the IGZO TFTs. The detection mechanism of the IGZO TFT-based DNA biosensor is attributed to electron trapping and electrostatic interactions caused by negatively charged phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. Furthermore, Cu(2+) in DX DNA nanostructures generates a current path when a gate bias is applied. The direct effect on the electrical response implies that solution-processed IGZO TFTs could be used to realize low-cost and high-sensitivity DNA biosensors.

  15. A simple, low cost and fast improved fluorimetric method for Histamine measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorpak Z

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The well-known fluorimetric method for histamine measurement which is one of the common methods in diagnostic laboratories was modified to accelerate and facilitate measurement of serum histamine levels and decrease the costs and restrictions. The modified method needs only 1 ml of whole blood (or serum instead of about 10 ml in original method which is difficult almost or impossible specially for children. In addition, very small amounts of the expensive materials are needed and the samples are saved for about 15 days in -20°C which makes no significant changes. Because in most cases, sample can not be read at sampling day, the saving possibility is an advantage for improved method.

  16. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    without caps from a height >1 m. CONCLUSION: Simple, cheap and easily adoptable irrigation methods have great potential to reduce crop contamination in low-income areas. When used in combination with other on-farm and post-harvest risk reduction measures, these will help to comprehensively reduce public......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...

  17. Photonic Low Cost Micro-Sensor for in-Line Wear Particle Detection in Flowing Lube Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microscopic particles in suspension in industrial fluids is often an early warning of latent or imminent failures in the equipment or processes where they are being used. This manuscript describes work undertaken to integrate different photonic principles with a micro- mechanical fluidic structure and an embedded processor to develop a fully autonomous wear debris sensor for in-line monitoring of industrial fluids. Lens-less microscopy, stroboscopic illumination, a CMOS imager and embedded machine vision technologies have been merged to develop a sensor solution that is able to detect and quantify the number and size of micrometric particles suspended in a continuous flow of a fluid. A laboratory test-bench has been arranged for setting up the configuration of the optical components targeting a static oil sample and then a sensor prototype has been developed for migrating the measurement principles to real conditions in terms of operating pressure and flow rate of the oil. Imaging performance is quantified using micro calibrated samples, as well as by measuring real used lubricated oils. Sampling a large fluid volume with a decent 2D spatial resolution, this photonic micro sensor offers a powerful tool at very low cost and compacted size for in-line wear debris monitoring.

  18. Photonic Low Cost Micro-Sensor for in-Line Wear Particle Detection in Flowing Lube Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, Jon; Zubia, Joseba; Gorritxategi, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    The presence of microscopic particles in suspension in industrial fluids is often an early warning of latent or imminent failures in the equipment or processes where they are being used. This manuscript describes work undertaken to integrate different photonic principles with a micro- mechanical fluidic structure and an embedded processor to develop a fully autonomous wear debris sensor for in-line monitoring of industrial fluids. Lens-less microscopy, stroboscopic illumination, a CMOS imager and embedded machine vision technologies have been merged to develop a sensor solution that is able to detect and quantify the number and size of micrometric particles suspended in a continuous flow of a fluid. A laboratory test-bench has been arranged for setting up the configuration of the optical components targeting a static oil sample and then a sensor prototype has been developed for migrating the measurement principles to real conditions in terms of operating pressure and flow rate of the oil. Imaging performance is quantified using micro calibrated samples, as well as by measuring real used lubricated oils. Sampling a large fluid volume with a decent 2D spatial resolution, this photonic micro sensor offers a powerful tool at very low cost and compacted size for in-line wear debris monitoring. PMID:28335436

  19. A Simple Small Size and Low Cost Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance for Selective Detection of Fe(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Cennamo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF, has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III. DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO, having high binding affinity for Fe(III, is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III. The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  20. A simple small size and low cost sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for selective detection of Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Alberti, Giancarla; Pesavento, Maria; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Quattrini, Federico; Biesuz, Raffaela; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-03-07

    A simple, small size, and low cost sensor based on a Deferoxamine Self Assembled Monolayer (DFO-SAM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) transduction, in connection with a Plastic Optical Fiber (POF), has been developed for the selective detection of Fe(III). DFO-SAM sensors based on appropriate electrochemical techniques can be frequently found in the scientific literature. In this work, we present the first example of a DFO-SAM sensor based on SPR in an optical fiber. The SPR sensing platform was realized by removing the cladding of a plastic optical fiber along half the circumference, spin coating a buffer of Microposit S1813 photoresist on the exposed core, and finally sputtering a thin gold film. The hydroxamate siderophore deferoxamine (DFO), having high binding affinity for Fe(III), is then used in its immobilized form, as self-assembled monolayer on the gold layer surface of the POF sensor. The results showed that the DFO-SAM-POF-sensor was able to sense the formation of the Fe(III)/DFO complex in the range of concentrations between 1 μm and 50 μm with a linearity range from 0 to 30 μm of Fe(III). The selectivity of the sensor was also proved by interference tests.

  1. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  2. A novel method for low-cost MIMU aiding GNSS attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingdong; Mao, Xuchu; Tian, Weifeng

    2016-07-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are well suited for attitude determination. In most cases, the success rate of the initialization is always a difficult problem, especially the single-frequency measurement model of the double-difference carrier phase. The main reason for this is excessively large noise error that arises in the measurement of the double-difference carrier phase. When the geometric relations of the equations are not good, the difference between the residual error of the optimal solution and that of the suboptimal solution is not very obvious. In this study, we design a smoothing model based on MEMS. The noise error of the measurement of the double-difference carrier phase is suppressed and smoothed via this model. It is designed to reduce the initialization time and improve the success rate of the solution. In addition, we propose a new method based on the rotation matrix to resolve the attitude angle. This method produces a better performance in reducing computation time and selecting satellites. The condition of the baseline length is combined with the ambiguity function method (AFM) to search for integer ambiguity, and this method is validated in reducing the span of candidates. The experiment is conducted in a selected campus, and the performance is proved to be effective. Our results are based on simulated and real-time GNSS data and are applied on single-frequency processing, which is known as one of the challenging cases of GNSS attitude determination.

  3. A low cost automatic detection and ranging system for space surveillance in the medium Earth orbit region and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Turcu, Vlad

    2014-02-11

    The space around the Earth is filled with man-made objects, which orbit the planet at altitudes ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of kilometers. Keeping an eye on all objects in Earth's orbit, useful and not useful, operational or not, is known as Space Surveillance. Due to cost considerations, the space surveillance solutions beyond the Low Earth Orbit region are mainly based on optical instruments. This paper presents a solution for real-time automatic detection and ranging of space objects of altitudes ranging from below the Medium Earth Orbit up to 40,000 km, based on two low cost observation systems built using commercial cameras and marginally professional telescopes, placed 37 km apart, operating as a large baseline stereovision system. The telescopes are pointed towards any visible region of the sky, and the system is able to automatically calibrate the orientation parameters using automatic matching of reference stars from an online catalog, with a very high tolerance for the initial guess of the sky region and camera orientation. The difference between the left and right image of a synchronized stereo pair is used for automatic detection of the satellite pixels, using an original difference computation algorithm that is capable of high sensitivity and a low false positive rate. The use of stereovision provides a strong means of removing false positives, and avoids the need for prior knowledge of the orbits observed, the system being able to detect at the same time all types of objects that fall within the measurement range and are visible on the image.

  4. An Efficient Low Cost Method for Gene Transfer to T Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Chicaybam; Andressa Laino Sodre; Bianca Azevedo Curzio; Martin Hernan Bonamino

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. AIMS: We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucle...

  5. Low-Cost Design of an FIR Filter by Using a Coefficient Mapping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chih Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel coefficient mapping method to reduce the area cost of the finite impulse response (FIR filter design, especially for optimizing its coefficients. Being capable of reducing the area cost and improving the filter performance, the proposed mapping method consists of four steps: quantization of coefficients, import of parameters, constitution of prime coefficients with parameters, and constitution of residual coefficients with prime coefficients. Effectiveness of the proposed coefficient mapping method is verified by selecting the 48-tap filter of IS-95 code division multiple access (CDMA standard as the benchmark. Experimental results indicate that the proposed design with canonical signed digit (CSD coefficients can operate at 86 MHz with an area of 241,813 um2, leading to a throughput rate of 1,382 Mbps. Its ratio of throughput/area is 5,715 Kbps/um2, yielding a higher performance than that of previous designs. In summary, the proposed design reduces 5.7% of the total filter area, shortens 25.7% of the critical path delay, and improves 14.8% of the throughput/area by a value over that of the best design reported before.

  6. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  7. A low-cost fabrication method for sub-millimeter wave GaAs Schottky diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenabi, Sarvenaz; Deslandes, Dominic; Boone, Francois; Charlebois, Serge A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a submillimeter-wave Schottky diode is designed and simulated. Effect of Schottky layer thickness on cut-off frequency is studied. A novel microfabrication process is proposed and implemented. The presented microfabrication process avoids electron-beam (e-beam) lithography which reduces the cost. Also, this process provides more flexibility in selection of design parameters and allows significant reduction in the device parasitic capacitance. A key feature of the process is that the Schottky contact, the air-bridges, and the transmission lines, are fabricated in a single lift-off step. This process relies on a planarization method that is suitable for trenches of 1–10 μm deep and is tolerant to end-point variations. The fabricated diode is measured and results are compared with simulations. A very good agreement between simulation and measurement results are observed.

  8. Low cost solution-based materials processing methods for large area OLEDs and OFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jonghwa

    In Part 1, we demonstrate the fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with precisely patterned pixels by the spin-casting of Alq3 and rubrene thin films with dimensions as small as 10 mum. The solution-based patterning technique produces pixels via the segregation of organic molecules into microfabricated channels or wells. Segregation is controlled by a combination of weak adsorbing characteristics of aliphatic terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and by centrifugal force, which directs the organic solution into the channel or well. This novel patterning technique may resolve the limitations of pixel resolution in the method of thermal evaporation using shadow masks, and is applicable to the fabrication of large area displays. Furthermore, the patterning technique has the potential to produce pixel sizes down to the limitation of photolithography and micromachining techniques, thereby enabling the fabrication of high-resolution microdisplays. The patterned OLEDs, based upon a confined structure with low refractive index of SiO2, exhibited higher current density than an unpatterned OLED, which results in higher electroluminescence intensity and eventually more efficient device operation at low applied voltages. We discuss the patterning method and device fabrication, and characterize the morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the organic pixels. In part 2, we demonstrate a new growth technique for organic single crystals based on solvent vapor assisted recrystallization. We show that, by controlling the polarity of the solvent vapor and the exposure time in a closed system, we obtain rubrene in orthorhombic to monoclinic crystal structures. This novel technique for growing single crystals can induce phase shifting and alteration of crystal structure and lattice parameters. The organic molecules showed structural change from orthorhombic to monoclinic, which also provided additional optical transition of hypsochromic shift from

  9. The clinically-integrated randomized trial: proposed novel method for conducting large trials at low cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scardino Peter T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Randomized controlled trials provide the best method of determining which of two comparable treatments is preferable. Unfortunately, contemporary randomized trials have become increasingly expensive, complex and burdened by regulation, so much so that many trials are of doubtful feasibility. Discussion Here we present a proposal for a novel, streamlined approach to randomized trials: the "clinically-integrated randomized trial". The key aspect of our methodology is that the clinical experience of the patient and doctor is virtually indistinguishable whether or not the patient is randomized, primarily because outcome data are obtained from routine clinical data, or from short, web-based questionnaires. Integration of a randomized trial into routine clinical practice also implies that there should be an attempt to randomize every patient, a corollary of which is that eligibility criteria are minimized. The similar clinical experience of patients on- and off-study also entails that the marginal cost of putting an additional patient on trial is negligible. We propose examples of how the clinically-integrated randomized trial might be applied in four distinct areas of medicine: comparisons of surgical techniques, "me too" drugs, rare diseases and lifestyle interventions. Barriers to implementing clinically-integrated randomized trials are discussed. Conclusion The proposed clinically-integrated randomized trial may allow us to enlarge dramatically the number of clinical questions that can be addressed by randomization.

  10. An Efficient Low Cost Method for Gene Transfer to T Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaybam, Leonardo; Sodre, Andressa Laino; Curzio, Bianca Azevedo; Bonamino, Martin Hernan

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. Aims We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucleofector II device to promote efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes. Results This approach renders high transgene expression levels in primary human T lymphocytes (mean 45%, 41–59%), the hard to transfect murine T cells (mean 38%, 36–42% for C57/BL6 strain) and human Jurkat T cell line. Cell viability levels after electroporation allowed further manipulations such as in vitro expansion and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) mediated gain of function for target cell lysis. Conclusions We describe here an efficient general protocol for electroporation based modification of T lymphocytes. By opening access to this protocol, we expect that efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes, for transient or stable expression, may be achieved by an increased number of laboratories at lower and affordable costs. PMID:23555950

  11. An efficient low cost method for gene transfer to T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Chicaybam

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Gene transfer to T lymphocytes has historically relied on retro and lentivirus, but recently transposon-based gene transfer is rising as a simpler and straight forward approach to achieve stable transgene expression. Transfer of expression cassettes to T lymphocytes remains challenging, being based mainly on commercial kits. AIMS: We herein report a convenient and affordable method based on in house made buffers, generic cuvettes and utilization of the widely available Lonza nucleofector II device to promote efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes. RESULTS: This approach renders high transgene expression levels in primary human T lymphocytes (mean 45%, 41-59%, the hard to transfect murine T cells (mean 38%, 36-42% for C57/BL6 strain and human Jurkat T cell line. Cell viability levels after electroporation allowed further manipulations such as in vitro expansion and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR mediated gain of function for target cell lysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe here an efficient general protocol for electroporation based modification of T lymphocytes. By opening access to this protocol, we expect that efficient gene transfer to T lymphocytes, for transient or stable expression, may be achieved by an increased number of laboratories at lower and affordable costs.

  12. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei; Li Guona

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ºC, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  13. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 篊, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  14. Synergistic methods for the production of high-strength and low-cost boron carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Charles Schenck

    2011-12-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a non-oxide ceramic in the same class of nonmetallic hard materials as silicon carbide and diamond. The high hardness, high elastic modulus and low density of B4C make it a nearly ideal material for personnel and vehicular armor. B4C plates formed via hot-pressing are currently issued to U.S. soldiers and have exhibited excellent performance; however, hot-pressed articles contain inherent processing defects and are limited to simple geometries such as low-curvature plates. Recent advances in the pressureless sintering of B4C have produced theoretically-dense and complex-shape articles that also exhibit superior ballistic performance. However, the cost of this material is currently high due to the powder shape, size, and size distribution that are required, which limits the economic feasibility of producing such a product. Additionally, the low fracture toughness of pure boron carbide may have resulted in historically lower transition velocities (the projectile velocity range at which armor begins to fail) than competing silicon carbide ceramics in high-velocity long-rod tungsten penetrator tests. Lower fracture toughness also limits multi-hit protection capability. Consequently, these requirements motivated research into methods for improving the densification and fracture toughness of inexpensive boron carbide composites that could result in the development of a superior armor material that would also be cost-competitive with other high-performance ceramics. The primary objective of this research was to study the effect of titanium and carbon additives on the sintering and mechanical properties of inexpensive B4C powders. The boron carbide powder examined in this study was a sub-micron (0.6 mum median particle size) boron carbide powder produced by H.C. Starck GmbH via a jet milling process. A carbon source in the form of phenolic resin, and titanium additives in the form of 32 nm and 0.9 mum TiO2 powders were selected. Parametric studies of

  15. Lithography-Free, Low-Cost Method for Improving Photodiode Performance by Etching Silicon Nanocones as Antireflection Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Jing; Lin, Jiahao; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-01-01

    A three-step process has been demonstrated to improve the performance of photodiode by creating nanocone forest on the surface of photodiode as an antireflection layer. This high-throughput, low-cost process has been shown to decrease the reflectivity by 66.1%, enhance the quantum efficiency by 27%, and increase the responsivity by 25.7%. This low-cost manufacture process can be applied to increase the responsivity of silicon based photonic devices.

  16. Field validation of a new low-cost method for determining occurrence and duration of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, A; Gutierrez, O; Poch, M; Corominas, Ll

    2013-10-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) events produced in combined sewer systems (CSS) during wet weather conditions are a threat for the receiving water bodies. The large number of CSO structures normally present in a CSS makes that the monitoring of the complete CSO network in a simultaneous way would drastically increase the investment costs. In this paper, a new methodology is presented aiming to characterize the occurrence and duration of CSO events by means of low-cost temperature sensors. Hence, a large number of CSO structures can be simultaneously monitored and the system can be characterized as a whole. The method assumes temperature differences between the overflowing mix of wastewater and stormwater and the sewer gas phase, so the temperature shift produced during a rainfall episode is related to a CSO event occurrence. The method has been tested and validated in La Garriga CSS (Spain) where the temperature at 13 CSO weirs was monitored for a period of 1 year (57 rainfall episodes). For the whole set of CSO events, occurrence and duration were successfully determined in 80% of cases. Advantages, limitations and potential applications of the method are discussed at the end of the paper.

  17. Strategic Approach To Produce Low-Cost, Efficient, and Stable Competitive Internal Controls for Detection of RNA Viruses by Use of Reverse Transcription-PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, Gabriela V.; Gardiol, Daniela; Taborda, Miguel A.; Reggiardo, Virginia; Tanno, Hugo; Rivadeneira, Emilia D.; Perez, Germán R.; Giri, Adriana A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on reverse transcription (RT)-PCR are routinely complicated by the lack of stable internal controls, leading to falsely negative results. We describe a strategy to produce a stable competitive internal control (CIC) based on a Qβ phage derivative (recombinant Qβ [rQβ]) bearing primers KY78 and KY80, which are widely used in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). rQβ was RNase resistant and stable at 4°C for 452 days in SM medium (0.1 M NaCl, 8 mM MgSO4·7H2O, 50 mM Tris HCl [pH 7.5], 2% gelatin) and for 125 days after lyophilization and reconstitution. rQβ performance as a CIC was evaluated. rQβ was added to HCV-positive samples, followed by RNA extraction and a CIC-HCV RT-PCR assay. This method combines RT-PCR, liquid hybridization with nonradioactive probes, and enzyme immunoanalysis. No influence of the CIC on qualitative HCV detection was observed independently of viral load, and results had high concordance with those of commercial kits. In conclusion, we describe a versatile, low-cost alternative strategy to armored RNA technology that can be adapted for detection or real-time applications of any RNA target. Moreover, the CIC reported here is an essential reagent for HCV screening in blood banks in resource-limited settings. PMID:17699653

  18. Simple and low cost method for metal-based micro-capillary channels for heat exchanger use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, E.; Champagne, C.; Weiss, L.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we present an alternative, low cost method for the fabrication of a heat exchanger utilizing metal-based microchannels using the UV-LiGA technique. Lithography is used to pattern dry film negative photoresist (Ordyl P-50100) on the substrate. The resist is laminated over the substrate and exposed with a UV source. The use of dry film resist allows for simple and inexpensive microchannel patterns without requiring advanced cleanroom equipment. Following the lithography process, electrodeposition of metals is used to fill the recesses patterned in the resist. In this work, nickel has been electroplated into the bounding resist structure. After electroplating, the remaining resist is dissolved leaving free standing metal structures. The fabricated exchanger is then evaluated based on thermal absorption of simulated waste heat sources and capillary action of the metal channels themselves. Channels are fabricated to heights of 60, 70 and 90 μm respectively on copper substrate using these methods. Working fluid mass transfer rate from the heated microchannel heat exchanger (MHE) is utilized as a basic metric of operation. The mass transfer rate recorded from the nickel-based MHE is 2.19, 2.81 and 3.20 mg s-1 respectively for the different channel heights. This implies an effective thermal power consumption rate of 1.66, 2.13 and 2.42 kW m-2 respectively. By contrast, an MHE fabricated with 115 and 142 μm tall channels on silicon substrate is shown to evaporate up to 2.84 and 3.04 mg s-1 respectively, giving an effective thermal power consumption of 2.15 and 2.31 kW m-2 respectively. An investigation of working fluid contact angle with the electroplated nickel surface is also presented. The surface is found to be a porous structure stemming from the electroplating process.

  19. A low cost technique for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using microwave heating and its application in signal amplification for detecting Escherichia Coli O157:H7 bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Ngo, Vo Ke; Giang Nguyen, Dang; Phat Huynh, Trong; Lam, Quang Vinh

    2016-09-01

    In the present work a low cost technique for preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using microwave heating was developed. The effect of different elements (precursor reagents, irradiation time, and microwave radiation power) on the final morphology of AuNPs obtained through the microwave assisted technique has been investigated. The characterization of the samples has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder x-ray diffraction. The results showed that to some extent the above-mentioned characterizations influenced the size of synthetized nanoparticles and application of microwave heating has many advantages such as low cost, rapid preparation and highly uniform particles. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor, AuNPs are conjugated with the Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157:H7 antibodies for signal amplification to detect E.coli O157:H7 bacteria residual in QCM system.

  20. A simple and low-cost combustion method to prepare monoclinic VO2 with superior thermochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ziyi; Xiao, Xiudi; Lu, Xuanming; Zhan, Yongjun; Cheng, Haoliang; Xu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    In this approach, the VO2 nanoparticles have been successfully fabricated via combusting the low-cost precursor solution consisted of NH4VO3, C2H6O2 and C2H5OH. By the XRD, TEM and XPS analysis, it can be found that the synthetic monoclinic VO2 is single crystal and no impurity is defined. After dispersing the VO2 nanoparticles into the polymer, the solar modulation of VO2-based composite film is up to 12.5% with luminous transmission and haze around 62.2% and 0.5%, respectively. In other words, the composite films show high performance of thermochromic properties. This could open an efficient way to fabricate low-cost and large-scale VO2 (M) nanoparticles and thermochromic films.

  1. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  2. Evaluation of low-cost computer monitors for the detection of cervical spine injuries in the emergency room: an observer confidence-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Brem, H. M.; Böhner, C; A. Brenning; Gelse, K; Radkow, T.; Blanke, M.; Schlechtweg, P. M.; Neumann, G.; Wu, I Y; Bautz, W; Hennig, F. F.; Richter, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: To compare the diagnostic value of low-cost computer monitors and a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstation for the evaluation of cervical spine fractures in the emergency room. Methods: Two groups of readers blinded to the diagnoses (2 radiologists and 3 orthopaedic surgeons) independently assessed–digital radiographs of the cervical spine (anterior–posterior, oblique and trans-oral-dens views). The radiographs of 57 patients who arrived consecutively to ...

  3. Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Carrio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results.

  4. Automated Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Lateral Flow Saliva Test Reader for Drugs-of-Abuse Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrio, Adrian; Sampedro, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Pimienta, Miguel; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-11-24

    Lateral flow assay tests are nowadays becoming powerful, low-cost diagnostic tools. Obtaining a result is usually subject to visual interpretation of colored areas on the test by a human operator, introducing subjectivity and the possibility of errors in the extraction of the results. While automated test readers providing a result-consistent solution are widely available, they usually lack portability. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based automated reader for drug-of-abuse lateral flow assay tests, consisting of an inexpensive light box and a smartphone device. Test images captured with the smartphone camera are processed in the device using computer vision and machine learning techniques to perform automatic extraction of the results. A deep validation of the system has been carried out showing the high accuracy of the system. The proposed approach, applicable to any line-based or color-based lateral flow test in the market, effectively reduces the manufacturing costs of the reader and makes it portable and massively available while providing accurate, reliable results.

  5. Very low cost stand-off suicide bomber detection system using human gait analysis to screen potential bomb carrying individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greneker, Gene, III

    2005-05-01

    Individuals who carry bombs on their bodies and detonate those bombs in public places are a security problem. There is belief that suicide bombings currently used in the mid-east may spread to the United States if the organized terrorist groups operating in the United States are not identified and the cell members arrested. While bombs in vehicles are the primary method currently used to spread terror in Iraq, U. S. warfighters are starting to face suicide bombers. This may become more of the situation if a stand-off detection capability is developed for the vehicle bomb case. This paper presents a concept, that if developed and commercialized, could provide an inexpensive suicide bomber screening system that could be used to screen individuals approaching a checkpoint while the individual is still 500 to 1,000 feet from the checkpoint. The proposed system measures both the radar cross-section of the individual and the radar derived gait characteristics that are associated with individuals carrying a bomb on their body. GTRI researchers propose to use human gait characteristics, as detected by radar, to determine if a human subject who is carrying no visible load on the body is actually carrying a concealed load under their clothes. The use of radar gait as a metric for the detection (as opposed to a video system) of a suicide bomber is being proposed because detection of gait characteristics are thought to be less sensitive to where the bomb is located on the body, lighting conditions, and the fact that the legs may be shrouded in a robe. The detection of a bomb using radar gait analysis may also prove to be less sensitive to changing tactics regarding where the bomb is placed on the body. An inert suicide bomb vest was constructed using water pipes to simulate the explosive devices. Wiring was added to simulated detonators. The vest weighs approximately 35 pounds. Radar data was taken on the volunteer subject wearing the vest that simulated the suicide bomb. This

  6. The heat-transfer method: a versatile low-cost, label-free, fast, and user-friendly readout platform for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Bart; Eersels, Kasper; Peeters, Marloes; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Vandenryt, Thijs; Cleij, Thomas J; Wagner, Patrick

    2014-08-27

    In recent years, biosensors have become increasingly important in various scientific domains including medicine, biology, and pharmacology, resulting in an increased demand for fast and effective readout techniques. In this Spotlight on Applications, we report on the recently developed heat-transfer method (HTM) and illustrate the use of the technique by zooming in on four established bio(mimetic) sensor applications: (i) mutation analysis in DNA sequences, (ii) cancer cell identification through surface-imprinted polymers, (iii) detection of neurotransmitters with molecularly imprinted polymers, and (iv) phase-transition analysis in lipid vesicle layers. The methodology is based on changes in heat-transfer resistance at a functionalized solid-liquid interface. To this extent, the device applies a temperature gradient over this interface and monitors the temperature underneath and above the functionalized chip in time. The heat-transfer resistance can be obtained by dividing this temperature gradient by the power needed to achieve a programmed temperature. The low-cost, fast, label-free and user-friendly nature of the technology in combination with a high degree of specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity makes HTM a promising sensor technology.

  7. An IR-based Pedestrian Detection System Implemented with Matlab-Equipped Laptop and Low-Cost Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Thomas Gilmore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR-based human detection research has received much attention within theresearch community in recent years. Recently, for industrial applications, infrared (IR sensors havebeen applied to human detection in vehicle safety, night-vision, and military applications. They directlydetect targets with warm temperatures in the image, providing a potentially simpler and quicker solutionto human detection, especially during nighttime. This paper report a project of developing a pedestriandetection system in urban environments implemented with a Matlab on a laptop platform interfaced witha low-end microcontroller. This system primarily focuses on digital, infrared imagery and pedestriancandidate selection and detection using available detection algorithms, and on simple, economicalimplementation which is possible through the direct interfacing between the algorithm in Matlab andlow-end external hardware for indication of the detection result.

  8. Composting Used as a Low Cost Method for Pathogen Elimination in Sewage Sludge in Mérida, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rojas-Herrera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Spreading sewage sludge from municipal wastewater (MWW treatment on land is still a common practice in developing countries. However, it is well known that sewage sludge without special treatment contains various pollutants, which are (reintroduced into the environment by sludge landspreading and which might in turn have harmful effects on the environment and human health. This is more dangerous in places like Merida, Mexico, where soil is calcareous with fractures along the ground and thin layers of humus. Consequently, any liquid and semisolid wastes have the potential of percolating to the subsurface and contaminate the aquifer. The main aim of this work was using composting as a low cost process to eliminate pathogens contained in sewage sludge from MWW treatment in order to use the final product for land spreading in a safe way for both environment and human health. Two piles for composting process at real scale were settled using a mixture of sewage sludge from municipal waste water and green waste. Composting was carried out by windrow process and it was monitored during four weeks. Concentration of helminth eggs, salmonella and faecal coliforms were measured twice a week to observe its behavior and, as a control process, Temperature, Moisture Content (MC, and pH were also measured. After 30 days of composting sludge from municipal waste water system, salmonella was eliminated by 99%, faecal coliforms by 96% and helminth eggs by 81%. After 3 months compost reached GI = 160%, so did not show any phytotoxicity to seeds.

  9. Low-cost sensorless control of four-switch, brushless DC motor drive with direct back-EMF detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl HALVAEI NIASAR; Abolfazl VAHEDI; Hassan MOGHBELLI

    2009-01-01

    We propose a position sensorless control scheme for a four-switch, three-phase brushless DC motor drive, based on the zero crossing point detection of phase back-EMF voltages using newly defined error functions (EFs). The commutation instants are 30° after detected zero crossing points of the EFs. Developed EFs have greater magnitude rather than phase or line voltages so that the sensorless control can work at a lower speed range. Moreover, EFs have smooth transitions around zero voltage level that reduces the commutation errors. EFs are derived from the filtered terminal voltages Vao and vbo of two low-pass filters, which are used to eliminate high frequency noises for calculation of the average terminal voltages. The feasibility of the proposed sensorless control is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

  10. Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

  11. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  12. A low-cost through-the-wall FMCW radar for stand-off operation and activity detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Kevin; Chen, Qingchao; Ritchie, Matthew; Woodbridge, Karl

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we present a new through-wall (TW) FMCW radar system. The architecture of the radar enables both high sensitivity and range resolutions of digitized using an inexpensive 24-bit off-the-shelf sound card. The system is therefore an order of magnitude lower in cost than competitor ultrawideband (UWB) TW systems. The high sensitivity afforded by this wide dynamic range has allowed us to develop a wall removal technique whereby high-order digital filters provide a flexible means of MTI filtering based on the phases of the returned echoes. Experimental data demonstrates through-wall detection of individuals and groups of people in various scenarios. Target positions were located to within +/-1.25 m in range, allowing us distinguish between two closely separated targets. Furthermore, at 8.5 m standoff, our wall removal technique can recover target responses that would have otherwise been masked by the primary wall reflection, thus increasing the stand-off capability of the radar. Using phase processing, our experimental data also reveals a clear difference in the micro-Doppler signatures across various types of everyday actions

  13. A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

  14. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  15. Synthesis and application of resorufin β-D-glucuronide, a low-cost chromogenic substrate for detecting Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Germinal; Bain, Robert E S; Woodall, Claire A; Matthews, Robert L; Gundry, Stephen W; Davis, Anthony P

    2014-08-19

    The development of low-cost tests for Escherichia coli is hampered by the expense and limited choice of enzyme substrates. Most chromogenic substrates are required in costly amounts, while fluorogenic substrates require an additional apparatus (e.g., an ultraviolet lamp) to be detected. Herein, we propose an alternative chromogenic substrate, resorufin β-d-glucuronide (REG), which is exceptionally sensitive and may be employed in very small amounts. We show that REG can be produced similarly to other simple glucuronides and should therefore be no more expensive. The compound is used by both healthy and injured E. coli, resulting in a pronounced color change from orange to a bright pink. Because the released dye (resorufin) has a high extinction coefficient, substantially lower amounts are needed than for commercially available substrates. The potential of this substrate is demonstrated by a presence/absence test requiring just 0.1 mg of REG/100 mL of water sample, one hundredth of the quantity needed for common chromogenic substrates, with an estimated bulk cost of ≤0.1 U.S. cents/test. REG shows promise as a chromogenic substrate for E. coli detection and should be considered in the development of new water tests, especially for low-income settings.

  16. Measuring rainfall with low-cost cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamano, Paola; Cavagnero, Paolo; Croci, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In Allamano et al. (2015), we propose to retrieve quantitative measures of rainfall intensity by relying on the acquisition and analysis of images captured from professional cameras (SmartRAIN technique in the following). SmartRAIN is based on the fundamentals of camera optics and exploits the intensity changes due to drop passages in a picture. The main steps of the method include: i) drop detection, ii) blur effect removal, iii) estimation of drop velocities, iv) drop positioning in the control volume, and v) rain rate estimation. The method has been applied to real rain events with errors of the order of ±20%. This work aims to bridge the gap between the need of acquiring images via professional cameras and the possibility of exporting the technique to low-cost webcams. We apply the image processing algorithm to frames registered with low-cost cameras both in the lab (i.e., controlled rain intensity) and field conditions. The resulting images are characterized by lower resolutions and significant distortions with respect to professional camera pictures, and are acquired with fixed aperture and a rolling shutter. All these hardware limitations indeed exert relevant effects on the readability of the resulting images, and may affect the quality of the rainfall estimate. We demonstrate that a proper knowledge of the image acquisition hardware allows one to fully explain the artefacts and distortions due to the hardware. We demonstrate that, by correcting these effects before applying the image processing algorithm, quantitative rain intensity measures are obtainable with a good accuracy also with low-cost modules.

  17. Low-cost and highly sensitive immunosensing platform for aflatoxins using one-step competitive displacement reaction mode and portable glucometer-based detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Lin, Youxiu; Zhou, Qian; Lin, Yuping; Li, Peiwu; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2014-11-18

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by a number of different fungi and present in a wide range of food and feed commodities. Herein, we designed a simple and low-cost immunosensing platform for highly sensitive detection of mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, AFB1, used as a model) on polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated mesoporous silica nanocontainers (PEI-MSN). The assay was carried out by using a portable personal glucometer (PGM) as the readout based on a competitive displacement reaction mode between target AFB1 and its pseudo-hapten (PEI-MSN) for monoclonal anti-AFB1 antibody (mAb). To construct such an assay protocol, two nanostructures including mAb-labeled gold nanoparticle (mAb-AuNP) and PEI-MSN were initially synthesized, and then numerous glucose molecules were gated into the pores based on the interaction between negatively charged mAb-AuNP and positively charged PEI-MSN. In the presence of target AFB1, a competitive-type displacement reaction was implemented between mAb-AuNP and PEI-MSN by target AFB1 through the specific antigen-antibody reaction. Accompanying the reaction, target AFB1 could displace the mAb-AuNP from the surface of PEI-MSN, resulting in the release of the loading glucose from the pores due to the gate opened. The released glucose molecules could be quantitatively determined by using a portable PGM. Under optimal conditions, the PGM signal increased with the increment of AFB1 concentration in the range from 0.01 to 15 μg/kg (ppb) with a detection limit (LOD) of 5 ng/kg (5 ppt) at the 3sblank criterion. The selectivity and precision were acceptable. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for assaying naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples, and consistent results between the PGM-based immunoassay and the referenced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were obtained. Therefore, the developed immunoassay provides a promising approach for rapid screening of organic pollutants because it is simple

  18. A Facile and Low-Cost Method to Enhance the Internal Quantum Yield and External Light-Extraction Efficiency for Flexible Light-Emitting Carbon-Dot Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z. C.; Lin, T. N.; Lin, H. T.; Talite, M. J.; Tzeng, T. T.; Hsu, C. L.; Chiu, K. P.; Lin, C. A. J.; Shen, J. L.; Yuan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed, non-toxic carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. They are promising emissive layers for flexible light-emitting devices. To this end, the CDs in pristine aqueous solutions need to be transferred to form solid-state thin films without sacrificing their original PL characteristics. Unfortunately, solid-state PL quenching induced by extra non-radiative (NR) energy transfer among CDs would significantly hinder their practical applications in optoelectronics. Here, a facile, low-cost and effective method has been utilized to fabricate high-performance CD/polymer light-emitting flexible films with submicron-structured patterns. The patterned polymers can serve as a solid matrix to disperse and passivate CDs, thus achieving high internal quantum yields of 61%. In addition, they can act as an out-coupler to mitigate the waveguide-mode losses, approximately doubling the external light-extraction efficiency. Such CD/polymer composites also exhibit good photo-stability, and thus can be used as eco-friendly, low-cost phosphors for solid-state lighting.

  19. New Calibration Method Using Low Cost MEM IMUs to Verify the Performance of UAV-Borne MMS Payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wei Chiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information plays a critical role in remote sensing and mapping applications such as environment surveying and disaster monitoring. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne mobile mapping system (MMS can accomplish rapid spatial information acquisition under limited sky conditions with better mobility and flexibility than other means. This study proposes a long endurance Direct Geo-referencing (DG-based fixed-wing UAV photogrammetric platform and two DG modules that each use different commercial Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems’ (MEMS tactical grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs. Furthermore, this study develops a novel kinematic calibration method which includes lever arms, boresight angles and camera shutter delay to improve positioning accuracy. The new calibration method is then compared with the traditional calibration approach. The results show that the accuracy of the DG can be significantly improved by flying at a lower altitude using the new higher specification hardware. The new proposed method improves the accuracy of DG by about 20%. The preliminary results show that two-dimensional (2D horizontal DG positioning accuracy is around 5.8 m at a flight height of 300 m using the newly designed tactical grade integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS. The positioning accuracy in three-dimensions (3D is less than 8 m.

  20. New calibration method using low cost MEM IMUs to verify the performance of UAV-borne MMS payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Naser, El-Sheimy; Habib, Ayman; Chu, Chien-Hsun

    2015-03-19

    Spatial information plays a critical role in remote sensing and mapping applications such as environment surveying and disaster monitoring. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne mobile mapping system (MMS) can accomplish rapid spatial information acquisition under limited sky conditions with better mobility and flexibility than other means. This study proposes a long endurance Direct Geo-referencing (DG)-based fixed-wing UAV photogrammetric platform and two DG modules that each use different commercial Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems' (MEMS) tactical grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). Furthermore, this study develops a novel kinematic calibration method which includes lever arms, boresight angles and camera shutter delay to improve positioning accuracy. The new calibration method is then compared with the traditional calibration approach. The results show that the accuracy of the DG can be significantly improved by flying at a lower altitude using the new higher specification hardware. The new proposed method improves the accuracy of DG by about 20%. The preliminary results show that two-dimensional (2D) horizontal DG positioning accuracy is around 5.8 m at a flight height of 300 m using the newly designed tactical grade integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS). The positioning accuracy in three-dimensions (3D) is less than 8 m.

  1. Development of a low cost method to estimate the seismic signature of a geothermal field form ambient noise analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tibuleac, Ileana [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-06-30

    A new, cost effective and non-invasive exploration method using ambient seismic noise has been tested at Soda Lake, NV, with promising results. The material included in this report demonstrates that, with the advantage of initial S-velocity models estimated from ambient noise surface waves, the seismic reflection survey, although with lower resolution, reproduces the results of the active survey when the ambient seismic noise is not contaminated by strong cultural noise. Ambient noise resolution is less at depth (below 1000m) compared to the active survey. In general, the results are promising and useful information can be recovered from ambient seismic noise, including dipping features and fault locations.

  2. Low-cost method for sodium borohydride regeneration and the energy efficiency of its hydrolysis and regeneration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, L. Z.; Zhong, H.; Li, Z. M.; Cao, Z. J.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. W.; Zhu, X. K.; Zhu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is one of the most attractive methods for energy generation of mobile systems used as hydrogen source because of the high gravimetric density and controllable hydrogen generation of NaBH4. However, regeneration of NaBH4 is a key issue that remains to be solved, and the energy efficiency of NaBH4 is unknown. In the present study, the energy efficiency of NaBH4 hydrolysis and the entire process of sodium metaborate (NaBO2) regeneration via reaction with magnesium hydride (MgH2) is determined through thermodynamics calculations. The maximum energy efficiency is 49.91%, indicating that NaBH4 generation by reaction between MgH2 and NaBO2 during ball milling is feasible. An inexpensive high-energy ball milling method is employed to regenerate NaBH4 by reaction of NaBO2 with magnesium-lanthanum hydrides (H-Mg3La). Products after ball milling are characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. In the reaction of NaBO2 with H-Mg3La, MgH2 reacts with NaBO2 and then lanthanum hydride (LaH3) reacts with NaBO2 to produce NaBH4.

  3. Understanding green roof spatial dynamics: results from a scale based hydrologic study and introduction of a low-cost method for wide-range monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimdavar, Raha; Culligan, Patricia J.; Guido, Aida

    2014-05-01

    Green roofs have the potential, if implemented on a wide scale and with proper foresight, to become an important supplement to traditional urban water management infrastructure, while also helping to change the face of cities from concrete draped, highly modified environments, to hybrid places where nature is more closely integrated into designs rather than pushed out of them. The ability of these systems to act as a decentralized rainwater handling network has been the topic of many recent studies. While these studies have attempted to quantify the hydrologic performance of green roofs, it's clear that they are dynamic systems whose responses are difficult to generalize. What also seems to be lacking from many studies is a discussion on the effects of green roof scale, spatial planning and configuration. This research aims to understand how rainfall characteristics and green roof scale impact its hydrologic performance. Three extensive green roof systems in New York City, with the same engineered components, age and regional climatic conditions, but different drainage areas, are analyzed. We find that rainfall volume and event duration are two of the parameters that most affect green roof performance, while rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period are less significant. We also find that green roof scale does in fact affect hydrologic performance, but mainly in reducing runoff peaks, with rainfall retention and lag time being much less affected by drainage area. We also introduce a low-cost monitoring method, termed the Soil Water Apportioning (SWA) method, which uses a water balance approach to analytically link precipitation to substrate moisture, and enable inference of green runoff and evapotranspiration from information on substrate moisture changes over time. Twelve months of in situ rainfall and soil moisture observations from three different green roof systems - extensive vegetated mat, semi-intensive vegetated mat, and semi-intensive tray - are

  4. A Low-Cost Method of Ciliary Beat Frequency Measurement Using iPhone and MATLAB: Rabbit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jason J; Lemieux, Bryan T; Wong, Brian J F

    2016-08-01

    (1) To determine ciliary beat frequency (CBF) using a consumer-grade cellphone camera and MATLAB and (2) to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Prospective animal study. Academic otolaryngology department research laboratory. Five ex vivo tracheal samples were extracted from 3 freshly euthanized (MATLAB programming, the video of the 23°C sample was downsampled to 120, 60, and 30 fps, and Fourier analysis was performed on videos of all frame rates and conditions to determine CBF. CBF of the 23°C sample was also calculated manually frame by frame for verification. Recorded at 240 fps, the CBF at 23°C was 5.03 ± 0.4 Hz, and the CBF at 37°C was 9.08 ± 0.49 Hz (P .05). There is no significant difference between CBF measured via visual inspection and that analyzed by the developed program. Furthermore, all tested acquisition rates are shown to be effective, providing a fast and inexpensive alternative to current CBF measurement protocols. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  5. A New Method for Low Cost Production of Titanium Alloys for Reducing Energy Consumption of Mechanical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z. Zak [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chandran, Ravi [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Koopman, Mark [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This project investigated an innovative manufacturing process intended to minimize the cost of production of titanium materials and components, and increase the adoption of Ti components for energy consuming applications, such as automobiles. A key innovation of the proposed manufacturing approach is a novel Ti powder sintering technology for making titanium materials with ultrafine grain microstructure in the as-sintered state with minimum, or an absence, of post-sintering processes. The new sintering technology is termed Hydrogen Sintering and Phase Transformations (HSPT), and constitutes a promising manufacturing technology that can be used to produce titanium (Ti) materials and components in a near-net-shape form, thus also minimizing machining costs. Our objective was to meet, or possibly surpass, the mechanical property levels for ASTM B348 Grade 5 for wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Although specific applications call for varying mechanical property requirements, ASTM B348 was created for the demanding applications of the aerospace industry, and is the established standard for Ti-6Al-4V. While the primary goal was to meet, or exceed this standard, the team also had the goal of demonstrating this could be done at a significantly lower cost of production. Interim goals of the project were to fully develop this novel sintering process, and provide sufficient baseline testing to make the method practical and attractive to industry. By optimizing the process parameters for the sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2) powders in a hydrogen atmosphere and controlling the phase transformations during and after sintering, the HSPT process was expected to reduce the energy consumption, and thus cost, of making Ti alloys and fabricating Ti components. The process was designed such that no high temperature melting is required for producing Ti alloys; little or no post-sintering processing is needed for producing desired microstructures (and therefore enhanced mechanical

  6. A New Method for Low Cost Production of Titanium Alloys for Reducing Energy Consumption of Mechanical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z. Zak [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chandran, Ravi [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Koopman, Mark [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This project investigated an innovative manufacturing process intended to minimize the cost of production of titanium materials and components, and increase the adoption of Ti components for energy consuming applications, such as automobiles. A key innovation of the proposed manufacturing approach is a novel Ti powder sintering technology for making titanium materials with ultrafine grain microstructure in the as-sintered state with minimum, or an absence, of post-sintering processes. The new sintering technology is termed Hydrogen Sintering and Phase Transformations (HSPT), and constitutes a promising manufacturing technology that can be used to produce titanium (Ti) materials and components in a near-net-shape form, thus also minimizing machining costs. Our objective was to meet, or possibly surpass, the mechanical property levels for ASTM B348 Grade 5 for wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Although specific applications call for varying mechanical property requirements, ASTM B348 was created for the demanding applications of the aerospace industry, and is the established standard for Ti-6Al-4V. While the primary goal was to meet, or exceed this standard, the team also had the goal of demonstrating this could be done at a significantly lower cost of production. Interim goals of the project were to fully develop this novel sintering process, and provide sufficient baseline testing to make the method practical and attractive to industry. By optimizing the process parameters for the sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2) powders in a hydrogen atmosphere and controlling the phase transformations during and after sintering, the HSPT process was expected to reduce the energy consumption, and thus cost, of making Ti alloys and fabricating Ti components. The process was designed such that no high temperature melting is required for producing Ti alloys; little or no post-sintering processing is needed for producing desired microstructures (and therefore enhanced mechanical

  7. Size characterization of barley starch granules by gravitational field-flow fractionation: a rapid, low-cost method to assess the brewing capability of different strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Casolari, Sonia; Krumlova, Andrea; Budinska, Marcela; Chmelík, Josef

    2002-04-01

    Cereal starch occurs as two types of micrometer-sized granules, large and small. Large starch granules are more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. When cereal starch is used for fermentation processes, as in brewing of barley malt, the barley strains with the highest content of large starch granules should be preferred. Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) is a separation method able to fractionate starch samples at low cost and short analysis time. In this work, the search for the best GFFF conditions for the analytical separation of barley starch within an inter-laboratory approach is presented. For different barley strains cultivated under monitored conditions the size distributions of starch granules is here quickly monitored and characterized by GFFF. As a consequence, dimensional characterization of barley starch can allow for the selection of the most suitable strains with the lowest content of non-degradable starch.

  8. Development of a Low-cost Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Method for Studying Differentially Expressed Genes in Developing Rice Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Wan Wendy Fung; Hoi Yee Chow; Tik Wan Law; Biao Dong; Hoi Shan Kwan

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression studies are important for revealing gene functions putatively involved in biological processes. We were interested in identifying differentially expressed genes during leaf development in rice, We combined the RNA arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR) and dot blot hybridization methods to screen a rice leaf primordium cDNA library. Three developmental stages during vegetative growth were examined. The cDNA clones showing different hybridization patterns were further analyzed and verified. Here we demonstrate that the combination of RAP-PCR and dot blot hybridization could provide an efficient and relatively low-cost cDNA library screening approach to discover genes not previously known to be associated with leaf development in rice. We believe that the findings described here will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the developmental processes of rice leaf.

  9. Extremely fast dark adsorption rate of carbon and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 prepared by a relatively fast, facile and low-cost microwave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chun; Zhou, Jiangshan; Li, Fangzhou; Li, Wei; Wang, Yinzhen; He, Qinyu

    2016-07-01

    A facile and low-cost microwave method was used to prepare C and N co-doped TiO2 in just 8 min. The prepared samples were thoroughly characterized and were found to have favourable features such as surface adsorption of pollutants and photocatalysis. The rapid decomposition of CH5N3HCl under microwave irradiation led to mesopores and surface roughness in the as-prepared particles, resulting in large surface adsorption of pollutant and good photodegradation. The best sample is the one with the ratio of TiO2/CH2N3HCl at 3:1, which adsorbed 86.3 % of a methylene orange (MO) solution (20 mg L-1) in 10 min.

  10. Low-cost conversion of polycrystalline silicon into sheet by HEM and FAST. [Heat Exchanger Method and Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of polycrystalline silicon to sheet form (the wafers produced are 10 cm x 10 cm cross section with minimum surface damage) by the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) and multi-wire Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST), as a means of reducing the cost of solar arrays for adaptation of photovoltaic technology for terrestrial applications, is given. A schematic of a HEM furnace, which includes a silica crucible, and developments in the HEM process are presented. A new machine for slicing with wire was designed and fabricated. The high-speed slicer has been used to slice 19 wafers per cm from 10 cm diameter crystals. Both HEM and FAST are low-cost processes and they have the potential of giving one of the lowest add-on costs ($6.24 and $6.48 per square meter of sheet respectively, with the combination add-on cost of $14.87 per square meter) of this conversion.

  11. Low-cost conversion of polycrystalline silicon into sheet by HEM and FAST. [Heat Exchanger Method and Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of polycrystalline silicon to sheet form (the wafers produced are 10 cm x 10 cm cross section with minimum surface damage) by the Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) and multi-wire Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST), as a means of reducing the cost of solar arrays for adaptation of photovoltaic technology for terrestrial applications, is given. A schematic of a HEM furnace, which includes a silica crucible, and developments in the HEM process are presented. A new machine for slicing with wire was designed and fabricated. The high-speed slicer has been used to slice 19 wafers per cm from 10 cm diameter crystals. Both HEM and FAST are low-cost processes and they have the potential of giving one of the lowest add-on costs ($6.24 and $6.48 per square meter of sheet respectively, with the combination add-on cost of $14.87 per square meter) of this conversion.

  12. Path to Low Cost Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Govyadinov, Alexander N; Kornilovitch, Pavel; Markel, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel concept for a low cost microfluidic platform utilizing materials and processes used in low cost thermal inkjet printing. The concept re-purposes the jetting elements to create pumps, mixers, and valves all necessary components for the transport of fluids in a broad range of microfluidic applications.

  13. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  14. Simple, low-cost molecular assays for TR34/L98H mutations in the cyp51A gene for rapid detection of triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, Z.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Simple, low-cost PCR/PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays targeting cyp51A promoter and codon 98 regions were developed for the detection of triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strains carrying TR34/L98H mutations. The assays were evaluated using 40 itraconazole-susceptibl

  15. Structure from Motion (SfM Photogrammetry with Drone Data: A Low Cost Method for Monitoring Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Forests in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reason Mlambo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure from Motion (SfM photogrammetry applied to photographs captured from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV platforms is increasingly being utilised for a wide range of applications including structural characterisation of forests. The aim of this study was to undertake a first evaluation of whether SfM from UAVs has potential as a low cost method for forest monitoring within developing countries in the context of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+. The project evaluated SfM horizontal and vertical accuracy for measuring the height of individual trees. Aerial image data were collected for two test sites; Meshaw (Devon, UK and Dryden (Scotland, UK using a Quest QPOD fixed wing UAV and DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter UAV, respectively. Comparisons were made between SfM and airborne LiDAR point clouds and surface models at the Meshaw site, while at Dryden, SfM tree heights were compared to ground measured tree heights. Results obtained showed a strong correlation between SfM and LiDAR digital surface models (R2 = 0.89 and canopy height models (R2 = 0.75. However, at Dryden, a poor correlation was observed between SfM tree heights and ground measured heights (R2 = 0.19. The poor results at Dryden were explained by the fact that the forest plot had a closed canopy structure such that SfM failed to generate enough below-canopy ground points. Finally, an evaluation of UAV surveying methods was also undertaken to determine their usefulness and cost-effectiveness for plot-level forest monitoring. The study concluded that although SfM from UAVs performs poorly in closed canopies, it can still provide a low cost solution in those developing countries where forests have sparse canopy cover (<50% with individual tree crowns and ground surfaces well-captured by SfM photogrammetry. Since more than half of the forest covered areas of the world have canopy cover <50%, we can conclude that SfM has enormous potential for forest mapping in

  16. High-accuracy 2D digital image correlation measurements using low-cost imaging lenses: implementation of a generalized compensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang

    2014-02-01

    The ideal pinhole imaging model commonly assumed for an ordinary two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) system is neither perfect nor stable because of the existence of small out-of-plane motion of the test sample surface that occurred after loading, small out-of-plane motion of the sensor target due to temperature variation of a camera and unavoidable geometric distortion of an imaging lens. In certain cases, these disadvantages can lead to significant errors in the measured displacements and strains. Although a high-quality bilateral telecentric lens has been strongly recommended to be used in the 2D-DIC system as an essential optical component to achieve high-accuracy measurement, it is not generally applicable due to its fixed field of view, limited depth of focus and high cost. To minimize the errors associated with the imperfectness and instability of a common 2D-DIC system using a low-cost imaging lens, a generalized compensation method using a non-deformable reference sample is proposed in this work. With the proposed method, the displacement of the reference sample rigidly attached behind the test sample is first measured using 2D-DIC, and then it is fitted using a parametric model. The fitted parametric model is then used to correct the displacements of the deformed sample to remove the influences of these unfavorable factors. The validity of the proposed compensation method is first verified using out-of-plane translation, out-of-plane rotation, in-plane translation tests and their combinations. Uniaxial tensile tests of an aluminum specimen were also performed to quantitatively examine the strain accuracy of the proposed compensation method. Experiments show that the proposed compensation method is an easy-to-implement yet effective technique for achieving high-accuracy deformation measurement using an ordinary 2D-DIC system.

  17. Paper-Based RNA Extraction, in Situ Isothermal Amplification, and Lateral Flow Detection for Low-Cost, Rapid Diagnosis of Influenza A (H1N1) from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Natalia M; Linnes, Jacqueline C; Fan, Andy; Ellenson, Courtney K; Pollock, Nira R; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2015-08-04

    The 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic disproportionately affected the developing world and highlighted the key inadequacies of traditional diagnostic methods that make them unsuitable for use in resource-limited settings, from expensive equipment and infrastructure requirements to unacceptably long turnaround times. While rapid immunoassay diagnostic tests were much less costly and more context-appropriate, they suffered from drastically low sensitivities and high false negative rates. An accurate, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic that is also rapid, low-cost, and independent of laboratory infrastructure is needed for effective point-of-care detection and epidemiological control in these developing regions. We developed a paper-based assay that allows for the extraction and purification of RNA directly from human clinical nasopharyngeal specimens through a poly(ether sulfone) paper matrix, H1N1-specific in situ isothermal amplification directly within the same paper matrix, and immediate visual detection on lateral flow strips. The complete sample-to-answer assay can be performed at the point-of-care in just 45 min, without the need for expensive equipment or laboratory infrastructure, and it has a clinically relevant viral load detection limit of 10(6) copies/mL, offering a 10-fold improvement over current rapid immunoassays.

  18. Design of low-cost resonant mode sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinczi, Robert; Turmezei, P.; Mollinger, Jeff R.; Bossche, Andre

    2001-11-01

    This study introduces a novel design for low-cost MEMS devices, which exploit the benefits of resonant operation and maintain stable performance. Resonant devices provide high sensitivity and convenient signal processing. The drawback of the method is the sensitivity to undesired environmental effects and aging. The environment induced degradation processes and the long-term stability of thin film resonators were investigated previously. The two major reliability problems were stiffening effect and degrading shock response, both affecting the mechanical resonance frequency. Based on these results, new, low-cost pressure sensors and accelerometers were designed and fabricated. The structures are based on locally reinforced silicon nitride membranes, and double-clamped 3-D silicon nitride bridges as sensing elements. This double mechanical structure allows separate optimization of the membrane and the bridges for the workload and for the most efficient driving and sensing. The 3-D bridges work as mechanical amplifiers, resulting in higher detection efficiency. The reliability tests indicated, that a low-cost atmospheric packaging is efficient, thus the bridges do not require vacuum encapsulation with multiple-wafer process. External mechanical and thermal excitation combined with piezoresistive and optical detection methods are implemented in the different sensors. Differential detection using reference resonators allow compensation for thermal, environment- and aging-induced stresses.

  19. The Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), a Simple and Low-Cost Alternative for the Carba NP Test to Assess Phenotypic Carbapenemase Activity in Gram-Negative Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaluw, Kim; de Haan, Angela; Pluister, Gerlinde N.; Bootsma, Hester J.; de Neeling, Albert J.; Schouls, Leo M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP and OXA-23. It allows reliable detection of carbapenemase activity encoded by various genes in species of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae), but also in non-fermenters Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The CIM was shown to be a cost-effective and highly robust phenotypic screening method that can reliably detect carbapenemase activity. PMID:25798828

  20. The carbapenem inactivation method (CIM), a simple and low-cost alternative for the Carba NP test to assess phenotypic carbapenemase activity in gram-negative rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaluw, Kim; de Haan, Angela; Pluister, Gerlinde N; Bootsma, Hester J; de Neeling, Albert J; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP and OXA-23. It allows reliable detection of carbapenemase activity encoded by various genes in species of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae), but also in non-fermenters Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The CIM was shown to be a cost-effective and highly robust phenotypic screening method that can reliably detect carbapenemase activity.

  1. The carbapenem inactivation method (CIM, a simple and low-cost alternative for the Carba NP test to assess phenotypic carbapenemase activity in gram-negative rods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim van der Zwaluw

    Full Text Available A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM, was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP and OXA-23. It allows reliable detection of carbapenemase activity encoded by various genes in species of Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae, but also in non-fermenters Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The CIM was shown to be a cost-effective and highly robust phenotypic screening method that can reliably detect carbapenemase activity.

  2. The Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), a Simple and Low-Cost Alternative for the Carba NP Test to Assess Phenotypic Carbapenemase Activity in Gram-Negative Rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, K. van der; Haan, A. de; Pluister, G.N.; Bootsma, H.J.; Neeling, A.J. de; Schouls, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP a

  3. The Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), a Simple and Low-Cost Alternative for the Carba NP Test to Assess Phenotypic Carbapenemase Activity in Gram-Negative Rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaluw, K. van der; Haan, A. de; Pluister, G.N.; Bootsma, H.J.; Neeling, A.J. de; Schouls, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotypic test, called the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM), was developed to detect carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative rods within eight hours. This method showed high concordance with results obtained by PCR to detect genes coding for the carbapenemases KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP a

  4. UHF electromagnetic structures inkjet printed on temperature sensitive substrates: A comparative study of conductive inks and sintering methods to enable low cost manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaauera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.J.; Zial, M.A.; Oyeka, D.; Turki, B.M.M.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of inkjet printing as a facile digital fabrication tool for the cost effective manufacture of UHF RFID transfer tattoo tags and Frequency Selective Surfaces on low-cost flexible and porous substrates. Electrical and morphological properties of conductive features

  5. UHF electromagnetic structures inkjet printed on temperature sensitive substrates: A comparative study of conductive inks and sintering methods to enable low cost manufacture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Romaauera, V.; Wünscher, S.; Abbel, R.J.; Zial, M.A.; Oyeka, D.; Turki, B.M.M.; Batchelor, J.C.; Parker, E.A.; Schubert, U.S.; Yeates, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of inkjet printing as a facile digital fabrication tool for the cost effective manufacture of UHF RFID transfer tattoo tags and Frequency Selective Surfaces on low-cost flexible and porous substrates. Electrical and morphological properties of conductive features

  6. High-temperature electrochemical performance of low-cost La–Ni–Fe based hydrogen storage alloys with different preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiannan [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhu, Ding [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou, Wanhai; Zhong, Chenglin; Wu, Chaoling [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Yungui, E-mail: ygchen60@aliyun.com [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effects of four different preparation processes were studied at 20/60 °C. • All NS + HT, RS and RS + HT processes can optimize the thermodynamic performance. • The HT process can provoke the precipitation of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} and leads to a poor cycling life. • Al exhibits the most remarkable dissolution for all the alloys, especially at 60 °C. - Abstract: In order to optimize the microstructure and high temperature electrochemical performances of low-cost AB{sub 5}-type Ml(NiMnAl){sub 4.2}Co{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.5} hydrogen storage electrode alloys, four different preparation methods including normal solidification (NS), normal solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (NS + HT), rapid solidification (RS), rapid solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (RS + HT) were adopted in this work. All alloys exhibit CaCu{sub 5} type hexagonal structure and there is a small amount of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase in NS + HT and RS + HT alloys. It is found the using of HT process can decrease the hydrogen equilibrium plateau pressure, the plateau slope and hysteresis at 40, 60 and 80 °C. The NS + HT and RS + HT alloys also possess better activation, high rate discharge performance, larger discharge capacity, but poor cycling performance due to the existence of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase which can accelerate dissolution of Ni, Mn and Fe elements in KOH alkaline electrolyte. The RS process can make alloy exhibit the best cycling performance especially at 60 °C.

  7. Developing and testing a low cost method for high resolution measurements of volcanic water vapour emissions at Vulcano and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pering, Tom D.; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bitetto, Marcello; Rubino, Cosimo

    2015-04-01

    The most voluminous of emissions from volcanoes are from water vapour (H2O) (Carroll and Holloway, 1994), however, measurements of this species receive little focus due to the difficulty of independent measurement, largely a result of high atmospheric background concentrations which often undergo rapid fluctuations. A feasible method of measuring H2O emissions at high temporal and spatial resolutions would therefore be highly valuable. We describe a new and low-cost method combining modified web cameras (i.e. with infrared filters removed) with measurements of temperature and relative humidity to produce high resolution measurements (≈ 0.25 Hz) of H2O emissions. The cameras are affixed with near-infrared filters at points where water vapour absorbs (940 nm) and doesn't absorb (850 nm) incident light. Absorption of H2O is then determined by using Lambert-Beer's law on a pixel by pixel basis, producing a high spatial resolution image. The system is then calibrated by placing a Multi-GAS unit within the gas source and camera field-of-view, which measures; SO2, CO2, H2S and relative humidity. By combining the point measurements of the Multi-GAS unit with pixel values for absorption, first correcting for the width of the gas source (generally a Gaussian distribution), a calibration curve is produced which allows the conversion of absorption values to mass of water within a pixel. In combination with relative humidity measurements made outside of the plume it is then possible to subtract the non-volcanic background H2O concentration to produce a high resolution calibrated volcanic H2O flux. This technique is demonstrated in detail at the active fumarolic system on Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Data processing and image acquisition was completed in Matlab® using a purpose built code. The technique is also demonstrated for the plume of the North-East Crater of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). Here, contemporaneously acquired measurements of SO2 using a UV camera, combined

  8. A rapid and low-cost microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for detecting TB and MDR-TB among individuals infected by HIV in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The converging epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis (TB pose one of the greatest public health challenges of our time. Rapid diagnosis of TB is essential in view of its infectious nature, high burden of cases, and emergence of drug resistance. Objective: The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, a novel assay for the diagnosis of TB and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB directly from sputum specimens, in the Indian setting. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cross-sectional, blinded assessment of the MODS assay on 1036 suspected cases of pulmonary TB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients against the radiometric method, BD-BACTEC TB 460 system. Results: Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MODS assay in detecting MTB among TB suspected patients were 89.1%, 99.1%, 94.2%, 95.8%, respectively. In addition, in the diagnosis of drug-resistant TB, the MODS assay was 84.2% sensitive for those specimens reporting MDR, 87% sensitivity for those specimens reporting INH mono-resistance, and 100% sensitive for specimens reporting RIF mono-resistance. The median time to detection of TB in the MODS assay versus BACTEC was 9 versus 21 days (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Costing 5 to 10 times lesser than the automated culture methods, the MODS assay has the potential clinical utility as a simple and rapid method. It could be effectively used as an alternative method for diagnosing TB and detection of MDR-TB in a timely and affordable way in resource-limited settings.

  9. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  10. Low-cost simultaneous detection of CCR5-delta32 and HLA-B*5701 alleles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected patients by selective multiplex endpoint PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Andrea; Meini, Genny; Materazzi, Angelo; Vicenti, Ilaria; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Host genetic traits impact susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, disease progression as well as antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Remarkable examples include a 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 coreceptor molecule (CCR5-delta32) impairing attachment of monocytotropic HIV-1 to the host cell membrane and the HLA-B*5701 allele, strongly associated with a potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction triggered by abacavir, a nucleoside inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase. We developed a simple selective multiplex endpoint PCR method for simultaneous analysis of both genetic traits. Two primers were designed for amplification of a region surrounding the CCR5 32-bp deletion site. One common forward primer and two reverse primers with different 3' termini targeting the HLA-B*570101 and HLA-B*570102 alleles were designed for HLA-B*5701 analysis. A panel of 110 reference DNA samples typed in the HLA-B locus was used for development and blind validation of the assay. All the 45 HLA-B*5701 positive and the 55 HLA-B*5701 negative samples were correctly identified. The CCR5-delta32 allele was readily detected in 7 samples and did not interfere with detection of HLA-B*5701 while providing an internal amplification control. Multiplex PCR products were easily identified in agarose gels with no background noise. This simple and low-cost end-point selective multiplex PCR can conveniently screen HIV patients for the protective CCR5-delta32 allele and the risk of developing abacavir hypersensitivity reaction.

  11. Noise Figure Evaluation Using Low Cost BIST

    CERN Document Server

    Negreiros, Marcelo; Susin, Altamiro A

    2011-01-01

    A technique for evaluating noise figure suitable for BIST implementation is described. It is based on a low cost single-bit digitizer, which allows the simultaneous evaluation of noise figure in several test points of the analog circuit. The method is also able to benefit from SoC resources, like memory and processing power. Theoretical background and experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  12. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  13. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  14. Removal performance of elemental mercury by low-cost adsorbents prepared through facile methods of carbonisation and activation of coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Khairiraihanna; Alias, Afidatul Shazwani; Saman, Norasikin; Song, Shiow Tien; Mat, Hanapi

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of chars and activated carbon as low-cost elemental mercury adsorbents was carried out through the carbonisation of coconut husk (pith and fibre) and the activation of chars with potassium hydroxide (KOH), respectively. The synthesised adsorbents were characterised by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The elemental mercury removal performance was measured using a conventional flow type packed-bed adsorber. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents changed as a result of the carbonisation and activation process, hence affecting on the extent of elemental mercury adsorption. The highest elemental mercury (Hg°) adsorption capacity was obtained for the CP-CHAR (3142.57 µg g(-1)), which significantly outperformed the pristine and activated carbon adsorbents, as well as higher than some adsorbents reported in the literature.

  15. A Low - cost Method of Dealing with Environmental Protection Mist%一种低成本环保处理酸雾的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2012-01-01

    利用在酸洗池上方加装酸雾收集器,在酸雾收集器内形成一定的负压,配合缓蚀剂的抑雾作用,阻隔酸雾的扩散,回收的氯化氢水溶液用于新酸洗液的配制。本方案成本低,效果显著,可适用不同大小,形状的酸洗池。%Using the mist collector was installed in the top of the pickling pool to form a certain amount of negative pressure in the mist collector, and with the role of the inhibitor of fog, the proliferation of the mist was blocked, and the recovery of hydrogen chloride aqueous solution was used for the new pickling preparation. The program was low cost, effective, and applicable to different size, shape, and pickling pool.

  16. Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia (NCC5-481)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael M.; Silva, Jose Natalino; Zweede, Johan C.; Pereira, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    quantify both the presence and degree of structural disturbance caused by various logging regimes. Our quantitative assessment of Hyperion hyperspectral and ALI multi-spectral data for the detection and structural characterization of selective logging in Amazonia will benefit from data collected through an ongoing project run by the Tropical Forest Foundation, within which we have developed a study of the canopy and landscape biophysics of conventional and reduced-impact logging. We will add to our base of forest structural information in concert with an EO-1 overpass. Using a photon transport model inversion technique that accounts for non-linear mixing of the four biogeophysical indicators, we will estimate these parameters across a gradient of selective logging intensity provided by conventional and reduced impact logging sites. We will also compare our physical ly-based approach to both conventional (e.g., NDVI) and novel (e.g., SWIR-channel) vegetation indices as well as to linear mixture modeling methods. We will cross-compare these approaches using Hyperion and ALI imagers to determine the strengths and limitations of these two sensors for applications of forest biophysics. This effort will yield the first physical ly-based, quantitative analysis of the detection and intensity of selective logging in Amazonia, comparing hyperspectral and improved multi-spectral approaches as well as inverse modeling, linear mixture modeling, and vegetation index techniques.

  17. Fabrication of large-volume, low-cost ceramic lanthanum halide scintillators for gamma ray detection : final report for DHS/DNDO/TRDD project TA-01-SL01.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ottley, Leigh Anna M.; Yang, Pin; Chen, Ching-Fong; Sanchez, Margaret R.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2008-10-01

    This project uses advanced ceramic processes to fabricate large, optical-quality, polycrystalline lanthanum halide scintillators to replace small single crystals produced by the conventional Bridgman growth method. The new approach not only removes the size constraint imposed by the growth method, but also offers the potential advantages of both reducing manufacturing cost and increasing production rate. The project goal is to fabricate dense lanthanum halide ceramics with a preferred crystal orientation by applying texture engineering and solid-state conversion to reduce the thermal mechanical stress in the ceramic and minimize scintillation light scattering at grain boundaries. Ultimately, this method could deliver the sought-after high sensitivity and <3% energy resolution at 662 keV of lanthanum halide scintillators and unleash their full potential for advanced gamma ray detection, enabling rapid identification of radioactive materials in a variety of practical applications. This report documents processing details from powder synthesis, seed particle growth, to final densification and texture development of cerium doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3}) ceramics. This investigation demonstrated that: (1) A rapid, flexible, cost efficient synthesis method of anhydrous lanthanum halides and their solid solutions was developed. Several batches of ultrafine LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup +3} powder, free of oxyhalide, were produced by a rigorously controlled process. (2) Micron size ({approx} 5 {micro}m), platelet shape LaBr{sub 3} seed particles of high purity can be synthesized by a vapor phase transport process. (3) High aspect-ratio seed particles can be effectively aligned in the shear direction in the ceramic matrix, using a rotational shear-forming process. (4) Small size, highly translucent LaBr{sub 3} (0.25-inch diameter, 0.08-inch thick) samples were successfully fabricated by the equal channel angular consolidation process. (5) Large size, high density

  18. Dramatic property enhancement in polyetherimide using low-cost commercially functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes via a facile solution processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Li, Bin; Caceres, Santiago; Maguire, Russ G.; Zhong, Wei-Hong

    2009-11-01

    Polyetherimide (PEI) has excellent mechanical and thermal properties, and exceptional fire resistance. Developing even broader multi-functionality in PEI/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites for industrial applications is an alluring but challenging goal, due to processing difficulties related to the high pressure and temperature needed to achieve effective flow for this polymer, and costly and complex treatments of the CNTs. Here we report the fabrication of PEI nanocomposite films using low-cost commercially functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), and a simple and innovative process, achieving exceptional properties with only 0.5 wt% of MWNTs, including an increase in electrical conductivity of 12 orders of magnitude, accompanied by an unprecedented increase of 86 °C in thermal decomposition temperature (higher service temperature). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a high degree of uniform dispersion among the MWNTs, superb polymer-MWNT interaction and formation of a spatially homogeneous nanotube network within the matrix. The enhancement in these properties suggests great potential use for this developed processing approach and the resulting nanocomposites for multi-functional coating or interfacing materials in aerospace and electronic industries.

  19. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    not allow properly determining whether a person in self-regulation its emotions while watching affective stimuli. However, adequately combining different data sources in a synchronous way to detect emotions makes it possible to overcome the limitations of single detection methods. PMID:27594831

  20. Method for Improving EEG Based Emotion Recognition by Combining It with Synchronized Biometric and Eye Tracking Technologies in a Non-invasive and Low Cost Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Juan-Miguel; Virgili-Gomá, Jordi; Gil, Rosa; García, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    not allow properly determining whether a person in self-regulation its emotions while watching affective stimuli. However, adequately combining different data sources in a synchronous way to detect emotions makes it possible to overcome the limitations of single detection methods.

  1. Method for improving EEG based emotion recognition by combining it with synchronized biometric and eye tracking technologies in a non-invasive and low cost way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Miguel López-Gil

    2016-08-01

    -regulation does not allow properly determining whether a person in self-regulation its emotions while watching affective stimuli. However, adequately combining different data sources in a synchronous way to detect emotions makes it possible to overcome the limitations of single detection methods.

  2. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  3. Low Cost Reversible Signed Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Sharmin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exponential advancement in reversible comp utation has lead to better fabrication and integration process. It has become very popular ove r the last few years since reversible logic circuit s dramatically reduce energy loss. It consumes less p ower by recovering bit loss from its unique input-o utput mapping. This paper presents two new gates called RC-I and RC-II to design an n-bit signed binary comparator where simulation results show that the p roposed circuit works correctly and gives significa ntly better performance than the existing counterparts. An algorithm has been presented in this paper for constructing an optimized reversible n-bit signed c omparator circuit. Moreover some lower bounds have been proposed on the quantum cost, the numbers of g ates used and the number of garbage outputs generated for designing a low cost reversible sign ed comparator. The comparative study shows that the proposed design exhibits superior performance consi dering all the efficiency parameters of reversible logic design which includes number of gates used, quantum cost, garbage output and constant inputs. This proposed design has certainly outperformed all the other existing approaches.

  4. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  5. Low Cost Simulator for Heart Surgery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocha e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Introduce the low-cost and easy to purchase simulator without biological material so that any institution may promote extensive cardiovascular surgery training both in a hospital setting and at home without large budgets. Methods: A transparent plastic box is placed in a wooden frame, which is held by the edges using elastic bands, with the bottom turned upwards, where an oval opening is made, "simulating" a thoracotomy. For basic exercises in the aorta, the model presented by our service in the 2015 Brazilian Congress of Cardiovascular Surgery: a silicone ice tray, where one can train to make aortic purse-string suture, aortotomy, aortorrhaphy and proximal and distal anastomoses. Simulators for the training of valve replacement and valvoplasty, atrial septal defect repair and aortic diseases were added. These simulators are based on sewage pipes obtained in construction material stores and the silicone trays and ethyl vinyl acetate tissue were obtained in utility stores, all of them at a very low cost. Results: The models were manufactured using inert materials easily found in regular stores and do not present contamination risk. They may be used in any environment and maybe stored without any difficulties. This training enabled young surgeons to familiarize and train different surgical techniques, including procedures for aortic diseases. In a subjective assessment, these surgeons reported that the training period led to improved surgical techniques in the surgical field. Conclusion: The model described in this protocol is effective and low-cost when compared to existing simulators, enabling a large array of cardiovascular surgery training.

  6. Detection of postharvest changes of ascorbic acid in fresh-cut melon, kiwi, and pineapple, by using a low cost telemetric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Antonio; Fadda, Angela; Schirra, Mario; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2012-12-01

    The present paper deals with a novel telemetric device combined with a carbon amperometric sensor system to determine postharvest changes of ascorbic acid (AA) in fresh-cut fruits, without displacing products out of the storage rooms. The investigation was performed on kiwi, pineapple and melon, subjected to minimal processing, packaging, cold storage, and simulated shelf life. Results demonstrated that AA content of fresh-cut fruits of all species declines differently during storage. Cold storage notably reduced the degradation rate of AA in comparison with samples stored at 20°C. The cold-chain interruption resulted in a sharp AA content reduction when the optimal storage condition was not rapidly replaced. Unpredicted results showed a high activity of oxidative enzymes, which prevented AA detection in melon samples. Our sensor system allowed us to demonstrate that both ascorbate peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase affected the oxidative stability and the nutritional quality of fresh cut melon fruits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  8. Design and Development of Low Cost, Simple, Rapid and Safe, Modified Field Kits for the Visual Detection and Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Anjaneyulu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fenton’s reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the ‘nascent’ hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow – H

  9. A Low-Cost RSSI-Based Localization System for Wildlife Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Markus; Nowak, Thorsten; Patino-Studencki, Lucila; Robert, Jörg; Heuberger, Albert; Thielecke, Jörn

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a low-cost localization system for the high-resolution tracking of bats. The system bases on a ground network consisting of multiple low-cost receiver stations, and ultra-lightweight transmitters mounted on the bats. A main challenge of the received signal strength based localization is the limited dynamic range of the employed low-cost receivers. This challenge is solved using an efficient 2-stage differential correlation concept. It significantly improves the dynamic wrt. conventional power detection methods. In addition, this concept requires low processing power and is robust wrt. frequency offsets. Finally, this paper presents a performance evaluation employing reference measurements recorded in the rain forest of Panama.

  10. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si sheets by continuous casting method); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (renzoku cast ho ni yoru tei cost Si kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing of low-cost Si substrates by continuous casting method in fiscal 1994. (1) On manufacturing of ingots of 16 piece size, the ingot of nearly 170kg was manufactured by batch process using the Si melt injection unit prepared in last year. (2) On oxygen and carbon contents in wafers, the contents were measured by FT-IR after slicing of the ingot. As a result, the oxygen and carbon contents could be successfully reduced to the targets of 10ppma and 5ppma or less, respectively. (3) The resistivity distribution of the ingot ranged over the target of 1-2ohm-cm. (4) Cells of 100 {times} 100mm{sup 2} wide and 350{mu}m thick were verified by in-house evaluation process. Although lower cell conversion efficiency was found at the center top of the ingot, a vertical efficiency stability was nearly sufficient as a whole. (5) On the crystal growth unit prepared in fiscal 1994, any problems were not found on automatic driving and vibration during moving. 8 figs.

  11. Leasing in low-cost carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, José Frederico Pais

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the use of aircraft leasing as a financing instrument in the low-cost carriers’ sector. These airlines have been showing a huge growth in the customers’ preferences, while aircraft leasing plays a relevant role in the financing options of airlines. In this study we determined that lease future commitments represent on average 80% of other debt commitments in low-cost carriers. Furthermore, we discovered that the leasing rate in low-cost ai...

  12. Low-Cost Direct Detect Spaceborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Disce quasi semper victurus vive quasi cras moriturus. –Mohandas Gandhi Thank you. Thank you to all of the people that helped me through the better...previous chapters were used and the corresponding mass and power requirements were calculated. Figures 28 and 29 portray the mass and power of the

  13. Low-Cost Method for Quantifying Sodium in Coconut Water and Seawater for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Flame Test, a Mobile Phone Camera, and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Edgar P.; da Silva, Nilbert S. A.; de Morais, Camilo de L. M.; das Neves, Luiz S.; de Lima, Kassio M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The flame test is a classical analytical method that is often used to teach students how to identify specific metals. However, some universities in developing countries have difficulties acquiring the sophisticated instrumentation needed to demonstrate how to identify and quantify metals. In this context, a method was developed based on the flame…

  14. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  15. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  16. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should b

  17. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapil, V.; Ceriotti, M., E-mail: michele.ceriotti@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Computational Science and Modelling, Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); VandeVondele, J., E-mail: joost.vandevondele@mat.ethz.ch [Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-02-07

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.

  18. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asadzadeh

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp, C. orthopsilosis (109 bp, C. metapsilosis (217 bp and L. elongisporus (258 bp were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380 by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361, C. orthopsilosis (n = 15, C. metapsilosis (n = 1 and L. elongisporus (n = 3 by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1 comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10

  19. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  20. Kinetic modeling of the biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions onto Eichhornia crassipes roots using potentiometry: low-cost alternative to conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the use of potentiometric measurements for kinetic studies of biosorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions on Eichhornia crassipes roots. The open circuit potential of the Cd/Cd2+ electrode of the first kind was measured during the bioadsorption process. The amount of Cd2+ ions accumulated was determined in real time. The data were fit to different models, with the pseudo-second-order model proving to be the best in describing the data. The advantages and limitations of the methodology proposed relative to the traditional method are discussed.

  1. Fast and low-cost method to fabricate large-area superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate with anticorrosion and anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com; Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A facile and quick fabrication method was proposed to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces on iron substrate by chemical immersion and subsequent stearic acid modification. The association between wettability and surface morphology was studied through altering the copper ion concentration and immersion time. Surface tension instrument, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical workstation were used to characterize the wettability, physical morphology, chemical composition, and corrosion resistance ability of the prepared film. Results showed that both the rough micro/nanostructures and low surface energy material play critical roles in surface wettability. The superhydrophobic film achieved a better anticorrosion property compared to barrier iron by analysis of open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and Nyquist plots. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed excellent performance of acid and alkali resistance, anti-icing, and self-cleaning through a series of environmental tests. This study provides a valid method for quick-preparation of the stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which has a promising application in steel buildings and facilities.

  2. Rapid and low-cost method to prove the nature of no documented tachycardia in children and teenagers without pre-excitation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice; Groben, Laurent; Chometon, Frédéric; Lethor, Jean Paul; Admant, Philippe; Cloez, Jean Louis; Popescu, Irina; Marchal, Cecile; Cedano, Juanico; Abdelaal, Ahmed; Huttin, Olivier; Tatar, Charif; Benzaghou, Nacima; Azman, Berivan; Terrier De La Chaise, Arnaud; Marçon, François

    2009-08-01

    Aims Symptoms in children are often difficult to interpret. The purpose of this study was to report the results of transoesophageal electrophysiological study (EPS) performed in children complaining of sudden onset tachycardia with normal non-invasive studies. Methods and results Eighty-two children and teenagers (mean age 15 +/- 3 years) presented with suspected but no documented paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). ECG was normal. Non-invasive studies were negative; 23 children had syncope with tachycardias. They underwent transoesophageal EPS in our out-patient clinic. The mean duration of transoesophageal EPS was 11 +/- 5 min. Electrophysiological study was negative in 25 children. AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia could be induced in 37 children, 11 of them associated with syncope. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) was diagnosed in five children in which atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia was inducible. Atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia due to a concealed AP was induced in 14 children. Verapamil-sensitive ventricular tachycardia was induced in one patient. Factors associated with tachycardia inducibility were an older age (15.5 +/- 2 vs. 14 +/- 4 years) (P children with inducible SVT, radiofrequency ablation of the re-entrant circuit was subsequently performed. Conclusion Transoesophageal EPS is a fast method for proving the nature of paroxysmal tachycardia in children and teenagers presenting with normal ECG and for demonstrating WPW syndrome not visible on standard ECG. The negative predictive value of transoesophageal EPS for the diagnosis of SVT was 100%.

  3. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  4. Low-cost forming method for aircraft ACM. 3. Low-cost forming technologies for thermoplastic resin based composite materials, textile technologies, and research proposals; Kokukiyo ACM no tei cost seikeiho. 3. Netsukasosei jushikei fukugo zairyo no tei cost seikei gijutsu to textile gijutsu kenkyu teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Amaoka, K. [Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-15

    This paper introduces trends inside and outside the country on low-cost forming technologies for thermoplastic resin based composite materials, and proposes future research and development themes. Thermoplastic resin based composite materials are characterized in that they have high tenacity, raw materials thereof can be stored in room temperature, and they require no chemical reactions for forming, but can be formed in a short time. Researches are continued because of the high possibility of forming them at low cost. Researches made to date include those on a direct consolidation technology, development of a fiber placement head, continuous filament winding and a powder coat towpreg technology. A technology is also studied recently, by which preform of a towpreg of a thermoplastic composite material is manufactured by using a textile technology, and then molded. Strength and rigidity data for the composite material formed from textile preform available at the present are too few to fully identify its mechanical properties. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should be operated by a low-cost carrier with better possibilities to subsist. The proposed model in this paper was set up by analyzing The United States domestic air transport market 2005 year database fr...

  6. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  7. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  8. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    algorithms to experimental faulted and unfaulted flight test data. Flight tests are conducted with actuator faults that affect the plant input and sensor faults that affect the vehicle state measurements. A model-based detection strategy is designed and uses robust linear filtering methods to reject exogenous disturbances, e.g. wind, while providing robustness to model variation. A data-driven algorithm is developed to operate exclusively on raw flight test data without physical model knowledge. The fault detection and identification performance of these complementary but different methods is compared. Together, enhanced reliability assessment and multi-pronged fault detection and identification techniques can help to bring about the next generation of reliable low-cost unmanned aircraft.

  9. Low-cost implementation of Differential GPS using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Svaton, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The thesis proposes the low-cost solution of Differential GPS using Arduino as a Master Control Unit. The thesis provides the methods of GPS position augmentation, which is available for varied applications such as drones or autonomous lawnmowers operated in a private sector. Used methods of GPS positioning accuracy improvements are based on a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) and pseudorange residuals.

  10. PROSPECTS OF UKRAINE LOW-COST AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kasianova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to show that the budgetary development of aviation in the market of domestic flights in Ukraine will not only increase the use of the aircraft by the end user, but also maximize the profits for the domestic airlines. Methods: We used economic analysis methods to assess the costs for air travel. The necessity of the use of passengers load factor was justified, indicators of the efficiency of the airline were calculated. The advantages of the air transport compared to the rail transport were shown on the basis of a comparative analysis. Results: We considered the relationship between the volume of air traffic and the revenue of the potential clients. The feasibility of reducing prices on air tickets to the level of railway tariffs was proved. The concept of low cost airlines was defined, the factors to decrease the air travel prices were identified. Maximisation of the airline profits can be achieved with an affordable price, which will increase passenger traffic. Discussion: In Ukraine there is an urgent need for new solutions that would help airlines to successfully conduct its business and meet the needs of passengers on domestic routes. There is no doubt that in times of economic crisis, inflation has a significant impact on the real incomes of consumers, and this study proves the feasibility of establishing a low-budget domestic aviation and its use on domestic routes during the economic crisis.

  11. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  12. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  13. Exoplanet Detection Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the ex- istence of planetary companions, as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals us- ing each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the f...

  14. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  15. A Simple, Low-Cost Platform for Real-Time Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Craw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in microfluidics and the introduction of isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays have resulted in a range of solutions for nucleic acid amplification tests suited for point of care and field use. However, miniaturisation of instrumentation for such assays has not seen such rapid advances and fluorescence based assays still depend on complex, bulky and expensive optics such as fluorescence microscopes, photomultiplier tubes and sensitive lens assemblies. In this work we demonstrate a robust, low cost platform for isothermal nucleic acid amplification on a microfluidic device. Using easily obtainable materials and commercial off-the-shelf components, we show real time fluorescence detection using a low cost photodiode and operational amplifier without need for lenses. Temperature regulation on the device is achieved using a heater fabricated with standard printed circuit board fabrication methods. These facile construction methods allow fabrications at a cost compatible with widespread deployment to resource poor settings.

  16. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...... expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... suitable option for a low-cost simulation of robotic surgery....

  17. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...... expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... suitable option for a low-cost simulation of robotic surgery....

  18. Low Cost, Advanced, Integrated Microcontroller Training Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Fushshilat, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the design of an AVR microcontroller training kit with a low cost and the additional feature of an integrated downloader. The main components of this device include: Microcontroller, terminal, I/O keypad, push button, LED, seven segment display, LCD, motor stepper, and sensors. The device configuration results in low cost and ease of use; this device is suitable for laboratories with limited funding. The device can also be used as a training kit for the teaching and learning of microcontrollers.

  19. Effect of Ni doping on structural and optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowder synthesized via low cost sono-chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Budhendra, E-mail: bksingh@ua.pt [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Kaushal, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.kaushal@ua.pt [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bdikin, Igor [TEMA-NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Venkata Saravanan, K. [Department of Physics, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610101 (India); Ferreira, J.M.F. [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Ni doped ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by low cost sonochemical method. • The optical properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders can be tuned by varying Ni content. • The results reveal the solubility limit of Ni into ZnO matrix as below 8%. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanopowders with different Ni contents of x = 0.0, 0.04 and 0.08 were synthesized via cost effective sonochemical reaction method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals pure wurtzite phase of prepared nanostructures with no additional impurity peaks. The morphology and dimensions of nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). A sharp and strong peak for first order optical mode for wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) structure was observed at ∼438 cm{sup −1} in Raman spectra. The calculated optical band gap (E{sub g}) from UV–vis transmission data was found to decrease with increase in Ni content. The observed red shift in E{sub g} with increasing Ni content in ZnO nanopowders were in agreement with band gap behaviours found in their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The synthesised ZnO nanopowders with controlled band gap on Ni doping reveals their potential for use in various electronic and optical device applications. The results were discussed in detail.

  20. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  1. Simplified, low cost below-knee prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijkusol, D

    1986-08-01

    Problems are encountered in using standard prostheses in developing countries, especially when the prostheses need repair and the amputees cannot come back to the workshop. Very simple, low cost and durable prostheses can solve this problem. The solution described has worked well with villagers in some rural areas of Thailand, where the inexpensive prosthesis permits walking bare-foot and through water and mud.

  2. Low-cost LANDSAT processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, N. L.; Hooper, N. J.; Spann, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    LANDSAT analysis system is assembled from commercially available components at relatively low cost. Small-scale system is put together for price affordable for state agencies and universities. It processes LANDSAT data for subscene areas on repetitive basis. Amount of time required for processing decreases linearly with number of classifications desired. Computer programs written in FORTRAN IV are available for analyzing data.

  3. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  4. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  5. Project GeoWSN: High precision but low-cost GNSS landslide monitoring in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel; Brandstätter, Michael; Kühtreiber, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    At present, GNSS monitoring of landslides is an accepted and approved method to detect movements of slopes at risk in the sub-centimetre level. However, high-precision geodetic GNSS-receivers are expensive, therefore this monitoring method is not widely applied. Recently low-cost GNSS-receivers are conquering the geodetic market and are well suited for a cost effective and yet precise GNSS-monitoring. During the project GeoWSN, which was funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), an applicable low-cost monitoring system was developed at Graz University of Technology. The system is based on a so-called Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of low-cost GNSS-receivers, temperature and humidity sensors and inertial measurement units. Additionally energy-harvesting technologies and power-saving algorithms provide that the system is energy- autarkic. For real-time applications, a communication link between the sensor nodes is implemented. The relative positioning method RTK (Real Time Kinematic) is applied to reach the highest possible accuracy. The GeoWSN sensor nodes enable the detection of possible movements in the real-time processed positions of the sensor nodes. To ensure a real-time evaluation and interpretation of the data, the current status of the slope can be acquired by a local warning centre. Therefore, affected people can be warned within a short latency. Several test-scenarios have shown the acceptance of the system at the warning centre of Styria, Austria. This contribution should give an overview of the main idea of a low-cost warning system and results of the project GeoWSN.

  6. A low-cost acoustic permeameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Selker, John S.; Higgins, Chad W.

    2017-04-01

    Intrinsic permeability is an important parameter that regulates air exchange through porous media such as snow. Standard methods of measuring snow permeability are inconvenient to perform outdoors, are fraught with sampling errors, and require specialized equipment, while bringing intact samples back to the laboratory is also challenging. To address these issues, we designed, built, and tested a low-cost acoustic permeameter that allows computation of volume-averaged intrinsic permeability for a homogenous medium. In this paper, we validate acoustically derived permeability of homogenous, reticulated foam samples by comparison with results derived using a standard flow-through permeameter. Acoustic permeameter elements were designed for use in snow, but the measurement methods are not snow-specific. The electronic components - consisting of a signal generator, amplifier, speaker, microphone, and oscilloscope - are inexpensive and easily obtainable. The system is suitable for outdoor use when it is not precipitating, but the electrical components require protection from the elements in inclement weather. The permeameter can be operated with a microphone either internally mounted or buried a known depth in the medium. The calibration method depends on choice of microphone positioning. For an externally located microphone, calibration was based on a low-frequency approximation applied at 500 Hz that provided an estimate of both intrinsic permeability and tortuosity. The low-frequency approximation that we used is valid up to 2 kHz, but we chose 500 Hz because data reproducibility was maximized at this frequency. For an internally mounted microphone, calibration was based on attenuation at 50 Hz and returned only intrinsic permeability. We found that 50 Hz corresponded to a wavelength that minimized resonance frequencies in the acoustic tube and was also within the response limitations of the microphone. We used reticulated foam of known permeability (ranging from 2

  7. PEM Low Cost Endplates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Martin; Clyens, S.; Steenstrup, F.R.; Christiansen, Jens [Danish Technological Institute. Plastics Technology, Taastrup (Denmark); Yde-Andersen, S. [IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In the project, an endplate for the PEM-type fuel cells has been developed. The initial idea was to use an injection mouldable fibre reinforced polymer to produce the endplate and thereby exploit the opportunities of greater geometrical freedom to reduce weight and material consumption. Different PPS/glass-fibre compounds were produced and tested in order to use the results to optimize the results on the computer through FEM simulations. As it turned out, it was impossible to achieve adequate stiffness for the endplates within the given geometrical limitations. At the relatively high temperatures at which the endplates operate the material simply goes to soft. Material focus shifted to fibre reinforced high strength concrete composite. Test specimens were produced and tested so the results again could be used for FEM-simulations which also accounted for the technical limitations the concrete composite has regarding casting ability. In the process, the way the endplate is mounted was also alternated to better accommodate the properties of the concrete composite. A number of endplates were cast in specially produced moulds in order to map the optimum process parameters, and a final endplate was tested at IRD Fuel Cells A/S. The field test was in many aspects successful. However, the gas sealing and the surface finish can be further improved. The weight may still be an issue for some applications, even though it is lower than the endplate currently used. This issue can be addressed in a future project. The work has resulted in a new endplate design, which makes the stack assembly simpler and with fewer components. The endplates fabrication involves low cost methods, which can be scaled up as demand of fuel cells begin to take off. (Author)

  8. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  9. Adapting a Low-Cost Selective Compliant Articulated Robotic Arm for Spillage Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Li, Jonathan; Muradoglu, Murat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-12-01

    Flexible automation systems provide the needed adaptability to serve shorter-term projects and specialty applications in biochemical analysis. A low-cost selective compliant articulated robotic arm designed for liquid spillage avoidance is developed here. In the vertical-plane robotic arm movement test, the signals from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and accelerometer were able to sense collisions. In the horizontal movement test, however, only the signals from the IMU enabled collision to be detected. Using a calculation method developed, it was possible to chart the regions where the obstacle was likely to be located when a collision occurred. The low cost of the IMU and its easy incorporation into the robotic arm offer the potential to meet the pressures of lowering operating costs, apply laboratory automation in resource-limited venues, and obviate human intervention in response to sudden disease outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Research of the image processing in dynamic flatness detection based on improved laser triangular method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As a commonly used non-contact flatness detection method, laser triangular detection method is designed with low cost, but it cannot avoid measurement errors caused by strip steel vibration effectively. This paper puts forward a dynamic flatness image processing method based on improved laser triangular detection method. According to the practical application of strip steel straightening, it completes the image pre-processing, image feature curve extraction and calculation of flatness elongation using digit...

  11. A low cost method to produce a gaseous environment for the isolation of Helicobacter pylori Un método de bajo costo para producir el ambiente gaseoso para el aislamiento de Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hernández

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A low cost method (LCM to produce a gaseous environment for the isolation of Helicobacter pylori, was compared with the standard Gas Park system. The LCM uses a carbonated antacid tablet, a plastic bag with tap water, a candle, and a wide-mouthed glass jar provided with a tight-fitting metalic screw cap and a rubber gasket. Antral gastric biopsies from 153 cases were incubated by duplicate on blood agar plates and treated with the two methods. In 95 cases the agent was isolated from both, and only from the standard method in 10 cases; the opposite condition was found in five cases, and 43 were negative. That difference is not significant (Pearson's X²= 93.25 p > 0,05Se comparó un método de bajo costo (MBC para producir el ambiente gaseoso para el aislamiento de Helicobacter pylori, con el sistema estándar de gas Pak. El MBC usa una tableta carbonata de antiácido, una bolsa plástica con agua, una candela y un frasco de vidrio con boca ancha, provisto de tapa metálica de rosca con empaque de hule. Las biopsias de antro de 153 pacientes se inocularon por duplicado en platos de agar sangre y se incubaron bajo los dos sistemas. En 195 casos el agente se aisló de ambos platos, y sólo del incubado bajo el método estándar en diez casos; la condición opuesta se presentó en cinco casos; 43 casos fueron negativos. Esa diferencia no es significativa (X² de Pearson = 93,25 p > 0,05

  12. Method for detecting biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  13. Public Low-Cost Housing in Malaysia: Case Studies on PPR Low-Cost Flats in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh, Ai Tee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design quality of People's Housing Project (Program Perumahan Rakyat or PPR low cost high rise flats developed by the National Housing Department (Jabatan Perumahan Negara or JPN in Kuala Lumpur since the 1998. Quality Function Deployment method is used as a tool to analyze the current status and to prioritize the demanded quality from the selected PPR low-cost high rise flats' users. The study revealed that factors in determining a quality low-cost high-rise flat arranged in descending degrees of importance are house safety, provision of public amenities, unit internal environment, maintenance and surrounding environment, location, sanitary fittings, unit size, type of house, material used, unit internal layout, quality of workmanship, structure of the house and appearance. A Quality Chart for PPR low-cost high-rise flats in Kuala Lumpur was presented. Authority (47 per cent has the highest relative degree of importance in determining the quality of PPR flats, followed by Design Element (34 per cent and Quality of Living (19 per cent. Accordingly, the success of the schemes relies strongly on effective control and enforcement by the authorities. However, it can be improved by tackling on the Design Element (Architectural, whereby a revised typical unit layout plan and typical details have been proposed at the last section of the paper.

  14. Design of a LOW Cost IC Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakot Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost Integrated Circuit (IC testing is now a burning issue in semiconductor technology. Conventional IC tester, Automatic Test Equipment (ATE, cannot cope with the today’s continuously increasing complexities in IC technology. Deterministic algorithm, which is an idea of 1960’s, is adopted in the ATE. Recently pseudo-random testing approach of IC testing has been emerged as an economically viable alternative to the expensive deterministic testing approach. This study introduces the design of a System-on-a-chip (Soc implementing pseudo-random test technique for low cost IC testing with reliable performance. It is capable of testing combinational circuits as well as sequential circuits with scan-port facilities efficiently. It can also be used for testing Printed Circuit Board (PCB interconnection faults.

  15. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  16. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Haberman, D.P. [DCH Technology, Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  17. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  18. Measurement of luminescence decays: High performance at low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkes, Mark; Sulkes, Zoe

    2011-11-01

    The availability of inexpensive ultra bright LEDs spanning the visible and near-ultraviolet combined with the availability of inexpensive electronics equipment makes it possible to construct a high performance luminescence lifetime apparatus (˜5 ns instrumental response or better) at low cost. A central need for time domain measurement systems is the ability to obtain short (˜1 ns or less) excitation light pulses from the LEDs. It is possible to build the necessary LED driver using a simple avalanche transistor circuit. We describe first a circuit to test for small signal NPN transistors that can avalanche. We then describe a final optimized avalanche mode circuit that we developed on a prototyping board by measuring driven light pulse duration as a function of the circuit on the board and passive component values. We demonstrate that the combination of the LED pulser and a 1P28 photomultiplier tube used in decay waveform acquisition has a time response that allows for detection and lifetime determination of luminescence decays down to ˜5 ns. The time response and data quality afforded with the same components in time-correlated single photon counting are even better. For time-correlated single photon counting an even simpler NAND-gate based LED driver circuit is also applicable. We also demonstrate the possible utility of a simple frequency domain method for luminescence lifetime determinations.

  19. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  20. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  1. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  2. Low-cost silicon wafer dicing using a craft cutter

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2014-05-20

    This paper reports a low-cost silicon wafer dicing technique using a commercial craft cutter. The 4-inch silicon wafers were scribed using a crafter cutter with a mounted diamond blade. The pre-programmed automated process can reach a minimum die feature of 3 mm by 3 mm. We performed this scribing process on the top polished surface of a silicon wafer; we also created a scribing method for the back-unpolished surface in order to protect the structures on the wafer during scribing. Compared with other wafer dicing methods, our proposed dicing technique is extremely low cost (lower than $1,000), and suitable for silicon wafer dicing in microelectromechanical or microfluidic fields, which usually have a relatively large die dimension. The proposed dicing technique is also usable for dicing multiple project wafers, a process where dies of different dimensions are diced on the same wafer.

  3. Development of a low cost, portable solar hydrogen generation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kyle; Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, Ashok; Wingo, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen is a clean energy source that is environmentally friendly and safe. It is well known that electrolysis is a common method used to produce hydrogen. Other high cost methods for hydrogen production can be countered by the development of this low cost pulse width modulated circuit, using direct current provided by naturally existing solar energy as a power source. Efforts are being made in the scientific community to produce a low cost, portable, solar hydrogen generating device for a number of clean energy applications such as fuel cells and energy storage. Proof of concept has already been tested in the laboratory and a small prototype system is being designed and fabricated in the workshop at Alabama A&M University. Our results of this study and details of the electronic circuit and the prototype are presented.

  4. Low Cost Interactive Electronic Whiteboard Using Nintendo Wii Remote

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The application of interactive whiteboard offers extensive benefits in the learning and teaching process for classroom environment. The high cost associated with commercial interactive whiteboard may hinder its application in primary or secondary school, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study describes the methods used to create a low cost interactive and viable electronic whiteboard by using the capabilities of the Nintendo Wiimotes. It also looks at the poss...

  5. Biodiesel production from low cost and renewable feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera; Grant, Georgene; Patil, Prafulla; Deng, Shuguang

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable biodiesel production should: a) utilize low cost renewable feedstock; b) utilize energy-efficient, nonconventional heating and mixing techniques; c) increase net energy benefit of the process; and d) utilize renewable feedstock/energy sources where possible. In this paper, we discuss the merits of biodiesel production following these criteria supported by the experimental results obtained from the process optimization studies. Waste cooking oil, non-edible (low-cost) oils (Jatropha curcas and Camelina Sativa) and algae were used as feedstock for biodiesel process optimization. A comparison between conventional and non-conventional methods such as microwaves and ultrasound was reported. Finally, net energy scenarios for different biodiesel feedstock options and algae are presented.

  6. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  7. Low cost Michelson-Morley interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish; Kurmude, Vikrant

    2016-11-01

    The Michelson-Morley interferometer is an important and challenging experiment in many undergraduate as well as post-graduate physics laboratories. The apparatus required for this experiment is costly and delicate to handle. It also requires considerable skill to obtain a set of sharp fringes. This frontline presents a low cost (~US50) design of the experiment, which can be easily fabricated in any undergraduate laboratory. It is easy to handle as well as any part of this set up being easily replaced in case of any damage.

  8. Methods and Instruments for Fast Neutron Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Cooper, Matthew W.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2005-05-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the performance of a large-area (~0.7 m2) plastic scintillator time-of-flight (TOF) sensor for direct detection of fast neutrons. This type of sensor is a readily area-scalable technology that provides broad-area geometrical coverage at a reasonably low cost. It can yield intrinsic detection efficiencies that compare favorably with moderator-based detection methods. The timing resolution achievable should permit substantially more precise time windowing of return neutron flux than would otherwise be possible with moderated detectors. The energy-deposition threshold imposed on each scintillator contributing to the event-definition trigger in a TOF system can be set to blind the sensor to direct emission from the neutron generator. The primary technical challenge addressed in the project was to understand the capabilities of a neutron TOF sensor in the limit of large scintillator area and small scintillator separation, a size regime in which the neutral particle’s flight path between the two scintillators is not tightly constrained.

  9. Low Cost Data Acquisition System for Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sharma Gaurav Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the engineering education in India is increasing, so the demand of quality projects and quality research at the students level is also increasing. To make good hardware projects most of the time we need to acquire real time data. This acquisition is done through the dedicated device which is called Data Acquisition Device. In India there are very less no. of companies which are making the Data Acquisition Devices and the available devices are very costly for the students. Hence, there is need to provide students a cost effective or low cost device which can suite according to their proposed work. In this paper we have designed and implemented a prototype of Data Acquisition Device (DAQ using AVR microcontroller. The software for the DAQ device has been mode on MATLAB and LabView and the device has been tested for different tasks and under different conditions

  10. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  11. Low Cost Projection Environment for Immersive Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bourke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available As computer performance and graphics hardware continue to improve, the gamer is increasingly being presented with richer and more realistic visual environments. Viewing these virtual environments is generally still based upon display technology that does not exploit two very important characteristics of our visual system, namely stereoscopic vision that is responsible for the enhanced depth perception we see in the real world and a wide field of view that allows us to sense activity in our far peripheral vision. In what follows it will be argued that for immersive gaming a wide field of view is both functionally more useful and places less stress on the visual system than stereoscopic viewing. In order to support gaming with a wide vertical and horizontal field of view a low cost projection system will be introduced and the implications for game developers discussed.

  12. Development of low-cost rotational rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Skov, Kristian Thaarup

    2015-01-01

    Liquids with non-Newtonian properties are presented in many engineering areas as for example in membrane bioreactors where active sludge exhibits shear thinning properties. Therefore, the ability to determine the rheology’s dependence of shear is important when optimising systems with such liquids....... However, rheometers capable of determining the viscosity are often expensive and so a cheaper alternative is constructed with this exact capability. Using the principle of rotating rheometers, a low-cost rheometer was built to determine the rheology of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. The general...... principles and assumptions behind and the physics are described. The rheometer was calibrated by comparison with measurements conducted on a Brookfield viscometer for Newtonian liquids. For validation measurements on non-Newtonian Xanthan Gum solutions were made and compared measurements on the Brookfield...

  13. 一种高效低成本的工业合成LiFePO4优化方法%A Facile and Low-Cost Industrial Method to Optimize LiFePO4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟东; 梁亚春; 刘净纳; 谈超; 饶高峰

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, nano-FePO4 was synthesized using industrial iron waste water, (NH4)2HPO4, and citric acid as chelating agent. The size and morphology of FePO4were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicating that the FePO4 nanoparticles were well dispersed. LiFePO4was prepared by a carbothermal reduction method utilizing the FePO4nanoparticles and the structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating the LiFePO4was of high purity and owns an olivine structure. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 was investigated by galvanostatic charge/discjharge. The LiFePO4 synthesized by FePO4 modified by citric acid showed a high discharge capacity of 141 mAh.g−1at the 0.1 C rate. The cycle performance of LiFePO4 was good at different rate test of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C. This favored electrochemical performance was attributed to the size-reduced LiFePO4particles and uniform carbon coating layer. The low-cost starting material and facile synthetic method are promising for practical applications.%该文以废铁水为铁源,(NH4)2HPO4为磷源,柠檬酸为螯合剂合成FePO4。通过电子扫描显微镜(SEM)观察到与没有加入柠檬酸改性的FePO4相比,可以明显减小FePO4颗粒的尺寸(纳米级),减少团聚,增强分散性。以自制的纳米级FePO4、Li2CO3、C12H22O11为原料,利用碳热还原法合成LiFePO4。通过X射线衍射(XRD)分析材料的结构,表明合成的材料为橄榄石结构且结晶度好。并组装成扣式电池研究前驱体FePO4的尺寸形貌对正极材料电化学性能的影响。研究了利用柠檬酸修饰的FePO4合成的LiFePO4,在0.1 C倍率下放电比容量为141 mAh.g−1。经过倍率循环测试表明,材料仍具有很好的循环稳定性能。这些性能的改善都源自于合成LiFePO4材料尺寸的减小及均匀的碳包覆。该文提供的合成方法不但原料廉价,而且工艺简单,还具有十分重要的实际应用价值。

  14. Low-cost, high-power mechanical impact transducers for sonar and acoustic through-wall surveillance applications

    CERN Document Server

    Felber, Franklin

    2014-01-01

    A new concept is presented for mechanical acoustic transmitters and matched resonant receivers. The lightweight, compact, and low-cost transmitters produce high-power acoustic pulses at one or more discrete frequencies with very little input power. The transducer systems are well suited for coupling acoustic pulse energy into dense media, such as walls and water. Applications of the impact transducers are discussed, including detection and tracking of humans through walls and long-duration underwater surveillance by a low-cost network of autonomous, self-recharging, battery-operated sonobuoys. A conceptual design of a sonobuoy surveillance network for harbors and littoral waters is presented. An impact-transmitter and matched-receiver system that detected human motion through thick walls with only rudimentary signal processing is described, and results are presented. Signal processing methods for increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by several tens of dB are discussed.

  15. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  16. Low-cost thermoforming of micro fluidic analysis chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmüller, R.; Rummler, Z.; Schaller, Th; Schomburg, W. K.

    2002-07-01

    We present a new method for the low-cost manufacture of micro fluidic devices from polymers for single use. Within a one-step or two-step process inside a hot embossing press, micro channels are thermoformed into a thin plastic film and welded on to a thicker plastic film or sheet. Sterile, hermetically sealed micro fluidic structures were fabricated from polystyrene for easy opening immediately before use. It even appears to be possible to produce micro fluidic analysis chips from polymers on a coil from which single devices are cut off for use.

  17. Low-cost anodes for ammonia electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverston, Steven M.

    This research focused on the development of low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen, a reaction that has possible applications in hydrogen generation, direct ammonia fuel cells, water treatment, and sensors. Statistical design of experiments was used to help develop an efficient and scalable process for electrodeposition of platinum with a specific electrochemical surface area of over 25 m2 /g. Catalyst surface area and activity were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the material microstructure and morphology were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized electrodes were found to be active toward the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, particularly when supporting electrolyte was added. However, supporting electrolyte was not required in order to oxidize the ammonia. As proof of concept, a homemade direct ammonia fuel cell employing a commercial anion exchange membrane was tested at room temperature with gravity-fed fuel and without supporting electrolyte. At room temperature, with passive reactant supply and using dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the cell produced about one quarter the power of a direct methanol fuel cell that used active transport of humidified oxygen and preheated (50 °C) methanol. With continued development of the membrane, cathode and membrane electrode assembly, the passive direct ammonia fuel cell using anion exchange membrane could have performance similar to the equivalent direct methanol fuel cell, and it could benefit from many advantages of ammonia over methanol such as lower cost, higher energy density, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. LOTUS: a low-cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, I. A.; Marchant, J. M.; Jermak, H. E.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Fitzsimmons, A.; Jehin, E.; Jones, G.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Snodgrass, C.; de Val-Borro, M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5 × 95 arcsec) and wide (5 × 25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration, respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Å with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependent spectral resolution of R = 225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg, we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is <2 Å rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its current post-perihelion apparition.

  19. LOTUS: A low cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, I A; Jermak, H E; Barnsley, R M; Bates, S D; Clay, N R; Fitzsimmons, A; Jehin, E; Jones, G; Mottram, C J; Smith, R J; Snodgrass, C; de Val-Borro, M

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5x95 arcsec) and wide (5x25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Angstroms with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R=225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is less than 2 Angstroms rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its ...

  20. Low Cost Ozone Generation in Corona Streamer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapkin, B.; Knijnik, A.; Korobtsev, S.; Medvedev, D.; Shiryaevsky, V.

    1998-10-01

    There is an interesting experimental result (S. Korobtsev, D. Medvedev et al , ISPC 13,1997, vol.2, p. 755. ) for low cost ozone generation (7-8 eV/molec in air) in streamer with dominant energy consumption in streamer channel (where molecular vibrations are excited). For explanation we considered the effect of vibrational pumping saturation, when vibrational energy was increased (due to the super-elastic processes) and the change of electron cross-sections due to vibrational excitation, which could also lead to efficiency growth. Boltzmann equation solution showed that both effects required too large energy consumption in discharge (>0.7 eV/mole). Thus we went to conclusion, that some direct energy transfer from vibrational degrees of freedom to electronic degrees should take place. One of the possible new mechanisms is the reaction: N2 (v)+N2 (v)=N2 (A)+N_2. Our numerical model of vibrational kinetic in air with this reaction showed that dependence of ozone generation cost upon energy consumption in streamer channel had a minimum with the value of the cost about 8-10 eV/molec.

  1. Low cost aluminium metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, G.

    2007-03-15

    Low cost, light weight Ultalite{reg_sign} is an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AL-MMC) which utilises wear resistant ceramic particles derived from flyash. Ultalite AL-MMC typically contains between 10 and 30 per cent ceramic particles, and is formulated for the manufacture of wear resistant automotive components. Due to its low density and ease of processing into net shape die casting, Ultalite AL-MMC provides weight savings of up to 60 per cent over components fabricated from cast iron, thereby providing improved fuel efficiency with reduced greenhouse emissions. The original flyash material was sourced from a black coal power station in Queensland, where it contained a wide range of particles sizes. To narrow the size range and to remove impurities, a proprietary pretreatment developed by Dr Thomas Robl and co-researchers at the University of Kentucky was employed. The University of Kentucky developed the technology for the classification and benefaction of flyash to produce high-grade Pozzolan, which is used in Portland Cement product. This technology is now being applied to the production of Ultalite AL-MMC. Testing performed by Dr Robl has shown that the proprietary technology can eliminate the hollow particles, extract detrimental carbon-based impurities and remove the extremely fine and coarse particles. All that remains are dense ceramic particles with an average particle size of approximately 30 {mu}m. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  3. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  4. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN; csn.caltech.edu), operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009; qcn.stanford.edu; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  5. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  6. Technology for low-cost PIR security sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2008-03-01

    Current passive infrared (PIR) security sensors employing pyroelectric detectors are simple, cheap and reliable, but have several deficiencies. These sensors, developed two decades ago, are essentially short-range moving-target hotspot detectors. They cannot detect slow temperature changes, and thus are unable to respond to radiation stimuli indicating potential danger such as overheating electrical appliances and developing fires. They have a poor optical resolution and limited ability to recognize detected targets. Modern uncooled thermal infrared technology has vastly superior performance but as yet is too costly to challenge the PIR security sensor market. In this paper microbolometer technology will be discussed which can provide enhanced performance at acceptable cost. In addition to security sensing the technology has numerous applications in the military, industrial and domestic markets where target range is short and low cost is paramount.

  7. Low-cost in-soil organic contaminant sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossia, Charles E.; Wu, Samuel C.

    1991-03-01

    The First Omega Group Inc. has developed a low cost optical fiber sensing technique for detecting the presence of oils gasoline organic solvents and other oily contaminants in soils. The sensing means consists of a continuous optical fiber having a portion of its surface specially processed to render it sensitive to the presence of soil contandnants. The processed area of the fiber is positioned within the environment that is at risk of contaniination. Contact by a contaminant with the processed area of the optical fiber changes the attenuation of infrared light through the processed area in a characteristic way and in real time. The change in light attenuation is detected using a conven tional photo detector to provide indication of contamination within the soil.

  8. Low-cost, pseudo-Halbach dipole magnets for NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler, Michael C. D.; Sakellariou, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    We present designs for compact, inexpensive and strong dipole permanent magnets aimed primarily at magnetic resonance applications where prepolarization and detection occur at different locations. Low-homogeneity magnets with a 7.5 mm bore size and field up to nearly 2 T are constructed using low-cost starting materials, standard workshop tools and only few hours of labor - an achievable project for a student or postdoc with spare time. As an application example we show how our magnet was used to polarize the nuclear spins in approximately 1 mL of pure [13C ]-methanol prior to detection of its high-resolution NMR spectrum at zero field (measurement field below 10-10 T), where signals appear at multiples of the carbon-hydrogen spin-spin coupling frequency 1JCH = 140.7 (1) Hz.

  9. Low-cost fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Hishmeh, G.; Ciszek, P.; Lee, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The ability to detect hydrogen gas leaks economically and with inherent safety is an important technology that could facilitate commercial acceptance of hydrogen fuel in various applications. In particular, hydrogen fueled passenger vehicles will require hydrogen leak detectors to signal the activation of safety devices such as shutoff valves, ventilating fans, alarms, etc. Such detectors may be required in several locations within a vehicle--wherever a leak could pose a safety hazard. It is therefore important that the detectors be very economical. This paper reports progress on the development of low-cost fiber-optic hydrogen detectors intended to meet the needs of a hydrogen-fueled passenger vehicle. In the design, the presence of hydrogen in air is sensed by a thin-film coating at the end of a polymer optical fiber. When the coating reacts reversibly with the hydrogen, its optical properties are changed. Light from a central electro-optic control unit is projected down the optical fiber where it is reflected from the sensor coating back to central optical detectors. A change in the reflected intensity indicates the presence of hydrogen. The fiber-optic detector offers inherent safety by removing all electrical power from the leak sites and offers reduced signal processing problems by minimizing electromagnetic interference. Critical detector performance requirements include high selectivity, response speed and durability as well as potential for low-cost production.

  10. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  11. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  12. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  13. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  14. Effective Calibration of Low-Cost Soil Water Content Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heye Reemt Bogena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil water content is a key variable for understanding and modelling ecohydrological processes. Low-cost electromagnetic sensors are increasingly being used to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of soil water content, despite the reduced accuracy of such sensors as compared to reference electromagnetic soil water content sensing methods such as time domain reflectometry. Here, we present an effective calibration method to improve the measurement accuracy of low-cost soil water content sensors taking the recently developed SMT100 sensor (Truebner GmbH, Neustadt, Germany as an example. We calibrated the sensor output of more than 700 SMT100 sensors to permittivity using a standard procedure based on five reference media with a known apparent dielectric permittivity (1 < Ka < 34.8. Our results showed that a sensor-specific calibration improved the accuracy of the calibration compared to single “universal” calibration. The associated additional effort in calibrating each sensor individually is relaxed by a dedicated calibration setup that enables the calibration of large numbers of sensors in limited time while minimizing errors in the calibration process.

  15. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  16. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  17. Blind Detection of Ultra-faint Streaks with a Maximum Likelihood Method

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, William A; Kamath, Chandrika

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a maximum likelihood source detection method capable of detecting ultra-faint streaks with surface brightnesses approximately an order of magnitude fainter than the pixel level noise. Our maximum likelihood detection method is a model based approach that requires no a priori knowledge about the streak location, orientation, length, or surface brightness. This method enables discovery of typically undiscovered objects, and enables the utilization of low-cost sensors (i.e., higher-noise data). The method also easily facilitates multi-epoch co-addition. We will present the results from the application of this method to simulations, as well as real low earth orbit observations.

  18. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  19. Spatial and Spectral Methods for Weed Detection and Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truchetet Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the detection and localization of weed patches in order to improve the knowledge on weed-crop competition. A remote control aircraft provided with a camera allowed to obtain low cost and repetitive information. Different processings were involved to detect weed patches using spatial then spectral methods. First, a shift of colorimetric base allowed to separate the soil and plant pixels. Then, a specific algorithm including Gabor filter was applied to detect crop rows on the vegetation image. Weed patches were then deduced from the comparison of vegetation and crop images. Finally, the development of a multispectral acquisition device is introduced. First results for the discrimination of weeds and crops using the spectral properties are shown from laboratory tests. Application of neural networks were mostly studied.

  20. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  1. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, John [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2013-08-31

    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  2. Flight results of a low-cost attitude determination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, John C.; Cutler, James W.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents flight results of the attitude determination system (ADS) flown on the Radio Aurora Explorer (RAX) satellites, RAX-1 and RAX-2, which are CubeSats developed to study space weather. The ADS sensors include commercial-off-the-shelf magnetometers, coarse sun sensors (photodiodes), and a MEMs rate gyroscope. A multiplicative extended Kalman filter is used for attitude estimation. On-orbit calibration was developed and applied to compensate for sensor and alignment errors, and attitude determination accuracies of 0.5° 1-σ have been demonstrated on-orbit. The approach of using low-cost sensors in conjunction with on-orbit calibration, which mitigates the need for pre-flight calibration and high-tolerance alignment during spacecraft assembly, reduces the time and cost associated with the subsystem development, and provides a low-cost solution for modest attitude determination requirements. Although the flight results presented in this paper are from a specific mission, the methods used and lessons learned can be used to maximize the performance of the ADS of any vehicle while minimizing the pre-flight calibration and alignment requirements.

  3. Kinetic Gait Analysis Using a Low-Cost Insole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Adam M; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Hayes, Heather A; Foreman, K Bo; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal gait caused by stroke or other pathological reasons can greatly impact the life of an individual. Being able to measure and analyze that gait is often critical for rehabilitation. Motion analysis labs and many current methods of gait analysis are expensive and inaccessible to most individuals. The low-cost, wearable, and wireless insole-based gait analysis system in this study provides kinetic measurements of gait by using low-cost force sensitive resistors. This paper describes the design and fabrication of the insole and its evaluation in six control subjects and four hemiplegic stroke subjects. Subject-specific linear regression models were used to determine ground reaction force plus moments corresponding to ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion, knee flexion/extension, and knee abduction/adduction. Comparison with data simultaneously collected from a clinical motion analysis laboratory demonstrated that the insole results for ground reaction force and ankle moment were highly correlated (all >0.95) for all subjects, while the two knee moments were less strongly correlated (generally >0.80). This provides a means of cost-effective and efficient healthcare delivery of mobile gait analysis that can be used anywhere from large clinics to an individual's home.

  4. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  5. Low Cost Heart Rate Monitor Using Led-Led Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahrous Ragib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity, low power and low cost sensor has been developed for photoplethysmography (PPG measurement. The PPG principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. A standard light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used as a light emitter and detector, and in order to reduce the space, cost and power, the classical analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs replaced by the pulse-based signal conversion techniques. A general purpose microcontroller has been used for the implementation of measurement protocol. The proposed approach leads to better spectral sensitivity, increased resolution, reduction in cost, dimensions and power consumption. The basic sensing configuration presented is capable of detecting the PPG signal from a finger or toe, and it is very simple to extract the heart rate and heart rate variability from such a signal.

  6. Philosophy of design for low cost and high reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The Ørsted Star Imager or Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), includes the full functionallity of a traditional star tracker plus autonomy, i.e. it is able to quickly and autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, and determine its attitude with high precision. The design also provides......, Computational speed and Fault detection and recovery substantially. The high performance and low cost design was realized by the use of advanced high level integrated chips, along with a design philosophy of maximum autonomy at all levels. This approach necessitated the use of a prototyping facility which could...... do extensive component testing and screening which addressed the issues of reliability, thermo-mechanical properties, and radiation sensitivity of the commercial IC's. The facility helped to control costs by generating early information on component survival in space. The development philosophy...

  7. Research of the image processing in dynamic flatness detection based on improved laser triangular method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As a commonly used non-contact flatness detection method, laser triangular detection method is designed with low cost, but it cannot avoid measurement errors caused by strip steel vibration effectively. This paper puts forward a dynamic flatness image processing method based on improved laser triangular detection method. According to the practical application of strip steel straightening, it completes the image pre-processing, image feature curve extraction and calculation of flatness elongation using digital image processing technology. Finally it eliminates elongation measurement errors caused by the vibration.

  8. A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    AFFTC-PA-12423 A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) Pallavi Sandhiya AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER EDWARDS AFB, CA 2/20/13 A F...20-02-2013) 2. REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/12 -- 10/12 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A 10W Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT...CC: 012100 14. ABSTRACT This paper details design, development and test of the Low Cost OFDM Transceiver (LCOT) LCT2-040-2200

  9. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate vario...... power quality disturbances, such as interruptions, sags and imbalances. Simulation studies have been performed. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been demonstrated under the simulated typical power disturbances....

  10. Local method for detecting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James P.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a method of community detection that is computationally inexpensive and possesses physical significance to a member of a social network. This method is unlike many divisive and agglomerative techniques and is local in the sense that a community can be detected within a network without requiring knowledge of the entire network. A global application of this method is also introduced. Several artificial and real-world networks, including the famous Zachary karate club, are analyzed.

  11. Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashari, A; Singh, V; Sehgal, A; Satyanarayana, L; Sodhani, P; Gupta, M M

    2000-01-01

    We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology.

  12. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  13. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  14. Inflight Microbial Monitoring - An Alternative Method to Culture Based Detection Currently Used on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Birmele, Michele N.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Roman, Monsi; Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms including potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS). The potential to introduce new microorganisms occurs with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment or supplies. Current microbial monitoring methods require enrichment of microorganisms and a 48-hour incubation time resulting in an increase in microbial load, detecting a limited number of unidentified microorganisms. An expedient, low-cost, in-flight method of microbial detection, identification, and enumeration is warranted.

  15. Low-cost coherent UDWDM-PON by hybrid DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Deng, Zhuanhua; Hu, Rong; li, Cai; Li, Wei; Yuan, Zhilin; Yu, Shaohua

    2016-07-01

    The coherent ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (UDWDM-PON) has been widely studied recently, in which the envelop detection based coherent reception of on-off keying (OOK) signal has been shown to possess both high receiver sensitivity and tolerance against laser linewidth/chirp. In order to increase the spectral efficiency (SE) to 2 bit/s/Hz, researchers formulated a hybrid DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation using the silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), where both amplitude and phase modulation are employed. The experimental result shows that the proposed DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation is of better performance than PAM-4 at the same SE of 2 bit/s/Hz. When the low-cost silicon MZM and DFB laser of 4-MHz linewidth are employed, the receiver sensitivity of DBPSK/ASK-2 exceeds that of the PAM-4 by about 5.7 dB. This work can achieve about -46 dBm receiver sensitivity at 2.5 GBaud after transmission over 80-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). The proposed DBPSK/ASK-2 modulation using low-cost silicon MZM and DFB laser is considered as a practical and reliable method for the future UDWDM-PON at the SE of 2 bit/s/Hz.

  16. Low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using disposable gelatin gel templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Gang

    2010-06-15

    A simple method based on disposable gelatin gel templates has been developed for the low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Gelatin was dissolved in glycerol aqueous solution under heat to prepare a thermally reversible impression material. The molten gel was then sandwiched between a glass plate and a SU-8 template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative SU-8 template could be easily separated from the solidified gelatin gel and a layer of gelatin template bearing positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Subsequently, prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing a UV-initiator was sandwiched between the gel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under UV light to fabricate PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers using plasticizer-assisted thermal bonding at 90 degrees C. Gelatin gel template can be mass-produced and will find application in the mass production of PMMA microchips at low cost. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the capillary electrophoresis analysis of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  17. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Mahmood, Qaisar; Nasreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2009-08-30

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Pakistan is about to exhaust its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water deficit country. Water pollution is a serious menace in Pakistan, as almost 70% of its surface waters as well as its groundwater reserves have contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. In some areas of Pakistan, a number of shallow aquifers and tube wells are contaminated with arsenic at levels which are above the recommended USEPA arsenic level of 10 ppb (10 microg L(-1)). Adverse health effects including human mortality from drinking water are well documented and can be attributed to arsenic contamination. The present paper reviews appropriate and low cost methods for the elimination of arsenic from drinking waters. It is recommended that a combination of low cost chemical treatment like ion exchange, filtration and adsorption along with bioremediation may be useful option for arsenic removal from drinking water.

  18. MOCA: A Low-Power, Low-Cost Motion Capture System Based on Integrated Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Farella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interaction (HCI and virtual reality applications pose the challenge of enabling real-time interfaces for natural interaction. Gesture recognition based on body-mounted accelerometers has been proposed as a viable solution to translate patterns of movements that are associated with user commands, thus substituting point-and-click methods or other cumbersome input devices. On the other hand, cost and power constraints make the implementation of a natural and efficient interface suitable for consumer applications a critical task. Even though several gesture recognition solutions exist, their use in HCI context has been poorly characterized. For this reason, in this paper, we consider a low-cost/low-power wearable motion tracking system based on integrated accelerometers called motion capture with accelerometers (MOCA that we evaluated for navigation in virtual spaces. Recognition is based on a geometric algorithm that enables efficient and robust detection of rotational movements. Our objective is to demonstrate that such a low-cost and a low-power implementation is suitable for HCI applications. To this purpose, we characterized the system from both a quantitative point of view and a qualitative point of view. First, we performed static and dynamic assessment of movement recognition accuracy. Second, we evaluated the effectiveness of user experience using a 3D game application as a test bed.

  19. Fast and low-cost structured light pattern sequence projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmann, Patrick; Forster, Frank; Schmitt, Robert

    2011-11-21

    We present a high-speed and low-cost approach for structured light pattern sequence projection. Using a fast rotating binary spatial light modulator, our method is potentially capable of projection frequencies in the kHz domain, while enabling pattern rasterization as low as 2 μm pixel size and inherently linear grayscale reproduction quantized at 12 bits/pixel or better. Due to the circular arrangement of the projected fringe patterns, we extend the widely used ray-plane triangulation method to ray-cone triangulation and provide a detailed description of the optical calibration procedure. Using the proposed projection concept in conjunction with the recently published coded phase shift (CPS) pattern sequence, we demonstrate high accuracy 3-D measurement at 200 Hz projection frequency and 20 Hz 3-D reconstruction rate.

  20. Examination of a Novel Method for Non-Contact, Low-Cost, and Automated Heart-Rate Detection in Ambient Light Using Photoplethysmographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    a remote non-contact manner. The system comprises a complementary metal- oxide semiconductor (CMOS) camera and a dual wavelength array of LEDs (760...may be useful for medical purposes such as characterization of vascular skin lesions (e.g., port wine stains) and remote sensing of vital signs (e.g...Abbreviations, and Acronyms AC affective computing ARL US Army Research Laboratory CMOS complementary metal- oxide semiconductor ECG

  1. Tamper Sensing using Low-Cost Accelerometers

    OpenAIRE

    Rådeskog, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Certain security products, in this case sirens, must according to industry specifications generate a tamper warning in case the system is significantly moved from its place of mounting or subject to significant violence such as drilling. Currently, detecting removal from the place of mounting is typically done by mechanical switches placed between the siren and wall. This type of detection can be defeated by using thin blades and moreover complicates the process of mounting. In this M.Sc. the...

  2. Low-cost, multiplexed biosensor for disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Christopher J.; Delaney, Marie; Todorof, Kathryn; Heil, James; Givens, Monique; Schooley, Robert T.; Lochhead, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Cost-effective disease diagnosis in resource-limited settings remains a critical global health challenge. Qualitative rapid tests based on lateral flow technology provide valuable screening information, but require relatively expensive confirmatory tests and generally lack quantitation. We report on a fluorescence technology that combines low cost instrumented readout with passive pumping in a disposable cartridge. The detection system utilizes a novel waveguide illumination approach in conjunction with commercial CMOS imagers. Total instrument cost in production are projected to be around $100 This cost structure and instrument ease of use will enable use in point-of-care settings, outside of centralized laboratories. The system has been used for detection and analysis of proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cells. Here we will report first on our development of a multiplexed, array-based serology assay for HIV and common AIDS co-infections. Data will be presented for HIV/HCV antibody testing in human serum samples. In addition, we will present data on the use of the system for sensitive detection of bacterial RNA. Current detection limit for the model multiplexed RNA sandwich assay is 1 femtomolar target RNA. Finally, a high magnification version of the system is used to image immunostained human T cells.

  3. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  4. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  5. Surveying free and low-cost survey software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; McClellan, Leah; Zambrana, Ruth E

    2006-06-01

    Surveys are widely used to gather health information from a sample of individuals. This brief report reviews 14 free and low-cost software packages (free or low-cost software options appropriate for questionnaire development are readily available. Questionnaire mode and complexity, data management and analytical needs, and computing environment are all important considerations in selecting survey software.

  6. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  7. Measurement errors with low-cost citizen science radiometers

    OpenAIRE

    Bardají, Raúl; Piera, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The KdUINO is a Do-It-Yourself buoy with low-cost radiometers that measure a parameter related to water transparency, the diffuse attenuation coefficient integrated into all the photosynthetically active radiation. In this contribution, we analyze the measurement errors of a novel low-cost multispectral radiometer that is used with the KdUINO. Peer Reviewed

  8. Handbook of Low-Cost Simulation for Military Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Baeyer, A. von

    2000-01-01

    The EUCLID program enables the European Industry to develop and produce in a cost- effective way the systems that can fulfil future European military needs. One of the Research Technology Projects (RTP) within EUCLID is RTP 11.8, entitled: Low-cost Simulators. Low-cost simulators are defined as a ne

  9. Handbook of Low-Cost Simulation for Military Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Baeyer, A. von

    2000-01-01

    The EUCLID program enables the European Industry to develop and produce in a cost- effective way the systems that can fulfil future European military needs. One of the Research Technology Projects (RTP) within EUCLID is RTP 11.8, entitled: Low-cost Simulators. Low-cost simulators are defined as a

  10. Lightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eslam Gamal; Hashem, Mohamed; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2203

    2010-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology one of the most promising technologies in the field of ubiquitous computing. Indeed, RFID technology may well replace barcode technology. Although it offers many advantages over other identification systems, there are also associated security risks that are not easy to be addressed. When designing a real lightweight authentication protocol for low cost RFID tags, a number of challenges arise due to the extremely limited computational, storage and communication abilities of Low-cost RFID tags. This paper proposes a real mutual authentication protocol for low cost RFID tags. The proposed protocol prevents passive attacks as active attacks are discounted when designing a protocol to meet the requirements of low cost RFID tags. However the implementation of the protocol meets the limited abilities of low cost RFID tags.

  11. Improved, low-cost selective culture medium for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, M; Olle, E; Frias, J

    2001-02-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is considered to be one of the major oral putative pathogens, especially in cases of juvenile periodontitis. This microorganism requires nutritionally complex media for growth, and therefore the media for its primary isolation usually include blood agar or serum in their base. In this study we present a new medium, Dentaid-1, which improves the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans in periodontal samples. In its composition, blood and serum have been omitted, hence reducing its cost and making it a more restrictive medium against the growth of other microorganisms with high nutritional requirements. The growth yields of pure cultures of the bacteria on Dentaid-1 were comparable to those on nonselective blood agar. Moreover, clinical efficacy was evaluated in subgingival samples from 77 subjects with adult periodontitis. Dentaid-1 detected A. actinomycetemcomitans in 24 subjects, while a previously described tryptic soy-serum-bacitracin-vancomycin agar detected the microorganism in only 19 subjects (79.1%). Dentaid-1 is a low-cost, noninhibitory formula for the improved diagnosis and monitoring of patients subgingivally infected by this important oral putative pathogen.

  12. A new vehicle detection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbara Khalid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vehicle detection method from images acquired by cameras embedded in a moving vehicle. Given the sequence of images, the proposed algorithms should detect out all cars in realtime. Related to the driving direction, the cars can be classified into two types. Cars drive in the same direction as the intelligent vehicle (IV and cars drive in the opposite direction. Due to the distinct features of these two types, we suggest to achieve this method in two main steps. The first one detects all obstacles from images using the so-called association combined with corner detector. The second step is applied to validate each vehicle using AdaBoost classifier. The new method has been applied to different images data and the experimental results validate the efficacy of our method.

  13. Survey and Classification of Large Woody Debris (LWD in Streams Using Generated Low-Cost Geomatic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ortega-Terol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water authorities are required to have a survey of large woody debris (LWD in river channels and to manage this aspect of the stream habitat, making decisions on removing, positioning or leaving LWD in a natural state. The main objective of this study is to develop a new methodology that assists in decision making for sustainable management of river channels by using generated low-cost, geomatic products to detect LWD. The use of low-cost photogrammetry based on the use of economical, conventional, non-metric digital cameras mounted on low-cost aircrafts, together with the use of the latest computational vision techniques and open-source geomatic tools, provides useful geomatic products. The proposed methodology, compared with conventional photogrammetry or other traditional methods, led to a cost savings of up to 45%. This work presents several contributions for the area of free and open source software related to Geographic Information System (FOSSGIS applications to LWD management in streams, while developing a QGIS [1] plugin that characterizes the risk from the automatic calculation of geometrical parameters.

  14. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2013-12-01

    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals.

  15. Low Cost Interactive Electronic Whiteboard Using Nintendo Wii Remote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalbir Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The application of interactive whiteboard offers extensive benefits in the learning and teaching process for classroom environment. The high cost associated with commercial interactive whiteboard may hinder its application in primary or secondary school, especially in developing countries. Thus, this study describes the methods used to create a low cost interactive and viable electronic whiteboard by using the capabilities of the Nintendo Wiimotes. It also looks at the possibility of whether this much cheaper technology can be fully utilized to create better tools for in-class learning. Approach: Several technical aspects of the Wii Remote are examined, how this technology can be used on a low cost interactive whiteboard and how the system can be connected to your computer and LCD projector/screen. Result: This system has a stand-alone architecture, consists of a PC. The input client was responsible for getting the input data and connecting the Wii Remotes using a Bluetooth connection. The PC handles the software engine and display module. The user sends the IR source light to Wiimote by pressing the IR Pens switch button and then the Wiimote sends data to the PC via a Bluetooth connection. Conclusion/Recommendations: The genre of the system makes it more suitable in learning environments such as schools or universities. The main target groups of the system are lecturers, teachers or students (during presentation or in class exercise. Therefore, it was necessary to simplify the software design and control mechanism in order to support these main target groups.

  16. Design of low cost smart infusion device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Yohanes David; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri

    2015-01-01

    We propose design of a smart infusion device suitable for public hospitals in Indonesia. The device comprised of LED, photodiode and DC motor to measure and control the infusion rate, using the principle of LED beam absorption. The infusion rate was identified by using microcontroller and displayed through computer unit. Experiment results for different flow rate level and concentration of Dextrose showed that the device is able to detect, measure, and control the infusion droplets flow rate by the average error rate of 1.0081%.

  17. The advance of non-invasive detection methods in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiao; Chen, Yanping

    2011-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases which badly affected the patients' living quality and economy. Detection and evaluation technology can provide basic information for early treatment. A variety of imaging methods in OA were reviewed, such as conventional X-ray, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Among the existing imaging modalities, the spatial resolution of X-ray is extremely high; CT is a three-dimensional method, which has high density resolution; US as an evaluation method of knee OA discriminates lesions sensitively between normal cartilage and degenerative one; as a sensitive and nonionizing method, MRI is suitable for the detection of early OA, but the cost is too expensive for routine use; NIRS is a safe, low cost modality, and is also good at detecting early stage OA. In a word, each method has its own advantages, but NIRS is provided with broader application prospect, and it is likely to be used in clinical daily routine and become the golden standard for diagnostic detection.

  18. Very low cost multichannel analyzer with some additional features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudyka, Konrad; Bluszcz, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present a multichannel analyzer (MCA) based on a digital signal controller (DSC). The multichannel analyzer is characterized by a very low cost and an additional feature of recording time intervals between pulses. The total cost of electronic parts used in construction of the MCA is around 50 USD. The electronic circuit is based on dsPIC30F2020 DSC unit from Microchip. The device has a 10-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) which can sample and convert 2 samples per μs. The DSC samples the input voltage continuously and detects incoming pulses. The data belonging to a detected pulse and its time stamp are sent to a PC on-line. The analysis of data stored on the PC is performed off-line with the help of a genetic algorithm (GA) used to fit the pulse shape function. This allows determination of amplitude of each individual pulse. The effective resolution varies with the pulse length and is typically 1000 channels for pulses approximately 4 μs long.

  19. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip)

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Meili; Wu, Jiandong; Ma, Zimin; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Zhang, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Liu, Yong; Rigatto, Claudio; Lin, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microflu...

  20. Low cost, high performance far infrared microbolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roer, Audun; Lapadatu, Adriana; Elfving, Anders; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Hohler, Erling

    2010-04-01

    Far infrared (FIR) is becoming more widely accepted within the automotive industry as a powerful sensor to detect Vulnerable Road Users like pedestrians and bicyclist as well as animals. The main focus of FIR system development lies in reducing the cost of their components, and this will involve optimizing all aspects of the system. Decreased pixel size, improved 3D process integration technologies and improved manufacturing yields will produce the necessary cost reduction on the sensor to enable high market penetration. The improved 3D process integration allows a higher fill factor and improved transmission/absorption properties. Together with the high Thermal Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) and low 1/f noise properties provided by monocrystalline silicon germanium SiGe thermistor material, they lead to bolometer performances beyond those of existing devices. The thermistor material is deposited and optimized on an IR wafer separated from the read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) wafer. The IR wafer is transferred to the ROIC using CMOS compatible processes and materials, utilizing a low temperature wafer bonding process. Long term vacuum sealing obtained by wafer scale packaging enables further cost reductions and improved quality. The approach allows independent optimization of ROIC and thermistor material processing and is compatible with existing MEMS-foundries, allowing fast time to market.

  1. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials. PMID:27386460

  2. Use of Low-Cost Videomicroscopy versus Standard Videodermatoscopy in Trichoscopy: A Controlled, Blinded Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials.

  3. Method for detecting biological toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligler, F.S.; Campbell, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Biological toxins are indirectly detected by using polymerase chain reaction to amplify unique nucleic acid sequences coding for the toxins or enzymes unique to toxin synthesis. Buffer, primers coding for the unique nucleic acid sequences and an amplifying enzyme are added to a sample suspected of containing the toxin. The mixture is then cycled thermally to exponentially amplify any of these unique nucleic acid sequences present in the sample. The amplified sequences can be detected by various means, including fluorescence. Detection of the amplified sequences is indicative of the presence of toxin in the original sample. By using more than one set of labeled primers, the method can be used to simultaneously detect several toxins in a sample.

  4. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyader, Françoise S; Schultz, Anna-Charlotte; Haugarreau, Larissa; Croci, Luciana; Maunula, Leena; Duizer, Erwin; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Suffredini, Elizabetha; van der Poel, Wim M M; Reymundo, Rosanna; Koopmans, Marion

    2004-10-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid extractions were done at the same time in the same laboratory to reduce assay-to-assay variability. Results showed that the two critical steps are the washing step and removal of inhibitors. The more reliable methods (sensitivity, simplicity, low cost) included an elution/concentration step and a commercial kit. Such development of sensitive methods for viral detection in foods other than shellfish is important to improve food safety.

  5. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A S M; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010-2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005.

  6. Monitoring High-Frequency Ocean Signals Using Low-Cost Gnss/imu Buoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lun; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Shih, Chiao-Hui; Lin, Li-Ching; Chiang, Kai-wei; Cheng, Kai-Chien

    2016-06-01

    In oceans there are different ocean signals covering the multi-frequencies including tsunami, meteotsunami, storm surge, as sea level change, and currents. These signals have the direct and significant impact on the economy and life of human-beings. Therefore, measuring ocean signals accurately becomes more and more important and necessary. Nowadays, there are many techniques and methods commonly used for monitoring oceans, but each has its limitation. For example, tide gauges only measure sea level relative to benchmarks and are disturbed unevenly, and satellite altimeter measurements are not continuous and inaccurate near coastal oceans. In addition, high-frequency ocean signals such as tsunami and meteotsunami cannot be sufficiently detected by 6-minutes tide gauge measurements or 10-day sampled altimetry data. Moreover, traditional accelerometer buoy is heavy, expensive and the low-frequency noise caused by the instrument is unavoidable. In this study, a small, low-cost and self-assembly autonomous Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) that independently collects continuous acceleration and angular velocity data is mounted on a GNSS buoy to provide the positions and tilts of the moving buoy. The main idea is to integrate the Differential GNSS (DGNSS) or Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions with IMU data, and then evaluate the performance by comparing with in situ tide gauges. The validation experiments conducted in the NCKU Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory showed that GNSS and IMU both can detect the simulated regular wave frequency and height, and the field experiments in the Anping Harbor, Tainan, Taiwan showed that the low-cost GNSS buoy has an excellent ability to observe significant wave heights in amplitude and frequency.

  7. MONITORING HIGH-FREQUENCY OCEAN SIGNALS USING LOW-COST GNSS/IMU BUOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-L. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In oceans there are different ocean signals covering the multi-frequencies including tsunami, meteotsunami, storm surge, as sea level change, and currents. These signals have the direct and significant impact on the economy and life of human-beings. Therefore, measuring ocean signals accurately becomes more and more important and necessary. Nowadays, there are many techniques and methods commonly used for monitoring oceans, but each has its limitation. For example, tide gauges only measure sea level relative to benchmarks and are disturbed unevenly, and satellite altimeter measurements are not continuous and inaccurate near coastal oceans. In addition, high-frequency ocean signals such as tsunami and meteotsunami cannot be sufficiently detected by 6-minutes tide gauge measurements or 10-day sampled altimetry data. Moreover, traditional accelerometer buoy is heavy, expensive and the low-frequency noise caused by the instrument is unavoidable. In this study, a small, low-cost and self-assembly autonomous Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU that independently collects continuous acceleration and angular velocity data is mounted on a GNSS buoy to provide the positions and tilts of the moving buoy. The main idea is to integrate the Differential GNSS (DGNSS or Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with IMU data, and then evaluate the performance by comparing with in situ tide gauges. The validation experiments conducted in the NCKU Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory showed that GNSS and IMU both can detect the simulated regular wave frequency and height, and the field experiments in the Anping Harbor, Tainan, Taiwan showed that the low-cost GNSS buoy has an excellent ability to observe significant wave heights in amplitude and frequency.

  8. Low cost inlet filters for rainwater tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Brett; Thomas, T.

    2005-01-01

    Inlet filters are a common method for enhancing water quality in rainwater harvesting systems. They range from cheap cloth or gravel filters to complex and expensive multi-stage systems. Field experience has shown, however that filters often suffer from a lack of maintenance so self-cleaning is an advantage. Filters can clean themselves by dividing the water stream into two components; the first and largest is the clean water passed to the tank, the second much smaller component can be used t...

  9. Low-Cost LIDAR for Wake Vortex Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has been tasked with supporting the development of key technologies to facilitate the evolution of the National Airspace System to NextGen, the Next Generation...

  10. High Channel Count, Low Cost, Multiplexed FBG Sensor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; Kejian Guan; Joy Jiang; Liang Dong; Albert Li; Xiangdong Qiu; Jonathan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    With rich products development experience in WDM telecommunication networks, we introduce a few of high channel count, multiplexed FBG fiber optic sensor systems featured in reliable high performance and low cost.

  11. Low-Cost Medical Office Data Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Divinski, Jane

    1980-01-01

    This project is developing and demonstrating a low-cost microcomputer-based medical office data management system. The system is aimed at the specific needs of small primary care medical practices, in particular, those located in rural areas.

  12. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  13. (AJST) A LOW COST FIELD USABLE PORTABLE DIGITAL GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhartal PO, Jabalpur (M.P.)- 482004, India. 2Faculty of Electrical ... explains the design and development of a low cost portable Digital ... The paper explains the development of grain moisture meter based on ..... News, Vol. 103, pp 37-. 38.

  14. A Low Cost High Specific Stiffness Mirror Substrate Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  15. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  16. Novel Low Cost Booster Propulsion Development and Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed contract effort is for the design, development and proof-of-concept demontration testing of a low cost, pressure-fed liquid rocket booster propulsion...

  17. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  18. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  19. sequential low cost interventions double hand hygiene rates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... RESULTS. OF A HAND HYGIENE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT CONDUCTED AT ... Conclusion: Our study showed that low-cost interventions involving ensuring ... defined as use of alcohol based hand rub or hand.

  20. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  1. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  2. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  3. Finding Low-Cost Medical Care (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a wellness center (such as for drug or alcohol counseling, for example). continue College Student Health Centers Heading off to college? Many universities offer a low-cost insurance plan that can ...

  4. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  5. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  6. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The Mesosphere - Lower Thermosphere region (MLT) is often quoted as being the least well known region of the atmosphere, meaning that measurements of this altitude range are sparser than for the neighbouring layers. The reason for this apparent lack of observations can be traced back to a combination of two facts - A) the MLT is ill suited for in-situ sampling on a global scale because the residual air drag is prohibitive for suborbital vehicles (rockets are traditionally used to sample the MLT region, but they only provide snapshot measurements both geographically, as well as temporally), and B) Some of the most important trace gases in the MLT have spectral emission lines in the THz range, a frequency band which has only just become accessible to conventional remote sensing technologies (i.e. passive heterodyne detection) thanks to ongoing technology development, but which still poses massive - often prohibitive - demands on the complexity, weight and power consumption of satellite borne remote sensing detectors. To mitigate the substantial power requirements of a Local Oscillator (LO) able to pump a heterodyne receiver at THZ frequencies, we are suggesting the use of Quantum Cascade Laser diodes (QCL). Combining a QCL LO with a sub-harmonic Schottky mixer in an integrated receiver system would allow us to build a THz passive heterodyne detector for atmospheric remote sensing that is both very compact and power efficient, and could therefore be built and launched much more cheaply than competitive systems. Many of the technologies required for such an instrument already exist at technology readiness levels (TRL) of 3-5. A consortium of RAL Space, University College London (UCL), University of Leeds, Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and STAR-Dundee have been awarded a grant through the ESA In Orbit Demonstration Programme (IOD) to start developing an integrated, sub-harmonic heterodyne receiver with a QCL LO up to a TRL that would allow IOD hopefully in the

  7. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-02-14

    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor.

  8. Prediction of Low Cost Housing Demand in Malaysia Using ARIMA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainun N. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the key challenges in construction industry sector faces are matching supply of and demand for affordable housing. It is very crucial to predict low-cost housing demand to match the demand and supply so that the government can plan the allocation of low cost housing based on the demand. In Johor, housing provision is very crucial due to urbanization. The supply of houses seems to be swamping the demand for luxury condos and houses especially in Johor Bharu. Thus the aim of this study is to predict low-cost housing demand in Johor, Malaysia using ARIMA model. Time series data on low-cost housing demand have been converted to Ln before develop the model. The actual data and forecasted data will be compared and validate using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE. After that, the results using ARIMA method will be compared with ANN method. The results show that MAPE analysis for ARIMA is 15.39% while ANN is 18.27%. It can be conclude that ARIMA model can forecast low cost housing demand in Johor quite good.

  9. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  10. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    evidence for diagnostic accuracy regarding fiber-optic methods and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (+OOO). The electrical methods and laser fluorescence could be useful adjuncts to visual-tactile and radiographic examinations, especially on occlusal surfaces in permanent and primary molars......Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed...... independently by two reviewers. The study characteristics were compiled in tables and quality graded according to the QUADAS tool. The level of evidence for each diagnostic technology (fiber-optic methods, fluorescence methods, electrical methods) was based on studies of high or moderate quality according...

  11. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  12. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  13. Development of a Low Cost Telescope System for VHE Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querrard, Rodney; Perkins, Jeremy S.

    2017-01-01

    Ground based gamma-ray astronomy has progressed dramatically over the past 40 years. Currently there are 176 confirmed sources detected above 100 GeV ranging from Supernova Remnants (SNR) to Active Galaxies and other objects The next generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) is currently being developed. The CTA, or Cherenkov Telescope Array, will be a ground-breaking facility made up of a few dozen telescopes of multiple sizes with a sensitivity an order of magnitude greater than the current generation. Nevertheless, an opportunity will remain for smaller, less-expensive instruments to make important contributions to the field of Cherenkov Imaging astronomy.We are investigating an approach that will use an inexpensive array of ground based telescopes built from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) products. This array will be capable of studying supernova remnants, gamma-ray-burst afterglows, and active galactic nuclei as well as other sources above 2 TeV at a cost which is much lower than larger facilities like the CTA. We are developing a single prototype telescope that will be installed at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory in Greenbelt, MD. We discuss issues arising from and technical solutions to challenges of using COTS components whose primary purpose is not astronomy for this application. We detail progress in the telescope development and outline future work to complete the prototype and to duplicate it for creation of a low-cost Cherenkov array.

  14. Development of a portable low-cost LIBS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea, O.; Urquidi, O.; Casazola, D.

    2013-11-01

    This article reports the construction of a portable, low-cost LIBS (Light Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) system for use in the Bolivian mining industry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composition of mineral samples. The device consists of a portable laser, a medium-resolution spectrometer and an optomechanical light collection system. The laser developed for the device is a YAG:Nd+++ with an estimated power output of 10 MW/cm2. Weighing approximately 3 kg and powered by lithium ion batteries, it is easily carried and can be used in remote locations. The spectrometer has a resolution of 0.3 nm allowing the detection fine spectral features, while its range of 80 nm is broad enough to simultaneously show many of the principal spectral lines of the element of interest. A monochromatic CCD camera was used as the detector of the spectrometer and was fitted with an external trigger to coordinate the camera frames with the firing of the laser. The light emitted by the plasma is collected with a photographic objective and is transmitted to the spectrometer via a fiber optics cable. A mechanical system was incorporated to make, both the laser beam and the receptor positionable. In the preliminary tests of the prototype, a LIBS spectrum of a Bolivian copper coin was obtained. Analysis showed that the spectral lines obtained coincide with those of a copper reference spectrum and demonstrate the capacity of the device to perform qualitative analysis of materials.

  15. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  16. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  17. Extremely Low-Cost Point-Source Spectrophotometry (ELCPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, John; Conger, Charles

    2012-05-01

    We describe preliminary tests of a low-cost method for obtaining, reducing and calibrating stellar spectra. Instead of a post-focus spectrometer, we use an inexpensive, low-dispersion objective grating made by printing onto acetate with a laser printer, coupled with a low-end digital SLR camera as the detector. Although originally intended for educational use, we consider the possibility of using this technique to obtain accurately-transformed B and V magnitudes of stars without the need of an expensive photometric filter and filter wheel system. The results of two nights of observations of several bright stars are presented. Future plans are presented for more tests using a wider range of gratings, telescopes and detectors, and more advanced observing techniques that are likely to produce higher-quality data. But we show that even the crude observing techniques used for the test data can produce calibrated B and V magnitudes. General methods for reducing and calibrating the data are described, and some of the educational uses for ECLPSS are also considered.

  18. Low-cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejor, E.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae harvesting is known to be a major problem in the water industry. This is attributed to the minute nature of the algae cells and the often low concentration of the species in water and wastewater. While various chemical and mechanical harvesting techniques have been developed for algae harvesting, their application have been limited by prohibitive costs. There is also the disadvantage of not utilising the harvested microalgae as feedstock when it has accumulated significant amounts of chemicals (coagulants employed during the harvesting operation. This work investigates the low cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water using physical (non-chemical method. Four fabric filters: stretch-cotton, polyester-linen, satin-polyester and silk were investigated to determine their microalgae harvesting efficiencies using filtration method on three algae communities with cell size of 2- 20 µm. For the three algae communities investigated, stretch-cotton filter showed a harvesting efficiency of 66- 93%, followed by polyester-linen (54- 90%, while satin-polyester and silk fabrics achieved harvesting efficiencies of 43- 71% and 27- 75% respectively. The research revealed that for wastewater generation of 1500m3/day and algae concentration of 200mg/l, microalgae harvesting cost per sq. meter per kg of algae per cubic meter would be ≤ £0.15 using stretch cotton filter

  19. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  20. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  1. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino; Panetta, Paul D.; Pardini, Allan F.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Tucker, Brian J.; Weier, Dennis R.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lowden, Richard A.; Miller, James H.

    2006-02-28

    This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.

  2. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David

    2017-12-31

    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to alarming consequences such as reporting acceptable air pollutant levels when they are above the limits deemed safe for human health. This article provides scientific guidance to the end-users for effectively deploying low-cost sensors for monitoring air pollution and people's exposure, while ensuring reasonable data quality. We review the performance characteristics of several low-cost particle and gas monitoring sensors and provide recommendations to end-users for making proper sensor selection by summarizing the capabilities and limitations of such sensors. The challenges, best practices, and future outlook for effectively deploying low-cost sensors, and maintaining data quality are also discussed. For data quality assurance, a two-stage sensor calibration process is recommended, which includes laboratory calibration under controlled conditions by the manufacturer supplemented with routine calibration checks performed by the end-user under final deployment conditions. For large sensor networks where routine calibration checks are impractical, statistical techniques for data quality assurance should be utilised. Further advancements and adoption of sophisticated mathematical and statistical techniques for sensor calibration, fault detection, and data quality assurance can indeed help to realise the promised benefits of a low-cost air pollution sensor network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (vertical geophone with a natural frequency of 10 Hz, an Arduino or similar board, a 16-bit ADC capable of amplify and convert the output signal of the geophone. The latter, connected to a Raspberry Pi, gathers the data from the geophone using a Python script, slices it in 1-hour intervals and draws waveform and frequency spectrum graph for quick analysis with Matplotlib, a common graphing library in Python. The data can be gathered using several methods: If a Wi-Fi network is available, the instrument can be directly connected to the Internet and the data uploaded in real time. If there is no such connection available, a GSM shield can be used to upload the data, and in the worst-case scenario, the data can be accessed directly on the field via Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM. Obviously, there can be also

  4. A methodology for small scale rural land use mapping in semi-arid developing countries using orbital imagery. Part 6: A low-cost method for land use mapping using simple visual techniques of interpretation. [Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangenderen, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Lock, B. F.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was found that color composite transparencies and monocular magnification provided the best base for land use interpretation. New methods for determining optimum sample sizes and analyzing interpretation accuracy levels were developed. All stages of the methodology were assessed, in the operational sense, during the production of a 1:250,000 rural land use map of Murcia Province, Southeast Spain.

  5. Preparation and properties of low-cost graphene counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wang, Qiandi; Gu, Feng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Linjun

    2013-12-01

    With the advantages of excellent electrical properties, high catalytic activity and low-cost preparation, Graphene is one of the most expected carbon materials to replace the expensive Pt as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this paper, graphene counter electrodes were obtained by simple doctor-blade coating method on fluorine tin oxides (FTOs). The samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Then the low-cost graphene electrodes were applied in typical sandwich-type DSSCs with TiO2 or ZnO as photoanodes, and their photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were about 4.34% and 2.28%, respectively, which were a little lower than those of Pt electrodes but much higher than those of graphite electrodes. This law was consistent with the test results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Low-cost graphene electrodes can be applied in DSSCs by process optimization.

  6. LOW COST ANALYZER FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHORUS BASED ON OPEN-SOURCE HARDWARE AND PULSED FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for automated analyzers for industrial and environmental samples has triggered the research for new and cost-effective strategies of automation and control of analytical systems. The widespread availability of open-source hardware together with novel analytical methods based on pulsed flows have opened the possibility of implementing standalone automated analytical systems at low cost. Among the areas that can benefit from this approach are the analysis of industrial products and effluents and environmental analysis. In this work, a multi-pumping flow system is proposed for the determination of phosphorus in effluents and polluted water samples. The system employs photometric detection based on the formation of molybdovanadophosphoric acid, and the fluidic circuit is built using three solenoid micropumps. The detection is implemented with a low cost LED-photodiode photometric detection system and the whole system is controlled by an open-source Arduino Uno microcontroller board. The optimization of the timing to ensure the color development and the pumping cycle is discussed for the proposed implementation. Experimental results to evaluate the system behavior are presented verifying a linear relationship between the relative absorbance and the phosphorus concentrations for levels as high as 50 mg L-1.

  7. 基于模糊控制的低成本无刷直流电机控制方法%Low Cost Control Method for Brushless DC Motors Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌栋; 王正仕

    2012-01-01

    为降低无刷直流电机控制器的成本,设计了一种无需高精度光电编码器,仅使用低成本的霍尔位置信号进行测速的速度控制方法,在其中通过使用模糊控制,解决了由于速度采样率不均衡引起的调速性能差和系统不稳定的问题,使用Simulink软件对该方法进行了仿真试验,并将此应用于单调速工业平缝机控制系统,在控制系统中使用了TI公司的TMS320F28027 DSP芯片.实验结果证明,系统工作稳定,速度调节性能良好.%To lower the cost of brushless DC motor controller, designed a new speed control method using hall effect position sensors to provide speed measurements which can work without a high resolution encoder. A fuzzy logic controller was used to fix the systems instability and poor performance of speed adjusting, both of which were caused by the uneven speed sample rate. This method was simulated on computer by Simulink software. A sewing machine control system was also designed employing this new method using TMS320F28027 digital signal processor. The result of experiments showed that system worked stably and effectively.

  8. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Polluted Waters by Using of Low Cost Adsorbents: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physicochemical treatment of wastewaters which industries employ to reduce hazardous organic and inorganic wastes in effluents. In recent years the use of low-cost adsorbents has been widely investigated as a replacement for the currently costly methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well-known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In this study, the use of some of low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been reviewed.

  9. rScene: a revolutionary low-cost micro-radar for target classification and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Thomas J.; Porter, Rich; Raines, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A small form factor, low cost radar named rScene® has been designed by McQ Inc. for the unattended detection, classification, tracking, and speed estimation of people and vehicles. This article will describe recent performance enhancements added to rScene® and present results relative to detection range and false alarms. Additionally, a low power (operation in challenging urban environments in which traditional unattended ground sensor modalities are less effective.

  10. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  11. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  12. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  13. Pumps as turbines for low cost micro hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Small centrifugal pumps are suitable for use as hydraulic turbines and have the advantage of being mass produced in many countries throughout the world. When used with an integral induction motor, they can be installed as a combined turbine and generator unit. Recent research and development work carried out at Nottingham Trent University in collaboration with the Intermediate Technology Development Group has concentrated on two aspects that had previously held back the wider application of this technology. A standard design of Induction Generator Controller (IGC), enabling these units to be used for isolated micro hydro schemes, has been proven, and is now being manufactured in five countries world-wide. Progress has also been made on the application of performance prediction methods which facilitate the selection of a pump unit for particular site conditions. Sites, suitable for the application of small centrifugal pumps as turbines are of two main types: firstly, as a low-cost alternative to crossflow turbines with an output of 5kW or less; secondly, for energy recovery in pipelines. These types of installation may be suitable for industrialized and developing countries. Three examples of different types of scheme are described in the paper and these show the favourable financial returns that are possible. (Author)

  14. CALIBRATION OF LOW COST RGB AND NIR UAV CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM, orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  15. A Low Cost Weather Balloon Borne Solar Cell Calibration Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Calibration of standard sets of solar cell sub-cells is an important step to laboratory verification of on-orbit performance of new solar cell technologies. This paper, looks at the potential capabilities of a lightweight weather balloon payload for solar cell calibration. A 1500 gr latex weather balloon can lift a 2.7 kg payload to over 100,000 ft altitude, above 99% of the atmosphere. Data taken between atmospheric pressures of about 30 to 15 mbar may be extrapolated via the Langley Plot method to 0 mbar, i.e. AMO. This extrapolation, in principle, can have better than 0.1 % error. The launch costs of such a payload arc significantly less than the much larger, higher altitude balloons, or the manned flight facility. The low cost enables a risk tolerant approach to payload development. Demonstration of 1% standard deviation flight-to-flight variation is the goal of this project. This paper describes the initial concept of solar cell calibration payload, and reports initial test flight results. .

  16. Development of a Low-Cost Attitude Sensor for Agricultural Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. The attitude sensor was composed of three vibratory gyroscopes and two inclinometers. A sensor fusion algorithm was developed to estimate tilt angles (roll and pitch) by least-squares method. In the a...

  17. Performance Evaluation and Community Application of Low-Cost Sensors for Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the performance of electrochemical-based low-cost sensors and their use in a community application. CairClip sensors were collocated with federal reference and equivalent methods and operated in a network of sites by citizen scientists (community members) in...

  18. Lightweight Distance bound Protocol for Low Cost RFID Tags

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Eslam Gamal; Hashem, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Almost all existing RFID authentication schemes (tag/reader) are vulnerable to relay attacks, because of their inability to estimate the distance to the tag. These attacks are very serious since it can be mounted without the notice of neither the reader nor the tag and cannot be prevented by cryptographic protocols that operate at the application layer. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising way to thwart relay attacks, by measuring the round trip time of short authenticated messages. All the existing distance bounding protocols use random number generator and hash functions at the tag side which make them inapplicable at low cost RFID tags. This paper proposes a lightweight distance bound protocol for low cost RFID tags. The proposed protocol based on modified version of Gossamer mutual authentication protocol. The implementation of the proposed protocol meets the limited abilities of low-cost RFID tags.

  19. A low cost tele-imaging platform for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou eADAMBOUNOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To design a low cost tele-imaging method allowing real time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centres and university hospital centres (expert centre.Materials and Methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centres, allows a real time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g. midwife, nurse, technician. The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography and computer tomography for example. The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40km from Lomé-Togo and 4500km from Tours-France and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours.Results: A real time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 seconds with an internet bandwidth of around 1Mbps (IP Camera and 512kbps (remote access software. A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient centre to the expert centre was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.

  20. Explosives detection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  1. Extracting Objects for Aerial Manipulation on UAVs Using Low Cost Stereo Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Giving unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs the possibility to manipulate objects vastly extends the range of possible applications. This applies to rotary wing UAVs in particular, where their capability of hovering enables a suitable position for in-flight manipulation. Their manipulation skills must be suitable for primarily natural, partially known environments, where UAVs mostly operate. We have developed an on-board object extraction method that calculates information necessary for autonomous grasping of objects, without the need to provide the model of the object’s shape. A local map of the work-zone is generated using depth information, where object candidates are extracted by detecting areas different to our floor model. Their image projections are then evaluated using support vector machine (SVM classification to recognize specific objects or reject bad candidates. Our method builds a sparse cloud representation of each object and calculates the object’s centroid and the dominant axis. This information is then passed to a grasping module. Our method works under the assumption that objects are static and not clustered, have visual features and the floor shape of the work-zone area is known. We used low cost cameras for creating depth information that cause noisy point clouds, but our method has proved robust enough to process this data and return accurate results.

  2. Extracting Objects for Aerial Manipulation on UAVs Using Low Cost Stereo Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon Soria, Pablo; Bevec, Robert; Arrue, Begoña C.; Ude, Aleš; Ollero, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    Giving unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) the possibility to manipulate objects vastly extends the range of possible applications. This applies to rotary wing UAVs in particular, where their capability of hovering enables a suitable position for in-flight manipulation. Their manipulation skills must be suitable for primarily natural, partially known environments, where UAVs mostly operate. We have developed an on-board object extraction method that calculates information necessary for autonomous grasping of objects, without the need to provide the model of the object’s shape. A local map of the work-zone is generated using depth information, where object candidates are extracted by detecting areas different to our floor model. Their image projections are then evaluated using support vector machine (SVM) classification to recognize specific objects or reject bad candidates. Our method builds a sparse cloud representation of each object and calculates the object’s centroid and the dominant axis. This information is then passed to a grasping module. Our method works under the assumption that objects are static and not clustered, have visual features and the floor shape of the work-zone area is known. We used low cost cameras for creating depth information that cause noisy point clouds, but our method has proved robust enough to process this data and return accurate results. PMID:27187413

  3. Extracting Objects for Aerial Manipulation on UAVs Using Low Cost Stereo Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon Soria, Pablo; Bevec, Robert; Arrue, Begoña C; Ude, Aleš; Ollero, Aníbal

    2016-05-14

    Giving unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) the possibility to manipulate objects vastly extends the range of possible applications. This applies to rotary wing UAVs in particular, where their capability of hovering enables a suitable position for in-flight manipulation. Their manipulation skills must be suitable for primarily natural, partially known environments, where UAVs mostly operate. We have developed an on-board object extraction method that calculates information necessary for autonomous grasping of objects, without the need to provide the model of the object's shape. A local map of the work-zone is generated using depth information, where object candidates are extracted by detecting areas different to our floor model. Their image projections are then evaluated using support vector machine (SVM) classification to recognize specific objects or reject bad candidates. Our method builds a sparse cloud representation of each object and calculates the object's centroid and the dominant axis. This information is then passed to a grasping module. Our method works under the assumption that objects are static and not clustered, have visual features and the floor shape of the work-zone area is known. We used low cost cameras for creating depth information that cause noisy point clouds, but our method has proved robust enough to process this data and return accurate results.

  4. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Gupta; Y Hayashi; A Jain; S Karthikeyan; S Kawakami; K C Ravindran; S C Tonwar

    2005-08-01

    A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discriminators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a timing error of 90 ps. It has an intrinsic double pulse resolution of 4 ns which is better than most commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  5. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    A new geometry of integrated inductors with low profile and low cost is presented in this paper. The new geometry integrates two inductors by stacking three I-cores. The middle I-core provides a shared low reluctance flux path. The air gaps are formed by separating the I-cores using copper foil...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  6. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  7. Geowall: Investigations into Low-Cost Stereo Display Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  8. A Holistic Approach for Low Cost Heliostat Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, A.; Randt, M.; F. Meier; Zaschke, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Buselmeier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The AutoR-project takes a holistic approach to reduce the cost of heliostat fields: Wireless control and energy supply enables to use smaller heliostats which need less steel per mirror area (but usually have high wiring cost). A low cost but high efficient drive system is chosen which reduces energy consumption to a minimum amount and leads to low cost for PV cell and energy storage. The usual boundary layer wind tunnels tests for heliostats are proven regarding energy spectra to avoid overs...

  9. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Space Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project successfully demonstrated the feasibility of developing a technology that will reduce cost and manufacturing time, broaden design options, and...

  10. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  11. A Low Cost Calibration Method for Urban Drainage Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    The calibration of the hydrological reduction coefficient is examined for a small catchment. The objective is to determine the hydrological reduction coefficient, which is used for describing how much of the precipitation which falls on impervious areas, that actually ends up in the sewer. The re...... to what can be found with intensive in-sewer measurement of rain and runoff. The results also clearly indicate that there is a large variation in hydrological reduction coefficient between different rain events....

  12. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Space Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is the development of a manufacturing technology that will increase feasible large optics design options and significantly reduce the manufacturing time,...

  13. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Cooled Axisymmetric Scramjets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing...

  14. Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater with Low Cost Multilayer Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Samad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 ± 4.2 µg/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk’s ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 µg/L, sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk’s ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper, particle size (<355 µm, treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min, optimum volume (100 mL and pH (5.0. Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 ± 1.2% - 82 ± 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 ± 0.4 µg/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water.

  15. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  16. Satellite Attitude Determination with Low-Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, John C.

    This dissertation contributes design and data processing techniques to maximize the accuracy of low-cost attitude determination systems while removing pre-flight calibration requirements. This enables rapid development of small spacecraft to perform increasingly complex missions. The focus of this work is magnetometers and sun sensors, which are the two most common types of attitude sensors. Magnetometer measurements are degraded by the magnetic fields of nearby electronics, which traditionally limit their utility on satellites unless a boom is used to provide physical separation between the magnetometer and the satellite. This dissertation presents an on-orbit, attitude-independent method for magnetometer calibration that mitigates the effect of nearby electronics. With this method, magnetometers can be placed anywhere within the spacecraft, and as demonstrated through application to flight data, the accuracy of the integrated magnetometer is reduced to nearly that of the stand-alone magnetometer. Photodiodes are light sensors that can be used for sun sensing. An individual photodiode provides a measurement of a single sun vector component, and since orthogonal photodiodes do not provide sufficient coverage due to photodiode field-of-view limitations, there is a tradeoff between photodiode orientation and sun sensing angular accuracy. This dissertation presents a design method to optimize the photodiode configuration for sun sensing, which is also generally applicable to directional sensors. Additionally, an on-orbit calibration method is developed to estimate the photodiode scale factors and orientation, which are critical for accurate sun sensing. Combined, these methods allow a magnetometer to be placed anywhere within a spacecraft and provide an optimal design technique for photodiode placement. On-orbit calibration methods are formulated for both types of sensors that correct the sensor errors on-orbit without requiring pre-flight calibration. The calibration

  17. Silicon solar cells with low-cost substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotval, P.S.; Strock, H.B.

    1978-11-07

    Epitaxial and diffusion-type planar diodes and solar cells utilize low-cost refined metallurgical silicon substrates having a substantially higher impurity content than conventional high-cost, high purity semiconductor grade silicon. The epitaxial type products have an n-on-p-on-p substrate configuration, while the diffusion-type products have pentavalent impurities diffused therein to form a p-n junction in the low cost silicon substrate. One embodiment employs a multigrained refined metallurgical silicon (RMS) prepared by precipitating essentially iron-free silicon platelets from a solution of metallurgical grade silicon in molten aluminum, melting said refined platelets, in contact with a silica slag and pulling silicon boules from a melt of said refined metallurgical silicon (RMS). By directionally solidifying the refined silicon--slag melt, a multigrained, directionally solidified refined metallurgical silicon (DS/RMS) is obtained, with boules being pulled from a melt thereof for use as said low-cost substrate. The DS/RMS may also be re-melted and directionally solidified a second time with the boules being pulled from said twice directionally solidified material being a desirable, low-cost, single crystal material suitable for use as said substrate for planar diode and solar cell applications.

  18. A low cost DICOM review station for cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, MG; Dijk, WA; Waterbolk, TW; Mook, PH; van der Velde, W; van der Putten, N; Dassen, WRM; Baljon, MH; Murray, A; Swiryn, S

    1998-01-01

    A low-cost PC based DICOM multi modality review station for cardiac surgery has been developed for use during Minimally Invasive Coronary Surgery. This system is a Windows 95 networked PC for review of DICOM coronary catheterization, ultrasound and MRI cine's stored at a departmental image server.

  19. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  20. A Holistic Approach for Low Cost Heliostat Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfahl, A.; Randt, M.; Meier, F.; Zaschke, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Buselmeier, M.

    2015-01-01

    The AutoR-project takes a holistic approach to reduce the cost of heliostat fields: Wireless control and energy supply enables to use smaller heliostats which need less steel per mirror area (but usually have high wiring cost). A low cost but high efficient drive system is chosen which reduces

  1. Multimedia Qos in low-cost home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Jansen, P.; Hanssen, F.; Hartel, P.H.; Hattink, T.; Sundramoorthy, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new mechanism to garantee quality of service for multimedia streams in low-cost home networks. Quality of service is based on a token, of which the route in the network is determined by a distributed scheduler. The network node that has the token –the active node– can send its

  2. Multimedia QoS in low-cost home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Jansen, P.; Hanssen, F.; Hartel, P.; Hattink, T.; Sundramoorthy, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new mechanism to guarantee quality of service for multimedia streams in low-cost home networks. Quality of service is based on a token, of which the route in the network is determined by a distributed scheduler. The network node that has the token -- the active node -- can sen

  3. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents in the removal of Cr(VI) ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Generally, the result showed an increase in adsorption by Cr(VI) with increase in mass ...

  4. Advanced Technology-Based Low Cost Mars Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Gamber, R. T.; Clark, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) has for many years been considered one of the most ambitious as well as most scientifically interesting of the suite of desired future planetary missions. This paper defines low- cost MSR mission concepts based on several exciting new technologies planned for space missions launching over the next 10 years. Key to reducing cost is use of advanced spacecraft & electronics technology.

  5. A Low-Cost Universal Integrated Interface for Capacitive Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidary, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports the results of research on features, options and limitations of low-cost, high-performance, universal integrated interface for capacitive sensors. It concerns development-driven research, where the objectives of the research focus upon possible realization and application of the

  6. NEW MATERIAL FOR LOW-COST INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; VANDERVEEN, G; KALICHARAN, D; VANANDEL, MV; BARTMAN, G; WORST, JGF

    1994-01-01

    A UV-hardening lacquer material based on polyurethane, used in Philips compact disc lens systems, was tested as suitable material for low-cost intraocular lenses (IOLs). A slightly changed composition (code number I-0.5A) came out as the best and was subsequenly tested, with reference to poly(methyl

  7. Lead Removal from Water by Low Cost Adsorbents: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zahra, Naseem

    2012-01-01

    ..., industrial wastes and low cost synthetic oxides as adsorbents for the removal of poisonous lead from water. Keywords: Adsorption; Adsorbents; Lead; Water; Toxic. Introduction Lead and its toxicity Lead has environmental importance due to its well known toxicity [1] and intensive use in industries such as storage-battery manufacture, printing, pigment ...

  8. High-Efficiency Solar Cells on Low-Cost Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency solar cells made in thin epitaxial films grown on low-cost commercial silicon substrates. Cost of cells is much less than if high-quality single-crystal silicon were used for substrates and performance of cells is almost as good.

  9. The growth limits of the low cost carrier model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.G.; Zuidberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today, many low cost carriers (LCCs) continue to enjoy rapid growth and still have a fair number of new aircraft on order. There are signs however that the market for LCCs is limited, owing to increasing route density problems, primarily in Europe but seemingly also in North America: the fact that a

  10. development of low-cost educational materials for chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    This paper tries to highlight the principles and approaches towards the development of ... teacher educators in the design and development of low-cost educational tools from locally available ... The use of open-source and free software that ...

  11. Development and validation of a low-cost CTOD procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Weijde, G.D. van der

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost variation of CTOD testing is proposed. This variation follows BS7448, but has several nonstandard deviations, including: • Using a fixed notch width of 0.5 mm. • Using fatigue pre-cracks that are shorter than normal requirements to save the associated expense. • Using Single Edge Notched

  12. Low Cost Text Mining as a Strategy for Qualitative Researchers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy Rose; Christian Lennerholt

    2017-01-01

    .... In practice this turns out not to be so easy. We outline a design research approach for building a five stage process for low tech, low cost text mining, which includes insights from the text mining literature and an experiment with trend...

  13. A low cost route to hexagonal mesostructured carbon molecular sieves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S S; Pinnavaia, T J

    2001-12-07

    A mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with a hexagonal framework structure (denoted C-MSU-H) has been prepared using a MSU-H silica template that can be assembled from a low cost soluble silicate precursor at near-neutral pH conditions.

  14. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...

  15. Use of a mobile phone for potentiostatic control with low cost paper-based microfluidic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, Jacqui L.; Doeven, Egan H.; Harsant, Anthony J.; Hogan, Conor F., E-mail: c.hogan@latrobe.edu.au

    2013-08-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The ability to generate ECL emission using the audio output of a mobile phone is demonstrated. •Electrochemical control can be achieved by controlling the amplitude and waveform of the sound. •A mobile phone “app” synchronises the electrochemical stimulation with detection via the camera. •In combination with paper-based microfluidic sensors, extremely low cost analysis is possible. •Detection of proline at levels suitable for diagnosis of hyperprolinemia is demonstrated. -- Abstract: By exploiting its ability to play sounds, a mobile phone with suitable software installed can serve the basic functions of a potentiostat in controlling an applied potential to oxidise ECL-active molecules, while the resultant photonic signal is monitored using the camera in video mode. In combination with paper microfluidic sensors this opens significant new possibilities for low-cost, instrument-free sensing.

  16. Improved Recharge Estimation from Portable, Low-Cost Weather Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holländer, Hartmut M; Wang, Zijian; Assefa, Kibreab A; Woodbury, Allan D

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater recharge estimation is a critical quantity for sustainable groundwater management. The feasibility and robustness of recharge estimation was evaluated using physical-based modeling procedures, and data from a low-cost weather station with remote sensor techniques in Southern Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada. Recharge was determined using the Richards-based vadose zone hydrological model, HYDRUS-1D. The required meteorological data were recorded with a HOBO(TM) weather station for a short observation period (about 1 year) and an existing weather station (Abbotsford A) for long-term study purpose (27 years). Undisturbed soil cores were taken at two locations in the vicinity of the HOBO(TM) weather station. The derived soil hydraulic parameters were used to characterize the soil in the numerical model. Model performance was evaluated using observed soil moisture and soil temperature data obtained from subsurface remote sensors. A rigorous sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. Recharge during the short observation period was estimated at 863 and 816 mm. The mean annual recharge was estimated at 848 and 859 mm/year based on a time series of 27 years. The relative ratio of annual recharge-precipitation varied from 43% to 69%. From a monthly recharge perspective, the majority (80%) of recharge due to precipitation occurred during the hydrologic winter period. The comparison of the recharge estimates with other studies indicates a good agreement. Furthermore, this method is able to predict transient recharge estimates, and can provide a reasonable tool for estimates on nutrient leaching that is often controlled by strong precipitation events and rapid infiltration of water and nitrate into the soil.

  17. Biomedical microfluidic devices by using low-cost fabrication techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Vera; Catarino, Susana O; Lima, Rui; Minas, Graça

    2016-07-26

    One of the most popular methods to fabricate biomedical microfluidic devices is by using a soft-lithography technique. However, the fabrication of the moulds to produce microfluidic devices, such as SU-8 moulds, usually requires a cleanroom environment that can be quite costly. Therefore, many efforts have been made to develop low-cost alternatives for the fabrication of microstructures, avoiding the use of cleanroom facilities. Recently, low-cost techniques without cleanroom facilities that feature aspect ratios more than 20, for fabricating those SU-8 moulds have been gaining popularity among biomedical research community. In those techniques, Ultraviolet (UV) exposure equipment, commonly used in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry, replaces the more expensive and less available Mask Aligner that has been used in the last 15 years for SU-8 patterning. Alternatively, non-lithographic low-cost techniques, due to their ability for large-scale production, have increased the interest of the industrial and research community to develop simple, rapid and low-cost microfluidic structures. These alternative techniques include Print and Peel methods (PAP), laserjet, solid ink, cutting plotters or micromilling, that use equipment available in almost all laboratories and offices. An example is the xurography technique that uses a cutting plotter machine and adhesive vinyl films to generate the master moulds to fabricate microfluidic channels. In this review, we present a selection of the most recent lithographic and non-lithographic low-cost techniques to fabricate microfluidic structures, focused on the features and limitations of each technique. Only microfabrication methods that do not require the use of cleanrooms are considered. Additionally, potential applications of these microfluidic devices in biomedical engineering are presented with some illustrative examples.

  18. Low-cost adaptive square-root cubature Kalman filter for systems with process model uncer tainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Zhang; Shuida Bao; Wenhao Bi; Yuan Yuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel low-cost adaptive square-root cubature Kalman filter (LCASCKF) is proposed to enhance the robustness of pro-cess models while only increasing the computational load slightly. It is wel-known that the Kalman filter cannot handle uncertainties in a process model, such as initial state estimation errors, parameter mismatch and abrupt state changes. These uncertainties severely affect filter performance and may even provoke divergence. A strong tracking filter (STF), which utilizes a suboptimal fading fac-tor, is an adaptive approach that is commonly adopted to solve this problem. However, if the strong tracking SCKF (STSCKF) uses the same method as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) to introduce the suboptimal fading factor, it greatly increases the computational load. To avoid this problem, a low-cost introductory method is proposed and a hypothesis testing theory is applied to detect uncertainties. The computational load analysis is performed by counting the total number of floating-point operations and it is found that the computational load of LCASCKF is close to that of SCKF. Experimental results prove that the LCASCKF performs as wel as STSCKF, while the increase in computational load is much lower than STSCKF.

  19. High flexibility and low cost digital implementation for modern PWM strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a new low cost technique for PWM strategy implementation is presented. The proposed technique does not require dedicated hardware PWM units, thus offering higher flexibility of use. Furthermore, the aforementioned method eases the digital implementation of modern modulation methods ...... with hardware PWM unit. The experimental results show that this new technique is suitable to replace traditional implementation methods with minimum computational overhead, with the benefit of high flexibility, lower cost and faster code development.......In this paper a new low cost technique for PWM strategy implementation is presented. The proposed technique does not require dedicated hardware PWM units, thus offering higher flexibility of use. Furthermore, the aforementioned method eases the digital implementation of modern modulation methods...

  20. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (4×40 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries.

  1. System design for 3D wound imaging using low-cost mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazitdinova, Ekaterina; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2017-03-01

    The state-of-the art method of wound assessment is a manual, imprecise and time-consuming procedure. Per- formed by clinicians, it has limited reproducibility and accuracy, large time consumption and high costs. Novel technologies such as laser scanning microscopy, multi-photon microscopy, optical coherence tomography and hyper-spectral imaging, as well as devices relying on the structured light sensors, make accurate wound assessment possible. However, such methods have limitations due to high costs and may lack portability and availability. In this paper, we present a low-cost wound assessment system and architecture for fast and accurate cutaneous wound assessment using inexpensive consumer smartphone devices. Computer vision techniques are applied either on the device or the server to reconstruct wounds in 3D as dense models, which are generated from images taken with a built-in single camera of a smartphone device. The system architecture includes imaging (smartphone), processing (smartphone or PACS) and storage (PACS) devices. It supports tracking over time by alignment of 3D models, color correction using a reference color card placed into the scene and automatic segmentation of wound regions. Using our system, we are able to detect and document quantitative characteristics of chronic wounds, including size, depth, volume, rate of healing, as well as qualitative characteristics as color, presence of necrosis and type of involved tissue.

  2. Low-cost housing:Ideas and Concepts. Research report 2008 Recommendations for low-cost housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assade, Yasmim; Huisman, Maikel; Klaarenbeek, Jaap; Nycolaas, Renee; Valpoort, Beryl; Wiel, van de Bert

    2008-01-01

    This book is the final report of the first team of the project Design & Build Brazil. The objective of this project is to develop and build one or more prototypes of low-cost housing for poor people in or near Rio de Janeiro. Design & Build Brazil was initiated by Friso ten Holt and Menno Trautwein

  3. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Meili; Wu, Jiandong; Ma, Zimin; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Zhang, Michael; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Liu, Yong; Rigatto, Claudio; Lin, Francis

    2017-03-26

    Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip-phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers.

  4. Outlier Detection Method Use for the Network Flow Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimas Ciplinskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New and existing methods of cyber-attack detection are constantly being developed and improved because there is a great number of attacks and the demand to protect from them. In prac-tice, current methods of attack detection operates like antivirus programs, i. e. known attacks signatures are created and attacks are detected by using them. These methods have a drawback – they cannot detect new attacks. As a solution, anomaly detection methods are used. They allow to detect deviations from normal network behaviour that may show a new type of attack. This article introduces a new method that allows to detect network flow anomalies by using local outlier factor algorithm. Accom-plished research allowed to identify groups of features which showed the best results of anomaly flow detection according the highest values of precision, recall and F-measure.

  5. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  6. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  7. Fabrication of low cost soft tissue prostheses with the desktop 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Yong He; Guang-huai Xue; Jian-zhong Fu

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue prostheses such as artificial ear, eye and nose are widely used in the maxillofacial rehabilitation. In this report we demonstrate how to fabricate soft prostheses mold with a low cost desktop 3D printer. The fabrication method used is referred to as Scanning Printing Polishing Casting (SPPC). Firstly the anatomy is scanned with a 3D scanner, then a tissue casting mold is designed on computer and printed with a desktop 3D printer. Subsequently, a chemical polishing method is used ...

  8. Computer Vision Approach for Low Cost, High Precision Measurement of Grapevine Trunk Diameter in Outdoor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Diego Sebastián; Bromberg, Facundo; Antivilo, Francisco Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Trunk diameter is a variable of agricultural interest, used mainly in the prediction of fruit trees production. It is correlated with leaf area and biomass of trees, and consequently gives a good estimate of the potential production of the plants. This work presents a low cost, high precision method for the measurement of trunk diameter of grapevines based on Computer Vision techniques. Several methods based on Computer Vision and other techniques are introduced in the literature. These metho...

  9. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    are able to produce accurate and low-cost 3D-models of gullies.

  10. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  11. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  12. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  13. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  14. Price discrimination strategy of low-cost airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The main objective of this research was to determine whether the prices of airline tickets increase monotonically over time. The authors analyzed the market share of low-cost airlines during the period after the Serbian air transport deregulation of the lines connecting Belgrade to other worldwide destinations. In the observed period, Wizz Air achieved the highest increase in market share. This airline held a monopoly over all lines except the Belgrade-Rome line in the observed period. Based on the theorem on monotonic function, Spearman's coefficient, and data on Wizz Air's airfare changes for the Belgrade-Rome line, the results indicate a correlation between the time of ticket purchase and its price, but the prices of low-cost airline tickets do not monotonically increase over time.

  15. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  16. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  17. Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Bog, Uwe; Sekula, Sylwia; Mappes, Timo; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2010-08-30

    There is a strong need for low-cost biosensors to enable rapid, on-site analysis of biological, biomedical, or chemical substances. We propose a platform for label-free optical biosensors based on applying the analyte onto a surface-functionalized photonic crystal slab and performing a transmission measurement with two crossed polarization filters. This dark-field approach allows for efficient background suppression as only the photonic crystal guided-mode resonances interacting with the functionalized surface experience significant polarization rotation. We present a compact biosensor demonstrator using a low-cost light emitting diode and a simple photodiode capable of detecting the binding kinetics of a 2.5 nM solution of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-functionalized photonic crystal surface.

  18. Low-cost failure sensor design and development for water pipeline distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K; Widdop, P D; Day, A J; Wood, A S; Mounce, S R; Machell, J

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a new sensor which is low cost to manufacture and install and is reliable in operation with sufficient accuracy, resolution and repeatability for use in newly developed systems for pipeline monitoring and leakage detection. To provide an appropriate signal, the concept of a "failure" sensor is introduced, in which the output is not necessarily proportional to the input, but is unmistakably affected when an unusual event occurs. The design of this failure sensor is based on the water opacity which can be indicative of an unusual event in a water distribution network. The laboratory work and field trials necessary to design and prove out this type of failure sensor are described here. It is concluded that a low-cost failure sensor of this type has good potential for use in a comprehensive water monitoring and management system based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

  19. Passive low-cost inkjet-printed smart skin sensor for structural health monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Cook, Benjamin Stassen

    2012-11-20

    Monitoring fatigue cracking of large engineering structures is a costly and time-intensive process. The authors\\' present the first low-cost inkjet-printed patch antenna sensor that can passively detect crack formation, orientation and shape by means of resonant frequency shifts in the two resonant modes of the antenna. For the first time, the effect of non-linear crack shapes on the parallel and perpendicular resonant modes of a patch antenna is quantified with simulation and measurement. This study presents a step towards fully integrated, low-cost, conformal and environmentally friendly smart skins for real-time monitoring of large structures. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.

  20. Simple and low-cost fabrication of a metal nanoplug on various substrates by electroless deposition*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Kaifang; Yang Fuhua; Wang Xiaofeng; Wang Xiaodong; Zhang Jiayong; Ma Huili; Chen Xiaogang; Liu Bo; Song Zhitang; Feng Songlin

    2011-01-01

    An electroless deposition (ELD) method is introduced to fabricate a metal nanoplug for its advantages of simplicity, low cost and auto-selectivity. It was demonstrated that nanoplugs of less than 50 nm in diameter can be fabricated by ELD nickel on various substrates, such as silicon, tungsten and titanium nitride. The main composition of the ELD nanoplug was characterized as nickel by an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. A functional vertical phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) device with a heater diameter of around 9μm was fabricated by using the ELD method. The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics demonstrated that the threshold current is only 90.8 μA. This showed that the ELD process can satisfy the demands of PCRAM device application, as well as device performance improvement. The ELD process provides a promising method for the simple and low-cost fabrication of metal nanoplugs.

  1. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S.; Nath, T. K.

    2011-07-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software.

  2. AN ELECTRONIC DESIGN OF A LOW COST BRAILLE HANDGLOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sivakumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper documents a new design for a BrailleHand glove, comprising of a majority of electrical components,the design aims to produce a product to perform vibrations insix position of blind’s person right hand. A low cost and robustdesign will provide the blind with an affordable and reliable toolalso it produce the new technique and communications methodfor blind persons.

  3. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  4. A varactor tuned low-cost 24 GHz harmonic VCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Olbrich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a low-cost 24 GHz VCO that is based on a microstrip design combined with discrete packaged devices. The output frequency is generated by a harmonic oscillator. The tunabilty was reached using a varactor diode. Two versions of the VCO were built, one has a wide tuning range of 1.1 GHz and the other one has a high output power of 3.7 dBm.

  5. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  6. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source, is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data-collec...... of the system is illustrated by mapping the location of Bluetooth beacons (iBeacons) on a ground field and by measuring water temperature in a lake....

  7. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Quadrotor schematic showing rotor direction of rotation (From [2])................3 Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from...Some examples are the Walkera UFO #5, Walkera UFO #8, Dragonfly, and Alien Air Jump Jet. Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from Walkera...the X- UFO made by Silverlit Electronics used small mechanical gyros. These were relatively cheap due to low-cost labor, but suffered from mechanical

  8. Design of Low-Cost Impact Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human form dummies may be used as targets in some types of training exercises. In order to assess performance on target, it may be necessary to know...the time and location of all impacts upon the targets. A sparring dummy can provide a desirable target as well as house an impact reporting system.A...low-cost, self-contained impact reporting system has been designed within the form factor of a sparring dummy . The design goal of this system was to

  9. Design and Experiments of Low Cost Teleoperation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adha Imam Cahyadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a teleoperation system consists of two planar SCARA manipulators is developed. The manipulators are constructed using basic low cost aluminum bars as well as cheap electronic circuitry and software. Modeling, system identification, individual control and teleoperation control are proposed. Finally, experiments are also performed to verify the effectiveness of the design.Index Terms—Teleoperation systems, PID control, System identification, position control.

  10. Some characteristics of low-cost silicon sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliwad, K. M.; Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses structural defects in low-cost silicon sheets and their effect on the electronic properties related to solar cell performance. Experimental data are presented on the influence of grain boundaries on minority carrier diffusion length, impurity defect interaction, and variable surface recombination velocity. An analytical model of the effect of grain boundaries on solar cell performance is constructed based on these results.

  11. ANTESEDEN CUSTOMER LOYALTY PADA LOW COST CARRIER AIRLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Harlan

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  12. An Automated Home Made Low Cost Vibrating Sample Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, S

    2011-01-01

    The design and operation of a homemade low cost vibrating sample magnetometer is described here. The sensitivity of this instrument is better than 10-2 emu and found to be very efficient for the measurement of magnetization of most of the ferromagnetic and other magnetic materials as a function of temperature down to 77 K and magnetic field upto 800 Oe. Both M(H) and M(T) data acquisition are fully automated employing computer and Labview software

  13. Low-cost on-chip clock jitter measurement scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Omana, Martin; Rossi, Daniele; Giaffreda, Daniele; Metra, Cecilia; Mak, T.M.; Raman, Asifur; Tam, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-cost, on-chip clock jitter digital measurement scheme for high performance microprocessors. It enables in situ jitter measurement during the test or debug phase. It provides very high measurement resolution and accuracy, despite the possible presence of power supply noise (representing a major source of clock jitter), at low area and power costs. The achieved resolution is scalable with technology node and can in principle be increased as much as desired, at lo...

  14. Development of a Pneumatically Driven Cell for Low Cost Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Valdiero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the development of a pneumatically driven manufacturing cell for low cost automation applications. This cell can be used in innovative applications as a low cost alternative to increase production and quality in industry. The state of the art shows that technological advances in computing have made possible a drop in equipment prices, making them more accessible. The aim of this work is to develop automation through a classic methodology for a manufacturing cell to minimize errors and facilitate the sequential logic conception. This experimental prototype has been developed at the UNIJUI with financial support by public organizations and companies. Pneumatic actuator used in bench driven has the following advantages: its maintenance is easy and simple, is of relatively low cost, self-cooling properties, and good power density (power/dimension rate, and is fast acting with high acceleration and installation flexibility. However, there are difficulties of control logic due to the complex systems. The sequential controller strategy design considers the pneumatic system, experimental results, and performance of the proposed control strategy.

  15. Low-cost integrated multiple-sensor electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Gerard C. M.; van der Goes, Frank M.; de Jong, Paul C.; Li, Xiujun; Toth, Ferry N.

    1998-07-01

    The paper reviews the architecture and design of low-cost high-performance sensor systems. These systems consist of a number of multiplexed sensor elements, sensor-specific front-ends, modifies and microcontroller or digital signal processors (DSPs). Important properties that act as focus points for the system design are: adaptability, accuracy, dynamic range, speed, power consumption, reliability and costs. To enable low-cost design and implementation, a universal set-up, using universal components, is used. Universal sensor interfaces with front-ends for resistive, capacitive, resistive-bridge sensing elements, as well as voltage-, current- and charge-generating sensing elements are discussed. The analog sensor signals are converted to analog signals in the time domain using period-modulated oscillators. The A/D conversion of the time-domain signal can be implemented in the microcontroller or DSP. It is shown that, also in this case, the principles of the sigma- delta converters can be applied. As an example the paper deals with a systematic approach to the design of reliable, high-performance low-cost capacitive sensors. The problems and their solutions of both the physical- and the electrical-signal processing are discussed. The examples consider the application of capacitive sensors in position detectors, liquid-level detectors and personnel detectors.

  16. A miniature, low cost CTD system for coastal salinity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Heather A.; Ivanov, Stanislav Z.; Fries, David P.

    2007-11-01

    In this work we describe a small, low cost conductivity, temperature and depth (CTD) system for measurements of salinity in coastal waters. The system incorporates three low cost expendable sensors, a novel planar four-electrode conductivity cell, a planar resistive temperature device and a piezoelectric pressure sensor. The conductivity cell and the resistive temperature device were fabricated using novel printed circuit board (PCB) microelectromechanical (MEMS) techniques combined with a new thin-film material, liquid crystal polymer (LCP). Printed circuit board techniques allow for mass production of the sensors, thereby lowering the cost of the system. The three sensors are packaged so that they are independent of one another and can be quickly replaced if bio-fouled or damaged. Deployments in Bayboro Harbor, St Petersburg, FL demonstrate that the novel CTD systems are capable of obtaining highly resolved in situ salinity measurements comparable to measurements obtained using commercially available instruments. The estimated accuracies for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors are ±1.47%, ±0.546 °C and ±0.02 bar, respectively. This work indicates that a small, low cost CTD system with expendable/replaceable sensors can be used to provide accurate, precise and highly resolved conductivity, temperature and pressure measurements in a coastal environment.

  17. A Pedestrian Dead Reckoning System Integrating Low-Cost MEMS Inertial Sensors and GPS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The body-mounted inertial systems for pedestrian navigation do not require any preinstalled facilities and can run autonomously. The advantages over other technologies make it especially attractive for the applications such as first responders, military and consumer markets. The hardware platform integrating the low-cost, low-power and small-size MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and GPS (global positioning system receiver is proposed. When the satellite signals are available, the location of the pedestrian is directly obtained from the GPS receiver. The inertial sensors are the complement of the GPS receiver in places where the GPS signals are not available, such as indoors, urban canyons and places under dense foliages. The height tracking is achieved by the barometer. The proposed PDR (pedestrian dead reckoning algorithm is real-timely implemented in the platform. The simple but effective step detection and step length estimation method are realized to reduce the computation and memory requirements on the microprocessor. A complementary filter is proposed to fuse the data from the accelerometer, gyroscope and digital compass for decreasing the heading error, which is the main error source in positioning. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed system is verified by field pedestrian walking tests in outdoors and indoors. The positioning error is less than 4% of the total traveled distance. The results indicate that the pedestrian dead reckoning system is able to provide satisfactory tracking performance.

  18. A low-cost, tunable laser lock without laser frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Margaret E.; Baker, Paul M.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Many experiments in optical physics require laser frequency stabilization. This can be achieved by locking to an atomic reference using saturated absorption spectroscopy. Often, the laser frequency is modulated and phase sensitive detection used. This method, while well-proven and robust, relies on expensive components, can introduce an undesirable frequency modulation into the laser, and is not easily frequency tuned. Here, we report a simple locking scheme similar to those implemented previously. We modulate the atomic resonances in a saturated absorption setup with an AC magnetic field created by a single solenoid. The same coil applies a DC field that allows tuning of the lock point. We use an auto-balanced detector to make our scheme more robust against laser power fluctuations and stray magnetic fields. The coil, its driver, and the detector are home-built with simple, cheap components. Our technique is low-cost, simple to setup, tunable, introduces no laser frequency modulation, and only requires one laser. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF through Grant # PHY-1206040.

  19. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources.

  20. Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without...... using process knowledge. The tested methods show potential for detecting the oscillations, however, transient components in the signals cause false detections as well, motivating usage of models in order to remove the expected signals behavior....

  1. Adaptive UAV attitude estimation employing unscented Kalman Filter, FOAM and low-cost MEMS sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marina, Héctor García; Espinosa, Felipe; Santos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed way, leading to large errors in different mission stages like take-off aerobatic maneuvers. This paper presents an adaptive method to estimate these angles using off-the-shelf components. This paper introduces an Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) using the Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) algorithm as the observation model. The performance of the method is assessed through simulations. Moreover, field experiments are presented using a real fixed-wing UAV. The proposed low cost solution, implemented in a microcontroller, shows a satisfactory real time performance.

  2. Participatory ergonomics and an evaluation of a low-cost improvement effect on cleaners' working posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Lundberg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cleaning is a highly physically demanding job with a high frequency of awkward postures and working environments as contributing risk factors. Participatory ergonomics is a method in which end-users take an active role in identifying risk factors and solutions. The aim of this study was to apply the participatory ergonomics method to identify cleaning problems and to evaluate the effect of a low-cost improvement on cleaners' working postures in an office environment. The results show that the cleaning problem was identified, and the low-cost ergonomics solution suggested by the cleaners was implemented. Thus an improved working environment reduced the number of awkward cleaning postures and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) action category for floor mopping decreased. It can be concluded that working in an improved environment can lead to better working postures which, in turn, leads to the cleaners' better health and better cleaning results.

  3. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Low Resource Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wong

    Full Text Available Many modern molecular diagnostic assays targeting nucleic acids are typically confined to developed countries or to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. The ability to make technologies for the rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a revolutionary step forward in global health. Many molecular assays are also developed based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR, which require thermal cyclers that are relatively heavy (>20 pounds and need continuous electrical power. The temperature ramping speed of most economical thermal cyclers are relatively slow (2 to 3 °C/s so a polymerase chain reaction can take 1 to 2 hours. Most of all, these thermal cyclers are still too expensive ($2k to $4k for low-resource setting uses.In this article, we demonstrate the development of a low-cost and rapid water bath based thermal cycler that does not require active temperature control or continuous power supply during PCR. This unit costs $130 to build using commercial off-the-shelf items. The use of two or three vacuum-insulated stainless-steel Thermos food jars containing heated water (for denaturation and annealing/extension steps and a layer of oil on top of the water allow for significantly stabilized temperatures for PCR to take place. Using an Arduino-based microcontroller, we automate the "archaic" method of hand-transferring PCR tubes between water baths.We demonstrate that this innovative unit can deliver high speed PCR (17 s per PCR cycle with the potential to go beyond the 1,522 bp long amplicons tested in this study and can amplify from templates down to at least 20 copies per reaction. The unit also accepts regular PCR tubes and glass capillary tubes. The PCR efficiency of our thermal cycler is not different from other commercial thermal cyclers. When combined with a rapid nucleic acid detection approach, the thermos thermal cycler (TTC can enable on-site molecular

  4. Low-cost microwave radiometry for remote sensing of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikando, Eric Ndjoukwe

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing is now widely regarded as a dominant means of studying the Earth and its surrounding atmosphere. This science is based on blackbody theory, which states that all objects emit broadband electromagnetic radiation proportional to their temperature. This thermal emission is detectable by radiometers---highly sensitive receivers capable of measuring extremely low power radiation across a continuum of frequencies. In the particular case of a soil surface, one important parameter affecting the emitted radiation is the amount of water content or, soil moisture. A high degree of precision is required when estimating soil moisture in order to yield accurate forecasting of precipitations and short-term climate variability such as storms and hurricanes. Rapid progress within the remote sensing community in tackling current limitations necessitates an awareness of the general public towards the benefits of the science. Information about remote sensing instrumentation and techniques remain inaccessible to many higher-education institutions due to the high cost of instrumentation and the current general inaccessibility of the science. In an effort to draw more talent within the field, more affordable and reliable scientific instrumentation are needed. This dissertation introduces the first low-cost handheld microwave instrumentation fully capable of surface soil moisture studies. The framework of this research is two-fold. First, the development of a low-cost handheld microwave radiometer using the well-known Dicke configuration is examined. The instrument features a super-heterodyne architecture and is designed following a microwave integrated circuit (MIC) system approach. Validation of the instrument is performed by applying it to various soil targets and comparing measurement results to gravimetric technique measured data; a proven scientific method for determining volumetric soil moisture content. Second, the development of a fully functional receiver RF front

  5. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  6. High-accuracy current measurement with low-cost shunts by means of dynamic error correction

    OpenAIRE

    Weßkamp, Patrick; Melbert, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of electrical current is often performed by using shunt resistors. Thermal effects due to self-heating and ambient temperature variation limit the achievable accuracy, especially if low-cost shunt resistors with increased temperature coefficients are utilized. In this work, a compensation method is presented which takes static and dynamic temperature drift effects into account and provides a significant reduction of measurement error. A thermal model of the shunt...

  7. Neutron detection apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Borek, III, Theodore T.

    2017-08-15

    An apparatus for neutron detection is provided. The apparatus comprises a sensor medium in electrical contact with an electrode arrangement conformed to collect radiation-generated charge from the sensor medium. The sensor medium comprises a borazine and/or a borazine-based polymer.

  8. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    (LOS), its subsequent automated testing and burn/in process; and the placement of the LOS into a package body and hermetically sealing the package. The LOS and Package automated assembler robots have achieved a metrics of less than 1 um accuracy and 0.1 um resolution. The paper also discusses a method for the critical alignment of a single-mode fiber as the last step of the manufacturing process. This approach is in contrast to the conventional manual assembly where sub-micron fiber alignment and fixation steps are performed much earlier during the assembly process. Finally the paper discusses the value of this automated platform manufacturing approach as a key enabler for low cost small form factor optical components for the new XFP MSA class of transceiver modules.

  9. A method of real-time detection for distant moving obstacles by monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bao-zhi; Zhu, Ming

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for detection of distant moving obstacles like cars and bicycles by a monocular camera to cooperate with ultrasonic sensors in low-cost condition. We are aiming at detecting distant obstacles that move toward our autonomous navigation car in order to give alarm and keep away from them. Method of frame differencing is applied to find obstacles after compensation of camera's ego-motion. Meanwhile, each obstacle is separated from others in an independent area and given a confidence level to indicate whether it is coming closer. The results on an open dataset and our own autonomous navigation car have proved that the method is effective for detection of distant moving obstacles in real-time.

  10. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.

    2011-06-01

    The traditional model for space-based earth observations involves long mission times, high cost, and long development time. Because of the significant time and monetary investment required, riskier instrument development missions or those with very specific scientific goals are unlikely to successfully obtain funding. However, a niche for earth observations exploiting new technologies in focused, short lifetime missions is opening with the growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites. These low-cost, short-lived missions provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCOR), to demonstrate the ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable the use of COTS electronics, and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230-meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400-km orbit.

  11. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.

    2012-06-01

    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  12. A New Phase Noise Detection Method

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Gangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Phase noise is one of the most important parameters in many oscillators. Detecting accurately phase noise for oscillators has importance significance. In this paper, based on correlation operation detection phase noise for oscillators was proposed. This method not only can save a high precision reference oscillator, but also can detect accurately the phase noise of measured oscillator in theory. Detected phase noise of oscillators using this method has very strong utility value.

  13. Identification of calibration and operating limits of a low-cost embedded system with MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emilia, G.; Di Gasbarro, D.; Gaspari, A.; Natale, E.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper some aspects concerning the calibration uncertainty of three-axis low-cost accelerometers for possible use in diagnostics of civil buildings are considered, using a linear slide and a laser vibrometer as the reference. In order to analyse the principal and cross sensitivity and the offset of the sensor in dynamic conditions, the sensitivity matrix method has been used. Some considerations about the operating limits of a low-cost embedded system with MEMS accelerometer have been discussed, with reference to the calibration procedure. In particular, the effects of the non-constant sampling and of the achievable sampling rate, are studied with reference to the calibration uncertainty and to the capability of the calibration procedure to assess the best metrological performances of the system under test.

  14. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas; Todd, Andrew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature and streamflow intermittency are critical parameters influencing aquatic ecosystem health. Low-cost temperature loggers have made continuous water temperature monitoring relatively simple but determining streamflow timing and intermittency using temperature data alone requires significant and subjective data interpretation. Electrical resistance (ER) sensors have recently been developed to overcome the major limitations of temperature-based methods for the assessment of streamflow intermittency. This technical note introduces the STIC (Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity logger); a robust, low-cost, simple to build instrument that provides long-duration, high-resolution monitoring of both relative conductivity (RC) and temperature. Simultaneously collected temperature and RC data provide unambiguous water temperature and streamflow intermittency information that is crucial for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and assessing regulatory compliance. With proper calibration, the STIC relative conductivity data can be used to monitor specific conductivity.

  15. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...... in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  16. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...... system, is demonstrated in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  17. Open-Source 3-D Platform for Low-Cost Scientific Instrument Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Wijnen, B; Pearce, J M

    2016-08-01

    The combination of open-source software and hardware provides technically feasible methods to create low-cost, highly customized scientific research equipment. Open-source 3-D printers have proven useful for fabricating scientific tools. Here the capabilities of an open-source 3-D printer are expanded to become a highly flexible scientific platform. An automated low-cost 3-D motion control platform is presented that has the capacity to perform scientific applications, including (1) 3-D printing of scientific hardware; (2) laboratory auto-stirring, measuring, and probing; (3) automated fluid handling; and (4) shaking and mixing. The open-source 3-D platform not only facilities routine research while radically reducing the cost, but also inspires the creation of a diverse array of custom instruments that can be shared and replicated digitally throughout the world to drive down the cost of research and education further. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...... system, is demonstrated in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  19. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  20. Low cost production of disposable microfluidics by blister packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disch, A; Mueller, C; Reinecke, H

    2007-01-01

    Large scale production of disposable microfluidics mostly is accomplished by injection moulding techniques today. A cost effective alternative to injection moulding might be vacuum thermoforming of polymer films. Vacuum thermoforming is the basis for medical and pharmaceutical packaging such as pharmaceutical blister packs. It allows for cheap and reliable forming of polymer films and thus seems suitable for the fabrication of disposables. Our goal is to investigate and demonstrate the potential of vacuum thermoforming for the fabrication of microtechnology components. For this purpose we have developed a simple low cost process allowing for the fabrication of disposable microfluidics by vacuum thermoforming.