WorldWideScience

Sample records for low-cost behavioural approach

  1. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT in rehabilitation after lumbar spinal fusion: a low-cost, behavioural approach is cost-effective over individual exercise therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Laurberg, Ida; Christensen, Finn B

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Christensen et al. reported the clinical effects of a low-cost rehabilitation program equally efficient to a relatively intensive program of individual, physiotherapist-guided exercise therapy. Yet, the low-cost approach is not fully supported as an optimal strategy until a full......-scale economic evaluation, including extra-hospital effects such as service utilization in the primary health care sector and return-to-work, is conducted. The objective of this study was to conduct such evaluation i.e. investigate the cost-effectiveness of (1) a low-cost rehabilitation regimen...... with a behavioural element and (2) a regimen of individual exercise therapy, both in comparison with usual practice, from a health economic, societal perspective. Study design was a cost-effectiveness evaluation of an RCT with a 2-year follow-up. Ninety patients having had posterolateral or circumferential fusion...

  2. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  3. MESA - A new approach to low cost scientific spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, G. W.; Case, C. M.

    1982-09-01

    Today, the greatest obstacle to science and exploration in space is its cost. The present investigation is concerned with approaches for reducing this cost. Trends in the scientific spacecraft market are examined, and a description is presented for the MESA space platform concept. The cost drivers are considered, taking into account planning, technical aspects, and business factors. It is pointed out that the primary function of the MESA concept is to provide a satellite system at the lowest possible price. In order to reach this goal an attempt is made to benefit from all of the considered cost drivers. It is to be tried to work with the customer early in the mission analysis stage in order to assist in finding the right compromise between mission cost and return. A three phase contractual arrangement is recommended for MESA platforms. The phases are related to mission feasibility, specification definition, and design and development. Modular kit design promotes flexibility at low cost.

  4. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  5. Low-Cost IoT: A Holistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ciuffoletti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The key factors for a successful smart-city project are its initial cost and its scalability. The initial cost depends on several inter-related aspects that cannot be designed and optimized separately. After the pilot deployment, scaling-up takes place only if the cost remains affordable: an initial financial support may induce dependencies from technologies that become unsustainable in the long period. In addition, the initial adoption of an emerging technology that fails to affirm may jeopardize investment return. This paper investigates a smart-village use case, the success of which strongly depends on the initial cost and scalability, exploring a low-cost way for Internet of Things (IoT. We propose a simple conceptual framework for cost evaluation, and we verify its effectiveness with an exhaustive use case: a prototype sensor designed and tested with its surrounding eco-system. Using experimental results, we can estimate both performance and cost for a pilot system made of fifty sensors deployed in an urban area. We show that such cost grows linearly with system size, taking advantage of widely adopted technologies. The code and the design of the prototype are available, so that all steps are reproducible.

  6. Approaches to the design of low-cost HUD systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, Paul L.; Bleha, Willaim P.

    2014-06-01

    Since their inception during the Second World War in the simple gyro reflector gun sights of combat aircraft such as the Supermarine Spitfire, HUDs have been developed to achieve ever greater capability and performance, initially in military applications but in the final quarter of the last century for civil applications. With increased performance and capability came increased complexity and an attendant steady increase in cost such that HUDs in civil applications are only to be found in some large passenger and high end business jets. The physical volume of current solutions also has a significant impact on where they may be fitted and this paper discusses techniques and approaches to reduce the volume and costs associated with HUD implementation thereby making the operational and safety benefits of HUD available to a broader range of applications in lower cost airframes.

  7. Clustering approaches to improve the performance of low cost air pollution sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katie R; Edwards, Peter M; Evans, Mathew J; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Squires, Freya; Wilde, Shona; Lewis, Alastair C

    2017-08-24

    Low cost air pollution sensors have substantial potential for atmospheric research and for the applied control of pollution in the urban environment, including more localized warnings to the public. The current generation of single-chemical gas sensors experience degrees of interference from other co-pollutants and have sensitivity to environmental factors such as temperature, wind speed and supply voltage. There are uncertainties introduced also because of sensor-to-sensor response variability, although this is less well reported. The sensitivity of Metal Oxide Sensors (MOS) to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) changed with relative humidity (RH) by up to a factor of five over the range of 19-90% RH and with an uncertainty in the correction of a factor of two at any given RH. The short-term (second to minute) stabilities of MOS and electrochemical CO sensor responses were reasonable. During more extended use, inter-sensor quantitative comparability was degraded due to unpredictable variability in individual sensor responses (to either measurand or interference or both) drifting over timescales of several hours to days. For timescales longer than a week identical sensors showed slow, often downwards, drifts in their responses which diverged across six CO sensors by up to 30% after two weeks. The measurement derived from the median sensor within clusters of 6, 8 and up to 21 sensors was evaluated against individual sensor performance and external reference values. The clustered approach maintained the cost competitiveness of a sensor device, but the median concentration from the ensemble of sensor signals largely eliminated the randomised hour-to-day response drift seen in individual sensors and excluded the effects of small numbers of poorly performing sensors that drifted significantly over longer time periods. The results demonstrate that for individual sensors to be optimally comparable to one another, and to reference instruments, they would likely require

  8. Two novel approaches used to produce biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Chen, F. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition; Wang, X. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Genetics and Biochemistry

    2010-07-01

    The cost of feedstock has a significant effect of the economic viability of biodiesel production. The paper discussed a preliminary study looking at 2 approaches used to economically produce biodiesel, one from waste cooking oil (WCO) and the other from flaked cottonseed. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis was used to produce biodiesel from WCO, and in situ transesterification was used to produce biodiesel from the flaked cottonseed. The use of WCO solves the problem of waste disposal and also generates an environmentally benign fuel while at the same time lowering the costs involved in producing biodiesel. Ultrasonification has proven to be an efficient, low-cost, energy saving means of producing biodiesel. In situ transesterification makes solvent extraction and oil cleanup prior to biodiesel synthesis unnecessary, thereby simplifying the reaction steps. Based on the results of gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography tests, both approaches are feasible for the production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 4: Low cost management approach and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of low cost management approaches for the development of the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) is presented. The factors of the program which tend to increase costs are identified. The NASA/Industry interface is stressed to show how the interface can be improved to produce reduced program costs. Techniques and examples of cost reduction which can be applied to the EOS program are tabulated. Specific recommendations for actions to be taken to reduce costs in prescribed areas are submitted.

  10. A demonstration of a low cost approach to security at shipping facilities and ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Robert C.; Al Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Herath, Ruchira W.; Sluss, James J., Jr.; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Landers, Thomas L.

    2010-04-01

    Government funding for the security at shipping facilities and ports is limited so there is a need for low cost scalable security systems. With over 20 million sea, truck, and rail containers entering the United States every year, these facilities pose a large risk to security. Securing these facilities and monitoring the variety of traffic that enter and leave is a major task. To accomplish this, the authors have developed and fielded a low cost fully distributed building block approach to port security at the inland Port of Catoosa in Oklahoma. Based on prior work accomplished in the design and fielding of an intelligent transportation system in the United States, functional building blocks, (e.g. Network, Camera, Sensor, Display, and Operator Console blocks) can be assembled, mixed and matched, and scaled to provide a comprehensive security system. The following functions are demonstrated and scaled through analysis and demonstration: Barge tracking, credential checking, container inventory, vehicle tracking, and situational awareness. The concept behind this research is "any operator on any console can control any device at any time."

  11. Innovative approach for low-cost quick-access small payload missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Jan W., Jr.

    2000-11-01

    A significant part of the burgeoning commercial space industry is placing an unprecedented number of satellites into low earth orbit for a variety of new applications and services. By some estimates the commercial space industry now exceeds that of government space activities. Yet the two markets remain largely separate, with each deploying dedicated satellites and infrastructure for their respective missions. One commercial space firm, Final Analysis, has created a new program wherein either government, scientific or new technology payloads can be integrated on a commercial spacecraft on commercial satellites for a variety of mission scenarios at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. NASA has recognized the advantage of this approach, and has awarded the Quick Ride program to provide frequent, low cost flight opportunities for small independent payloads aboard the Final Analysis constellation, and investigators are rapidly developing science programs that conform to the proposed payload accommodations envelope. Missions that were not feasible using dedicated launches are now receiving approval under the lower cost Quick Ride approach. Final Analysis has dedicated ten out of its thirty-eight satellites in support of the Quick Ride efforts. The benefit of this type of space access extend beyond NASA science programs. Commercial space firms can now gain valuable flight heritage for new technology and satellite product offerings. Further, emerging international space programs can now place a payload in orbit enabling the country to allocate its resources against the payload and mission requirements rather htan increased launch costs of a dedicated spacecraft. Finally, the low cost nature provides University-based research educational opportunities previously out of the reach of most space-related budgets. This paper will describe the motivation, benefits, technical features, and program costs of the Final Analysis secondary payload program. Payloads can be

  12. A low-cost approach for the documentation and monitoring of an archaeological excavation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Orrin, Joel; Richter, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The documentation of archaeological excavations and in particular a constant monitoring is often time-consuming and depending on humańs capabilities. Thus, remote sensing methods, which allow an objective reproduction of the current state of an excavation and additional information are of interest. Therefore, a low-cost approach was tested on an open-air excavation site for two days in September 2015. The Magdalenian excavation site of Bad Kösen-Lengefeld, Germany is one important site in a system of about 100 sites in the area of the small rivers Saale and Unstrut. The whole site and the surrounding area (200 by 200 m) was first observed by a GoPro Hero 3+ mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 UAV. Ground control points were set-up in a regular grid covering the whole area. The achieved accuracy is 20 mm with a ground resolution of 45 mm. As a test, the GoPro Hero 3+ camera was additionally mounted on a small, extendable pole. With this second low-cost, easy to apply monitoring approach, pictures were automatically taken every second in a stop-and-go mode. In order to capture the excavation pit (7 by 4 m), two different angles were used for holding the pole, which focused on the middle and on the border of the pit. This procedure was repeated on the following day in order to document the excavation process. For the registration of the images, the already existing and measured excavation nails were used, which are equally distributed over the whole site in a 1 m grid. Thus, a high accurate registration of the images was possible (>10 mm). In order to approve the accuracy of the already derived data, the whole site was also observed by a Faro Focus 3D LS 120 laser scanner. The measurements of this device were registered by spherical targets, which were measured in the same reference system. The accuracy of the registration and the ground resolution for the image based approach for both days was about 4 mm. From these two measurements the process of the excavation was easily

  13. Implementing a low cost distributed architecture for real-time behavioural modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available at different levels of which some are: 1. Comprehensiveness (completeness) – Are the sun and moon positions accurate for the time of day and time of year in the flight simulator? Are wind gusts taken into account for the projectile trajectory? 2... system, referred to as the Virtual GBADS Demonstrator (VGD), to the first GBADS acquisition phase. The GBADS procurement programme follows a phased approach of which acquisition of the SABLE2 Air Defence System forms the first phase [1...

  14. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  15. A Low Cost Approach to the Design of Autopilot for Hypersonic Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wang; Weihua, Zhang; Ke, Peng; Donghui, Wang

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated guidance and control (IGC) approach to improve the autopilot design with low cost for hypersonic glider in dive and pull-up phase. The main objective is robust and adaptive tracking of flight path angle (FPA) under severe flight scenarios. Firstly, the nonlinear IGC model is developed with a second order actuator dynamics. Then the adaptive command filtered back-stepping control is implemented to deal with the large aerodynamics coefficient uncertainties, control surface uncertainties and unmatched time-varying disturbances. For the autopilot, a back-stepping sliding mode control is designed to track the control surface deflection, and a nonlinear differentiator is used to avoid direct differentiating the control input. Through a series of 6-DOF numerical simulations, it’s shown that the proposed scheme successfully cancels out the large uncertainties and disturbances in tracking different kinds of FPA trajectory. The contribution of this paper lies in the application and determination of nonlinear integrated design of guidance and control system for hypersonic glider.

  16. Simulation and training of ultrasound supported anaesthesia: a low-cost approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, T.; Lamontain, M.; Hilpert, J.; Schilling, F.; Tolxdorff, T.

    2010-03-01

    The use of ultrasound imaging technology during techniques of peripheral nerve blockade offers several clinical benefits. Here we report on a new method to educate residents in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. The daily challenge for the anesthesiologists is the 3D angle-depending handling of the stimulation needle and the ultrasound probe while watching the 2D ultrasound image on the monitor. Purpose: Our approach describes how a computer-aided simulation and training set for ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia could be built based on wireless low-cost devices and an interactive simulation of a 2D ultrasound image. For training purposes the injection needle and the ultrasound probe are replaced by wireless Bluetooth-connected 3D tracking devices, which are embedded in WII-mote controllers (Nintendo-Brand). In correlation to the tracked 3D positions of the needle and transducer models the visibility and position of the needle should be simulated in the 2D generated ultrasound image. Conclusion: In future, this tracking and visualization software module could be integrated in a more complex training set, where complex injection paths could be trained based on a 3D segmented model and the training results could be part of a curricular e-learning module.

  17. A Low Cost Sensors Approach for Accurate Vehicle Localization and Autonomous Driving Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivacqua, Rafael; Vassallo, Raquel; Martins, Felipe

    2017-10-16

    Autonomous driving in public roads requires precise localization within the range of few centimeters. Even the best current precise localization system based on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can not always reach this level of precision, especially in an urban environment, where the signal is disturbed by surrounding buildings and artifacts. Laser range finder and stereo vision have been successfully used for obstacle detection, mapping and localization to solve the autonomous driving problem. Unfortunately, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDARs) are very expensive sensors and stereo vision requires powerful dedicated hardware to process the cameras information. In this context, this article presents a low-cost architecture of sensors and data fusion algorithm capable of autonomous driving in narrow two-way roads. Our approach exploits a combination of a short-range visual lane marking detector and a dead reckoning system to build a long and precise perception of the lane markings in the vehicle's backwards. This information is used to localize the vehicle in a map, that also contains the reference trajectory for autonomous driving. Experimental results show the successful application of the proposed system on a real autonomous driving situation.

  18. Tele-healthcare for diabetes management: A low cost automatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, M; Malik, B; Kanakis, A; Wright, N P

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a telemedicine system for managing diabetic patients with better care is presented. The system is an end to end solution which relies on the integration of front end (patient unit) and backend web server. A key feature of the system developed is the very low cost automated approach. The front-end of the system is capable of reading glucose measurements from any glucose meter and sending them automatically via existing networks to the back-end server. The back-end is designed and developed using n-tier web client architecture based on model-view-controller design pattern using open source technology, a cost effective solution. The back-end helps the health-care provider with data analysis; data visualization and decision support, and allows them to send feedback and therapeutic advice to patients from anywhere using a browser enabled device. This system will be evaluated during the trials which will be conducted in collaboration with a local hospital in phased manner.

  19. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, S.; Ali, A. S.; El-Sheimy, N.; Goodall, C. L.; Syed, Z. F.

    2012-02-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency.

  20. A game-theoretic approach for calibration of low-cost magnetometers under noise uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddharth, S; Ali, A S; El-Sheimy, N; Goodall, C L; Syed, Z F

    2012-01-01

    Pedestrian heading estimation is a fundamental challenge in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)-denied environments. Additionally, the heading observability considerably degrades in low-speed mode of operation (e.g. walking), making this problem even more challenging. The goal of this work is to improve the heading solution when hand-held personal/portable devices, such as cell phones, are used for positioning and to improve the heading estimation in GNSS-denied signal environments. Most smart phones are now equipped with self-contained, low cost, small size and power-efficient sensors, such as magnetometers, gyroscopes and accelerometers. A magnetometer needs calibration before it can be properly employed for navigation purposes. Magnetometers play an important role in absolute heading estimation and are embedded in many smart phones. Before the users navigate with the phone, a calibration is invoked to ensure an improved signal quality. This signal is used later in the heading estimation. In most of the magnetometer-calibration approaches, the motion modes are seldom described to achieve a robust calibration. Also, suitable calibration approaches fail to discuss the stopping criteria for calibration. In this paper, the following three topics are discussed in detail that are important to achieve proper magnetometer-calibration results and in turn the most robust heading solution for the user while taking care of the device misalignment with respect to the user: (a) game-theoretic concepts to attain better filter parameter tuning and robustness in noise uncertainty, (b) best maneuvers with focus on 3D and 2D motion modes and related challenges and (c) investigation of the calibration termination criteria leveraging the calibration robustness and efficiency. (paper)

  1. Low cost sensors: Field evaluations and multi-sensor approaches for emissions factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development, and application of low cost sensors to measure both particulate and gas-phase air pollutants is poised to explode over the next several years. The need for the sensors is driven by poor air quality experienced in inhabited regions throughout the world, in both de...

  2. A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Remote Sensing through Low-Cost UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvario, Gabriela; Sierra, Basilio; Alarcón, Teresa E; Hernandez, Carmen; Dalmau, Oscar

    2017-06-16

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on remote sensing has generated low cost monitoring, since the data can be acquired quickly and easily. This paper reports the experience related to agave crop analysis with a low cost UAV. The data were processed by traditional photogrammetric flow and data extraction techniques were applied to extract new layers and separate the agave plants from weeds and other elements of the environment. Our proposal combines elements of photogrammetry, computer vision, data mining, geomatics and computer science. This fusion leads to very interesting results in agave control. This paper aims to demonstrate the potential of UAV monitoring in agave crops and the importance of information processing with reliable data flow.

  3. Voltage control in Z-source inverter using low cost microcontroller for undergraduate approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Shamsul Aizam; Sewang, Mohd Rizal; Salimin, Suriana; Shah, Noor Mazliza Badrul

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focussing on controlling the output voltage of Z-Source Inverter (ZSI) using a low cost microcontroller with MATLAB-Simulink that has been used for interfacing the voltage control at the output of ZSI. The key advantage of this system is the ability of a low cost microcontroller to process the voltage control blocks based on the mathematical equations created in MATLAB-Simulink. The Proportional Integral (PI) control equations are been applied and then, been downloaded to the microcontroller for observing the changes on the voltage output regarding to the changes on the reference on the PI. The system has been simulated in MATLAB and been verified with the hardware setup. As the results, the Raspberry Pi and Arduino that have been used in this work are able to respond well when there is a change of ZSI output. It proofed that, by applying/introducing this method to student in undergraduate level, it will help the student to understand more on the process of the power converter combine with a control feedback function that can be applied at low cost microcontroller.

  4. The MyHealthService approach for chronic disease management based on free open source software and low cost components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vognild, Lars K; Burkow, Tatjana M; Luque, Luis Fernandez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to building personal health services, supporting following-up, physical exercising, health education, and psychosocial support for the chronically ill, based on free open source software and low-cost computers, mobile devices, and consumer health and fitness devices. We argue that this will lower the cost of the systems, which is important given the increasing number of people with chronicle diseases and limited healthcare budgets.

  5. Analysis of the thermal behaviour of a low cost, single-family, more sustainable house in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoletti, Giane [Departamento de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Nucleo Orientado para a Inovacao da Edificacao, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Sattler, Miguel A.; Morello, Alessandro [Nucleo Orientado para a Inovacao da Edificacao, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Efforts have been made in Brazil to improve the thermal performance of low-cost buildings. Since 1997 studies on low-cost housing have been developed by Nucleo Orientado para a Inovacao da Edificacao, the construction sector of the Engineering College of the Rio Grande do Sul University, Brazil. In 2000 a prototype of a low-cost house was built on the university campus. This prototype has undergone several evaluations in an attempt to assess its thermal and environmental performance, like: energy consumption, rainwater harvesting, use of sustainably managed wood for window frames and doors, besides a detailed accounting of overall costs. The thermal performance of the house was monitored, by recording outdoor and indoor air temperatures and relative humidity, over the period of whole year. A brief appraisal of such results, as well as the annual heating and cooling degree-hours are presented. Daily swings in outdoor are a common climatic event in Porto Alegre and the building response to daily temperature swings, greater than 10 K, and hot and cold spells are presented. The results show that the thermal performance of the prototype is fairly satisfactory, considering the limitations of a low-cost house, when artificial heating and cooling is not affordable. (author)

  6. Low-cost approaches to problem-driven hydrologic research: The case of Arkavathy watershed, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Ballukraya, P. N.; Jeremiah, K.; R, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater depletion is a major problem in the Arkavathy Basin and it is the probable cause of declining flows in the Arkavathy River. However, investigating groundwater trends and groundwater-surface water linkages is extremely challenging in a data-scarce environment where basins are largely ungauged so there is very little historical data; often the data are missing, flawed or biased. Moreover, hard-rock aquifer data are very difficult to interpret. In the absence of reliable data, establishing a trend let alone the causal linkages is a severe challenge. We used a combination of low-cost, participatory, satellite based and conventional data collection methods to maximize spatial and temporal coverage of data. For instance, long-term groundwater trends are biased because only a few dug wells with non-representative geological conditions still have water - the vast majority of the monitoring wells drilled in the 1970s and 1980s have dried up. Instead, we relied on "barefoot hydrology" techniques. By conducting a comprehensive well census, engaging farmers in participatory groundwater monitoring and using locally available commercial borewell scanning techniques we have been able to better establish groundwater trends and spatial patterns.

  7. Solar disinfection: an approach for low-cost household water treatment technology in Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Awrajaw; Alemayehu, Esayas; Mekonen, Seblework; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-01-10

    Disinfection of contaminated water using solar radiation (SODIS) is known to inactivate bacteria. Its inactivation efficiency depends on local conditions where the disinfection is made. This study was aiming to test the efficiency of solar disinfection using different water parameters as low-cost household water treatment technology. Inactivation of microbes was tested using fecal coliform as test organism. The SODIS experiment was carried out at turbidity 2NTU, pH 7, and various water temperature (38.1°C, 41.8°C, 45.6°Cand 51.1°C) and solar intensities, using clear and black plastic bottles filled to different depths. The results show that the rate of microbial inactivation in relation to depth of water, turbidity, container type, intensity of light and color of container was statistically significant (p solar disinfection. By adjusting the parameters, complete and irreversible fecal coliform inactivation was achieved within an exposure time of less than four hours in the areas where the solar irradiance is about 3.99 kW/m2 and above. Our results indicate that application of SODIS could play a significant role in the provision of safe water in rural communities of developing countries where there is ample sunshine, specifically in sub-Saharan African countries.

  8. Electrochemistry-based approaches to low cost, high sensitivity, automated, multiplexed protein immunoassays for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Chandra K; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Otieno, Brunah A; Tang, Chi; Malla, Spundana; Krause, Colleen E; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-21

    Early detection and reliable diagnostics are keys to effectively design cancer therapies with better prognoses. The simultaneous detection of panels of biomarker proteins holds great promise as a general tool for reliable cancer diagnostics. A major challenge in designing such a panel is to decide upon a coherent group of biomarkers which have higher specificity for a given type of cancer. The second big challenge is to develop test devices to measure these biomarkers quantitatively with high sensitivity and specificity, such that there are no interferences from the complex serum or tissue matrices. Lastly, integrating all these tests into a technology that does not require exclusive training to operate, and can be used at point-of-care (POC) is another potential bottleneck in futuristic cancer diagnostics. In this article, we review electrochemistry-based tools and technologies developed and/or used in our laboratories to construct low-cost microfluidic protein arrays for the highly sensitive detection of a panel of cancer-specific biomarkers with high specificity which at the same time has the potential to be translated into POC applications.

  9. A novel low-cost approach for navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodseth, Jakob; Washabaugh, Edward P; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used for assessing or modulating brain excitability. However, the credibility of TMS outcomes depends on accurate and reliable coil placement during stimulation. Navigated TMS systems can address this issue, but these systems are expensive for routine use in clinical and research environments. The purpose of this study was to provide a high-quality open source framework for navigated TMS and test its reliability and accuracy using standard TMS procedures. A navigated TMS system was created using a low-cost 3D camera system (OptiTrack Trio), which communicates with our free and open source software environment programmed using the Unity 3D gaming engine. The environment is user friendly and has functions to allow for a variety of stimulation procedures (e.g., head and coil co-registration, multiple hotspot/grid tracking, intuitive matching, and data logging). The system was then validated using a static mockup of a TMS session. The clinical utility was also evaluated by assessing the repeatability and operator accuracy when collecting motor evoked potential (MEP) data from human subjects. The system was highly reliable and improved coil placement accuracy (position error = 1.2 mm and orientation error = 0.3°) as well as the quality and consistency (ICC >0.95) of MEPs recorded during TMS. These results indicate that the proposed system is a viable tool for reliable coil placement during TMS procedures, and can improve accuracy in locating the coil over a desired hotspot both within and between sessions.

  10. The Teaching of Enzymes: A Low Cost Experimental Approach with High School Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A PINHEIRO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The association of experimental methods with the traditional lecturing of Science themes is encouraged by several authors. The importance ofconducting experimental classes is undeniable, as practical activities motivate students to search for kno wledge. But this is not the reality in most publicschools in the inlands of Rio de Janeiro’s State, where several factors prevent teachers from using such didactic strategy.   The aim of this  work  was demonstrate  low -cost experimental activities, addressing the subject enzymes. The practice has been designed for being held in a common classroom. Lab glassware was replaced by alternative materials. Potato extract  (catalase source and commercial hydrogen peroxide were required. Concepts such as kinetic data  related to substrate concentration, time of reaction, pH andtemperature effects on enzymatic activity have been  explored with the students. Graphical representation of enzyme activity related to the above parameters has also been elaborated. The practice w as held in 10 schools distributed among 7 different cities. Questionnaires have been applied to the students before and after the practice and revealed that 86% of the students had never participated of a practical lesson and 49% were unaware of the functi on of enzymes. After practice, 68% of the students said that the enzymes catalyze biological reactions and 73% considered the practice important to their cognitive achievement. The evaluation of information obtained from students confirmed the lack of practical activities in public education, as well as the capacity that the practical activities have  to motivate the students in the knowledge formation process.

  11. Development and Evaluation of A Novel and Cost-Effective Approach for Low-Cost NO2 Sensor Drift Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Westerdahl, Dane; Ning, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging low-cost gas sensor technologies have received increasing attention in recent years for air quality measurements due to their small size and convenient deployment. However, in the diverse applications these sensors face many technological challenges, including sensor drift over long-term deployment that cannot be easily addressed using mathematical correction algorithms or machine learning methods. This study aims to develop a novel approach to auto-correct the drift of commonly used electrochemical nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensor with comprehensive evaluation of its application. The impact of environmental factors on the NO2 electrochemical sensor in low-ppb concentration level measurement was evaluated in laboratory and the temperature and relative humidity correction algorithm was evaluated. An automated zeroing protocol was developed and assessed using a chemical absorbent to remove NO2 as a means to perform zero correction in varying ambient conditions. The sensor system was operated in three different environments in which data were compared to a reference NO2 analyzer. The results showed that the zero-calibration protocol effectively corrected the observed drift of the sensor output. This technique offers the ability to enhance the performance of low-cost sensor based systems and these findings suggest extension of the approach to improve data quality from sensors measuring other gaseous pollutants in urban air. PMID:28825633

  12. Development and Evaluation of A Novel and Cost-Effective Approach for Low-Cost NO₂ Sensor Drift Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Westerdahl, Dane; Ning, Zhi

    2017-08-19

    Emerging low-cost gas sensor technologies have received increasing attention in recent years for air quality measurements due to their small size and convenient deployment. However, in the diverse applications these sensors face many technological challenges, including sensor drift over long-term deployment that cannot be easily addressed using mathematical correction algorithms or machine learning methods. This study aims to develop a novel approach to auto-correct the drift of commonly used electrochemical nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) sensor with comprehensive evaluation of its application. The impact of environmental factors on the NO₂ electrochemical sensor in low-ppb concentration level measurement was evaluated in laboratory and the temperature and relative humidity correction algorithm was evaluated. An automated zeroing protocol was developed and assessed using a chemical absorbent to remove NO₂ as a means to perform zero correction in varying ambient conditions. The sensor system was operated in three different environments in which data were compared to a reference NO₂ analyzer. The results showed that the zero-calibration protocol effectively corrected the observed drift of the sensor output. This technique offers the ability to enhance the performance of low-cost sensor based systems and these findings suggest extension of the approach to improve data quality from sensors measuring other gaseous pollutants in urban air.

  13. Renaissance: A revolutionary approach for providing low-cost ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Zeigenfuss, Lawrence B.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA is changing its attention from large missions to a greater number of smaller missions with reduced development schedules and budgets. In relation to this, the Renaissance Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate systems engineering process is presented. The aim of the Renaissance approach is to improve system performance, reduce cost and schedules and meet specific customer needs. The approach includes: the early involvement of the users to define the mission requirements and system architectures; the streamlining of management processes; the development of a flexible cost estimation capability, and the ability to insert technology. Renaissance-based systems demonstrate significant reuse of commercial off-the-shelf building blocks in an integrated system architecture.

  14. Design for Six Sigma: Approach for reliability and low-cost manufacturing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gerardo Cruz Alvarez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss new product development based on a traditional stage-gate process and to examine how new product development [NPD] tools, such as lean design for Six Sigma, can accelerate the achievement of the main goals of NPD: reliable product quality, cost-effective implementation, and desired time-to-market. These new tools must be incorporated into a new approach to NPD based on the Advanced Product and Quality Planning methodology.

  15. A new approach for low-cost noninvasive detection of asymptomatic heart disease at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P; Calvin, James E

    2007-01-01

    It would be useful to have an inexpensive, noninvasive point-of-care test for early detection of asymptomatic heart disease. This study used impedance cardiography (ICG) in a new way to assess heart function that did not use stroke volume or cardiac output. There is a model of the ICG dZ/dt waveform that may be used as a template to represent normal heart function. The hypothesis was that a dZ/dt waveform which deviates from that template should indicate heart dysfunction and therefore heart disease. The objective was to assess the accuracy of this new ICG approach, using echocardiography as the standard. Thirty-four outpatients undergoing echocardiographic testing were tested by ICG while sitting upright and supine. All patients had no symptoms or history of a structural or functional heart disorder. Echocardiographic testing showed 17 patients with abnormalities and 17 as normal. ICG testing yielded 16 true positives for heart dysfunction with 1 false negative (sensitivity = 94%) and 17 true negatives with no false positives (specificity = 100%). Considering that the cost, technical skill, and time required for this ICG test are comparable to those of an electrocardiograph, this new approach has potential as a point-of-care screening test for asymptomatic heart disease.

  16. A low-cost approach to electronic excitation energies based on the driven similarity renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Verma, Prakash; Hannon, Kevin P.; Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2017-08-01

    We propose an economical state-specific approach to evaluate electronic excitation energies based on the driven similarity renormalization group truncated to second order (DSRG-PT2). Starting from a closed-shell Hartree-Fock wave function, a model space is constructed that includes all single or single and double excitations within a given set of active orbitals. The resulting VCIS-DSRG-PT2 and VCISD-DSRG-PT2 methods are introduced and benchmarked on a set of 28 organic molecules [M. Schreiber et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 134110 (2008)]. Taking CC3 results as reference values, mean absolute deviations of 0.32 and 0.22 eV are observed for VCIS-DSRG-PT2 and VCISD-DSRG-PT2 excitation energies, respectively. Overall, VCIS-DSRG-PT2 yields results with accuracy comparable to those from time-dependent density functional theory using the B3LYP functional, while VCISD-DSRG-PT2 gives excitation energies comparable to those from equation-of-motion coupled cluster with singles and doubles.

  17. New Approach Based on Compressive Sampling for Sample Rate Enhancement in DASs for Low-Cost Sensing Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonavolontà

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of improving the maximum sample rate of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs included in low cost wireless sensing nodes. To this aim, the authors propose an efficient acquisition strategy based on the combined use of high-resolution time-basis and compressive sampling. In particular, the high-resolution time-basis is adopted to provide a proper sequence of random sampling instants, and a suitable software procedure, based on compressive sampling approach, is exploited to reconstruct the signal of interest from the acquired samples. Thanks to the proposed strategy, the effective sample rate of the reconstructed signal can be as high as the frequency of the considered time-basis, thus significantly improving the inherent ADC sample rate. Several tests are carried out in simulated and real conditions to assess the performance of the proposed acquisition strategy in terms of reconstruction error. In particular, the results obtained in experimental tests with ADC included in actual 8- and 32-bits microcontrollers highlight the possibility of achieving effective sample rate up to 50 times higher than that of the original ADC sample rate.

  18. ParkinsonNet: A Low-Cost Health Care Innovation With A Systems Approach From The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Bas R; Rompen, Lonneke; Vries, Nienke M de; Klink, Ab; Munneke, Marten; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    ParkinsonNet, a low-cost innovation to optimize care for patients with Parkinson disease, was developed in 2004 as a network of physical therapists in several regions in the Netherlands. Since that time, the network has achieved full national reach, with 70 regional networks and around 3,000 specifically trained professionals from 12 disciplines. Key elements include the empowerment of professionals who are highly trained and specialized in Parkinson disease, the empowerment of patients by education and consultation, and the empowerment of integrated multidisciplinary teams to better address and manage the disease. Studies have found that the ParkinsonNet approach leads to outcomes that are at least as good as, if not better than, outcomes from usual care. One study found a 50 percent reduction in hip fractures and fewer inpatient admissions. Other studies suggest that ParkinsonNet leads to modest but important cost savings (at least US$439 per patient annually). These cost savings outweigh the costs of building and maintaining the network. Because of ParkinsonNet's success, the program has now spread to several other countries and serves as a model of a successful and scalable frugal innovation.

  19. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential of Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T.; Stone, Christopher M.; Ebrahimi, Babak; Briët, Olivier J.T.; Foster, Woodbridge A.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for experiments on behaviour, reproduction, and adult survivorship of the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m3) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito’s energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately, using a method that accounts for a proportion of bodies being lost. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single-cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition, and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes where space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  1. ParkinsonNet: A Low-Cost Health Care Innovation With A Systems Approach From The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Rompen, A.F.M.; Vries, N.M. de; Klink, A.; Munneke, M.; Jeurissen, P.P.

    2017-01-01

    ParkinsonNet, a low-cost innovation to optimize care for patients with Parkinson disease, was developed in 2004 as a network of physical therapists in several regions in the Netherlands. Since that time, the network has achieved full national reach, with 70 regional networks and around 3,000

  2. Enhancing a Low-Cost Virtual Reality Application through Constructivist Approach: The Case of Spatial Training of Middle Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri; Abd. Rashid, Nazre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and to test a low-cost virtual reality spatial trainer in terms of its effectiveness in spatial training. The researchers adopted three features deriving from the constructivist perspective to guide the design of the trainer, namely interaction, instruction, and support. The no control pre test post test…

  3. Exposure assessment in SMES: a low-cost approach to bring OHS services to small-scale enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Mahinda; Phoon, Wai On

    2006-01-01

    There is increased attention to improving occupational health and safety in small to medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The Workers Health Centre, a not-for-profit OHS service in western Sydney, assessed workplace exposures in two SMEs following intervention by regulatory agencies. A low-cost monitoring program for noise, airbone dust, fibers and chemicals was conducted at these two metal working industry workplaces. Results showed that exposure to the hazards were above the statutory limits and there was generally an unhealthy access to OHS information by the predominantly immigrant or low literate worker population, were identified. The potential for using a program of low-cost exposure assessments, accompanied by a strategy to provide OHSs information for workers in small-scale enterprises, is discussed.

  4. A multi-resolution approach for an automated fusion of different low-cost 3D sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Jan; Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner

    2014-04-24

    The 3D acquisition of object structures has become a common technique in many fields of work, e.g., industrial quality management, cultural heritage or crime scene documentation. The requirements on the measuring devices are versatile, because spacious scenes have to be imaged with a high level of detail for selected objects. Thus, the used measuring systems are expensive and require an experienced operator. With the rise of low-cost 3D imaging systems, their integration into the digital documentation process is possible. However, common low-cost sensors have the limitation of a trade-off between range and accuracy, providing either a low resolution of single objects or a limited imaging field. Therefore, the use of multiple sensors is desirable. We show the combined use of two low-cost sensors, the Microsoft Kinect and the David laserscanning system, to achieve low-resolved scans of the whole scene and a high level of detail for selected objects, respectively. Afterwards, the high-resolved David objects are automatically assigned to their corresponding Kinect object by the use of surface feature histograms and SVM-classification. The corresponding objects are fitted using an ICP-implementation to produce a multi-resolution map. The applicability is shown for a fictional crime scene and the reconstruction of a ballistic trajectory.

  5. The Near Earth Object Scout Spacecraft: A Low Cost Approach to in-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Condon, Gerald; Graham, Lee; Bevilacqua, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a micro/nano satellite spacecraft and a supporting mission profile and architecture designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonable cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO Scout. NEO Scout spacecraft are to be placed in GTO, GEO, or cis-lunar space as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GTO or beyond and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO scout system is to design the mission timeline and spacecraft to rendezvous with and land on the target NEOs during close approach to the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high- impulse propulsion systems. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented along with detailed trajectory calculations. The use of micro/nano satellites in low-cost interplanetary exploration is attracting increasing attention and is the subject of several annual workshops and published design studies (1-4). The NEO population consists of those asteroids and short period comets orbiting the Sun with a perihelion of 1.3 astronomical units or less (5-8). As of July 30, 2013 10065 Near-Earth objects have been discovered. The spin rate, mass, density, surface physical (especially mechanical) properties, composition, and mineralogy of the vast majority of these objects are highly uncertain and the limited available telescopic remote sensing data imply a very diverse population (5-8). In-situ measurements by robotic spacecraft are urgently needed to provide the characterization data needed to support hardware and mission design for more ambitious human and robotic NEO operations. Large numbers of NEOs move into close proximity with the Earth-Moon system every year (9). The JPL Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS) (10) has produced detailed mission profile and delta V requirements for various NEO missions ranging from 30

  6. Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting. Building Technologies Solid State Lighting (SSL) Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-10-06

    This project developed an integrated substrate which organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel developers could employ the integrated substrate to fabricate OLED devices with performance and projected cost meeting the MYPP targets of the Solid State Lighting Program of the Department of Energy. The project optimized the composition and processing conditions of the integrated substrate for OLED light extraction efficiency and overall performance. The process was further developed for scale up to a low-cost process and fabrication of prototype samples. The encapsulation of flexible OLEDs based on this integrated substrate was also investigated using commercial flexible barrier films.

  7. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  8. A low-cost, hands-on module to characterize antimicrobial compounds using an interdisciplinary, biophysical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma S Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a hands-on experimental module that combines biology experiments with a physics-based analytical model in order to characterize antimicrobial compounds. To understand antibiotic resistance, participants perform a disc diffusion assay to test the antimicrobial activity of different compounds and then apply a diffusion-based analytical model to gain insights into the behavior of the active antimicrobial component. In our experience, this module was robust, reproducible, and cost-effective, suggesting that it could be implemented in diverse settings such as undergraduate research, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math camps, school programs, and laboratory training workshops. By providing valuable interdisciplinary research experience in science outreach and education initiatives, this module addresses the paucity of structured training or education programs that integrate diverse scientific fields. Its low-cost requirements make it especially suitable for use in resource-limited settings.

  9. A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A LOW COST 3D PRINTER USING OPEN SOURCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian-Emilian OLTEAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of manufacturing parts with additive technologies has seen tremendous growth in recent years, and the emergence of more 3D open source printers has led to complex and personalized shapes at a lower price. For these reasons, 3D printers that form parts by extruding a filament of molten plastic are becoming standard equipment in many laboratories and workshops. In this context, the paper aims to present some theoretical aspects about the implementation and testing of a low cost 3D printer using open source technologies, the description of its main components and the stages to be taken from the 3D modelling of an object to the proper printing.

  10. Efficiency of Individual Tree Detection Approaches Based on Light-Weight and Low-Cost UAS Imagery in Australian Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorijs Goldbergs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR for delineating individual trees and estimating aboveground biomass (AGB has been proven in a diverse range of ecosystems, but can be difficult and costly to commission. Point clouds derived from structure from motion (SfM matching techniques obtained from unmanned aerial systems (UAS could be a feasible low-cost alternative to airborne LiDAR scanning for canopy parameter retrieval. This study assesses the extent to which SfM three-dimensional (3D point clouds—obtained from a light-weight mini-UAS quadcopter with an inexpensive consumer action GoPro camera—can efficiently and effectively detect individual trees, measure tree heights, and provide AGB estimates in Australian tropical savannas. Two well-established canopy maxima and watershed segmentation tree detection algorithms were tested on canopy height models (CHM derived from SfM imagery. The influence of CHM spatial resolution on tree detection accuracy was analysed, and the results were validated against existing high-resolution airborne LiDAR data. We found that the canopy maxima and watershed segmentation routines produced similar tree detection rates (~70% for dominant and co-dominant trees, but yielded low detection rates (<35% for suppressed and small trees due to poor representativeness in point clouds and overstory occlusion. Although airborne LiDAR provides higher tree detection rates and more accurate estimates of tree heights, we found SfM image matching to be an adequate low-cost alternative for the detection of dominant and co-dominant tree stands.

  11. Screen printing as a scalable and low-cost approach for rigid and flexible thin-film transistors using separated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan; Chen, Haitian; Gu, Xiaofei; Liu, Bilu; Wang, Wenli; Cao, Yu; Wu, Fanqi; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-12-23

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are very promising materials in printed electronics due to their excellent mechanical and electrical property, outstanding printability, and great potential for flexible electronics. Nonetheless, developing scalable and low-cost approaches for manufacturing fully printed high-performance single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistors remains a major challenge. Here we report that screen printing, which is a simple, scalable, and cost-effective technique, can be used to produce both rigid and flexible thin-film transistors using separated single-wall carbon nanotubes. Our fully printed top-gated nanotube thin-film transistors on rigid and flexible substrates exhibit decent performance, with mobility up to 7.67 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), on/off ratio of 10(4)∼10(5), minimal hysteresis, and low operation voltage (transistors (bent with radius of curvature down to 3 mm) and driving capability for organic light-emitting diode have been demonstrated. Given the high performance of the fully screen-printed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, we believe screen printing stands as a low-cost, scalable, and reliable approach to manufacture high-performance nanotube thin-film transistors for application in display electronics. Moreover, this technique may be used to fabricate thin-film transistors based on other materials for large-area flexible macroelectronics, and low-cost display electronics.

  12. Straightening the Hierarchical Staircase for Basis Set Extrapolations: A Low-Cost Approach to High-Accuracy Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varandas, António J. C.

    2018-04-01

    Because the one-electron basis set limit is difficult to reach in correlated post-Hartree-Fock ab initio calculations, the low-cost route of using methods that extrapolate to the estimated basis set limit attracts immediate interest. The situation is somewhat more satisfactory at the Hartree-Fock level because numerical calculation of the energy is often affordable at nearly converged basis set levels. Still, extrapolation schemes for the Hartree-Fock energy are addressed here, although the focus is on the more slowly convergent and computationally demanding correlation energy. Because they are frequently based on the gold-standard coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)], correlated calculations are often affordable only with the smallest basis sets, and hence single-level extrapolations from one raw energy could attain maximum usefulness. This possibility is examined. Whenever possible, this review uses raw data from second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, as well as CCSD, CCSD(T), and multireference configuration interaction methods. Inescapably, the emphasis is on work done by the author's research group. Certain issues in need of further research or review are pinpointed.

  13. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  14. Smartphones for post-event analysis: a low-cost and easily accessible approach for mapping natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2015-04-01

    A real opportunity and challenge for the hazard mapping is offered by the use of smartphones and low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique (i.e. 'Structure-from-Motion'-SfM-). Differently from the other traditional photogrammetric methods, the SfM allows to reconstitute three-dimensional geometries (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) from randomly acquired images. The images can be acquired by standalone digital cameras (compact or reflex), or even by smartphones built-in cameras. This represents a "revolutionary" advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner TLS, airborne lidar) (Tarolli, 2014). Through fast, simple and consecutive field surveys, anyone with a smartphone can take a lot of pictures of the same study area. This way, high-resolution and multi-temporal DSMs may be obtained and used to better monitor and understand erosion and deposition processes. Furthermore, these topographic data can also facilitate to quantify volumes of eroded materials due to landslides and recognize the major critical issues that usually occur during a natural hazard (e.g. river bank erosion and/or collapse due to floods). In this work we considered different case studies located in different environmental contexts of Italy, where extensive photosets were obtained using smartphones. TLS data were also considered in the analysis as benchmark to compare with SfM data. Digital Surface Models (DSMs) derived from SfM at centimeter grid-cell resolution revealed to be effective to automatically recognize areas subject to surface instabilities, and estimate quantitatively erosion and deposition volumes, for example. Morphometric indexes such as landform curvature and surface roughness, and statistical thresholds (e.g. standard deviation) of these indices, served as the basis for the proposed analyses. The results indicate that SfM technique through smartphones really offers a fast, simple and affordable alternative to lidar

  15. A study of low cost approaches to scientific experiment implementation for shuttle launched and serviced automated spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost reductions that can be obtained in experiment instrumentation by the use of standardized electronics and by the relaxation of instrument reliability requirements are studied. The feasibility of using standardized equipment for experiment instrumentation is assessed and a system design approach that most effectively incorporates standardized equipment is developed. The level and form of modularization that is appropriate for the standardized equipment is determined. Mission assurance aspects of instrument development are examined to determine the cost reductions that might be derived from the relaxation of reliability requirements and to formulate a systematic approach to the optimization of mission assurance cost reductions. The results of the analyses are applied to a representative model HEAO payload in order to provide a concrete example of the cost reductions that can be achieved by a standardized approach to the instrument electronics.

  16. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  17. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ

  18. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-04-30

    Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n=16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI)>1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-standing silicon-carbon nanotube/graphene by a scalable in situ approach from low-cost Al-Si alloy powder for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongyan; Han, Kai; Jiang, Heng; Wang, Jingwen; Liu, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Silicon/carbon (Si/C) composite shows great potential to replace graphite as lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode owing to its high theoretical capacity. Exploring low-cost scalable approach for synthesizing Si/C composites with excellent electrochemical performance is critical for practical application of Si/C anodes. In this study, we rationally applied a scalable in situ approach to produce Si-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) composite via acid etching of commercial inexpensive micro-sized Al-Si alloy powder and CNT mixture. In the Si-CNT composite, ∼10 nm Si particles were uniformly deposited on the CNT surface. After combining with graphene sheets, a flexible self-standing Si-CNT/graphene paper was fabricated with three-dimensional (3D) sandwich-like structure. The in situ presence of CNT during acid-etching process shows remarkable two advantages: providing deposition sites for Si atoms to restrain agglomeration of Si nanoparticles after Al removal from Al-Si alloy powder, increasing the cross-layer conductivity of the paper anode to provide excellent conductive contact sites for each Si nanoparticles. When used as binder-free anode for LIBs without any further treatment, in situ addition of CNT especially plays important role to improve the initial electrochemical activity of Si nanoparticles synthesized from low-cost Al-Si alloy powder, thus resulting in about twice higher capacity than Si/G paper anode. The self-standing Si-CNT/graphene paper anode exhibited a high specific capacity of 1100 mAh g-1 even after 100 cycles at 200 mA g-1 current density with a Coulombic efficiency of >99%. It also showed remarkable rate capability improvement compared to Si/G paper without CNT. The present work demonstrates a low-cost scalable in situ approach from commercial micro-sized Al-Si alloy powder for Si-based composites with specific nanostructure. The Si-CNT/graphene paper is a promising anode candidate with high capacity and cycling stability for LIBs, especially for the

  20. Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

  1. A single reflection approach to HCPV: Very high concentration ratio and wide acceptance angles using low cost materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Davide

    2012-10-01

    The Italian engineering company Becar (Beghelli SpA group) presents its latest HCPV module currently sold under the brand name "Life Tree". The module is characterized by an efficiency of 26% that is in line with systems having higher complexity. The high efficiency and flexibility of the system are reached thanks to the single reflection scheme of the optical system. The module characterized by high acceptance angles comprises a metalized plastic primary reflector and a secondary optical element. The latter being a crucial technical feature of the Becar's system. This secondary optic element has been developed and manufactured by the German group Evonik Industries, which markets the product under the trade name SAVOSIL(TM). This technology, compared to other optics available in the market, offer high transparency in the whole solar spectrum and it is manufactured with an innovative sol-gel process that guarantees a precision in the micron range, at a fraction of the other approaches cost . Those two important features boost the light harvesting power of the Beghelli's systems. The article shows also the results of extensive in-field tests carried out to confirm reliability, performance and easy maintenance of the system.

  2. The Near Earth Object (NEO) Scout Spacecraft: A Low-cost Approach to In-situ Characterization of the NEO Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeppel, Eric A.; Balsamo, James M.; Fischer, Karl J.; East, Matthew J.; Styborski, Jeremy A.; Roche, Christopher A.; Ott, Mackenzie D.; Scorza, Matthew J.; Doherty, Christopher D.; Trovato, Andrew J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a microsatellite spacecraft with supporting mission profile and architecture, designed to enable preliminary in-situ characterization of a significant number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) at reasonably low cost. The spacecraft will be referred to as the NEO-Scout. NEO-Scout spacecraft are to be placed in Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO), cis-lunar space, or on earth escape trajectories as secondary payloads on launch vehicles headed for GEO or beyond, and will begin their mission after deployment from the launcher. A distinguishing key feature of the NEO-Scout system is to design the spacecraft and mission timeline so as to enable rendezvous with and landing on the target NEO during NEO close approach (the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust/high-impulse propulsion systems. Mission durations are on the order 100 to 400 days. Mission feasibility and preliminary design analysis are presented, along with detailed trajectory calculations.

  3. Simple, low-cost group-counselling programme vs treatment as usual for patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema-Exploratory analyses of effects on knowledge, behaviour and personal resources of the randomized PREVEX clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Agner, Tove; Sørensen, Jennifer A

    2018-01-01

    and knowledge regarding skin protection and care, as well as personal resources, in patients with occupational hand eczema. METHODS: PREVEX is an individually randomized clinical trial investigating the 1-year effects of a simple, low-cost group-counselling programme vs treatment as usual for patients...... with notified occupational hand eczema. Exploratory outcomes were behaviour, knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-evaluated skin care ability. RESULTS: In total, 1668 patients with notified occupational skin disease were invited to participate, of whom 769 were randomized and 756 were analysed: intervention group...... (n = 376) vs control group (n = 380). Behaviour was improved and the knowledge score increased in the intervention group as compared with the control group (respectively: estimate 0.08; 95%CI: 0.02-0.19; P = .01; and estimate 0.49; 95%CI: 0.28-0.70; P 

  4. From Deposit to Point Cloud – a Study of Low-Cost Computer Vision Approaches for the Straightforward Documentation of Archaeological Excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Doneus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stratigraphic archaeological excavations demand high-resolution documentation techniques for 3D recording. Today, this is typically accomplished using total stations or terrestrial laser scanners. This paper demonstrates the potential of another technique that is low-cost and easy to execute. It takes advantage of software using Structure from Motion (SfM algorithms, which are known for their ability to reconstruct camera pose and threedimensional scene geometry (rendered as a sparse point cloud from a series of overlapping photographs captured by a camera moving around the scene. When complemented by stereo matching algorithms, detailed 3D surface models can be built from such relatively oriented photo collections in a fully automated way. The absolute orientation of the model can be derived by the manual measurement of control points. The approach is extremely flexible and appropriate to deal with a wide variety of imagery, because this computer vision approach can also work with imagery resulting from a randomly moving camera (i.e. uncontrolled conditions and calibrated optics are not a prerequisite. For a few years, these algorithms are embedded in several free and low-cost software packages. This paper will outline how such a program can be applied to map archaeological excavations in a very fast and uncomplicated way, using imagery shot with a standard compact digital camera (even if the ima ges were not taken for this purpose. Archived data from previous excavations of VIAS-University of Vienna has been chosen and the derived digital surface models and orthophotos have been examined for their usefulness for archaeological applications. The a bsolute georeferencing of the resulting surface models was performed with the manual identification of fourteen control points. In order to express the positional accuracy of the generated 3D surface models, the NSSDA guidelines were applied.  Simultaneously acquired terrestrial laser scanning data

  5. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Long, E-mail: zhaolong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Hou, Hong, E-mail: houhong@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Dayangfang 8, Beijing 100012 (China); Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O{sub 8}CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  6. Successive self-propagating sintering process using carbonaceous materials: A novel low-cost remediation approach for dioxin-contaminated solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Zhu, Tengfei; Li, Fasheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A SSPSP using carbonaceous materials for removing dioxin pollutants was developed. • Removal and degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were higher than those of PCDD/Fs. • Compositions of PCDD/Fs were dependent on the available precursors in raw materials. • Dechlorination of O_8CDD and formation pathways of PCDFs were deduced. • Dioxin levels in the effluent gas complied with the International emission limit. - Abstract: The disposal of dioxin-contaminated solids was studied using a novel successive self-propagating sintering process (SSPSP) incorporating a carbonaceous material. Among the five types of carbonaceous materials investigated, Charcoal B displayed optimum adsorbent properties and was selected as the best thermal source in the current remediation approach based on economical efficiency aspects. The feasibility of this proposed approach, removal efficiencies, and congener compositions of dioxins were examined using two types of dioxin-contaminated solids (Fugan sediment and Toyo soil) that displayed different characteristics including the initial concentrations of dioxins. The removal efficiencies of DL-PCBs (“dioxin-like” polychlorinated biphenyls) were higher than those of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans), achieving 99.9 and 92% removal in the Fugan sediment and Toyo soil, respectively. In contrast, the degradation efficiencies of DL-PCBs were lower (i.e., 89.3 and 88.8%, respectively). The initial concentrations of dioxins, available precursors, and properties of the solids strongly influenced the congener compositions and removal efficiencies of dioxins. Furthermore, the dechlorination reaction pathways of high-chlorinated PCDDs and potential regeneration pathways of PCDFs from PCBs were deduced using isotope labeling. The proposed novel low-cost remediation approach for the removal of dioxins from solids is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  7. Managing three approaches to organizational behaviour for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing three approaches to organizational behaviour for effectiveness and ... job description, productivity, individual performance and management matters. ... having attained a high productivity level, the organization starts going down.

  8. A new modelling approach for zooplankton behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiyu, A. Y.; Yamazaki, H.; Strickler, J. R.

    We have developed a new simulation technique to model zooplankton behaviour. The approach utilizes neither the conventional artificial intelligence nor neural network methods. We have designed an adaptive behaviour network, which is similar to BEER [(1990) Intelligence as an adaptive behaviour: an experiment in computational neuroethology, Academic Press], based on observational studies of zooplankton behaviour. The proposed method is compared with non- "intelligent" models—random walk and correlated walk models—as well as observed behaviour in a laboratory tank. Although the network is simple, the model exhibits rich behavioural patterns similar to live copepods.

  9. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  10. Strategies to fight low-cost rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2006-12-01

    Companies find it challenging and yet strangely reassuring to take on opponents whose strategies, strengths, and weaknesses resemble their own. Their obsession with familiar rivals, however, has blinded them to threats from disruptive, low-cost competitors. Successful price warriors, such as the German retailer Aldi, are changing the nature of competition by employing several tactics: focusing on just one or a few consumer segments, delivering the basic product or providing one benefit better than rivals do, and backing low prices with superefficient operations. Ignoring cutprice rivals is a mistake because they eventually force companies to vacate entire market segments. Price wars are not the answer, either: Slashing prices usually lowers profits for incumbents without driving the low-cost entrants out of business. Companies take various approaches to competing against cut-price players. Some differentiate their products--a strategy that works only in certain circumstances. Others launch low-cost businesses of their own, as many airlines did in the 1990s--a so-called dual strategy that succeeds only if companies can generate synergies between the existing businesses and the new ventures, as the financial service providers HSBC and ING did. Without synergies, corporations are better off trying to transform themselves into low-cost players, a difficult feat that Ryanair accomplished in the 1990s, or into solution providers. There will always be room for both low-cost and value-added players. How much room each will have depends not only on the industry and customers' preferences, but also on the strategies traditional businesses deploy.

  11. Low-cost approach for a software-defined radio based ground station receiver for CCSDS standard compliant S-band satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, M. A.; Butt, B. M.; Klinkner, S.

    2016-10-01

    A major concern of a university satellite mission is to download the payload and the telemetry data from a satellite. While the ground station antennas are in general easy and with limited afford to procure, the receiving unit is most certainly not. The flexible and low-cost software-defined radio (SDR) transceiver "BladeRF" is used to receive the QPSK modulated and CCSDS compliant coded data of a satellite in the HAM radio S-band. The control software is based on the Open Source program GNU Radio, which also is used to perform CCSDS post processing of the binary bit stream. The test results show a good performance of the receiving system.

  12. Summary of design for behavioural change approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke; Niedderer, Kristina; Clune, Stephen; Ludden, Geke

    2017-01-01

    The chapters in Part 2 have presented a diverse selection of design for behavioural change approaches. This summary chapter explores the approaches presented in relation to the psychological and sociological (and other) models that authors have drawn on. This is achieved by first presenting the

  13. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  14. The Power of Behavioural Approaches--We Need a Revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural approaches can be used effectively to teach new skills and to change behaviours that are challenging and not socially adaptive. The behaviour modification approach--now called applied behaviour analysis--is based on the assumption that all behaviours are learned, both the useful ones (new skills) and the ones that are not so useful…

  15. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  16. Low cost nuclear data printer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnachiya, S.; Aungkultewaraksa, S.; Pengphol, S.

    1988-01-01

    The data printer is essential for nuclear radiation measuring system. A low cost nuclear data printer is developed from an electronic printing calculator. It can transfer the counting data from scaler and printout. The basic concept is that the BCD data is transferred and converted to decimal data sequentially by the interfacing circuit. After the counting time is ended, each digit is transferred to the printing calculator by data bus, digit by digit, until all the data are transferred and printed out. The low cost nuclear data printer consists of a CASIO model HR-8 electronic printing calculator and a printer interface model either NT 2602 or NT 2603 which are designed for printing out 6 digit data from the counter/timer CANBERRA model 1772. In this research the NT 2602 interface is designed only to transfer and printing out data. While the NT 2603 interface is designed to transfer, print out and average data. The NT 2603 can average from 2 to 9 sets of counting data. This data interfacing technique can be applied to work with all scientific instruments having readout as digital display and all kinds of electronic printing calculator

  17. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  18. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.ca

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and <1 for scraped material ingestion. • Comprehensive approach aims to deal with drawbacks of current toy safety approaches. - Abstract: Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n = 16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI) > 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always <1. Finally, saliva mobilization scenario caused HI > 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ.

  19. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  20. A Novel Low-Cost Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in the Catchment Area of Three Hospitals in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Repon C.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Diorditsa, Serguei; Hasan, ASM Mainul; Banu, Sultana S.; Alamgir, ASM; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Sandhu, Hardeep; Fischer, Marc; Luby, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Acute meningoencephalitis syndrome surveillance was initiated in three medical college hospitals in Bangladesh in October 2007 to identify Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases. We estimated the population-based incidence of JE in the three hospitals' catchment areas by adjusting the hospital-based crude incidence of JE by the proportion of catchment area meningoencephalitis cases who were admitted to surveillance hospitals. Instead of a traditional house-to-house survey, which is expensive for a disease with low frequency, we attempted a novel approach to identify meningoencephalitis cases in the hospital catchment area through social networks among the community residents. The estimated JE incidence was 2.7/100,000 population in Rajshahi (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8–4.9), 1.4 in Khulna (95% CI = 0.9–4.1), and 0.6 in Chittagong (95% CI = 0.4–0.9). Bangladesh should consider a pilot project to introduce JE vaccine in high-incidence areas. PMID:21813862

  1. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  2. Low-cost carriers fare competition effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects that low-cost carriers (LCC’s) produce when entering new routes operated only by full-service carriers (FSC’s) and routes operated by low-cost carriers in competition with full-service carriers. A mathematical model has been developed to determine what routes should

  3. Low-cost satellite mechanical design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie-Gair, Nathaniel; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of techniques for low-cost design and construction of a CubeSat mechanical structure that can serve as a basis for academic programs and a starting point for government, military and commercial large-scale sensing networks, where the cost of each node must be minimized to facilitate system affordability and lower the cost and associated risk of losing any node. Spacecraft Design plays a large role in manufacturability. An intentionally simplified mechanical design is presented which reduces machining costs, as compared to more intricate designs that were considered. Several fabrication approaches are evaluated relative to the low-cost goal.

  4. managing three approaches to organizational behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, organizations need to improve their behaviour for effectiveness and ... being rehabilitated or resuscitated, rather their structures and equipment are fast ... Avowal to deliver quality services based upon the needs of citizen.

  5. A simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach to synthesize single-crystalline LiMn2O4 nanorods with high electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hongyuan; Li, Fang; Liu, Xingquan; Xiong, Weiqiang; Chen, Bing; Shao, Huailing; Que, Dongyang; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The single-crystalline LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach in which the γ-MnOOH nanorods were prepared through a facile hydrothermal process, in which KMnO 4 was reduced by anhydrous alcohol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) without adding any template reagent or additional surfactant. The crystal structures and morphologies of synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results showed that the γ-MnOOH nanorods had high crystallinity and well-shaped morphology with an average diameter of 200 nm and an average length of 12 μm. For the resulting LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods, the electrochemical properties were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For the optimal LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods, the initial discharge capacity was 123.5 mAh g −1 and remained 110.2 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 1.0 C in the voltage range of 3.20∼4.35 V. Moreover, the optimal LiMn 2 O 4 nanorods can present superior rate performance, especially the capacity recovery performance as the charge-discharge rate restores to 0.1 C from 5.0 C. Such excellent electrochemical performance could make them to be the promising cathode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries

  6. The Theory of Planned Behaviour: Predicting Pre-Service Teachers' Teaching Behaviour towards a Constructivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Carrie Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    The two-pronged purpose of this study is to examine factors determining the teaching behaviour of pre-service physical education (PE) teachers towards a constructivist approach, likewise referred to as teaching games for understanding (TGfU). Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was applied to guide the formulation of research purpose and design. Six…

  7. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  8. Design of low cost glaucoma screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A. G.; Langerhorst, C. T.; Geijssen, H. C.; Greve, E. L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991 the Netherlands Glaucoma Patient Association organized a glaucoma screening survey. This survey was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low cost screening setting. During a screening period of 8 days, 1259 subjects over the age of 49 years were examined by a team of

  9. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  10. Low-cost high purity production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  11. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  12. low-cost apparatus from locally available materials for teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    twofold: i) to design and produce appropriate low cost apparatus from locally .... How are the low-cost and manufactured apparatus compared in terms of cost and efficiency? ... BASIC TOOLS FOR THE LOW COST APPARATUS PRODUCTION.

  13. A simple, scalable and low-cost method to generate thermal diagnostics of a domestic building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papafragkou, Anastasios; Ghosh, Siddhartha; James, Patrick A.B.; Rogers, Alex; Bahaj, AbuBakr S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Our diagnostic method uses a single field measurement from a temperature logger. • Building technical performance and occupant behaviour are addressed simultaneously. • Our algorithm learns a thermal model of a home and diagnoses the heating system. • We propose a novel clustering approach to decouple user behaviour from technical performance. • Our diagnostic confidence is enhanced using a large scale deployment. - Abstract: Traditional approaches to understand the problem of the energy performance in the domestic sector include on-site surveys by energy assessors and the installation of complex home energy monitoring systems. The time and money that needs to be invested by the occupants and the form of feedback generated by these approaches often makes them unattractive to householders. This paper demonstrates a simple, low cost method that generates thermal diagnostics for dwellings, measuring only one field dataset; internal temperature over a period of 1 week. A thermal model, which is essentially a learning algorithm, generates a set of thermal diagnostics about the primary heating system, the occupants’ preferences and the impact of certain interventions, such as lowering the thermostat set-point. A simple clustering approach is also proposed to categorise homes according to their building fabric thermal performance and occupants’ energy efficiency with respect to ventilation. The advantage of this clustering approach is that the occupants receive tailored advice on certain actions that if taken will improve the overall thermal performance of a dwelling. Due to the method’s low cost and simplicity it could facilitate government initiatives, such as the ‘Green Deal’ in the UK

  14. A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    A Tactical Database for the Low Cost Combat Direction System by Everton G. de Paula Captain, Brazilian Air Force B.S., Instituto Tecnologico de...objects as a unit. The AVANCE object management system [Ref. 29] uses the timestamp 156 model (pessimistic approach) for concurrency control. The Vbase...are no longer used). In AVANCE [Ref. 291, garbage collection is performed on user request. In GemStone [Ref. 25], garbage collection is executed in

  15. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Li; Yu Lixin; Peng Heping; Zhuang Wei

    2015-01-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies. (paper)

  16. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  17. THE MARKETING MIX FOR LOW COST HEALTHCARE

    OpenAIRE

    Julie George; Dr. Manita D. Shah

    2017-01-01

    The Indian health care industry has a history of dealing with poor doctor-patient ratio, shortage of medical professionals, poor health infrastructure, and low expenditure on healthcare information technology; steep out of pocket spending (OOP), low health insurance coverage, inadequate government spending, poor access to health care facilities and social stigma related to diseases. The unique mindset and ability for frugality has successfully been applied in offering low cost healthcare of u...

  18. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, L.; Insabella, M.; Bilbao, L.

    2012-06-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emmision from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using presurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  19. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, L; Insabella, M [LADOP, University of Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bilbao, L [INFIP, University of Buenos Aires and CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-06-19

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emission from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using pressurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  20. Low cost sonoluminescence experiment in pressurized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, L; Insabella, M; Bilbao, L

    2012-01-01

    We present a low cost design for demostration and mesurements of light emission from a sonoluminescence experiment. Using pressurized water introduced in an acrylic cylinder and one piezoelectric from an ultrasonic cleaner, we are able to generate cavitacion zones with emission of light. The use of argon to pressurize the water improves the emission an the light can be seen at naked eye in a softlit ambient.

  1. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  2. UNCERTAINTY IN NEOCLASSICAL AND KEYNESIAN THEORETICAL APPROACHES: A BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinziana BALTATESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ”mainstream” neoclassical assumptions about human economic behavior are currently challenged by both behavioural researches on human behaviour and other theoretical approaches which, in the context of the recent economic and financial crisis find arguments to reinforce their theoretical statements. The neoclassical “perfect rationality” assumption is most criticized and provokes the mainstream theoretical approach to efforts of revisiting the theoretical framework in order to re-state the economic models validity. Uncertainty seems, in this context, to be the concept that allows other theoretical approaches to take into consideration a more realistic individual from the psychological perspective. This paper is trying to present a comparison between the neoclassical and Keynesian approach of the uncertainty, considering the behavioural arguments and challenges addressed to the mainstream theory.

  3. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  4. Driving Behaviour and Sustainable Mobility—Policies and Approaches Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Keyvanfar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is receiving increasing attention in recent years. The transportation sector contributes substantially to increased fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and poor air quality, which imposes a serious respiratory health hazard. Road transport has made a significant contribution to this effect. Consequently, many countries have attempted to mitigate climate change using various strategies. This study analysed and compared the number of policies and other approaches necessary to achieve reduced fuel consumption and carbon emission. Frequency aggregation indicates that the mitigation policies associated with driving behaviours adopted to curtail this consumption and decrease hazardous emissions, as well as a safety enhancement. Furthermore, car-sharing/carpooling was the least investigated approach to establish its influence on mitigation of climate change. Additionally, the influence of such driving behaviours as acceleration/deceleration and the compliance to speed limits on each approach was discussed. Other driving behaviours, such as gear shifting, compliance to traffic laws, choice of route, and idling and braking style, were also discussed. Likewise, the influence of aggression, anxiety, and motivation on driving behaviour of motorists was highlighted. The research determined that driving behaviours can lead to new adaptive driving behaviours and, thus, cause a significant decrease of vehicle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

  5. AUTOMATED LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  6. Low cost sic coated erosion resistant graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.F.; Nicholls, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of materials with unique and improved properties using low cost processes is essential to increase performance and reduce cost of the solid rocket motors. Specifically advancements are needed for boost phase nozzle. As these motors operate at very high pressure and temperatures, the nozzle must survive high thermal stresses with minimal erosion to maintain performance. Currently three material choices are being exploited; which are refractory metals, graphite and carbon-carbon composites. Of these three materials graphite is the most attractive choice because of its low cost, light weight, and easy forming. However graphite is prone to erosion, both chemical and mechanical, which may affect the ballistic conditions and mechanical properties of the nozzle. To minimize this erosion high density graphite is usually preferred; which is again very expensive. Another technique used to minimize the erosion is Pyrolytic Graphite (PG) coating inside the nozzle. However PG coating is prone to cracking and spallation along with very cumbersome deposition process. Another possible methodology to avoid this erosion is to convert the inside surface of the rocket nozzle to Silicon Carbide (SiC), which is very erosion resistant and have much better thermal stability compared to graphite and even PG. Due to its functionally gradient nature such a layer will be very adherent and resistant to spallation. The current research is focused on synthesizing, characterizing and oxidation testing of such a converted SiC layer on commercial grade graphite. (author)

  7. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, A.; Barlas, E.; Emirhan, E.; Kutlu, Ç.; Ozben, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the 222 Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  8. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  9. Tunable Laser for High-Performance, Low-Cost Distributed Sensing Platform, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will establish technical feasibility of an approach to optimizing a low-cost, fast-sweeping tunable laser for distributed sensing. Multiple...

  10. Modelling diversity in building occupant behaviour: a novel statistical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldi, Frédéric; Calì, Davide; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2016-01-01

    We propose an advanced modelling framework to predict the scope and effects of behavioural diversity regarding building occupant actions on window openings, shading devices and lighting. We develop a statistical approach based on generalised linear mixed models to account for the longitudinal nat...

  11. Exploring the Behavioural Patterns of Entrepreneurial Learning: A Competency Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the behavioural patterns involved in entrepreneurial learning through a conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning as a "competency". Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews to 12 entrepreneurs were conducted with a focus on the critical incidents in which…

  12. General presentation of the core mechanical behaviour approach in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Dorsselaere, J.P. van

    1984-01-01

    This French review paper presents the evolution along time of the FBR core mechanical behaviour approach, from RAPSODIE to SPX2, through PHENIX and SPX1: core designs, knowledge of the irradiation laws, project criterias, calculation codes, and R and D fields. (author)

  13. Low cost manned Mars mission based on indigenous propellant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Cinnamon, M.; Hamling, S.; Mahn, K.; Phillips, J.; Westmark, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost approach to the manned exploration of Mars (which involves an unmanned mission followed two years later by a manned mission) based on near-term technologies and in situ propellant production. Particular attention is given to the basic mission architecture and its major components, including the orbital analysis, the unmanned segment, the Earth Return Vehicle, the aerobrake design, life sciences, guidance, communications, power, propellant production, the surface rovers, and Mars science. Also discussed are the cost per mission over an assumed 8-yr initiative.

  14. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal

    1998-05-01

    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  15. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  16. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  17. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  18. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2008-01-01

    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  19. Technology for low cost solid rocket boosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepluch, C.

    1971-01-01

    A review of low cost large solid rocket motors developed at the Lewis Research Center is given. An estimate is made of the total cost reduction obtainable by incorporating this new technology package into the rocket motor design. The propellant, case material, insulation, nozzle ablatives, and thrust vector control are discussed. The effect of the new technology on motor cost is calculated for a typical expandable 260-in. booster application. Included in the cost analysis is the influence of motor performance variations due to specific impulse and weight changes. It is found for this application that motor costs may be reduced by up to 30% and that the economic attractiveness of future large solid rocket motors will be improved when the new technology is implemented.

  20. Fourier Analysis of a Vibrating String through a Low-Cost Experimental Setup and a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, C. J.; Osorio, M.; Laguarda, A.; Gau, D. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a simple and low-cost setup to illustrate the dependence of the behaviour of a standing wave in a guitar string with the initial conditions. To do so, we impose two kinds of initial conditions; in the first instance, the initial shape of the string is varied. Secondly, different nodes are imposed on the string. This…

  1. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Pakstis, Andrew J; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Leckman, James F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation programme in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all eight genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid and cholinergic signalling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential 'co-action' of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the aetiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may allow the identification of a

  2. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  3. Low cost highly available digital control computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    When designing digital controllers for critical plant control it is important to provide several features. Among these are reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental protection, and low cost. An examination of several applications has lead to a design that can be produced for approximately $20,000 (1000 control points). This design is compatible with modern concepts in distributed and hierarchical control. The canonical controller element is a dual-redundant self-checking computer that communicates with a cross-strapped, electrically isolated input/output system. The input/output subsystem comprises multiple intelligent input/output cards. These cards accept commands from the primary processor which are validated, executed, and acknowledged. Each card may be hot replaced to facilitate sparing. The implementation of the dual-redundant computer architecture is discussed. Called the FS-86, this computer can be used for a variety of applications. It has most recently found application in the upgrade of San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train control currently in progress and has been proposed for feedwater control in a boiling water reactor

  4. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  5. Theoretical approach of the seismic behaviour of a LMFBR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The vibratory behaviour of two one-degree-freedom mechanical systems, having known coupling and damping features, is investigated by transposition to two electrical circuits inductively coupled. This approach is carried out in two steps: the first one supposes that both circuits are identical, while the second one considers the general case where both circuits are unlike. It is shown that one or two resonant frequencies may occur, depending on the coupling and the damping conditions

  6. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  7. PEM Low Cost Endplates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Martin; Clyens, S.; Steenstrup, F.R.; Christiansen, Jens [Danish Technological Institute. Plastics Technology, Taastrup (Denmark); Yde-Andersen, S. [IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In the project, an endplate for the PEM-type fuel cells has been developed. The initial idea was to use an injection mouldable fibre reinforced polymer to produce the endplate and thereby exploit the opportunities of greater geometrical freedom to reduce weight and material consumption. Different PPS/glass-fibre compounds were produced and tested in order to use the results to optimize the results on the computer through FEM simulations. As it turned out, it was impossible to achieve adequate stiffness for the endplates within the given geometrical limitations. At the relatively high temperatures at which the endplates operate the material simply goes to soft. Material focus shifted to fibre reinforced high strength concrete composite. Test specimens were produced and tested so the results again could be used for FEM-simulations which also accounted for the technical limitations the concrete composite has regarding casting ability. In the process, the way the endplate is mounted was also alternated to better accommodate the properties of the concrete composite. A number of endplates were cast in specially produced moulds in order to map the optimum process parameters, and a final endplate was tested at IRD Fuel Cells A/S. The field test was in many aspects successful. However, the gas sealing and the surface finish can be further improved. The weight may still be an issue for some applications, even though it is lower than the endplate currently used. This issue can be addressed in a future project. The work has resulted in a new endplate design, which makes the stack assembly simpler and with fewer components. The endplates fabrication involves low cost methods, which can be scaled up as demand of fuel cells begin to take off. (Author)

  8. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  9. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  10. Engineering a responsive, low cost, tactical satellite, TACSAT-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M.; Duffey, T.; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Clevland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe

    2004-11-01

    The Secretary of Defense's Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experimental space capabilities for tactical forces. Components of the resulting tactical architecture include a highly automated small satellite bus, modular payloads, common launch and payload interfaces, tasking and data dissemination using the SIPRNET (Secret Internet Protocol Routing Network), and low cost, rapid response launches. The overall goal of TacSat-1 is to demonstrate the utility of a broader complementary business model and provide a catalyst for energizing DoD and industry in the operational space area. This paper first provides a brief overview of the TacSat- 1 experiment and then discusses the engineering designs and practices used to achieve the aggressive cost and schedule goals. Non-standard approaches and engineering philosophies that allowed the TacSat-1 spacecraft to be finished in twelve months are detailed and compared with "normal" satellite programs where applicable. Specific subsystem design, integration and test techniques, which contributed to the successful completion of the TacSat-1 spacecraft, are reviewed. Finally, lessons learned are discussed.

  11. Low-cost metamaterial-on-paper chemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeqi, Aydin; Nejad, Hojatollah Rezaei; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2017-07-10

    We present a disposable low cost paper-based metamaterial for sensing liquids based on their dielectric properties. The sensor is based on resonance shift due to the change in the effective capacitance of each resonator in the metamaterial array. Key novelty in the design is the implementation of metamaterial on low cost and ubiquitous paper substrate. This metamaterial-on-paper sensor is fabricated in a totally cleanroom-free process using wax printing and screen printing. Wax patterning of paper enables creation of microfluidic channels such that liquid analytes can be delivered to each metamaterial unit cell for sensing. Screen printing is used to implement disc shaped resonator unit cells. We demonstrate sensing of liquids: Oil, methanol, glycerol and water each showing an average resonance frequency shift of 1.12 (9.6%), 4.12 (35.4%), 8.76 (75.3%) and 11.63 GHz (100%) around the center frequency of around 94 GHz respectively. Being label-free, this approach can be expanded to sense other liquids based on their dielectric constants.

  12. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  13. Comprehensive low-cost reliability centered maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotton, S.J.; Dozier, I.J.; Thow, R.

    1995-09-01

    Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance optimization approach that all electric utilities can apply to power plant systems. The Electric Power Research Institute and PECO Energy Company jointly sponsored this Comprehensive Low-Cost Reliability Centered Maintenance project to demonstrate that the standard RCM methodology could be streamlined to reduce the cost of analysis while maintaining a high quality product. EPRI's previous investigation of streamlined RCM methods being pioneered in the nuclear industry indicated that PECO Energy could expect to optimize its maintenance program at reduced cost by carefully controlling the scope without sacrificing documentation or technical quality. Using the insights obtained from these previous studies, three methods were defined in this project and were demonstrated in a large scale application to 60 systems at both the Limerick Generating Station and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

  14. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    ) provide data for the terminal guidance algorithms. DSMAC acquires high-resolution images for real-time correlation with a reference map. This system provides ownship position with a resolution comparable to the map. Since the DSMAC can sample at 1.5 mrad, any imaging acquired below 70 km altitude will surpass the resolution available from previous missions. DSMAC has a mode where image data are compressed and downlinked. This capability could be used to downlink live images during terminal guidance. Approximately 500 kbitps telemetry would be required to provide the first live descent imaging sequence since Ranger. This would provide unique geologic context imaging for the landing site. The development path to produce such a vehicle is that used to develop missiles. First, a pathfinder vehicle is designed and built as a test bed for hardware integration including science instruments. Second, a hover test vehicle would be built. Equipped with mass mockups for the science payload, the vehicle would otherwise be an exact copy of the flight vehicle. The hover vehicle would be flown on earth to demonstrate the proper function and integration of the propulsion system, autopilots, navigation algorithms, and guidance sensors. There is sufficient delta-v in the proposed design to take off from the ground, fly a ballistic arc to over 100 m altitude, then guide to a precision soft landing. Once the vehicle has flown safely on earth, then the validated design would be used to produce the flight vehicle. Since this leverages the billions of dollars DOD has invested in these technologies, it should be possible to land useful science payloads precisely on the lunar surface at relatively low cost.

  15. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  16. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  17. Low-cost millimeter-wave transceiver module using SMD packaged MMICs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijningen, M. van; Gauthier, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  18. Low-Cost Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Module using SMD packaged MMICs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to realize low-cost millimeter-wave modules using only SMD packaged MMICs integrated on a single organic substrate. This approach is demonstrated on a 38 GHz transceiver module for point-to-point LMDS communication systems. The required SMD package technology and

  19. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society.

  20. Potential and Challenges of Low-Cost and High-Tech Crowd-sensing Approaches in Hydrometeorology for Better Water Resources Management - Insights and Learnings from the Global iMoMo Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In developing and transition countries and despite significant global investments in hydrometeorology, data on water remain scarce/fragmented. One key reason is that traditional sensing in hydrology, hydro- and agro-meteorology does not scale because of high investment costs and difficult maintenance of traditional technology, esp. in remote and/or poor regions. Even where there are data, these are often difficult to access and interpret for local stakeholders due outdated data transmission and the lack of access to modern tools for data management/analysis/synthesis and exchange. In recent years, there have been substantial technology developments in environmental sensing and mobile communication technology that enable the application and deployment of affordable and scalable high-tech solutions for better water monitoring at different scales (local to transboundary levels). The WMO is acknowledging and promoting the potential for application of these technologies. One key aspect is to anchor these technologies in local communities that perform crowd-sensing tasks on a regular basis. The merits as well as challenges (including introduction of human factor, less accuracy as compared to traditional sensing, intermittency of data, …) of such approaches will be discussed in the context of the WMO-led Global iMoMo Initiative and its numerous activities on the ground in Eastern and Southern Africa as well as in Central Asia.

  1. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A; Deen, M J; Marsal, L F

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine. (topical review)

  2. Low-cost fabrication technologies for nanostructures: state-of-the-art and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Deen, M. J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies used in several disciplines of nanotechnology have demonstrated promising results in terms of versatility and scalability for producing innovative nanostructures. While conventional nanofabrication technologies such as photolithography are and will be an important part of nanofabrication, some low-cost nanofabrication technologies have demonstrated outstanding capabilities for large-scale production, providing high throughputs with acceptable resolution and broad versatility. Some of these nanotechnological approaches are reviewed in this article, providing information about the fundamentals, limitations and potential future developments towards nanofabrication processes capable of producing a broad range of nanostructures. Furthermore, in many cases, these low-cost nanofabrication approaches can be combined with traditional nanofabrication technologies. This combination is considered a promising way of generating innovative nanostructures suitable for a broad range of applications such as in opto-electronics, nano-electronics, photonics, sensing, biotechnology or medicine.

  3. A low-cost EDXRF analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahdeman, J.E.; Watson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with an EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) system, the Spectrace (sup TM) 4020 (Tractor X-ray). The Spectra analysis software is both powerful and flexible enough to handle a wide variety of applications. The instrument was designed to be economical by integrating the major system components into a single unit. This practical approach to hardware has cut the cost per unit. The software structure of the Spectra 4020 is presented in a flow chart. The article also contains a diagram of the hardware configuration of the instrument

  4. Low-Cost High-Performance MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Lapierre, Cristen D.; Salameh, Najat; Waddington, David E. J.; Witzel, Thomas; Rosen, Matthew S.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is unparalleled in its ability to visualize anatomical structure and function non-invasively with high spatial and temporal resolution. Yet to overcome the low sensitivity inherent in inductive detection of weakly polarized nuclear spins, the vast majority of clinical MRI scanners employ superconducting magnets producing very high magnetic fields. Commonly found at 1.5-3 tesla (T), these powerful magnets are massive and have very strict infrastructure demands that preclude operation in many environments. MRI scanners are costly to purchase, site, and maintain, with the purchase price approaching $1 M per tesla (T) of magnetic field. We present here a remarkably simple, non-cryogenic approach to high-performance human MRI at ultra-low magnetic field, whereby modern under-sampling strategies are combined with fully-refocused dynamic spin control using steady-state free precession techniques. At 6.5 mT (more than 450 times lower than clinical MRI scanners) we demonstrate (2.5 × 3.5 × 8.5) mm3 imaging resolution in the living human brain using a simple, open-geometry electromagnet, with 3D image acquisition over the entire brain in 6 minutes. We contend that these practical ultra-low magnetic field implementations of MRI (standards for affordable (<$50,000) and robust portable devices.

  5. Low-cost hadron colliders at Fermilab: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.W.; Malamud, E.

    1996-01-01

    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in collider energies as represented by the well known Livingston plot. The old idea of low cost, low field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (2) accurate remote guidance systems for tunnel survey and boring machine steering, (3) high T c superconductors operating at liquid N 2 or liquid H 2 temperatures, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables, (6) achievement of high luminosities in p-p and p-anti P colliders. The goal of this paper is to stimulate continuing discussions on approaches to this new collider and to identify critical areas needing calculations, construction of models, proof of principle experiments, and full scale prototypes in order to determine feasibility and arrive at cost estimates

  6. Producing optical (contact) lenses by a novel low cost process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Richard S.; Spencer, Ian D.

    2005-09-01

    The rapid and impressive growth of China has been achieved on the back of highly labour intensive industries, often in manufacturing, and at the cost of companies and jobs in Europe and America. Approaches that worked well in the 1990's to reduce production costs in the developed countries are no longer effective when confronted with the low labour costs of China and India. We have looked at contact lenses as a product that has become highly available to consumers here but as an industry that has reduced costs by moving to low labour cost countries. The question to be answered was, "Do we have the skill to still make the product in the UK, and can we make it cheap enough to export to China?" if we do not, then contact lens manufacture will move to China sooner or later. The challenge to enter the markets of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries is extremely exciting as here is the new money, high growth and here is a product that sells to those with disposable incomes. To succeed we knew we had to be radical in our approach; the radical step was very simple: to devise a process in which each step added value to the customer and not cost to the product. The presentation examines the processes used by the major producers and how, by applying good manufacturing practice sound scientific principles to them, the opportunity to design a new low cost patented process was identified.

  7. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Bekas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost which quickly becomes intractable with the current explosion of data sizes. In this work we reduce this complexity to quadratic with the synergy of two algorithms that gracefully complement each other and lead to a radically different approach. First, we turned to stochastic estimation of the diagonal. This allowed us to cast the problem as a linear system with a relatively small number of multiple right hand sides. Second, for this linear system we developed a novel, mixed precision, iterative refinement scheme, which uses iterative solvers instead of matrix factorizations. We demonstrate that the new framework not only achieves the much needed quadratic cost but in addition offers excellent opportunities for scaling at massively parallel environments. We based our implementation on BLAS 3 kernels that ensure very high processor performance. We achieved a peak performance of 730 TFlops on 72 BG/P racks, with a sustained performance 73% of theoretical peak. We stress that the techniques presented in this work are quite general and applicable to several other important applications. Copyright © 2009 ACM.

  8. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  9. Behavioural analysis of a time series– A chaotic approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Out of the various methods available to study the chaotic behaviour, cor- ... that CDM is an efficient method for behavioural study of a time series. ...... Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 27(6): 1371–1381.

  10. Directions of organisational and low-cost energy saving of engineering enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhedzhula Viacheslav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses directions of energy saving of industrial enterprises. Taking into account the tendency to continuous growth of cost of energy resources, introduction of measures that would allow reduction of energy consumption of enterprises is an urgent task. One of the most important obstacles in the process of introduction of energy efficient solutions are fund limits and low awareness of owners and managers of industrial enterprises. The article offers a new classification of energy saving measures: apart from traditional expense and organisation measures it introduces the low-cost measures notion. It offers to consider low-cost those measures that are realised by the enterprise by means of own funds, moreover, their repayment term is not more than one year. It offers analytical expression for identification of annual funds saving from introduction of low-cost measures. It considers the process of identification of saving of funds from introduction of some of the main low-cost measures in detail: replacement of lighting units, balancing of ventilation networks and elimination of water leakages from pipelines and water supply equipment. Based on the analysis of bibliography information the article provides a list of main measures on energy saving, which could be referred to the low-cost ones. The proposed approaches would allow paying more attention to practical aspects of realisation of the concept of energy saving in the industry.

  11. Towards an integrated approach of pedestrian behaviour and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an integrated methodology for the analysis of pedestrian behaviour and exposure is proposed, allowing to identify and quantify the effect of pedestrian behaviour, road and traffic characteristics on pedestrian risk exposure, for each pedestrian and for populations of pedestrians. The paper builds on existing research on pedestrian exposure, namely the Routledge microscopic indicator, proposes adjustments to take into account road, traffic and human factors and extends the use of this indicator on area-wide level. Moreover, this paper uses integrated choice and latent variables (ICLV) models of pedestrian behaviour, taking into account road, traffic and human factors. Finally, a methodology is proposed for the integrated estimation of pedestrian behaviour and exposure on the basis of road, traffic and human factors. The method is tested with data from a field survey in Athens, Greece, which used pedestrian behaviour observations as well as a questionnaire on human factors of pedestrian behaviour. The data were used (i) to develop ICLV models of pedestrian behaviour and (ii) to estimate the behaviour and exposure of pedestrians for different road, traffic and behavioural scenarios. The results suggest that both pedestrian behaviour and exposure are largely defined by a small number of factors: road type, traffic volume and pedestrian risk-taking. The probability for risk-taking behaviour and the related exposure decrease in less demanding road and traffic environments. A synthesis of the results allows to enhance the understanding of the interactions between behaviour and exposure of pedestrians and to identify conditions of increased risk exposure. These conditions include principal urban arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is low but the related exposure is very high) and minor arterials (where risk-taking behaviour is more frequent, and the related exposure is still high). A "paradox" of increased risk-taking behaviour of pedestrians with low

  12. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  13. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  14. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian

    2003-01-01

    .... EKOS has developed a novel activated carbon fiber - (ACF) that combines the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical agents...

  15. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  16. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  17. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  18. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  19. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2 ... commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels are used.

  20. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of two low cost adsorbents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    tanning, metallurgical operation and manufacturing have led to the release ... pulmonary fibrosis and inhibit many enzymatic functions. (Liphadzi ... sector is a low cost adsorbent for heavy metal but has ... as its economic value is less. The aim ...

  1. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.

    1982-01-01

    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  2. A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

  3. Low-Cost Production of Photonic Bandgap Materials Through Bubbling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Wetzel, Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... This report proposes a simple low-cost method for PBGM production. A device has been constructed that produces micrometer-sized, monodisperse bubbles that can be assembled into a crystal lattice by surface tension...

  4. development of low-cost educational materials for chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    development of low-cost Chemistry materials from locally available materials. It finally lists the ... According to the World Bank discussion paper (3) large investments have been made to improve the .... official language in Ethiopia) and English.

  5. Novel approaches for low-cost through-silicon vias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't veld, A.J.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    3D stacking of integrated circuits is an emerging packaging technology to enable a high degree of functional integration and miniaturization. Footprint reduction in 3D stacking can be achieved by use of Through Silicon Vias (TSV). Creation of TSVs with Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE), laser

  6. Evaluation of low cost cathode materials for treatment of industrial and food processing wastewater using microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tenca, Alberto; Cusick, Roland D.; Schievano, Andrea; Oberti, Roberto; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used to treat wastewater and produce hydrogen gas, but low cost cathode catalysts are needed to make this approach economical. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and stainless steel (SS) were evaluated

  7. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  8. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Air Pollutants in the South Coast Basin Using Low Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of small, portable, low-cost air sensors has encouraged a shift from traditional monitoring approaches for air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Air Quality ...

  10. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  11. Partial Discharge Detection Using Low Cost RTL-SDR Model for Wideband Spectrum Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, H.; Lazaridis, Pavlos; Upton, D.

    2016-01-01

    an optimal approach for PD signal analysis, and are very costly. In this paper an RTLSDR (Software Defined Radio) based spectrum analyser has been proposed in order to provide a potentially low cost solution for PD detection and monitoring. Initially, a portable spectrum analyser has been used for PD...

  12. Doing More, Feeling Better: A Behavioural Approach to Helping a Woman Overcome Low Mood and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Simon; Graham, Christopher D.; Butler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature exists concerning the adaptation of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for people with learning disabilities. However, it is possible that cognitive approaches have been prioritised at the expense of behavioural techniques that are simpler and more effective. This case conceptualisation considers a behaviourally focused…

  13. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  14. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  15. Palliative and low cost radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry; Hussein, S.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. In many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative care centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Simple curative treatments could also be managed. Co60 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both Co60 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The role of palliative and low cost radiotherapy in Bangladesh is reviewed. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy.

  16. Low-Cost, Distributed Environmental Monitors for Factory Worker Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geb W. Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated network of environmental monitors was developed to continuously measure several airborne hazards in a manufacturing facility. The monitors integrated low-cost sensors to measure particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, noise, temperature and humidity. The monitors were developed and tested in situ for three months in several overlapping deployments, before a full cohort of 40 was deployed in a heavy vehicle manufacturing facility for a year of data collection. The monitors collect data from each sensor and report them to a central database every 5 min. The work includes an experimental validation of the particle, gas and noise monitors. The R2 for the particle sensor ranges between 0.98 and 0.99 for particle mass densities up to 300 μg/m3. The R2 for the carbon monoxide sensor is 0.99 for concentrations up to 15 ppm. The R2 for the oxidizing gas sensor is 0.98 over the sensitive range from 20 to 180 ppb. The noise monitor is precise within 1% between 65 and 95 dBA. This work demonstrates the capability of distributed monitoring as a means to examine exposure variability in both space and time, building an important preliminary step towards a new approach for workplace hazard monitoring.

  17. A Combined Approach to Measure Micropollutant Behaviour during Riverbank Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Derx, Julia; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems are widely used as natural treatment process. The advantages of RBF over surface water abstraction are the elimination of for example suspended solids, biodegradable compounds (like specific micropollutants), bacteria and viruses (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002). However, in contrast to its importance, remarkably less is known on the respective external (e.g. industrial or municipal sewage) and the internal (e.g. wildlife and agricultural influence) sources of contaminants, the environmental availability and fate of the various hazardous substances, and its potential transport during soil and aquifer passage. The goal of this study is to get an insight in the behaviour of various micropollutants and microbial indicators during riverbank filtration. Field measurements were combined with numerical modelling approaches. The study area comprises an alluvial backwater and floodplain area downstream of Vienna. The river is highly dynamic, with discharges ranging from 900 m3/s during low flow to 11000 m3/s during flood events. Samples were taken in several monitoring wells along a transect extending from the river towards a backwater river in the floodplain. Three of the piezometers were situated in the first 20 meters away from the river in order to obtain information about micropollutant behaviour close to the river. A total of 9 different micropollutants were analysed in grab samples taken under different river flow conditions (n=33). Following enrichment using SPE, analysis was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Faecal indicators (E. coli and enterococci) and bacterial spores were enumerated in sample volumes of 1 L each using cultivation based methods (ISO 16649-1, ISO 7899-2:2000 and ISO 6222). The analysis showed that some compounds, e.g. ibuprofen and diclofenac, were only found in the river. These compounds were already degraded in the first ten meters away from the river. Analysis of

  18. Physico-empirical approach for mapping soil hydraulic behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'Urso

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Pedo-transfer functions are largely used in soil hydraulic characterisation of large areas. The use of physico-empirical approaches for the derivation of soil hydraulic parameters from disturbed samples data can be greatly enhanced if a characterisation performed on undisturbed cores of the same type of soil is available. In this study, an experimental procedure for deriving maps of soil hydraulic behaviour is discussed with reference to its application in an irrigation district (30 km2 in southern Italy. The main steps of the proposed procedure are: i the precise identification of soil hydraulic functions from undisturbed sampling of main horizons in representative profiles for each soil map unit; ii the determination of pore-size distribution curves from larger disturbed sampling data sets within the same soil map unit. iii the calibration of physical-empirical methods for retrieving soil hydraulic parameters from particle-size data and undisturbed soil sample analysis; iv the definition of functional hydraulic properties from water balance output; and v the delimitation of soil hydraulic map units based on functional properties.

  19. Feasibility of a low-cost sounding rockoon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okninski, Adam; Raurell, Daniel Sors; Mitre, Alberto Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of analyses and simulations for the design of a small sounding platform, dedicated to conducting scientific atmospheric research and capable of reaching the von Kármán line by means of a rocket launched from it. While recent private initiatives have opted for the air launch concept to send small payloads to Low Earth Orbit, several historical projects considered the use of balloons as the first stage of orbital and suborbital platforms, known as rockoons. Both of these approaches enable the minimization of drag losses. This paper addresses the issue of utilizing stratospheric balloons as launch platforms to conduct sub-orbital rocket flights. Research and simulations have been conducted to demonstrate these capabilities and feasibility. A small sounding solid propulsion rocket using commercially-off-the-shelf hardware is proposed. Its configuration and design are analyzed with special attention given to the propulsion system and its possible mission-orientated optimization. The cost effectiveness of this approach is discussed. Performance calculation outcomes are shown. Additionally, sensitivity study results for different design parameters are given. Minimum mass rocket configurations for various payload requirements are presented. The ultimate aim is to enhance low-cost experimentation maintaining high mobility of the system and simplicity of operations. An easier and more affordable access to a space-like environment can be achieved with this system, thus allowing for widespread outreach of space science and technology knowledge. This project is based on earlier experience of the authors in LEEM Association of the Technical University of Madrid and the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program developed at the Institute of Aviation and Warsaw University of Technology in Poland.

  20. A process mining approach to analyse user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, Laura; Faber, Niels R.; Jorna, Rene J.; van Haren, Rob J. F.; Cordeiro, J; Filipe, J; Hammoudi, S

    2008-01-01

    Designing and personalising systems for specific user groups encompasses a lot of effort with respect to analysing and understanding user behaviour. The goal of our paper is to provide a new methodology for determining navigational patterns of behaviour of specific user groups. We consider

  1. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - Economic and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new analysis of the economics of low-cost propellant launch coupled with dry hardware re-use, and of the thermal control of the liquid hydrogen once on-orbit. One conclusion is that this approach enables an overall reduction in the cost-permission by as much as a factor of five as compared to current approaches for human exploration of the moon, Mars, and near-Earth asteroids.

  2. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott

    2010-01-01

    -guided R and D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH 4 ) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA(trademark), FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH 4 identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH 4 was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH 4 from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH 4 was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH 4 is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH 4 has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to

  3. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni

    2010-12-31

    project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale

  4. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  5. ModGrasp: An open-source rapid-prototyping framework for designing low-cost sensorised modular hands

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Zhang, Houxiang; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad; Salvietti, G.; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces ModGrasp, an open-source virtual and physical rapid-prototyping framework that allows for the design, simulation and control of low-cost sensorised modular hands. By combining the rapid-prototyping approach with the modular concept, different manipulator configurations can be modelled. A real-time one-to-one correspondence between virtual and physical prototypes is established. Different control algorithms can be implemented for the models. By using a low-cost sensing ap...

  6. Development of low-cost digital subtraction angiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imai, Yutaka; Yagishita, Akira; Kunieda, Etsuo.

    1983-01-01

    We developed a simple and low-cost DSA system. This system consists of a conventional fluoroscopic equipment for the GI tract and a mini-computer (GAMMA-11) which are connected each other with a video-disc recorder. The uniqueness of our system are 1. low-cost, 2. low-radiation dose, 3. off-line processing, 4. flexibility of software. The analysis of the time-density curve and image processing will bring us a more usefull information than DSA alone. (author)

  7. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  8. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  9. Organizing for low cost space operations - Status and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.

    1976-01-01

    Design features of the Space Transportation System (vehicle reuse, low cost expendable components, simple payload interfaces, standard support systems) must be matched by economical operational methods to achieve low operating and payload costs. Users will be responsible for their own payloads and will be charged according to the services they require. Efficient use of manpower, simple documentation, simplified test, checkout, and flight planning are firm goals, together with flexibility for quick response to varying user needs. Status of the Shuttle hardware, plans for establishing low cost procedures, and the policy for user charges are discussed.

  10. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fern?ndez, Mar?a E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters fo...

  11. Investigation of Employee Security Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly , Lena; Lang , Michael; Tygar , J. ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: Security Management and Human Aspects of Security; International audience; At a time of rapid business globalisation, it is necessary to understand employee security behaviour within diverse cultural settings. While general deterrence theory has been extensively used in Behavioural Information Security research with the aim to explain the effect of deterrent factors on employees’ security actions, these studies provide inconsistent and even contradictory findings. Therefore, a further...

  12. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  13. Investment opportunity : the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1988-01-01

    Two equations are presented that may be used to estimate a maximum investment limit and working capital requirements for the FPL low-cost solar dry kiln systems. The equations require data for drying cycle time, green lumber cost, and kiln-dried lumber costs. Results are intended to provide a preliminary estimate.

  14. Low cost construction technologies and materials - case study Mozambuique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. Mozambique as with most of the developing world, from both historical...

  15. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  16. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  17. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  18. PRELIMINARY TESTS OF A NEW LOW-COST PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santise

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  19. Smartfactory, a modular, low cost productivity monitoring system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available lack of objectivity and plain incorrect data entries. In aid of the SMMEs the Smartfactory system offers a low-cost modular monitoring solution capable of implementation in a step by step fashion with little training required in installation...

  20. Low-cost, locally available shelters in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammarah Mubarak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flooding in 2010 affected 18 million people in Pakistan. With declining donor funds and flooding again in 2011 and 2012, the humanitarian community required low-cost solutions that could be scaled up to meet both the immediate and the transitional needs of large populations in differing geographical areas.

  1. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  2. Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasibility and economic evaluation of low-cost evaporative cooling system in fruit and vegetables storage. ... on fruit and vegetables quality during harvesting, transportation, storage and marketing. ... The coolers were found to be effective in maintaining micro-environmental conditions for ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. sequential low cost interventions double hand hygiene rates among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-02

    Feb 2, 2014 ... Request for reprints to: Onyema Ogbuagu, Yale University School of Medicine, Address – 135 College Street, suite 323, ... Objective: To assess the impact of multimodal low-cost interventions on hand hygiene ... system change including investment in provision ... Statistical software used was IBM SPSS.

  4. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design, development and performance evaluation of a low cost waste-water treatment plant had been carried out. The aim was to harness the usefulness of waste-waters from residential, institutional and commercial sources. The facultative lagoon method of waste-water treatment was adopted. Biological analysis of ...

  5. Towards low-cost gigabit wireless systems at 60 GHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haibing

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide availability of the huge amount of license-free spectral space in the 60 GHz band provides wide room for gigabit-per-second (Gb/s) wireless applications. A commercial (read: low-cost) 60-GHz transceiver will, however, provide limited system performance due to the stringent link budget

  6. Low-Cost Servomotor Driver for PFM Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Jurado, David; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Perez-Peña, Fernando

    2017-12-31

    Servomotors have already been around for some decades and they are extremely popular among roboticists due to their simple control technique, reliability and low-cost. They are usually controlled by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and this paper aims to keep the idea of simplicity and low-cost, while introducing a new control technique: Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM). The objective of this paper is to focus on our development of a low-cost servomotor controller which will allow the research community to use them with PFM. A low-cost commercial servomotor is used as the base system for the development: a small PCB that fits inside the case and allocates all the electronic components to control the motor has been designed to replace the original. The potentiometer is retained as the feedback sensor and a microcontroller is responsible for controlling the position of the motor. The paper compares the performance of a PWM and a PFM controlled servomotor. The comparison shows that the servomotor with our controller achieves a faster mechanism for switching targets and a lower latency. This controller can be used with neuromorphic systems to remove the conversion from events to PWM.

  7. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available discrim- inators. A timing error of 16 ps is achieved under ideal operating conditions. Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a ...

  8. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  9. Pointo - a Low Cost Solution to Point Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Winkler, S.

    2017-11-01

    With advance in technology access to data especially 3D point cloud data becomes more and more an everyday task. 3D point clouds are usually captured with very expensive tools such as 3D laser scanners or very time consuming methods such as photogrammetry. Most of the available softwares for 3D point cloud processing are designed for experts and specialists in this field and are usually very large software packages containing variety of methods and tools. This results in softwares that are usually very expensive to acquire and also very difficult to use. Difficulty of use is caused by complicated user interfaces that is required to accommodate a large list of features. The aim of these complex softwares is to provide a powerful tool for a specific group of specialist. However they are not necessary required by the majority of the up coming average users of point clouds. In addition to complexity and high costs of these softwares they generally rely on expensive and modern hardware and only compatible with one specific operating system. Many point cloud customers are not point cloud processing experts or willing to spend the high acquisition costs of these expensive softwares and hardwares. In this paper we introduce a solution for low cost point cloud processing. Our approach is designed to accommodate the needs of the average point cloud user. To reduce the cost and complexity of software our approach focuses on one functionality at a time in contrast with most available softwares and tools that aim to solve as many problems as possible at the same time. Our simple and user oriented design improve the user experience and empower us to optimize our methods for creation of an efficient software. In this paper we introduce Pointo family as a series of connected softwares to provide easy to use tools with simple design for different point cloud processing requirements. PointoVIEWER and PointoCAD are introduced as the first components of the Pointo family to provide a

  10. From national air carriers to low-cost companies: Effects of successful marketing strategy implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge changes in marketing strategies and, more generally - in business philosophies are not so often. During the last 20 years global and/or national companies have already defined their general approaches of marketing instruments implementation. Therefore, when a contemporary company changes something in its marketing approach, it usually only refers to 'subtle adjustment' of the already determined strategy. Another reason for changes in a particular segment of marketing is a crisis of some kind that forces firms to implement innovations, especially regarding the elements such as costs - price - or service quality. A global enterprise segment consisting of low tariff airline companies is here identified as the one that has dramatically changed its marketing approach within the last 20 years, which continually resulted in its improved market position and business results. Changes in marketing strategies of low-cost companies have truly been revolutionary and are completely the consequence of recognizing the real needs of clients who use services of air transport. The success of low-cost airline companies is forcing the traditional, classic, air carriers to adapt their marketing instruments to this new model of business management. This paper also identifies one very significant assumption of the low-cost carriers phenomenon and their marketing approach - the liberalization of the global air transport market.

  11. Beyond Lip Service: A Council Approach to Planning for Behaviour Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Grahame; Smith, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The Council of the City of Sydney--like many other councils around Australia--has embarked on a whole-of-council approach to establishing sustainable behaviours amongst its residents. In developing its "Residential Environmental Action Plan"--designed to motivate and bring about real change in resident choices and behaviours--the City…

  12. Entrepreneurial Behaviour For Starting Professionals Of Generation Y : An Inductive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nandram; Loredana Orhei; Joop Vinke

    2013-01-01

    As more and more research work is dedicated to the concept of entrepreneurial behaviour, more attention is also given to the teaching or training of such behaviour. In this paper we argue that a new integrative management approach, labeled as "gyroscopic management" (Vinke & Orhei, 2010, 2012), is

  13. A Proactive and Responsive Bio-Psychosocial Approach to Managing Challenging Behaviour in Mainstream Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lorraine O. B.; Senior, Joyce

    2018-01-01

    Research in the area of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and teacher's struggle to respond to challenging behaviour in mainstream classrooms, has consistently highlighted the need for proventative and responsive approaches within a continuum of support. This study aims to, firstly, investigate what proactive and reactive strategies…

  14. Determinants of firms' investment behaviour : a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farla, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates micro and macro determinants of firms' investment behaviour using firm data from 101 developing and emerging economies. A substantial number of firms in our sample does not invest in fixed capital or invests little relative to sales revenue. Using a multilevel probit model we

  15. A Behavioural Approach to Effective Management in Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emphasis of this paper is, however, on the behavioural issues, that affect bank management. These issues include mismanagement, ownership structure and bank board related problems, frauds and forgeries, and also the greed and ignorance of depositors. The period covered was 1986-1993, while reforms in the banks ...

  16. Study Behaviour: A counselling approach | Okpechi | Global Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The researcher recommended that students should take their studies seriously as their failure and success lies on it. He equally draws the attention of students to the essentials of study behaviour, time management, organisation of study task, etc. Global Journal of Educational Research Vol. 5 (1&2) 2006: pp. 5-11 ...

  17. Psychological and behavioural approaches to understanding and governing sustainable mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Higham, J.; Cohen, S.; Peeters, P.M.; Gössling, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the psychological and social factors that both contribute to and inhibit behaviour change vis-à-vis sustainable (tourist) mobility. It is based on papers presented at the Freiburg 2012 workshop. Specifically, it reviews climate change attitudes and perceptions, the

  18. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  19. Accurate, low-cost 3D-models of gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnen, Nils; Gronz, Oliver; Ries, Johannes B.; Brings, Christine

    2015-04-01

    are able to produce accurate and low-cost 3D-models of gullies.

  20. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  1. Sensing of the atmospheric variation using Low Cost GNSS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanto, Brian; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.; Kuntjoro, Wedyanto; Tampubolon, Daniel A.

    2018-05-01

    As the GNSS signals transmitted through the atmosphere, they are delayed by interference of TEC (Total Electron Content) in the ionosphere and water vapor in the troposphere. By using inverse-problem, name GNSS Meteorology, those parameters can be obtained precisely and several researches has approved and supported that method. However, the geodetic GNSS receivers are relatively high cost (30,000 to 70,000 each) to be established on a regular and uniform network. This research aims to investigate the potential use of low cost GNSS receiver (less than 2,000) to observe the atmospheric dynamic both in ionosphere and troposphere. Results indicated that low cost GNSS receiver is a promising tools to sensing the atmospheric dynamic, however, further processing is needed to enhance the data quality. It is found that both of ionosphere and troposphere dynamic has diurnal periodic component.

  2. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  3. Low-cost silicon wafer dicing using a craft cutter

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2014-05-20

    This paper reports a low-cost silicon wafer dicing technique using a commercial craft cutter. The 4-inch silicon wafers were scribed using a crafter cutter with a mounted diamond blade. The pre-programmed automated process can reach a minimum die feature of 3 mm by 3 mm. We performed this scribing process on the top polished surface of a silicon wafer; we also created a scribing method for the back-unpolished surface in order to protect the structures on the wafer during scribing. Compared with other wafer dicing methods, our proposed dicing technique is extremely low cost (lower than $1,000), and suitable for silicon wafer dicing in microelectromechanical or microfluidic fields, which usually have a relatively large die dimension. The proposed dicing technique is also usable for dicing multiple project wafers, a process where dies of different dimensions are diced on the same wafer.

  4. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  5. Alternative ceramic circuit constructions for low cost, high reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modes, Ch.; O'Neil, M.

    1997-01-01

    The growth in the use of hybrid circuit technology has recently been challenged by recent advances in low cost laminate technology, as well as the continued integration of functions into IC's. Size reduction of hybrid 'packages' has turned out to be a means to extend the useful life of this technology. The suppliers of thick film materials technology have responded to this challenge by developing a number of technology options to reduce circuit size, increase density, and reduce overall cost, while maintaining or increasing reliability. This paper provides an overview of the processes that have been developed, and, in many cases are used widely to produce low cost, reliable microcircuits. Comparisons of each of these circuit fabrication processes are made with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each technology. (author)

  6. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.

    2014-03-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  7. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  8. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Pomar, A; Sandiumenge, F; Pinol, S; Mestres, N; Castano, O; Coll, M; Cavallaro, A; Palau, A; Gazquez, J; Gonzalez, J C; Gutierrez, J; Roma, N; Ricart, S; Moreto, J M; Rossell, M D; Tendeloo, G van

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  9. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST CAMERA FOR AGING ACCELERATED POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Duarte Felisbino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the design, construction and testing of a low cost chamber for accelerated aging of polymers that meets a low and high ultraviolet radiation cycle on the test specimens in accordance with ASTM G154. The methodology was based on the survey of the standards related to the tests of accelerated aging of polymers and of the existing equipment, providing the subsidies for the development of the project, which was validated by the construction and evaluation of its performance. The camera control is performed by an Arduino-based electronic system and uses commercially available components that meet project specifications. The equipment met the requirements for both the specifications and the low cost and will integrate the laboratories of the University of Mogi das Cruzes (UMC, Villa-Lobos campus, to carry out tests on polymer materials.

  11. Low-cost amplifier for alpha detection with photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domienikan, Cláudio; Costa, Priscila; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S., E-mail: clanikan@ipen.br, E-mail: pcosta@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A low-cost amplifier for Hamamatsu S3590-09 PIN photodiode to be used in alpha detection is presented. This amplifier consists basically of two circuits: a pulse preamplifier and a shaper-driver. The PIN photodiode is reverse-biased and connected to a charge preamplifier input. Incident alpha particles generate a small current pulse in the photodiode. The integrating circuit of the low noise preamplifier transforms current pulse into a voltage pulse with amplitude proportional to the charge carried by the current pulse. The shaper-driver consists of a differentiator and an integrator and is responsible for filtering and further amplifying the preamplifier signal, generating a NIM-compatible energy pulse. The performance of the set photodiode-amplifier was successively tested through the use of a {sup 243}Am radioactive source. The low-cost photodiode amplifier was designed and constructed at IPEN - CNEN/SP using national components and expertise. (author)

  12. CONSUMER’S BEHAVIOUR – AN APPROACH FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BEHAVIOURAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel CORNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumer and his behaviour have concerned all economists, no matter if they are theoreticians or practitioners. Naturally, research in the domain has revealed new aspects, new theories and has led to the creation of schools of thought in time. Standard or neo-classic economics, which lays stress on absolute rationality, the maximization of results, modelling etc., cannot wholly decipher economic mechanisms or efficiently explain and guide the economic life of society. That is why, if we take as a starting point the observation that man lies at the heart of economy, we understand that the attempts to explain his role and the manner in which he behaves in economic life are more and more numerous and involve the use of concepts from different domains of study: psychology, sociology, etc. The present study aims at analysing the consumer’s behaviour from a perspective which already has a consistent and well-outlined profile in the economic science and is known as behavioural economics.

  13. Anteseden Customer Loyalty Pada Low Cost Carrier Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  14. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types (p < 0.0001. Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  15. A low-cost electrically pulsed shower detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conversi, M; Gentile, S; Nardi, M

    1976-01-01

    A sampling total absorption detector characterized by an extremely low cost and providing also identification of particle tracks has been developed. Preliminary results on the performance of a model with 14 radiation lengths, exposed to electrons of energies E up to 4 GeV, show that this instrument can measure the primary electron energy with an accuracy (r.m.s.) $\\Delta E/E= \\pm(12 $%) / $\\sqrt E$ (E in GeV).

  16. Command vector memory systems: high performance at low cost

    OpenAIRE

    Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...

  17. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  18. Low Cost Mars Surface Exploration: The Mars Tumbleweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Calhoun, Philip; Flick, John; Hajos, Gregory; Kolacinski, Richard; Minton, David; Owens, Rachel; Parker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The "Mars Tumbleweed," a rover concept that would utilize surface winds for mobility, is being examined as a low cost complement to the current Mars exploration efforts. Tumbleweeds carrying microinstruments would be driven across the Martian landscape by wind, searching for areas of scientific interest. These rovers, relatively simple, inexpensive, and deployed in large numbers to maximize coverage of the Martian surface, would provide a broad scouting capability to identify specific sites for exploration by more complex rover and lander missions.

  19. Towards a Low-Cost Quadrotor Research Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1. Quadrotor schematic showing rotor direction of rotation (From [2])................3 Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from...Some examples are the Walkera UFO #5, Walkera UFO #8, Dragonfly, and Alien Air Jump Jet. Figure 2. Toy quadrotor: Walkera UFO (from Walkera...the X- UFO made by Silverlit Electronics used small mechanical gyros. These were relatively cheap due to low-cost labor, but suffered from mechanical

  20. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  1. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  2. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  3. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    (LOS), its subsequent automated testing and burn/in process; and the placement of the LOS into a package body and hermetically sealing the package. The LOS and Package automated assembler robots have achieved a metrics of less than 1 um accuracy and 0.1 um resolution. The paper also discusses a method for the critical alignment of a single-mode fiber as the last step of the manufacturing process. This approach is in contrast to the conventional manual assembly where sub-micron fiber alignment and fixation steps are performed much earlier during the assembly process. Finally the paper discusses the value of this automated platform manufacturing approach as a key enabler for low cost small form factor optical components for the new XFP MSA class of transceiver modules.

  4. Cognition to Collaboration: User-Centric Approach and Information Behaviour Theories/Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alperen M Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The objective of this paper is to review the vast literature of user-centric in-formation science and inform about the emerging themes in information behaviour science. Background:\tThe paradigmatic shift from system-centric to user-centric approach facilitates research on the cognitive and individual information processing. Various information behaviour theories/models emerged. Methodology: Recent information behaviour theories and models are presented. Features, strengths and weaknesses of the models are discussed through the analysis of the information behaviour literature. Contribution: This paper sheds light onto the weaknesses in earlier information behaviour models and stresses (and advocates the need for research on social information behaviour. Findings: Prominent information behaviour models deal with individual information behaviour. People live in a social world and sort out most of their daily or work problems in groups. However, only seven papers discuss social information behaviour (Scopus search. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: ICT tools used for inter-organisational sharing should be redesigned for effective information-sharing during disaster/emergency times. Recommendation for Researchers: There are scarce sources on social side of the information behaviour, however, most of the work tasks are carried out in groups/teams. Impact on Society: In dynamic work contexts like disaster management and health care settings, collaborative information-sharing may result in decreasing the losses. Future Research: A fieldwork will be conducted in disaster management context investigating the inter-organisational information-sharing.

  5. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  6. A FRAMEWORK FOR LOW-COST MULTI-PLATFORM VR AND AR SITE EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Wallgrün

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost consumer-level immersive solutions have the potential to revolutionize education and research in many fields by providing virtual experiences of sites that are either inaccessible, too dangerous, or too expensive to visit, or by augmenting in-situ experiences using augmented and mixed reality methods. We present our approach for creating low-cost multi-platform virtual and augmented reality site experiences of real world places for education and research purposes, making extensive use of Structure-from-Motion methods as well as 360° photography and videography. We discuss several example projects, for the Mayan City of Cahal Pech, Iceland’s Thrihnukar volcano, the Santa Marta informal settlement in Rio, and for the Penn State Campus, and we propose a framework for creating and maintaining such applications by combining declarative content specification methods with a central linked-data based spatio-temporal information system.

  7. a Framework for Low-Cost Multi-Platform VR and AR Site Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallgrün, J. O.; Huang, J.; Zhao, J.; Masrur, A.; Oprean, D.; Klippel, A.

    2017-11-01

    Low-cost consumer-level immersive solutions have the potential to revolutionize education and research in many fields by providing virtual experiences of sites that are either inaccessible, too dangerous, or too expensive to visit, or by augmenting in-situ experiences using augmented and mixed reality methods. We present our approach for creating low-cost multi-platform virtual and augmented reality site experiences of real world places for education and research purposes, making extensive use of Structure-from-Motion methods as well as 360° photography and videography. We discuss several example projects, for the Mayan City of Cahal Pech, Iceland's Thrihnukar volcano, the Santa Marta informal settlement in Rio, and for the Penn State Campus, and we propose a framework for creating and maintaining such applications by combining declarative content specification methods with a central linked-data based spatio-temporal information system.

  8. Psychoeducation for hypochondriasis : A comparison of a cognitive-behavioural approach and a problem-solving approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, Femke M.; Bouman, Theo. K.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Van der Duin, M.

    In this study, two 6-week psychoeducational courses for hypochondriasis are compared, one based on the cognitive-behavioural approach, and the other on the problem-solving approach. Effects of both courses on hypochondriacal complaints, depression, trait anxiety, and number of problems encountered

  9. Low-cost digital image processing at the University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in remote sensing at the University of Oklahoma involves two separate approaches and is dependent upon initial preprocessing of a LANDSAT computer compatible tape using software developed for an IBM 370/158 computer. In-house generated preprocessing algorithms permits students or researchers to select a subset of a LANDSAT scene for subsequent analysis using either general purpose statistical packages or color graphic image processing software developed for Apple II microcomputers. Procedures for preprocessing the data and image analysis using either of the two approaches for low-cost LANDSAT data processing are described.

  10. Rugged, Low Cost, Environmental Sensors for a Turbulent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B.; Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing scientific research and resource management require a diverse range of high-quality and low-cost sensors to maximize the number and type of measurements that can be obtained. To accomplish this, we have developed a series of diversified sensors for common environmental applications. The TP-DownHole is an ultra-compact temperature and pressure sensor designed for use in CMT (Continuous Multi-channel Tubing) multi-level wells. Its 1 mm water depth resolution, 30 cm altitude resolution, and rugged design make it ideal for both water level measurements and monitoring barometric pressure and associated temperature changes. The TP-DownHole sensor has also been incorporated into a self-contained, fully independent data recorder for extreme and remote environments. This device (the TP-Solo) is based around the TP-DownHole design, but has self-contained power and data storage and is designed to collect data independently for up to 6 months (logging at once an hour), creating a specialized tool for extreme environment data collection. To gather spectral information, we have also developed a very low cost photodiode-based Lux sensor to measure spectral irradiance; while this does not measure the entire solar radiation spectrum, simple modeling to rescale the remainder of the solar spectrum makes this a cost-effective alternative to a thermopile pyranometer. Lastly, we have developed an instrumentation amplifier which is designed to interface a wide range of sensitive instruments to common data logging systems, such as thermopile pyranometers, thermocouples, and many other analog output sensors. These three instruments are the first in a diverse family aimed to give researchers a set of powerful and low-cost tools for environmental instrumentation.

  11. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Nisha; Teare, June; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Wright, Caradee Yael; Mathee, Angela

    2017-11-18

    Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb) from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types ( p informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  12. Low-Cost Propellant Launch From a Tethered Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A document presents a concept for relatively inexpensive delivery of propellant to a large fuel depot in low orbit around the Earth, for use in rockets destined for higher orbits, the Moon, and for remote planets. The propellant is expected to be at least 85 percent of the mass needed in low Earth orbit to support the NASA Exploration Vision. The concept calls for the use of many small ( 10 ton) spin-stabilized, multistage, solid-fuel rockets to each deliver 250 kg of propellant. Each rocket would be winched up to a balloon tethered above most of the atmospheric mass (optimal altitude 26 2 km). There, the rocket would be aimed slightly above the horizon, spun, dropped, and fired at a time chosen so that the rocket would arrive in orbit near the depot. Small thrusters on the payload (powered, for example, by boil-off gases from cryogenic propellants that make up the payload) would precess the spinning rocket, using data from a low-cost inertial sensor to correct for small aerodynamic and solid rocket nozzle misalignment torques on the spinning rocket; would manage the angle of attack and the final orbit insertion burn; and would be fired on command from the depot in response to observations of the trajectory of the payload so as to make small corrections to bring the payload into a rendezvous orbit and despin it for capture by the depot. The system is low-cost because the small rockets can be mass-produced using the same techniques as those to produce automobiles and low-cost munitions, and one or more can be launched from a U.S. territory on the equator (Baker or Jarvis Islands in the mid-Pacific) to the fuel depot on each orbit (every 90 minutes, e.g., any multiple of 6,000 per year).

  13. Contrast in low-cost operational concepts for orbiting satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walyus, Keith D.; Reis, James; Bradley, Arthur J.

    2002-12-01

    Older spacecraft missions, especially those in low Earth orbit with telemetry intensive requirements, required round-the-clock control center staffing. The state of technology relied on control center personnel to continually examine data, make decisions, resolve anomalies, and file reports. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a prime example of this description. Technological advancements in hardware and software over the last decade have yielded increases in productivity and operational efficiency, which result in lower cost. The re-engineering effort of HST, which has recently concluded, utilized emerging technology to reduce cost and increase productivity. New missions, of which NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer Satellite (TRACE) is an example, have benefited from recent technological advancements and are more cost-effective than when HST was first launched. During its launch (1998) and early orbit phase, the TRACE Flight Operations Team (FOT) employed continually staffed operations. Yet once the mission entered its nominal phase, the FOT reduced their staffing to standard weekday business hours. Operations were still conducted at night and during the weekends, but these operations occurred autonomously without compromising their high standards for data collections. For the HST, which launched in 1990, reduced cost operations will employ a different operational concept, when the spacecraft enters its low-cost phase after its final servicing mission in 2004. Primarily due to the spacecraft"s design, the HST Project has determined that single-shift operations will introduce unacceptable risks for the amount of dollars saved. More importantly, significant cost-savings can still be achieved by changing the operational concept for the FOT, while still maintaining round-the-clock staffing. It"s important to note that the low-cost solutions obtained for one satellite may not be applicable for other satellites. This paper will contrast the differences between

  14. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2015-11-05

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  15. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  16. Sexually intrusive behaviour following brain injury: approaches to assessment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezeau, Scott C; Bogod, Nicholas M; Mateer, Catherine A

    2004-03-01

    Sexually intrusive behaviour, which may range from inappropriate commentary to rape, is often observed following a traumatic brain injury. It may represent novel behaviour patterns or an exacerbation of pre-injury personality traits, attitudes, and tendencies. Sexually intrusive behaviour poses a risk to staff and residents of residential facilities and to the community at large, and the development of a sound assessment and treatment plan for sexually intrusive behaviour is therefore very important. A comprehensive evaluation is best served by drawing on the fields of neuropsychology, forensic psychology, and cognitive rehabilitation. The paper discusses the types of brain damage that commonly lead to sexually intrusive behaviour, provides guidance for its assessment, and presents a three-stage treatment model. The importance of a multidisciplinary approach to both assessment and treatment is emphasized. Finally, a case example is provided to illustrate the problem and the possibilities for successful management.

  17. Hidden costs of low-cost screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrlak, D.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-two hundred women in Orange County, California, took part in a low-cost mammography screening project sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the KCBS-TV. Patients were followed up by telephone and questioned about actual costs incurred as a result of screening mammography, including costs of repeated and follow-up mammograms, US examinations and surgical consultations. The total number of biopsies, cancers found, and the costs involved were investigated. The authors' results suggest that particularly in centers with a high positive call rate, the cost of screening mammograms accounts for only a small proportion of the medical costs

  18. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  19. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  20. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, F; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  1. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R

    2009-01-01

    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  2. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  3. Low cost nuclear spectrometer based on micro-controller device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.A.; Aramayo, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the development of a gamma radiation Multichannel Analyzer device. That is to say, the development of a device able to display in the screen of a conventional computer a histogram of radioactive accounts (or accounts rate) received, in function of the different emission energies. It is a low cost implementation, oriented to mainly educational activities, but also applicable, within its limitations, to medium precision investigation works. In this first phase all the necessary one was implemented to detect the radioactive emissions, to measure them in energy, to store a complete spectrum and electronically to transfer it to a PC for its subsequent analysis. (author)

  4. Lightning rod: a simple and low cost experiment for eletrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing to make significant the scientific learning, this work suggests a simple and low-cost experiment to demonstrate electrostatics knowledge studied in High School. The experimental proposal has yet the concern of focusing the content, linking it to daily technological elements. Doing that, and due to the practical interest it can arouse in student, we presented the operation of an idealized Lightning Rod to apply in electrostatics school knowledge and to show that the same one can have an important day by day usefulness and it cannot be a turned off abstraction or distant from the reality.

  5. Production low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matrix. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). By changing the composition of plastic Scintillators some features such as light yield, radiation hardening, decay time etc. can be controlled. Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Many research projects have concentrated on improving the fundamental properties of plastic scintillators, but little attention has focussed on their cost and easier manufacturing techniques. First plastic Scintillators were produced in 1950's. Activities for production of low cost Scintillators accelerated in second half of 1970's. In 1975 acrylic based Plexipop Scintillator was developed. Despite its low cost, since its structure was not aromatic the light yield of Plexipop was about one quarter of classical Scintillators. Problems arising from slow response time and weak mechanical properties in scintillators developed, has not been solved until 1980. Within the last decade extrusion method became very popular in preparation of low cost and high quality plastic scintillators. In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion plus compression method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared in June 2008 by use of the extruder and pres in SANAEM. Molds suitable for accoupling to extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and moulding pressure were obtained hence, PS Scintillator Blocks

  6. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  7. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  8. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    windings with well-defined thickness. Many advantages and disadvantages are described in depth. In this work, inverse coupling and direct coupling in the new geometry integrated inductors have been analyzed. Coupling characteristic caused by a special saturation behavior has been emphasis. And also...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  9. Comparison of low-cost and engineered materials for phosphorus removal from organic-rich surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Treavor H; Persaud, Amar; Banerjee, Poulomi; Palomino, Pedro

    2011-10-15

    Excess phosphorus (P) in lakes and rivers remains a major water quality problem on a global scale. As a result, new materials and innovative approaches to P remediation are required. Natural materials and waste byproduct materials from industrial processes have the potential to be effective materials for P removal from surface water. Advantages of natural and waste byproduct materials include their low-cost, abundant supply, and minimal preparation, especially compared with engineered materials, such as ion exchange resins and polymeric adsorbents. As a result, natural and waste byproduct materials are commonly referred to as low-cost materials. Despite the potential advantages of low-cost materials, there are critical gaps in knowledge that are preventing their effective use. In particular, there are limited data on the performance of low-cost materials in surface waters that have high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM), and there are no systematic studies that track the changes in water chemistry following treatment with low-cost materials or compare their performance with engineered materials. Accordingly, the goal of this work was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of low-cost and engineered materials for P removal from NOM-rich surface water. Seven low-cost materials and three engineered materials were evaluated using jar tests and mini-column experiments. The test water was a surface water that had a total P concentration of 132-250 μg P/L and a total organic carbon concentration of 15-32 mg C/L. Alum sludge, a byproduct of drinking water treatment, and a hybrid anion exchange resin loaded with nanosize iron oxide were the best performing materials in terms of selective P removal in the presence of NOM and minimum undesirable secondary changes to the water chemistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneity of Social Approach Behaviour in Williams Syndrome: The Role of Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Katie; Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Clark, Fiona; Fleck, Ruth; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    The developmental disorder of Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with an overfriendly personality type, including an increased tendency to approach strangers. This atypical social approach behaviour (SAB) has been linked to two potential theories: the amygdala hypothesis and the frontal lobe hypothesis. The current study aimed to investigate…

  11. The Formation of Conservation-Based Behaviour of Mechanical Engineering Students through Contextual Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarman; Djuniadi; Sutopo, Yeri

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to figure out: (1) the implementation of contextual learning approaches; (2) the learning outcome of conservation education using contextual approach on the internship program preparation class; (3) the conservation-based behaviour of the internship program participants; (4) the contribution of conservation education results…

  12. Semi-analytical approach to modelling the dynamic behaviour of soil excited by embedded foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    The underlying soil has a significant effect on the dynamic behaviour of structures. The paper proposes a semi-analytical approach based on a Green’s function solution in frequency–wavenumber domain. The procedure allows calculating the dynamic stiffness for points on the soil surface as well...... are analysed. It is determined how simplification of the numerical model affects the overall dynamic behaviour. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  13. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  14. REMOTE SPECTRAL IMAGING USING A LOW COST UAV SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  15. LCX: Proposal for a low-cost commercial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Troy; Hayatdavoudi, Maziar; Hettinga, Joel; Hooper, Matt; Nguyen, Phong

    1994-01-01

    The LCX has been developed in response to a request for proposal for an aircraft with 153 passenger capacity and a range of 3000 nautical miles. The goals of the LCX are to provide an aircraft which will achieve the stated mission requirements at the lowest cost possible, both for the manufacturer and the operator. Low cost in this request is defined as short and long term profitability. To achieve this objective, modern technologies attributing to low-cost operation without greatly increasing the cost of manufacturing were employed. These technologies include hybrid laminar flow control and the use of developing new manufacturing processes and philosophies. The LCX will provide a competitive alternative to the use of the Airbus A319/320/321 and the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. The LCX has a maximum weight of 150,000 lb. carried by a wing of 1140 ft(exp 2) and an aspect ratio of 10. The selling price of the LCX is 31 million in 1994 US dollars.

  16. Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Tarchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar systems are largely employed for surveillance of wide and remote areas; the recent advent of drones gives the opportunity to exploit radar sensors on board of unmanned aerial platforms. Nevertheless, whereas drone radars are currently available for military applications, their employment in the civilian domain is still limited. The present research focuses on design, prototyping, and testing of an agile, low-cost, mini radar system, to be carried on board of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs or tethered aerostats. In particular, the paper faces the challenge to integrate the in-house developed radar sensor with a low-cost navigation board, which is used to estimate attitude and positioning data. In fact, a suitable synchronization between radar and navigation data is essential to properly reconstruct the radar picture whenever the platform is moving or the radar is scanning different azimuthal sectors. Preliminary results, relative to tests conducted in preoperational conditions, are provided and exploited to assert the suitable consistency of the obtained radar pictures. From the results, there is a high consistency between the radar images and the picture of the current environment emerges; finally, the comparison of radar images obtained in different scans shows the stability of the platform.

  17. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  18. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  19. Low-cost universal stereoscopic virtual reality interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Michael R.

    1993-09-01

    Low cost stereoscopic virtual reality hardware interfacing with nearly any computer and stereoscopic software running on any PC is described. Both are user configurable for serial or parallel ports. Stereo modeling, rendering, and interaction via gloves or 6D mice are provided. Low cost LCD Visors and external interfaces represent a breakthrough in convenience and price/performance. A complete system with software, Visor, interface and Power Glove is under $DOL500. StereoDrivers will interface with any system giving video sync (e.g., G of RGB). PC3D will access any standard serial port, while PCVR works with serial or parallel ports and glove devices. Model RF Visors detect magnetic fields and require no connection to the system. PGSI is a microprocessor control for the Power Glove and Visors. All interfaces will operate to 120 Hz with Model G Visors. The SpaceStations are demultiplexing, field doubling devices which convert field sequential video or graphics for stereo display with dual video projection or dual LCD SpaceHelmets.

  20. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R

    2017-07-01

    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  1. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.

    2014-01-01

    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  2. Low-cost uncooled VOx infrared camera development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Cook, Grady; Kubala, Kenny; Bates, Robert; Temple, Dorota; Lannon, John; Hilton, Allan; Glukh, Konstantin; Hardy, Busbee

    2013-06-01

    The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 µm pixel pitch 320×240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 µm pixel pitch 640×480 Tamarisk®640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640×512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program.

  3. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon

    2016-11-01

    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  4. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel

    2014-07-07

    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.

  5. Low-cost digital counting interface for fermentation gas measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Deluiche, S.R.

    1985-05-01

    Laboratory- and pilot-scale volumetric measurement of fermentation gas can be readily determined with a standard wet-test gas meter. The initial cost of the meter, however, is quite prohibitive for experimental work and researchers have searched for other means of quantifying gas production. Techniques using calibrated floating gas holders, liquid displacement, flexible membranes, and conventional gas meters have been reported. Many of these methods lack a high degree of accuracy for small gas volumes. Residential gas meters such as those manufactured by Singer company, and others appear well suited for this application as long as a relatively dry gas is passed through the meter and a method is developed to subdivide the meter scale and record the results. The objective of this report was to construct a low cost, accurate, digital counting interface for concurrent operation with a low cost bellows-type gas meter. Although initially constructed for use in gas measurement studies, the interface can be used in other applications where digital output or computer interfacing are desired. 2 references.

  6. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  7. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts

  8. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  10. Silicon web process development. [for low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Hopkins, R. H.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Silicon dendritic web, a single crystal ribbon shaped during growth by crystallographic forces and surface tension (rather than dies), is a highly promising base material for efficient low cost solar cells. The form of the product smooth, flexible strips 100 to 200 microns thick, conserves expensive silicon and facilitates automation of crystal growth and the subsequent manufacturing of solar cells. These characteristics, coupled with the highest demonstrated ribbon solar cell efficiency-15.5%-make silicon web a leading candidate to achieve, or better, the 1986 Low Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project cost objective of 50 cents per peak watt of photovoltaic output power. The main objective of the Web Program, technology development to significantly increase web output rate, and to show the feasibility for simultaneous melt replenishment and growth, have largely been accomplished. Recently, web output rates of 23.6 sq cm/min, nearly three times the 8 sq cm/min maximum rate of a year ago, were achieved. Webs 4 cm wide or greater were grown on a number of occassions.

  11. Cu II Removal from Industrial Wastewater Using Low Cost Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Hadi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study the possibility of utilization of waste tires rubber ash (WTRA as a low-cost adsorbent and are available as a type of solid waste for the removal of copper ions from industrial wastewater. Depending on batch adsorption experiments, the effect of different parameters including pH, adsorbent dosage WTRA, contact time, initial concentration of the ion and shacking speed were studied. Results showed that the highest removal Cu+2 ions was 97.8% at pH equal to 6, 120 min contact time, dose WTRA 1.5 g/L, shacking speed 150 rpm. The experimental data were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models showed great compatibility with Langmuir model (R2=0.923. Adsorption kinetics was studied and the data was showed agree with Pseudo-first-order equation where the value of (kt=0.5115/min. The study also showed the possibility of using WTRA efficiently as adsorbent and low cost in the removal of copper ions from industrial waste water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.17

  12. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  13. Low Cost DIY Lenses kit For High School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepnurat, Meechai; Saphet, Parinya; Tong-on, Anusorn

    2017-09-01

    A set of lenses was fabricated from a low cost materials in a DIY (Do it yourself) process. The purpose was to demonstrate to teachers and students in high schools how to construct lenses by themselves with the local available materials. The lenses could be applied in teaching Physics, about the nature of a lens such as focal length and light rays passing through lenses in either direction, employing a set of simple laser pointers. This instrumental kit was made from a transparent 2 mm thick of acrylic Perspex. It was cut into rectangular pieces with dimensions of 2x15 cm2 and bent into curved shape by a hot air blower on a cylindrical wooden rod with curvature radii of about 3-4.5 cm. Then a pair of these Perspex were formed into a hollow thick lenses with a base supporting platform, so that any appropriate liquids could be filled in. The focal length of the lens was measured from laser beam drawing on a paper. The refractive index, n (n) of a filling liquid could be calculated from the measured focal length (f). The kit was low cost and DIY but was greatly applicable for optics teaching in high school laboratory.

  14. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.

    2010-01-15

    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  15. On the feasibility to integrate low-cost MEMS accelerometers and GNSS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Elisa; Dermanis, Athanasios; Crespi, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of merging the benefits offered by low-cost GNSS and MEMS accelerometers technology, in order to promote the diffusion of low-cost monitoring solutions. A merging approach was set up at the level of the combination of kinematic results (velocities and displacements) coming from the two kinds of sensors, whose observations were separately processed, following to the so called loose integration, which sounds much more simple and flexible thinking about the possibility of an easy change of the combined sensors. At first, the issues related to the difference in reference systems, time systems and measurement rate and epochs for the two sensors were faced with. An approach was designed and tested to transform into unique reference and time systems the outcomes from GPS and MEMS and to interpolate the usually (much) more dense MEMS observation to common (GPS) epochs. The proposed approach was limited to time-independent (constant) orientation of the MEMS reference system with respect to the GPS one. Then, a data fusion approach based on the use of Discrete Fourier Transform and cubic splines interpolation was proposed both for velocities and displacements: MEMS and GPS derived solutions are firstly separated by a rectangular filter in spectral domain, and secondly back-transformed and combined through a cubic spline interpolation. Accuracies around 5 mm for slow and fast displacements and better than 2 mm/s for velocities were assessed. The obtained solution paves the way to a powerful and appealing use of low-cost single frequency GNSS receivers and MEMS accelerometers for structural and ground monitoring applications. Some additional remarks and prospects for future investigations complete the paper.

  16. Safety effects of low-cost engineering measures. An observational study in a Portuguese multilane road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Gomes, Sandra; Cardoso, João Lourenço

    2012-09-01

    Single carriageway multilane roads are not, in general, a very safe type of road, mainly because of the high number of seriously injured victims in head-on collisions, when compared with dual carriageway multilane roads, with a median barrier. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of the application of several low cost engineering measures, aimed at road infrastructure correction and road safety improvement on a multilane road (EN6), are presented. The study was developed by the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) for the Portuguese Road Administration and involved a comparison of selected aspects of motorized traffic behaviour (traffic volumes and speeds) measured in several sections of EN6, as well as monitoring of road safety developments in the same road. The applied low cost engineering measures allowed a reduction of 10% in the expected annual number of personal injury accidents and a 70% decrease in the expected annual number of head-on collisions; the expected annual frequency of accidents involving killed and seriously injured persons was reduced by 26%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  18. Optical incremental rotary encoder in low-cost-design; Optischer inkrementaler Drehgeber in Low-Cost-Bauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, David; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Optik; Seybold, Jonathan; Mayer, Volker [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Kueck, Heinz [Hans-Schickard-Gesellschaft, Stuttgart (DE). Inst. fuer Mikroaufbautechnik (IMAT); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Zeitmesstechnik, Fein- und Mikrotechnik

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new concept for low-cost optical encoders to come up to meet the increasing demand for inexpensive rotary sensors. The principal idea is to use a micro patterned plastic disc with metal coating, as it is used for Compact Discs or DVDs. Such encoder discs can be manufactured by an efficient injection compression moulding process. With this well established technique it is possible to achieve highly precise micro patterns while running a cost effective process for high volume production. (orig.)

  19. Behaviour of the UO2/clayey water. A spectroscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilbert, S.

    2000-05-01

    This work deals with the disposal of spent nuclear fuels in deep geological layers. After three years of irradiation, these fuels are constituted of 95 % UO 2 . It is then indispensable to know the leaching behaviour of this solid because ground waters are the main agents of dispersion to biosphere of the radioelements contained in these fuels. This work includes alteration tests carried out with a device allowing to synthesize a clayey water equilibrated with a partial pressure in CO 2 in oxidizing or reducing conditions. After the tests, the solid and the solution have been characterized in order to establish a balance of the alteration. The UO 2 matrix has been characterized by XPS. The uranium in solution has been titrated by ICP-MS. In oxidizing conditions, after some weeks, the dissolution velocity of UO 2 has stabilized around 3*10 11 mol/m 2 .s. This velocity is of 4*10 12 mol/m 2 .s in a reducing medium. The uranium concentrations in the oxidized water are of about 2*10 4 mol/l after two years of leaching. After 33 days of alteration in a reducing medium, the uranium amount is of 3*10 6 mol/l. The XPS technique has revealed a superficial and progressive oxidation of the uranium(IV) and the formation of U-OH bonds in the oxidizing medium. A U(VI)/U(IV) ratio has been determined by this technique. It has stabilized around 2 in some weeks. In reducing conditions, this ratio is stable and is of about 0.5. Modeling tools have allowed to propose a class of solids potentially able to control the uranium solubility. In oxidizing conditions, the uranyl hydrates (schoepite) evolve towards uranyl silicates which are thermodynamically more stable. In reducing conditions, a control of the uranium concentration in solution by U 4 O 9 is probable. (O.M.)

  20. Low-cost sensors to monitor groundwater drought in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one

  1. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  2. Balancing low cost with reliable operation in the rotordynamic design of the ALS Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Turbopump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Air Force/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Liquid Hydrogen Fuel Turbopump (FTP) has primary design goals of low cost and high reliability, with performance and weight having less importance. This approach is atypical compared with other rocket engine turbopump design efforts, such as on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which emphasized high performance and low weight. Similar to the SSME turbopumps, the ALS FTP operates supercritically, which implies that stability and bearing loads strongly influence the design. In addition, the use of low cost/high reliability features in the ALS FTP such as hydrostatic bearings, relaxed seal clearances, and unshrouded turbine blades also have a negative influence on rotordynamics. This paper discusses the analysis conducted to achieve a balance between low cost and acceptable rotordynamic behavior, to ensure that the ALS FTP will operate reliably without subsynchronous instabilities or excessive bearing loads.

  3. Development of the silane process for the production of low-cost polysilicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iya, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    It was recognized that the traditional hot rod type deposition process for decomposing silane is energy intensive, and a different approach for converting silane to silicon was chosen. A 1200 metric tons/year capacity commercial plant was constructed in Moses Lake, Washington. A fluidized bed processor was chosen as the most promising technology and several encouraging test runs were conducted. This technology continues to be very promising in producing low cost polysilicon. The Union Carbide silane process and the research development on the fluidized bed silane decomposition are discussed.

  4. CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Ron

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal-directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal-directed behaviours only triumph over contingency-generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self-regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  5. Simple and Low-Cost Wireless Distributed Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Flammini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and realization of a simple and low-cost system for distributed measurements. Traditional handheld digital multimeters have been equipped with a radio-frequency interface in order to implement what the authors call WDMM, the basic block of a wireless multi-probe data logger. New functionalities require very few components and result in a cost increase of less than 10$. In addition, also maintenance has been facilitated since tracking data such as working state or last calibration time are available to the user. Data inquiry can be performed by a purposely designed module that has the same hardware of the WDMM but a different user interface or by a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant or a traditional personal computer thanks to a USB connection. Simple supervisory software has been realized under the LabVIEW graphical programming environment.

  6. Low-cost SI-POF analogue TIA and equaliser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Ignacio; García del Pozo, Jose Maria; Mateo, Javier; Urdangarín, Julen; Celma, Santiago

    2012-11-01

    This article proposes the two first blocks of an analogue front-end suitable for plastic optical fibre systems suitable for the standard IEEE 1394. These blocks consist of a preamplifier followed by an equaliser which employs low-cost commercial components and are designed with two different bipolar technologies. With a supply voltage of 3.3 V, the front-end consumes 396 mW. The total gain is 70 dBΩ and it operates at up to 800 Mb/s. At this bit rate, with fibre lengths of up to 30 m, the circuit has a BER ≤ 10-12 and a maximum jitter of 170 psrms.

  7. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  8. Hydrocarbons - In the era of low-cost oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic; Delamarche, Myrtille; Cognasse, Olivier; De Jaegher, Thibaut; Fleitour, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    A set of articles addresses the current context of low cost oil and steep drop in oil prices. Graphs illustrate the evolution of oil prices, of supply and demand, of exploitation costs. This drop is partly due to the high level of production in Russia, Iraq and USA. This context results in drastic reductions of investments by companies involved in the oil sector, and therefore in job reduction, and in reduction of service costs. These reductions impact actors of the seismic analysis sector. Other consequences are more positive for consumers and refiners, and a trend towards diversification and consolidation for operators. The chairman of Technip answers some questions on Technip activities, situation and strategy. The case of the petrochemical sector is also addressed

  9. Low-cost in vitro fertilization: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh PJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pek Joo Teoh, Abha MaheshwariAberdeen Fertility Centre, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UKAbstract: Despite the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF more than 30 years ago, the cost of treatment remains high. Furthermore, over the years, more sophisticated technologies and expensive medications have been introduced, making IVF increasingly inaccessible despite the increasing need. Globally, the option to undergo IVF is only available to a privileged few. In recent years, there has been growing interest in exploring strategies to reduce the cost of IVF treatment, which would allow the service to be provided in low-resource settings. In this review, we explore the various ways in which the cost of this treatment can be reduced.Keywords: IVF, low-cost, accessible, developing world

  10. Low Cost Night Vision System for Intruder Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Liang S.; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; R, Dhinesh; Sak, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    The growth in production of Android devices has resulted in greater functionalities as well as lower costs. This has made previously more expensive systems such as night vision affordable for more businesses and end users. We designed and implemented robust and low cost night vision systems based on red-green-blue (RGB) colour histogram for a static camera as well as a camera on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), using OpenCV library on Intel compatible notebook computers, running Ubuntu Linux operating system, with less than 8GB of RAM. They were tested against human intruders under low light conditions (indoor, outdoor, night time) and were shown to have successfully detected the intruders.

  11. Low cost open data acquisition system for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotny, Wojciech M.; Laniewski-Wollk, Przemyslaw; Zaworski, Wojciech

    2005-09-01

    In the biomedical applications it is often necessary to collect measurement data from different devices. It is relatively easy, if the devices are equipped with a MIB or Ethernet interface, however often they feature only the asynchronous serial link, and sometimes the measured values are available only as the analog signals. The system presented in the paper is a low cost alternative to commercially available data acquisition systems. The hardware and software architecture of the system is fully open, so it is possible to customize it for particular needs. The presented system offers various possibilities to connect it to the computer based data processing unit - e.g. using the USB or Ethernet ports. Both interfaces allow also to use many such systems in parallel to increase amount of serial and analog inputs. The open source software used in the system makes possible to process the acquired data with standard tools like MATLAB, Scilab or Octave, or with a dedicated, user supplied application.

  12. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  13. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  14. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriessen, R. [Holst Centre - Solliance, PO Box 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, J.M. [ECN - Solliance, Petten (Netherlands); Aernouts, T. [Imec, Solliance, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Solliance, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    This article describes how the Solliance Organic PhotoVoltaics (OPV) shared research Program addresses efficiency, lifetime and production costs for (near) future OPV applications. The balance of these three parameters depends of the envisaged application, but at the end, OPV should be able to compete somehow with Si PV in the future. Efficiency improvements are realized by developing new materials, by exploring and optimizing new device structures and novel interconnection technologies. Lifetime improvements are realized by using stabilized device stacks and materials and by applying high end flexible barriers. Production cost control is done by using a home made Cost of Ownership tool which guides towards the use of low-cost materials and processes.

  15. Low cost strategies for microbiological purification of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of sunlight intensities and freezing on prevalence of coliform bacteria in water were assessed in this study. Fish pond water indicated 1100 figure of most probable number (MPN) of coliforms, while on MacConkey agar they appeared uncountable. When this water was exposed to sunlight it was found that a exposure of 1.5 hours in ceramic containers covered by petri plates and those with magnifying lenses of 3X powers indicated 58 and 78% reduction in the coliforms, respectively. Corresponding figures for 3 hours exposure were found to be 100 percent less than the control MPN value. Freezing with subsequent thawing also reduced the microbial population. The experiments reported here are suggestive to construct simple low cost water treatment plants to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. Antibiotics sensitivity and resistant patterns of coliforms for tetracycline, piperacillin, streptomycin, metronidazole, erythromycin and chloramphenicol in connection to pre- and post treatments are indicated. (author)

  16. Dyes removal from water using low cost absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, S.; Ramirez, A. P.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the removal capacity of low cost adsorbents during the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) at different concentrations (50 and 100mg·L-1) was evaluated. These adsorbents were produced from wood wastes (cedar and teak) by chemical activation (ZnCl2). Both studied materials, Activated Cedar (AC) and activated teak (AT) showed a good fit of their experimental data to the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities for AC were 2000.0 and 444.4mg·g-1 for MB and CR, respectively, while for AT, maximum adsorption capacities of 1052.6 and 86.4mg·g-1 were found for MB and CR, respectively.

  17. Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, D; Barabas, J; Bove, V M; Jolly, S; DellaSilva, C; Smithwick, Q

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an architecture for a relatively low-cost, pc-driven holovideo monitor. The geometry uses minimal optics and is built to host a multi-channel acousto-optic modulator that can be driven by up-converted VGA signals. The display's target specifications include a standard vertical resolution (480 lines) output driven by an 18 channel acousto-optic modulator, 30Hz refresh-rate and multiple color operation. This paper reports early tests of this geometry with a single acousto-optic channel. The goal is to create a small but functional holographic display that can be readily replicated, easily driven and provide basic monitor functionality with a bill of materials in the hundreds, rather than thousands, of dollars.

  18. Low-cost portable TRNG, implementation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermevc Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will show one of many possible hardware implementations of random sequence generators and give a short survey on existing work related to techniques used for producing true random bits. By using cheap electronic components found in every specialized store such as 8-bit RISC microcontroler, double analogue comparator chip and USB to RS232 interface integrated circuit, we were able to produce a low cost, higly portable device that outputs random sequences with excellent statistical characteristics and high entropy. The source of randomness is a mix of techniques such as electronic noise, phase noise and oscillator jitter. The device in question has a built-in debiasing algorithm similar to [1] and a security mechanism that protects the end user by constantly monitoring the quality of digitized noise signal. Finaly, we will show the results of comparative analysis of data acquired from our device and „random.org“ online service.

  19. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D

    2013-08-12

    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  20. Microinsurance: innovations in low-cost health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, David M; Radermacher, Ralf; Khadilkar, Shrikant B; Schout, Petra; Hay, François-Xavier; Singh, Arbind; Koren, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Microinsurance--low-cost health insurance based on a community, cooperative, or mutual and self-help arrangements-can provide financial protection for poor households and improve access to health care. However, low benefit caps and a low share of premiums paid as benefits--both designed to keep these arrangements in business--perversely limited these schemes' ability to extend coverage, offer financial protection, and retain members. We studied three schemes in India, two of which are member-operated and one a commercial scheme, using household surveys of insured and uninsured households and interviews with managers. All three enrolled poor households and raised their use of hospital services, as intended. Financial exposure was greatest, and protection was least, in the commercial scheme, which imposed the lowest caps on benefits and where income was the lowest.

  1. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs.

  2. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gallardo Caballero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%.

  3. YSAR: a compact low-cost synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas G.; Arnold, David V.; Long, David G.; Miner, Gayle F.; Karlinsey, Thomas W.; Robertson, Adam E.

    1997-09-01

    The Brigham Young University Synthetic Aperture Radar (YSAR) is a compact, inexpensive SAR system which can be flown on a small aircraft. The system has exhibited a resolution of approximately 0.8 m by 0.8 m in test flights in calm conditions. YSAR has been used to collect data over archeological sites in Israel. Using a relatively low frequency (2.1 GHz), we hope to be able to identify walls or other archeological features to assist in excavation. A large data set of radar and photographic data have been collected over sites at Tel Safi, Qumran, Tel Micnah, and the Zippori National Forest in Israel. We show sample images from the archeological data. We are currently working on improved autofocus algorithms for this data and are developing a small, low-cost interferometric SAR system (YINSAR) for operation from a small aircraft.

  4. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, B.; Bramwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG and E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California

  5. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Wenzler, C. J.; Rom, F. E.; Vanarsdale, D. R.

    1980-09-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector for preheating ambient air was developed. This type of solar heating system would be applicable for preheating ventilation air for public buildings or other commercial and industrial ventilation requirements. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60 percent or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20 degrees for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that this type of solar system was economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, costs for the bare plate solar collector are attainable. Applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  6. Characterization of low cost orally disintegrating film (ODF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordao Barrozo Heinemann

    Full Text Available Abstract Orally disintegrating films (ODF produced with a hydrophilic polymers are a thin and flexible material, wich disintegrate in contact with saliva and can vehicule bioactive materials. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize ODF formulation with potential to act as a carrier for different bioactives compounds prepared with low cost polymers. Gelatin (G, starch (S, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and their blends (G:S, CMC:S, CMC:G, and CMC:S:G were prepared by casting technique with sorbitol as a plasticizer. The formulations were characterized in terms of visual aspects, FTIR, SEM, mechanical characteristics, hygroscopicity, dissolution (in vitro and in vivo and swelling index. FTIR analysis revealed that no interaction between polymers in ODF was observed. By SEM, it was possible to observe differences on surfaces by different polymers. ODF made with CMC and CMC:G presented higher water absorption (P<0.05 and higher swelling index probably due to the higher water affinity by CMC. Formulations with G, CMC:G and CMC:S:G presented the highest values of tensile strength (P<0.05. ODF prepared with S alone presented the highest disintegration time, the others formulations showed in vitro dissolution ranging from 5.22 to 8.50 min, while in vivo dissolution time ranged from 2.15 to 3.38 min. By the formulations made with G and blend of G:S and CMC:S:G it is possible to develop a ODF of low cost with desired characteristics being an alternative vehicle to deliver functional compounds for continuous use.

  7. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  8. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of low cost magnetorheological (MR) fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhwani, V. K.; Hirani, H.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetorheological fluids have great potential for engineering applications due to their variable rheological behavior. These fluids find applications in dampers, brakes, shock absorbers, and engine mounts. However their relatively high cost (approximately US600 per liter) limits their wide usage. Most commonly used magnetic material "Carbonyl iron" cost more than 90% of the MR fluid cost. Therefore for commercial viability of these fluids there is need of alternative economical magnetic material. In the present work synthesis of MR fluid has been attempted with objective to produce low cost MR fluid with high sedimentation stability and greater yield stress. In order to reduce the cost, economical electrolytic Iron powder (US 10 per Kg) has been used. Iron powder of relatively larger size (300 Mesh) has been ball milled to reduce their size to few microns (1 to 10 microns). Three different compositions have been prepared and compared for MR effect produced and stability. All have same base fluid (Synthetic oil) and same magnetic phase i.e. Iron particles but they have different additives. First preparation involves organic additives Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Stearic acid. Other two preparations involve use of two environmental friendly low-priced green additives guar gum (US 2 per Kg) and xanthan gum (US 12 per Kg) respectively. Magnetic properties of Iron particles have been measured by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Morphology of Iron particles and additives guar gum and xanthan gum has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particles Size Distribution (PSD) has been determined using Particle size analyzer. Microscopic images of particles, MH plots and stability of synthesized MR fluids have been reported. The prepared low cost MR fluids showed promising performance and can be effectively used for engineering applications demanding controllability in operations.

  10. Calculation of wind turbine aeroelastic behaviour. The Garrad Hassan approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarton, D C [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The Garrad Hassan approach to the prediction of wind turbine loading and response has been developed over the last decade. The goal of this development has been to produce calculation methods that contain realistic representation of the wind, include sensible aerodynamic and dynamic models of the turbine and can be used to predict fatigue and extreme loads for design purposes. The Garrad Hassan calculation method is based on a suite of four key computer programs: WIND3D for generation of the turbulent wind field; EIGEN for modal analysis of the rotor and support structure; BLADED for time domain calculation of the structural loads; and SIGNAL for post-processing of the BLADED predictions. The interaction of these computer programs is illustrated. A description of the main elements of the calculation method will be presented. (au)

  11. Low-cost safety enhancements for stop-controlled and signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present information on suggested effective, low-cost intersection countermeasures developed using intersection safety research results and input from an intersection safety expert panel. These low-cost countermeasur...

  12. The Development of Low-Cost Airlines and Tourism as a Competitiveness Complementor: Effects, Evolution and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between the development of the airline industry and tourism. On the one hand, air transport has triggered the growth of tourism throughout the world, while, on the other hand, tourism has acted as a complementary product for developing new flight routes. This process has intensified with the emergence of low-cost carriers. A profound change has been observed in companies’ strategy to adapt to the demands of this type of market. To conduct this study, a review of the existing literature related to tourism and lowcost carriers was carried out. To conclude, an analysis of the positioning and price-fixing strategies of low-cost airlines operating on some of the most important tourist routes in Europe was performed. The results indicate different level of fares among the five companies in the sample, especially between Ryanair and easyJet, but similar pricing behaviour on the routes studied.

  13. Mesoscopic approach to modeling elastic-plastic polycrystalline material behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Cizelj, L.

    2001-01-01

    Extreme loadings during severe accident conditions might cause failure or rupture of the pressure boundary of a reactor coolant system. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of such an accident. One of important drawbacks of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. This paper discusses the mesoscopic approach to modeling the elastic-plastic behavior of a polycrystalline material. The main idea is to divide the continuum (e.g., polycrystalline aggregate) into a set of sub-continua (grains). The overall properties of the polycrystalline aggregate are therefore determined by the number of grains in the aggregate and properties of randomly shaped and oriented grains. The random grain structure is modeled with Voronoi tessellation and random orientations of crystal lattices are assumed. The elastic behavior of monocrystal grains is assumed to be anisotropic. Crystal plasticity is used to describe plastic response of monocrystal grains. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to two-dimensional models.(author)

  14. Enhancing Road Safety Behaviour Using a Psychological and Spiritual Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghous Mohd Tarmizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main causes of accident is due to driver itself that is influenced by their bad attitude while driving. Human attitude is closely related to the human psychology. Apart from that, spiritual aspect also influence human attitude. Hence, this study carried out to improve driver safety using a new approach through psychology and spiritual factors. Objectives of this study are to identify then analyze factors of psychological and spiritual that contribute towards safety driving. A self-administered questionnaire were distributed among 256 respondents from various type of background. An analysis descriptive statistics show demographic and experience of respondents. Chi-square analysis showed only education level and traffic summon are significant to safety driving. Furthermore, correlation analysis shows psychological factors has strong linear relationship on attitude of drivers towards safety driving while spiritual factor, the perception of the spiritual and practices, both have a strong relationship to safety driving. Regression analysis demonstrates boths psychological and spiritual factors have strong evidence and significant relationship with safety driving. Thus, it can be identified that spiritual psychological factors encourage drivers to drive more safely and reduce road accidents. Therefore, this study propose useful guidelines to related agencies in order to enhance safety among drivers to be able drive safely on the road.

  15. Parent insights into atypicalities of social approach behaviour in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, E; Rodgers, J; Janes, E; Little, K; Riby, D M

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome have been reported to show high levels of social interest and a desire to interact with others irrespective of their familiarity. This high social motivation, when combined with reduced intellectual capacity and a profile of atypical social behaviour, is important in terms of social vulnerability of individuals with the disorder. Therefore, social approach to unfamiliar people and the role of this behaviour within the Williams syndrome (WS) social phenotype warrant further research to inform social skills' intervention design. The current study used parent interviews (n = 21) to probe aspects of social behaviour and interactions with strangers, as well as the impact of such behaviour on the family. Using thematic analysis, it was possible to explore themes that emerged from the interviews, offering qualitatively rich insight into the variability of social approach behaviour in WS. Thematic analysis confirmed a significant desire to interact with strangers as well as a lack of awareness of appropriate social boundaries. However, parental reports about their child's social approach behaviour varied considerably. The within-syndrome variability of the sample was emphasised in parental reports of their child's personality characteristics (e.g. levels of impulsiveness), as well as the level of parental supervision employed. These in-depth parent insights can help target the needs of individuals with WS and emphasise that an individual approach to intervention will be essential because of the heterogeneity of the WS social profile. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quantum Dynamical Behaviour in Complex Systems - A Semiclassical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Nandini [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    systems is described. We proposed the use of a semiclassical correction term to a preliminary quantum calculation using, for instance, a variational approach. This allows us to increase the accuracy significantly. Modeling Nonadiabatic dynamics has always been a challenge to classical simulations because the multi-state nature of the dynamics cannot be described accurately by the time evolution on a single average surface, as is the classical approach. We show that using the Meyer-Miller-Stock-Thoss (MMST) representation of the exact vibronic Hamiltonian in combination with the IVR allows us to accurately describe dynamics where the non Born-Oppenheimer regime. One final problem that we address is that of extending this method to the long time regime. We propose the use of a time independent sampling function in the Monte Carlo integration over the phase space of initial trajectory conditions. This allows us to better choose the regions of importance at the various points in time; by using more trajectories in the important regions, we show that the integration can be converged much easier. An algorithm based loosely on the methods of Diffusion Monte Carlo is developed that allows us to carry out this time dependent sampling in a most efficient manner.

  17. LOW COST SURVEYING USING AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM. The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37–111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps

  18. Behavioural effects of advanced cruise control use : a meta-analytic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. Brookhuis, K.A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Marchau, V.A.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a meta-analytic approach was used to analyse effects of Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) on driving behaviour reported in seven driving simulator studies. The effects of ACC on three consistent outcome measures, namely, driving speed, headway and driver workload have been analysed. The

  19. WOWW: A Solution Orientated Approach to Enhance Classroom Relationships and Behaviour within a Primary Three Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Lynne; Cubeddu, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    A Working on What Works (WOWW) approach was utilised over six sessions in a mainstream Scottish primary class to enhance classroom relationships and behaviours. The aim of the intervention was to manage everyday classroom problems within a natural classroom environment. WOWW incorporates positive psychology and implements a solution-focused…

  20. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    engineering team. The engineers on the team are capable of functioning in two to three engineering disciplines which allows highly efficient interdisciplinary engineering collaboration. NASA Ames is actively proposing mission concepts to use the COTSAT platform to accomplish science. If the COTSAT team validates this approach, it will allow the possibility for remote sensing missions to produce a high science yield for minimal cost and reduced schedule. Another aim of this approach is to yield an accelerated pathway from a Phase A study to mission launch. Leaders in the aerospace industry have shown interest in this methodology. Several visits and tours have been given in the lab. Although the concept of low-cost development is initially met with skepticism from some within the prohibitive aerospace industry, the project's efforts have been highly praised for the accomplishments met within a limited time and budget. Overall the development has progressed tremendously well and the team is answering critical questions for current and future low-cost small satellite developments. COTSAT subsystems are not limited to a specific weight class and could be adapted to produce smaller platforms and to fit various launch vehicles.

  1. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  2. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  3. Evaluating the performance of low cost chemical sensors for air pollution research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alastair C; Lee, James D; Edwards, Peter M; Shaw, Marvin D; Evans, Mat J; Moller, Sarah J; Smith, Katie R; Buckley, Jack W; Ellis, Matthew; Gillot, Stefan R; White, Andrew

    2016-07-18

    Low cost pollution sensors have been widely publicized, in principle offering increased information on the distribution of air pollution and a democratization of air quality measurements to amateur users. We report a laboratory study of commonly-used electrochemical sensors and quantify a number of cross-interferences with other atmospheric chemicals, some of which become significant at typical suburban air pollution concentrations. We highlight that artefact signals from co-sampled pollutants such as CO2 can be greater than the electrochemical sensor signal generated by the measurand. We subsequently tested in ambient air, over a period of three weeks, twenty identical commercial sensor packages alongside standard measurements and report on the degree of agreement between references and sensors. We then explore potential experimental approaches to improve sensor performance, enhancing outputs from qualitative to quantitative, focusing on low cost VOC photoionization sensors. Careful signal handling, for example, was seen to improve limits of detection by one order of magnitude. The quantity, magnitude and complexity of analytical interferences that must be characterised to convert a signal into a quantitative observation, with known uncertainties, make standard individual parameter regression inappropriate. We show that one potential solution to this problem is the application of supervised machine learning approaches such as boosted regression trees and Gaussian processes emulation.

  4. The rise of low-cost sensing for managing air pollution in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Martani, Claudio; Biskos, George; Neophytou, Marina; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Bell, Margaret; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2015-02-01

    Ever growing populations in cities are associated with a major increase in road vehicles and air pollution. The overall high levels of urban air pollution have been shown to be of a significant risk to city dwellers. However, the impacts of very high but temporally and spatially restricted pollution, and thus exposure, are still poorly understood. Conventional approaches to air quality monitoring are based on networks of static and sparse measurement stations. However, these are prohibitively expensive to capture tempo-spatial heterogeneity and identify pollution hotspots, which is required for the development of robust real-time strategies for exposure control. Current progress in developing low-cost micro-scale sensing technology is radically changing the conventional approach to allow real-time information in a capillary form. But the question remains whether there is value in the less accurate data they generate. This article illustrates the drivers behind current rises in the use of low-cost sensors for air pollution management in cities, while addressing the major challenges for their effective implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive-behavioural approaches to self-management in rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dures, Emma; Hewlett, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Patients with rheumatic disease must adjust psychosocially and behaviourally in order to manage the impact of symptoms and treatment on their daily lives, and the emotional consequences of the disease. However, patients can improve their well-being by taking a proactive role in self-management, for example by using coping strategies. Support for patient self-management from clinical teams usually comprises information and advice on disease management; however, this largely didactic approach often focuses on the biomedical aspects of rheumatic disease, without addressing how these aspects interact with psychosocial factors to influence health behaviours and thus outcomes. A cognitive-behavioural approach based on the biopsychosocial model of rheumatic disease can facilitate the identification of effective self-management strategies through collaboration between patients and clinicians. Most patients do not require intense cognitive-behavioural therapy from a clinical psychologist; rather, basic cognitive-behavioural techniques and tools could be used by rheumatology clinical teams to expand and enhance the support already offered to patients.

  6. Children's night waking among toddlers: relationships with mothers' and fathers' parenting approaches and children's behavioural difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Hall, Wendy A

    2015-07-01

    To explore associations between children's sleep problems, and behavioural difficulties and parenting approaches. Children commonly have problematic night waking; however, relationships between parenting cognitions and behaviours and children's sleep problems are rarely examined. Longitudinal children's cohort study from 5-29 months post birth. Data were taken from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998-2007) at three phases: 5, 17 and 29 months of age. Thousand four hundred and eighty-seven families were included in our study based on: participation from phase 1 (5-months old), both parents' reports on parenting cognitions/behaviours and child behavioural difficulties at 29 months, and mothers' reports of children's sleep at 29 months. In 2013, we conducted repeated measures anovas and manovas including children's gender. Extended night-time waking patterns (wakes of ≥20 minutes) were associated with mothers' and fathers' lower sense of parenting impact and higher overprotectiveness and mothers' lower self-efficacy and higher coerciveness for 29-month-old children. In the extended waking group, mothers consistently reported lower self-efficacy, higher overprotectiveness and lower parenting impact at 5, 17 and 29 months. For those children, fathers were only more overprotective at 5 and 29 months. Regarding 29-month-old children's behaviour, children in the extended night waking group had highest scores on externalizing and internalizing behaviours. Girls had higher scores on shyness/inhibition and boys had higher scores on aggression/hyperactivity. Mothers' and fathers' parenting cognitions and behaviours are affected by 29-month-old children's night waking patterns and night waking patterns are associated with children's behavioural problems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Attitude Estimation of Skis in Ski Jumping Using Low-Cost Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to estimate the attitude of skis for an entire ski jump using wearable, MEMS-based, low-cost Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs. First of all, a kinematic attitude model based on rigid-body dynamics and a sensor error model considering bias and scale factor error are established. Then, an extended Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS smoother is used to combine measurement data provided by both gyroscope and magnetometer to achieve an attitude estimation. Moreover, parameters for the bias and scale factor error in the sensor error model and the initial attitude are determined via a maximum-likelihood principle based parameter estimation algorithm. By implementing this approach, an attitude estimation of skis is achieved without further sensor calibration. Finally, results based on both the simulated reference data and the real experimental measurement data are presented, which proves the practicability and the validity of the proposed approach.

  8. Study of the full-service and low-cost carriers network configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Lordan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The network strategies used by airline carriers have been a recurring subject in air transport research. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the different operational characteristics of the airline and its route network configuration. Design/methodology/approach: The two main airline carrier typologies - Full-Service and Low-Cost carriers – are analysed using empirical models developed on complex network research relating them to the business model of the airlines. Findings and Originality/value: Just in Europe, one can differentiate between Full-Service and Low-Cost Carriers by complex network analyses. In this process, it has been also found that new concept Low-Cost Carriers, such as Vueling, have network properties closer to Full-Service Carriers. Research limitations/implications: This paper has a limited sample, as includes 26 airline case studies from Europe, United States and Asia. Practical implications: The analysis carried out in this research can help to the assessment of the evolution of the strategies of airline carriers, and has also operational implications, since the configuration of an airline route network can determine its resilience to attacks and errors. Social implications: A better understanding of the properties of airline route networks can benefit airlines, passengers and another stakeholders of the air transport industry. Originality/value: Current research on air transport networks has only considered the global or regional level, but few studies have addressed the study of airline transport networks, and its relationship with their business model.

  9. A Low Cost Inflatable CubeSat Drag Brake Utilizing Sublimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Adam Charles

    The United Nations Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee has adopted a 25-year post-mission lifetime requirement for any satellite orbiting below 2000 km in order to mitigate the growing orbital debris threat. Low-cost CubeSats have become important satellite platforms with startling capabilities, but this guideline restricts them to altitudes below 600 km because they remain in orbit too long. In order to enable CubeSat deployments at higher release altitudes, a low-cost, ultra-reliable deorbit device is needed. This thesis reports on efforts to develop a deployable and passively inflatable drag brake that can deorbit from higher orbital altitudes, thereby complying with the 25-year orbital lifetime guideline. On the basis of concepts first implemented during the NASA Echo Satellite Project, this study investigated the design of an inflatable CubeSat drag device that utilizes sublimating benzoic acid powder as the inflation propellant. Testing has focused on demonstrating the functionality of charging a Mylar drag brake bladder with appropriate quantities of benzoic acid powder, and the exposure to a controlled-temperature vacuum chamber causing the bladder to inflate. Although results show a measureable increase in internal pressure when introduced to anticipated orbital temperatures, a significant air-derived expansion prior to sublimation was encountered due to the undetectable volume of ambient residual air in the fabricated membrane bladders. These tests have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, thereby demonstrating that this concept can create a potentially smaller and less expensive drag device, eliminating inflation gas tanks and valves. In that way, this system can provide a low-cost, miniaturized system that reduces a CubeSat's orbital lifetime to less than 25 years, when placed at higher orbital altitude.

  10. A Rapid and Low-Cost PCR Thermal Cycler for Infectious Disease Diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available The ability to make rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases broadly available in a portable, low-cost format would mark a great step forward in global health. Many molecular diagnostic assays are developed based on using thermal cyclers to carry out polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse-transcription PCR for DNA and RNA amplification and detection, respectively. Unfortunately, most commercial thermal cyclers are expensive and need continuous electrical power supply, so they are not suitable for uses in low-resource settings. We have previously reported a low-cost and simple approach to amplify DNA using vacuum insulated stainless steel thermoses food cans, which we have named it thermos thermal cycler or TTC. Here, we describe the use of an improved set up to enable the detection of viral RNA targets by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR, thus expanding the TTC's ability to identify highly infectious, RNA virus-based diseases in low resource settings. The TTC was successful in demonstrating high-speed and sensitive detection of DNA or RNA targets of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV/AIDS, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and dengue fever. Our innovative TTC costs less than $200 to build and has a capacity of at least eight tubes. In terms of speed, the TTC's performance exceeded that of commercial thermal cyclers tested. When coupled with low-cost endpoint detection technologies such as nucleic acid lateral-flow assay or a cell-phone-based fluorescence detector, the TTC will increase the availability of on-site molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN RGB AND RGB-D CAMERAS FOR SUPPORTING LOW-COST GNSS URBAN NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rossi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A pure GNSS navigation is often unreliable in urban areas because of the presence of obstructions, thus preventing a correct reception of the satellite signal. The bridging between GNSS outages, as well as the vehicle attitude reconstruction, can be recovered by using complementary information, such as visual data acquired by RGB-D or RGB cameras. In this work, the possibility of integrating low-cost GNSS and visual data by means of an extended Kalman filter has been investigated. The focus is on the comparison between the use of RGB-D or RGB cameras. In particular, a Microsoft Kinect device (second generation and a mirrorless Canon EOS M RGB camera have been compared. The former is an interesting RGB-D camera because of its low-cost, easiness of use and raw data accessibility. The latter has been selected for the high-quality of the acquired images and for the possibility of mounting fixed focal length lenses with a lower weight and cost with respect to a reflex camera. The designed extended Kalman filter takes as input the GNSS-only trajectory and the relative orientation between subsequent pairs of images. Depending on the visual data acquisition system, the filter is different because RGB-D cameras acquire both RGB and depth data, allowing to solve the scale problem, which is instead typical of image-only solutions. The two systems and filtering approaches were assessed by ad-hoc experimental tests, showing that the use of a Kinect device for supporting a u-blox low-cost receiver led to a trajectory with a decimeter accuracy, that is 15 % better than the one obtained when using the Canon EOS M camera.

  12. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarsa, Eric [Cree, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  13. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  14. Low-cost feedstock conversion to biodiesel via ultrasound technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, O.; Petrik, L.; Amigun, B.; Ameer, F. [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Amigun, B. [Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-10-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock - in this case waste cooking oil - in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 {sup o}C, a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration were obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. (authors)

  15. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babajide, Omotola [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Petrik, Leslie [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa); Amigun, Bamikole [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa) and Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ameer, Faraouk [Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-09-15

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 deg C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  16. Low-cost activation analysis at small research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, G P; Lemmel, H; Niedermaier, M R; Joestl, K; Schröder, P; Böck, H H; Schachner, H; Klapfer, E

    2003-01-01

    A software implementation of a loss-free counting multichannel analyzer, storing immediately into the multimegabyte memory of a low-cost 486 or Pentium type PC, enables the real-time control of a rabbit system as well as the collection of up to 1000 pairs of simultaneously recorded loss-corrected and non-corrected spectra of 16 k channels each, in a true sequence without time gaps in between, at throughput rates of up to 200 kc/s. Intended for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions, the system renders possible peak to background optimizations and separations of lines with different half-lives without an a priori knowledge of sample composition by summing up appropriate numbers of spectra over appropriate intervals of time. By automatically adapting the noise filtering time to individual pulse intervals, the Preloaded Digital Filter (PLDF) combines low- to medium-rate resolutions comparable to those of high-quality Gaussian amplifiers with throughput rates of up to 100 kc/s, and high-rate reso...

  17. Applications Of A Low Cost System For Industrial Automatic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, C.; Ayache, A.; Bruel, A.

    1987-05-01

    In industrial environment, some repetitive tasks wich do not need a high degree of understanding, can be solved automatically owing to Vision. Among the systems available on the market, most of them are rather expensive with various capabilities. The described system is a modular system, built with some standard circuit boards. One of the advantages of this system is that its architecture can be redefined for each application, by assembling judiciously the standard modules. The vision system has been used successfully to sort fruits according to their colour and diameter. The system can sort 8 fruits per second on each sorting line and manage simultaneously up to 16 lines. An application of sheep skin cutting has been implemented too. After chemical and mechanical treatments, the skins present many defaults all around their contour, that must be cut off. A movable camera follows and inspects the contour ; the vision system determines where the cutting device must cut the skin. A third application has been implemented ; it concerns automatic recording and reproduction of logotypes. A moving camera driven by the system picks up the points, of the logotype contours. Before reproduction, programs can modify the logotypes shape, change the scale, and so on. For every application, the system uses the world smallest CCD camera developped in the laboratory. The small dimensions of the vision system and its low cost are major advantages for a wide use in industrial automatic inspection.

  18. Low-Cost Chemical-Responsive Adhesive Sensing Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weirui; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Wei

    2017-12-06

    Chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip is a new low-cost analytical platform that uses adhesive tape loaded with indicator reagents to detect or quantify the target analytes by directly sticking the tape to the samples of interest. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chips can be used with paper to analyze aqueous samples; they can also be used to detect and quantify solid, particulate, and powder analytes. The colorimetric indicators become immediately visible as the contact between the functionalized adhesives and target samples is made. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip expands the capability of paper-based analytical devices to analyze solid, particulate, or powder materials via one-step operation. It is also a simpler alternative way, to the covalent chemical modification of paper, to eliminate indicator leaching from the dipstick-style paper sensors. Chemical-responsive adhesive chips can display analytical results in the form of colorimetric dot patterns, symbols, and texts, enabling clear understanding of assay results by even nonprofessional users. In this work, we demonstrate the analyses of heavy metal salts in silica powder matrix, heavy metal ions in water, and bovine serum albumin in an aqueous solution. The detection is one-step, specific, sensitive, and easy-to-operate.

  19. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.

    2016-06-01

    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  20. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  1. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  2. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.

    2015-09-01

    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  3. Odometry and Low-Cost Sensor Fusion in Tmm Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzino, A. M.; Taglioretti, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the most powerful motion model and filtering technique to represent an urban terrestrial mobile mapping (TMM) survey and ultimately to obtain the best representation of the car trajectory. The authors want to test how far a motion model and a more or less refined filtering technique could bring benefits in the determination of the car trajectory. To achieve the necessary data for the application of the motion models and the filtering techniques described in the article, the authors realized a TMM survey in the urban centre of Turin by equipping a vehicle with various instruments: a low-cost action-cam also able to record the GPS trace of the vehicle even in the presence of obstructions, an inertial measurement system and an odometer. The results of analysis show in the article indicate that the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) technique provides good results in the determination of the vehicle trajectory, especially if the motion model considers more states (such as the positions, the tangential velocity, the angular velocity, the heading, the acceleration). The authors also compared the results obtained with a motion model characterized by four, five and six states. A natural corollary to this work would be the introduction to the UKF of the photogrammetric information obtained by the same camera placed on board the vehicle. These data would permit to establish how photogrammetric measurements can improve the quality of TMM solutions, especially in the absence of GPS signals (like urban canyons).

  4. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.

    2017-05-01

    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  5. Characterization of a Large, Low-Cost 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imagery-based 3D scanning can be performed by scanners with multiple form factors, ranging from small and inexpensive scanners requiring manual movement around a stationary object to large freestanding (nearly instantaneous units. Small mobile units are problematic for use in scanning living creatures, which may be unwilling or unable to (or for the very young and animals, unaware of the need to hold a fixed position for an extended period of time. Alternately, very high cost scanners that can capture a complete scan within a few seconds are available, but they are cost prohibitive for some applications. This paper seeks to assess the performance of a large, low-cost 3D scanner, presented in prior work, which is able to concurrently capture imagery from all around an object. It provides the capabilities of the large, freestanding units at a price point akin to the smaller, mobile ones. This allows access to 3D scanning technology (particularly for applications requiring instantaneous imaging at a lower cost. Problematically, prior analysis of the scanner’s performance was extremely limited. This paper characterizes the efficacy of the scanner for scanning both inanimate objects and humans. Given the importance of lighting to visible light scanning systems, the scanner’s performance under multiple lighting configurations is evaluated, characterizing its sensitivity to lighting design.

  6. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  7. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  8. Printable low-cost sensor systems for healthcare smart textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Smart textiles-based wearable health monitoring systems (ST-HMS) have been presented as elegant solutions to the requirements of individuals across a wide range of ages. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. Business and academic interests, all over the world, have fueled a great deal of work in the development of this technology since 1990. However, two important impediments to the development of ST-HMS are:-integration of flexible electrodes, flexible sensors, signal conditioning circuits and data logging or wireless transmission devices into a seamless garment and a means to mass manufacture the same, while keeping the costs low. Roll-to-roll printing and screen printing are two low cost methods for large scale manufacturing on flexible substrates and can be extended to textiles as well. These two methods are, currently, best suited for planar structures. The sensors, integrated with wireless telemetry, facilitate development of a ST-HMS that allows for unobtrusive health monitoring. In this paper, we present our results with planar screen printable sensors based on conductive inks which can be used to monitor EKG, abdominal respiration effort, blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature. The sensor systems were calibrated, and tested for sensitivity, reliability and robustness to ensure reuse after washing cycles.

  9. Low cost plastic scintillator by using commercial polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktar, O.; Ari, G.; Guenduez, O.; Demirel, H.; Demirbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors have been used in nuclear and high energy physics for many decades. Among their benefits are fast response, ease of manufacture and versatility. Their main drawbacks are radiation resistance and cost. Plastic Scintillators can be described as solid materials which contain organic fluorescent compounds dissolved within a polymer matri10. Transparent plastics commonly used for light scintillation are Polystyrene (or PS, poly-vinyl-benzene) and polyvinyl-toluene (or PVT, poly-methyl-styron). In this activity, preliminary studies for low cost plastic scintillator production by using commercial polystyrene pellets and extrusion method were aimed. For this purpose, PS blocks consist of commercial fluorescent dopant were prepared by an extruder in SANAEM. Molds suitable for extruder were designed and manufactured and optimum production parameters such as extrusion temperature profile, extrusion rate and pressure were obtained. Plastic blocks prepared were optically and mechanically tested and its response against various radioactive sources was measured.This study has shown that plastic scintillators imported can be produced in SANAEM domestically and be used for detection of radioactive materials within the country or border gates.

  10. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Campo dell'Orto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient’s safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n=67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians.

  11. Assessment of a Low-Cost Ultrasound Pericardiocentesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo dell'Orto, Marco; Hempel, Dorothea; Starzetz, Agnieszka; Seibel, Armin; Hannemann, Ulf; Walcher, Felix; Breitkreutz, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The use of ultrasound during resuscitation is emphasized in the latest European resuscitation council guidelines of 2013 to identify treatable conditions such as pericardial tamponade. The recommended standard treatment of tamponade in various guidelines is pericardiocentesis. As ultrasound guidance lowers the complication rates and increases the patient's safety, pericardiocentesis should be performed under ultrasound guidance. Acute care physicians actually need to train emergency pericardiocentesis. Methods. We describe in detail a pericardiocentesis ultrasound model, using materials at a cost of about 60 euros. During training courses of focused echocardiography n = 67, participants tested the phantom and completed a 16-item questionnaire, assessing the model using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results. Eleven of fourteen questions were answered with a mean VAS score higher than 60% and thus regarded as showing the strengths of the model. Unrealistically outer appearance and heart shape were rated as weakness of the model. A total mean VAS score of all questions of 63% showed that participants gained confidence for further interventions. Conclusions. Our low-cost pericardiocentesis model, which can be easily constructed, may serve as an effective training tool of ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis for acute and critical care physicians. PMID:24288616

  12. Low cost light-sheet microscopy for whole brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Nasenbeny, Jordan; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia

    2018-02-01

    Light-sheet microscopy has evolved as an indispensable tool in imaging biological samples. It can image 3D samples at fast speed, with high-resolution optical sectioning, and with reduced photobleaching effects. These properties make light-sheet microscopy ideal for imaging fluorophores in a variety of biological samples and organisms, e.g. zebrafish, drosophila, cleared mouse brains, etc. While most commercial turnkey light-sheet systems are expensive, the existing lower cost implementations, e.g. OpenSPIM, are focused on achieving high-resolution imaging of small samples or organisms like zebrafish. In this work, we substantially reduce the cost of light-sheet microscope system while targeting to image much larger samples, i.e. cleared mouse brains, at single-cell resolution. The expensive components of a lightsheet system - excitation laser, water-immersion objectives, and translation stage - are replaced with an incoherent laser diode, dry objectives, and a custom-built Arduino-controlled translation stage. A low-cost CUBIC protocol is used to clear fixed mouse brain samples. The open-source platforms of μManager and Fiji support image acquisition, processing, and visualization. Our system can easily be extended to multi-color light-sheet microscopy.

  13. A Low Cost Mechatronics Device for STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Larry Eugene, Jr.

    All of the low-cost STEM education devices currently available are limited in function which limits learning. The motivation was to design and develop a device that will intrigue post-secondary students to learn STEM education concepts in a hands-on manner. The device needed to be open source so as to lower the cost to make it available to more students. And, making it feature rich was important for use with multiple projects the students may encounter or build themselves as they grow. The device has provided visual and physical feedback to students making the device more intriguing to use. Using the open-source C compiler reduced cost for students to use the device and taught them how to use an industry standard programming language. Students enjoyed the WAV file rendering for sound effects and LED lighting effects from the device. Most interviewees were intrigued by the device for use in their training facilities and classrooms. There are a couple of multi-axis controllers available but none with position feedback. Ethernet or Bluetooth interfacing was mentioned as a future feature and it was encouraged by nearly all who were interviewed.

  14. Very low cost multichannel analyzer with some additional features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudyka, Konrad, E-mail: konrad.tudyka@polsl.pl [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland); Bluszcz, Andrzej [Centre of Excellence-Gliwice Absolute Dating Methods Centre, Institute of Physics, Silesian University of Technology (Poland)

    2011-12-11

    In this paper we present a multichannel analyzer (MCA) based on a digital signal controller (DSC). The multichannel analyzer is characterized by a very low cost and an additional feature of recording time intervals between pulses. The total cost of electronic parts used in construction of the MCA is around 50 USD. The electronic circuit is based on dsPIC30F2020 DSC unit from Microchip. The device has a 10-bit analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) which can sample and convert 2 samples per {mu}s. The DSC samples the input voltage continuously and detects incoming pulses. The data belonging to a detected pulse and its time stamp are sent to a PC on-line. The analysis of data stored on the PC is performed off-line with the help of a genetic algorithm (GA) used to fit the pulse shape function. This allows determination of amplitude of each individual pulse. The effective resolution varies with the pulse length and is typically 1000 channels for pulses approximately 4{mu}s long.

  15. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  16. Low-cost electrodes for stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João P.; Manghooli, Sara; Jaysankar, Manoj; Tait, Jeffrey G.; Qiu, Weiming; Gehlhaar, Robert; De Volder, Michael; Uytterhoeven, Griet; Poortmans, Jef; Paetzold, Ulrich W.

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effective production of perovskite solar cells on an industrial scale requires the utilization of exclusively inexpensive materials. However, to date, highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells rely on expensive gold electrodes since other metal electrodes are known to cause degradation of the devices. Finding a low-cost electrode that can replace gold and ensure both efficiency and long-term stability is essential for the success of the perovskite-based solar cell technology. In this work, we systematically compare three types of electrode materials: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), alternative metals (silver, aluminum, and copper), and transparent oxides [indium tin oxide (ITO)] in terms of efficiency, stability, and cost. We show that multi-walled carbon nanotubes are the only electrode that is both more cost-effective and stable than gold. Devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes present remarkable shelf-life stability, with no decrease in the efficiency even after 180 h of storage in 77% relative humidity (RH). Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of devices with multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to achieve high efficiencies. These developments are an important step forward to mass produce perovskite photovoltaics in a commercially viable way.

  17. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  18. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  19. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  20. Technical features of a low-cost earthquake alert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyzes the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5,000 annually to maintain

  1. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  2. Mechanical design of a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hijazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator with small-to moderate size for direct electricity generation. Such model can be installed in rural areas which are not connected to governmental grid. Three diameters of the dish; 5, 10 and 20 m are investigated and the focal point to dish diameter ratio is set to be 0.3 in all studied cases. Special attention is given to the selection of the appropriate dimensions of the reflecting surfaces to be cut from the available sheets in the market aiming to reduce both cutting cost and sheets cost. The dimensions of the ribs and rings which support the reflecting surface are optimized in order to minimize the entire weight of the dish while providing the minimum possible total deflection and stresses in the beams. The study applies full stress analysis of the frame of the dish using Autodesk Inventor. The study recommends to use landscape orientation for the reflective facets and increase the ribs angle and the distance between the connecting rings. The methodology presented is robust and can be extended to larger dish diameters.

  3. The ethological approach as a new way of investigating behavioural health in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafforin, Carole

    2011-04-01

    From an interdisciplinary perspective, the goal of our research in human ethology is to investigate the adaptive dynamics of small groups in isolation and confinement with a particular emphasis on unexplored environments, from circumpolar missions on earth to interplanetary missions in space. The ethological observations were designed to monitor the polar teams on the Subantarctic islands, the Antarctic continent and the Arctic Ocean. The working hypothesis viewed the periodic changes in the groups' organization as optimal behavioural strategies in extreme living and working conditions. The general methodological feature is a quantitative description of observable events based on the motor activity of individuals, interactions and communications among individuals and spatial mapping in collective areas. We observed group organization, group disorganization and group reorganization over extended time periods in the polar stations. Cultural grouping and gender-based individualities were observed as well. Focusing on the Tara Expedition in the Arctic, we observed variations in spatial indicators, including inter-individual positions, and in temporal indicators, like collective times, as behavioural strategies for preventing the monotony of social life. The ethological approach, using non-invasive techniques of observation, description and quantification of spontaneous human behaviour, offers an innovative and complementary tool for sociocultural approaches, enhancing the knowledge of contemporary circumpolar micro-societies. With the changing of environmental context, the Arctic natives would undertake changes in their group organization for maintaining their behavioural health. Such social adaptation could be investigated with this new approach in the field.

  4. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  5. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Pieniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. Methods/design This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers’ attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1 Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2 Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3 Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. Trial

  6. Discovery of high-performance low-cost n-type Mg3Sb2-based thermoelectric materials with multi-valley conduction bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Pedersen, Steffen Hindborg

    2017-01-01

    Widespread application of thermoelectric devices for waste heat recovery requires low-cost high-performance materials. The currently available n-type thermoelectric materials are limited either by their low efficiencies or by being based on expensive, scarce or toxic elements. Here we report a low-cost...... because of the multi-valley band behaviour dominated by a unique near-edge conduction band with a sixfold valley degeneracy. This makes Te-doped Mg3Sb1.5Bi0.5 a promising candidate for the low- and intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications....

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  8. Parameters affecting the performance of a low cost solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.; Imteaz, M.; Thomas, U.A.; Azmi, M.; Rahman, A.; Nik Daud, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The triangular solar still is designed using cheap and durable materials. • The initial water depth has an inverse relationship with the production. • The water productivity is nearly proportional to the solar radiation. • The water quality parameters are within the accepted ranges of drinking water. - Abstract: This study aims at developing a low cost technique to be used in rural and coastal areas for converting saline water into potable water using solar energy. A triangular solar still (TrSS) was, therefore, designed and developed with cheap, lightweight, local and available materials. A number of field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of solar radiation intensity, ambient air temperature and the initial water depth on the daily water production of the TrSS. A time lag of about and hour between the hourly peaks of solar radiation and water production is observed. Finally, a few essential relationships were attained, e.g. between the daily production and the initial water depth, between the daily production and daily solar radiation, and between the daily production and the average ambient temperature. The effect of the initial water depth in the basin on the daily water productivity was evaluated by varying the water depths (1.5, 2.5 and 5 cm) with the climatic condition of Malaysia and an inverse proportional relationship was revealed between them. However, the daily water productivity is nearly proportional to the daily solar radiation. In addition, some important water quality parameters were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the distillate quality and were then compared with the drinking water standards

  9. Removal of arsenic from groundwater with low cost multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, A.; Rahman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 +- 4.2 micro g/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk's ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper) of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III) under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 micro g/L), sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk's ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper), particle size (<355 micro m), treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min), optimum volume (100 mL) and pH (5.0). Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 +- 1.2% - 82 +- 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 +- 0.4 micro g/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe) in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water. (author)

  10. Removal of Arsenic from Groundwater with Low Cost Multilayer Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Samad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 ± 4.2 µg/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk’s ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 µg/L, sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk’s ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper, particle size (<355 µm, treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min, optimum volume (100 mL and pH (5.0. Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 ± 1.2% - 82 ± 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 ± 0.4 µg/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water.

  11. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  12. A low cost tele-imaging platform for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokou eADAMBOUNOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To design a low cost tele-imaging method allowing real time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centres and university hospital centres (expert centre.Materials and Methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centres, allows a real time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g. midwife, nurse, technician. The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography and computer tomography for example. The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40km from Lomé-Togo and 4500km from Tours-France and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours.Results: A real time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 seconds with an internet bandwidth of around 1Mbps (IP Camera and 512kbps (remote access software. A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient centre to the expert centre was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.

  13. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  14. A Low-Cost "Stationary Eye" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, R.; Lande, K.; Mitchell, R.; Wildenhain, P.; Hoang, N.; Langford, J.

    1997-12-01

    We are developing a stationary, near the top of the atmosphere, astronomical observing system. The platform is a high altitude robotic aircraft (THESEUS) flying in anti-sense to Earth's rotation at a latitude where the plane's speed closely matches the local ground spin velocity. Thus, either an extended day or night viewing program of a given object can be achieved. Our intention here concentrates on astronomical targets. The system consists of the following components. (1) A low cost robotic aircraft that can fly at an altitude of about 25 km. for 30 to 40 hours with differential GPS navigation. Real time control of the aircraft and the observing instruments is either by on-board computer or from the ground via low altitude, commercial satellite communications systems (Iridium, Teledesic, etc.). (2) A siderostat-fed telescope of small f-ratio is attached to the aircraft via critically damped mechanical isolators. An electronic camera at the prime focus looks at a chosen astronomical target. (3) Image smear due to aircraft engine vibration will be eliminated by a combination of critically damped mechanical isolators and electronic CCD pixel jogging. Very precise piezo- electric driven transverse translation of the CCD camera will be used to compensate for wind induced drift of the image on the focal plane. Bright field stars will be used to drive the stabilizing system. (4) Data are stored on high capacity ruggedized hard drives similar to that used by the Mars Lander. The Aurora THESEUS aircraft, whose design is based upon earlier models, is under development. The image stabilizing system components have been identified. An off-the-shelf data-storage device has been chosen. A first prototype telescope has been built and tested. Other optical configurations are possible and collaborators will be welcomed.

  15. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  16. Low-cost structured-light based 3D capture system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Bengtson, Kurt R.; Robinson, Barrett F.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the 3D capture products currently in the market are high-end and pricey. They are not targeted for consumers, but rather for research, medical, or industrial usage. Very few aim to provide a solution for home and small business applications. Our goal is to fill in this gap by only using low-cost components to build a 3D capture system that can satisfy the needs of this market segment. In this paper, we present a low-cost 3D capture system based on the structured-light method. The system is built around the HP TopShot LaserJet Pro M275. For our capture device, we use the 8.0 Mpixel camera that is part of the M275. We augment this hardware with two 3M MPro 150 VGA (640 × 480) pocket projectors. We also describe an analytical approach to predicting the achievable resolution of the reconstructed 3D object based on differentials and small signal theory, and an experimental procedure for validating that the system under test meets the specifications for reconstructed object resolution that are predicted by our analytical model. By comparing our experimental measurements from the camera-projector system with the simulation results based on the model for this system, we conclude that our prototype system has been correctly configured and calibrated. We also conclude that with the analytical models, we have an effective means for specifying system parameters to achieve a given target resolution for the reconstructed object.

  17. Low cost, multiscale and multi-sensor application for flooded area mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Giordan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flood mapping and estimation of the maximum water depth are essential elements for the first damage evaluation, civil protection intervention planning and detection of areas where remediation is needed. In this work, we present and discuss a methodology for mapping and quantifying flood severity over floodplains. The proposed methodology considers a multiscale and multi-sensor approach using free or low-cost data and sensors. We applied this method to the November 2016 Piedmont (northwestern Italy flood. We first mapped the flooded areas at the basin scale using free satellite data from low- to medium-high-resolution from both the SAR (Sentinel-1, COSMO-Skymed and multispectral sensors (MODIS, Sentinel-2. Using very- and ultra-high-resolution images from the low-cost aerial platform and remotely piloted aerial system, we refined the flooded zone and detected the most damaged sector. The presented method considers both urbanised and non-urbanised areas. Nadiral images have several limitations, in particular in urbanised areas, where the use of terrestrial images solved this limitation. Very- and ultra-high-resolution images were processed with structure from motion (SfM for the realisation of 3-D models. These data, combined with an available digital terrain model, allowed us to obtain maps of the flooded area, maximum high water area and damaged infrastructures.

  18. Metal-free supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte and low-cost carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Nicklas; Wells, Thomas; Andres, Britta; Bäckström, Joakim; Forsberg, Sven; Olin, Håkan

    2017-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SCs) are fast energy storage devices with high pulse efficiency and superior cyclability, which makes them useful in various applications including electronics, vehicles and grids. Aqueous SCs are considered to be more environmentally friendly than those based on organic electrolytes. Because of the corrosive nature of the aqueous environment, however, expensive electrochemically stable materials are needed for the current collectors and electrodes in aqueous SCs. This results in high costs for a given energy-storage capacity. To address this, we developed a novel low-cost aqueous SC using graphite foil as the current collector and a mix of graphene, nanographite, simple water-purification carbons and nanocellulose as electrodes. The electrodes were coated directly onto the graphite foil by using casting frames and the SCs were assembled in a pouch cell design. With this approach, we achieved a material cost reduction of greater than 90% while maintaining approximately one-half of the specific capacitance of a commercial unit, thus demonstrating that the proposed SC can be an environmentally friendly, low-cost alternative to conventional SCs.

  19. Assessing the feasibility of implementing low-cost virtual reality therapy during routine burn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Cameron G; Manegold, Ellen M; Randall, Cameron L; Aballay, Ariel M; Duncan, Christina L

    2018-06-01

    Burn care often involves procedures that result in significant pain experiences for patients which, in turn, can lead to poorer physical and psychological health outcomes. Distraction and virtual reality (VR) are an effective adjunct to pharmacological interventions in reducing pain. Much of the research that has demonstrated efficacy for VR in burn care has involved expensive and extensive technology. Thus, identifying cost-effective, feasible, acceptable, and effective approaches to apply distraction within routine burn care is important. The objective of this mixed-methods study was to evaluate key stakeholder (i.e., patients, providers) perceptions of feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness for the use of low-cost VR technology during routine burn care with adult patients. Ten adult patients used VR during burn care dressing changes in an outpatient clinic setting, after which they completed a satisfaction survey and individual qualitative interview. Providers also completed a satisfaction/perception survey after each participant's care. Quantitative and qualitative results from both patient and provider perspectives consistently supported the feasibility and utility of applying low-cost VR technology in this outpatient burn clinic setting. Special considerations (e.g., aspects to consider when choosing an apparatus or application) stemming from stakeholder feedback are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switz, Neil A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  1. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brienza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  2. Low-cost mobile phone microscopy with a reversed mobile phone camera lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Switz

    Full Text Available The increasing capabilities and ubiquity of mobile phones and their associated digital cameras offer the possibility of extending low-cost, portable diagnostic microscopy to underserved and low-resource areas. However, mobile phone microscopes created by adding magnifying optics to the phone's camera module have been unable to make use of the full image sensor due to the specialized design of the embedded camera lens, exacerbating the tradeoff between resolution and field of view inherent to optical systems. This tradeoff is acutely felt for diagnostic applications, where the speed and cost of image-based diagnosis is related to the area of the sample that can be viewed at sufficient resolution. Here we present a simple and low-cost approach to mobile phone microscopy that uses a reversed mobile phone camera lens added to an intact mobile phone to enable high quality imaging over a significantly larger field of view than standard microscopy. We demonstrate use of the reversed lens mobile phone microscope to identify red and white blood cells in blood smears and soil-transmitted helminth eggs in stool samples.

  3. a Low-Cost Panoramic Camera for the 3d Documentation of Contaminated Crime Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Toschi, I.; Sturdy-Colls, C.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    Crime scene documentation is a fundamental task which has to be undertaken in a fast, accurate and reliable way, highlighting evidence which can be further used for ensuring justice for victims and for guaranteeing the successful prosecution of perpetrators. The main focus of this paper is on the documentation of a typical crime scene and on the rapid recording of any possible contamination that could have influenced its original appearance. A 3D reconstruction of the environment is first generated by processing panoramas acquired with the low-cost Ricoh Theta 360 camera, and further analysed to highlight potentials and limits of this emerging and consumer-grade technology. Then, a methodology is proposed for the rapid recording of changes occurring between the original and the contaminated crime scene. The approach is based on an automatic 3D feature-based data registration, followed by a cloud-to-cloud distance computation, given as input the 3D point clouds generated before and after e.g. the misplacement of evidence. All the algorithms adopted for panoramas pre-processing, photogrammetric 3D reconstruction, 3D geometry registration and analysis, are presented and currently available in open-source or low-cost software solutions.

  4. Fast-track, low-cost construction starts with the owner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.

    1992-01-01

    As we approach the threshold of a new round of ordering of base load generating capacity after a 15-year hiatus, power pant owners are taking a long, hard look at construction. The last round of base load construction was plagued with construction cost overruns and delays. Billions of dollars in cost overruns, many attributable to construction delays, were not allowed to be placed in utilities' rate bases. Those problems will not be tolerated in the next round. During the past few years the construction climate has changed. Non-utility power producers have demonstrated and ability to build small power plants-including many steam plants burning solid fuels-quickly and at surprisingly low costs. In this paper the cost-plus approach traditionally taken by more utilities, who will lead in the base-load construction phase, is being seriously questioned

  5. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  6. A socio-technical approach to improving retail energy efficiency behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, Sian; Waterson, Patrick; Dainty, Andrew; Daniels, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the UK retail sector has made a significant contribution to societal responses on carbon reduction. We provide a novel and timely examination of environmental sustainability from a systems perspective, exploring how energy-related technologies and strategies are incorporated into organisational life. We use a longitudinal case study approach, looking at behavioural energy efficiency from within one of the UK's leading retailers. Our data covers a two-year period, with qualitative data from a total of 131 participants gathered using phased interviews and focus groups. We introduce an adapted socio-technical framework approach in order to describe an existing organisational behavioural strategy to support retail energy efficiency. Our findings point to crucial socio-technical and goal-setting factors which both impede and/or enable energy efficient behaviours, these include: tensions linked to store level perception of energy management goals; an emphasis on the importance of technology for underpinning change processes; and, the need for feedback and incentives to support the completion of energy-related tasks. We also describe the evolution of a practical operational intervention designed to address issues raised in our findings. Our study provides fresh insights into how sustainable workplace behaviours can be achieved and sustained over time. Secondly, we discuss in detail a set of issues arising from goal conflict in the workplace; these include the development of a practical energy management strategy to facilitate secondary organisational goals through job redesign. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Autogenic Training as a behavioural approach to insomnia: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Ann; Lorenc, Ava; Robinson, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    Insomnia is commonly associated with chronic health problems. Behavioural and cognitive factors often perpetuate a vicious cycle of anxiety and sleep disturbance, leading to long-term insomnia. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence currently recommends behavioural approaches before prescribing hypnotics. Behavioural approaches aim to treat underlying causes, but are not widely available. Research usually includes patients diagnosed with insomnia rather than secondary, co-morbid sleep- related problems. To examine the effectiveness of autogenic training (AT) as a non-drug approach to sleep-related problems associated with chronic ill health. Prospective pre- and post-treatment cohort study. AT centre, Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. All patients referred for AT from April 2007 to April 2008 were invited to participate. Participants received standard 8-week training, with no specific focus on sleep. Sleep questionnaires were administered at four time points, 'Measure Your Medical Outcome Profile' (MYMOP) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, before and after treatment. Results before and after treatment were compared. Camden and Islington Community Local Research and Ethics Committee approved the study. The AT course was completed by 153 participants, of whom 73% were identified as having a sleep-related problem. Improvements in sleep patterns included: sleep onset latency (P = 0.049), falling asleep quicker after night waking (P training. AT may provide an approach to insomnia that could be incorporated into primary care.

  8. How to Mobilize your Library at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Abarca Villoldo

    2012-09-01

    tools are available free of charge. In other words, these are low-cost tools that offer high returns to the user.

  9. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  10. Low-cost commercial glass beads as dosimeters in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, S.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Gouldstone, C.A.; Sharpe, P.H.G.; Alalawi, A.; Jordan, T.J.; Clark, C.H.; Nisbet, A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced radiotherapy techniques using small field photon beams, require small detectors to determine the delivered dose in steep dose gradient fields. Commercially available glass jewellery beads exhibit thermoluminescent properties and have the potential to be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy due to their small size ( 60 Co gamma rays over doses ranging from 1 to 2500 cGy. A thermoluminescence (TL) system and an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) system were employed for read out. Both the TL and EPR studies demonstrated a radiation-induced signal, the sensitivity of which varied with bead colour. White coloured beads proved to be the most sensitive for both systems. The smallest and therefore least sensitive bead sizes allowed measurement of doses of 1 cGy using the TL system while that for the EPR system was approximately 1000 cGy. The fading rate was found to be 10% 30 days after irradiation with both readout systems. The dose response is linear with measured dose over the dose range 1 to 2500 cGy, with an R 2 correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The batch-to-batch reproducibility of a set of dosimeters after a single irradiation was found to be 3% (1 SD). The reproducibility of individual dosimeters was found to be 1.7%. No measurable angular dependence was found (results agreed within 1%). Dose rate response was found to agree within 1% for dose rates of 100 to 600 cGy/min. These results demonstrate the potential use of glass beads as TL dosimeters over the dose range commonly applied in radiotherapy. - Highlights: • We examined the dosimetric properties of a low cost commercially produced glass seed beads. • Glass beads are available in small size of 1–3 mm, suitable for dosimetry of small radiation fields. • The results demonstrate a mean reproducibility of 0.23% (2 SD), batch homogeneity of within 5%. • Dose response was linear over wide dose range tested for 1 cGy to kGy. • Improved fading effect of 10

  11. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  12. Development of a low-cost sun sensor for nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonello, Andrea; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Sun sensors represent a common and reliable technology for attitude determination, employed in many space missions thanks to their limited size and weight. Typically, two-axis digital Sun sensors employ an array of active pixels arranged behind a small aperture; the position of the sunlight's spot allows to determine the direction of the Sun. With the advent of smaller vehicles such as CubeSats and Nanosats, there is the need to further reduce the size and weight of such devices: as a trade-off, this usually results in the curtail of the performances. Nowadays, state of the art Sun sensors for CubeSats have resolutions of about 0.5°, with fields of view in the ±45° to ±90° range, with off-the-self prices of several thousands of dollars. In this work we introduce a novel low-cost miniaturized Sun sensor, based on a commercial CMOS camera detector; its main feature is the reduced size with respect to state-of-the-art sensors developed from the same technology, making it employable on CubeSats. The sensor consists of a precisely machined pinhole with a 10 μm circular aperture, placed at a distance of 7 mm from the CMOS. The standoff distance and casing design allow for a maximum resolution of less than 0.03°, outperforming most of the products currently available for nano and pico platforms; furthermore, the nature of the technology allows for reduced size and lightweight characteristics. The design, development and laboratory tests of the sensor are here introduced, starting with the definition of the physical model, the geometrical layout and its theoretical resolution; a more accurate model was then developed in order to account for the geometrical deviations and deformations of the pinhole-projected light-spot, as well as to account for the background noise and disturbances to the electronics. Finally, the laboratory setup is presented along with the test campaigns: the results obtained are compared with the simulations, allowing for the validation of the

  13. Keeping Your Eye on the Rail: Gaze Behaviour of Horse Riders Approaching a Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carol; Varley, Ian; Kay, Rachel; Crundall, David

    2014-01-01

    The gaze behaviour of riders during their approach to a jump was investigated using a mobile eye tracking device (ASL Mobile Eye). The timing, frequency and duration of fixations on the jump and the percentage of time when their point of gaze (POG) was located elsewhere were assessed. Fixations were identified when the POG remained on the jump for 100 ms or longer. The jumping skill of experienced but non-elite riders (n = 10) was assessed by means of a questionnaire. Their gaze behaviour was recorded as they completed a course of three identical jumps five times. The speed and timing of the approach was calculated. Gaze behaviour throughout the overall approach and during the last five strides before take-off was assessed following frame-by-frame analyses. Differences in relation to both round and jump number were found. Significantly longer was spent fixated on the jump during round 2, both during the overall approach and during the last five strides (pJump 1 was fixated on significantly earlier and more frequently than jump 2 or 3 (pjump 3 than with jump 1 (p = 0.01) but there was no difference in errors made between rounds. Although no significant correlations between gaze behaviour and skill scores were found, the riders who scored higher for jumping skill tended to fixate on the jump earlier (p = 0.07), when the horse was further from the jump (p = 0.09) and their first fixation on the jump was of a longer duration (p = 0.06). Trials with elite riders are now needed to further identify sport-specific visual skills and their relationship with performance. Visual training should be included in preparation for equestrian sports participation, the positive impact of which has been clearly demonstrated in other sports. PMID:24846055

  14. A behavioural approach to financial portfolio selection problem: an empirical study using heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Grishina, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The behaviourally based portfolio selection problem with investor's loss aversion and risk aversion biases in portfolio choice under uncertainty are studied. The main results of this work are developed heuristic approaches for the prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory models proposed by Kahneman and Tversky in 1979 and 1992 as well as an empirical comparative analysis of these models ...

  15. Attitude Determination Method by Fusing Single Antenna GPS and Low Cost MEMS Sensors Using Intelligent Kalman Filter Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the demands of cost and size for micronavigation system, a combined attitude determination approach with sensor fusion algorithm and intelligent Kalman filter (IKF on low cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer and single antenna Global Positioning System (GPS is proposed. The effective calibration method is performed to compensate the effect of errors in low cost MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. The different control strategies fusing the MEMS multisensors are designed. The yaw angle fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer algorithm is estimated accurately under GPS failure and unavailable sideslip situations. For resolving robust control and characters of the uncertain noise statistics influence, the high gain scale of IKF is adjusted by fuzzy controller in the transition process and steady state to achieve faster convergence and accurate estimation. The experiments comparing different MEMS sensors and fusion algorithms are implemented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  16. Behaviour of solitary adult Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos when approached by humans on foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Kvelprud Moen

    Full Text Available Successful management has brought the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos L. back from the brink of extinction, but as the population grows and expands the probability of bear-human encounters increases. More people express concerns about spending time in the forest, because of the possibility of encountering bears, and acceptance for the bear is decreasing. In this context, reliable information about the bear's normal behaviour during bear-human encounters is important. Here we describe the behaviour of brown bears when encountering humans on foot. During 2006-2009, we approached 30 adult (21 females, 9 males GPS-collared bears 169 times during midday, using 1-minute positioning before, during and after the approach. Observer movements were registered with a handheld GPS. The approaches started 869±348 m from the bears, with the wind towards the bear when passing it at approximately 50 m. The bears were detected in 15% of the approaches, and none of the bears displayed any aggressive behaviour. Most bears (80% left the initial site during the approach, going away from the observers, whereas some remained at the initial site after being approached (20%. Young bears left more often than older bears, possibly due to differences in experience, but the difference between ages decreased during the berry season compared to the pre-berry season. The flight initiation distance was longer for active bears (115±94 m than passive bears (69±47 m, and was further affected by horizontal vegetation cover and the bear's age. Our findings show that bears try to avoid confrontations with humans on foot, and support the conclusions of earlier studies that the Scandinavian brown bear is normally not aggressive during encounters with humans.

  17. Approaches to simulate channel and fuel behaviour using CATHENA and ELOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, G.; Huynh, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents a new approach where the detailed fuel and channel thermalhydraulic calculations are performed by an integrated code. The thermalhydraulic code CATHENA is coupled with the fuel code ELOCA. The scenario used in the simulations is a 100% pump suction break, because its power pulse is large and leads to high sheath temperatures. The results shows that coupling the two codes at each time step can have an important effect on parameters such as the sheath, fuel and pressure tube temperature. In summary, this demonstrates that this original approach can model more adequately the channel and fuel behaviour under postulated large LOCAs. (author)

  18. Low cost monocrystalline silicon sheet fabrication for solar cells by advanced ingot technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, G. F.; Bonora, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous liquid feed (CLF) Czochralski furnace and the enhanced I.D. slicing technology for the low-cost production of monocrystalline silicon sheets for solar cells are discussed. The incorporation of the CLF system is shown to improve ingot production rate significantly. As demonstrated in actual runs, higher than average solidification rates (75 to 100 mm/hr for 150 mm 1-0-0 crystals) can be achieved, when the system approaches steady-state conditions. The design characteristics of the CLF furnace are detailed, noting that it is capable of precise control of dopant impurity incorporation in the axial direction of the crystal. The crystal add-on cost is computed to be $11.88/sq m, considering a projected 1986 25-slice per cm conversion factor with an 86% crystal growth yield.

  19. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Schopf, Jennifer M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Miller, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Telecommunications and Networking Services; Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  20. Nested Interrupt Analysis of Low Cost and High Performance Embedded Systems Using GSPN Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Min

    Interrupt service routines are a key technology for embedded systems. In this paper, we introduce the standard approach for using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPNs) as a high-level model for generating CTMC Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs) and then use Markov Reward Models (MRMs) to compute the performance for embedded systems. This framework is employed to analyze two embedded controllers with low cost and high performance, ARM7 and Cortex-M3. Cortex-M3 is designed with a tail-chaining mechanism to improve the performance of ARM7 when a nested interrupt occurs on an embedded controller. The Platform Independent Petri net Editor 2 (PIPE2) tool is used to model and evaluate the controllers in terms of power consumption and interrupt overhead performance. Using numerical results, in spite of the power consumption or interrupt overhead, Cortex-M3 performs better than ARM7.

  1. Implementation of a low-cost mobile devices to support medical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, Carlos; Botella Juan, Guillermo; Ayuso Márquez, Fermín; González Rodríguez, Diego; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado Fernández, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging has become an absolutely essential diagnostic tool for clinical practices; at present, pathologies can be detected with an earliness never before known. Its use has not only been relegated to the field of radiology but also, increasingly, to computer-based imaging processes prior to surgery. Motion analysis, in particular, plays an important role in analyzing activities or behaviors of live objects in medicine. This short paper presents several low-cost hardware implementation approaches for the new generation of tablets and/or smartphones for estimating motion compensation and segmentation in medical images. These systems have been optimized for breast cancer diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging technology with several advantages over traditional X-ray mammography, for example, obtaining patient information during a short period. This paper also addresses the challenge of offering a medical tool that runs on widespread portable devices, both on tablets and/or smartphones to aid in patient diagnostics.

  2. Implementation of a Low-Cost Mobile Devices to Support Medical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging has become an absolutely essential diagnostic tool for clinical practices; at present, pathologies can be detected with an earliness never before known. Its use has not only been relegated to the field of radiology but also, increasingly, to computer-based imaging processes prior to surgery. Motion analysis, in particular, plays an important role in analyzing activities or behaviors of live objects in medicine. This short paper presents several low-cost hardware implementation approaches for the new generation of tablets and/or smartphones for estimating motion compensation and segmentation in medical images. These systems have been optimized for breast cancer diagnosis using magnetic resonance imaging technology with several advantages over traditional X-ray mammography, for example, obtaining patient information during a short period. This paper also addresses the challenge of offering a medical tool that runs on widespread portable devices, both on tablets and/or smartphones to aid in patient diagnostics.

  3. A low cost and hybrid technology for integrating silicon sensors or actuators in polymer microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Samuel; Gué, Anne-Marie; Tasselli, Josiane; Marty, Antoine; Abgrall, Patrick; Estève, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new technology permitting a hybrid integration of silicon chips in polymer (PDMS and SU8) microfluidic structures. This two-step technology starts with transferring the silicon device onto a rigid substrate (typically PCB) and planarizing it, and then it proceeds with stacking of the polymer-made fluidic network onto the device. The technology is low cost, based on screen printing and lamination, can be applied to treat large surface areas, and is compatible with standard photolithography and vacuum based approaches. We show, as an example, the integration of a thermal sensor inside channels made of PDMS or SU8. The developed structures had no fluid leaks at the Si/polymer interfaces and the electrical circuit was perfectly tightproof. (note)

  4. A low-cost viscometer based on a permanent magnet dc motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabani, Amir; Challis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a pragmatic approach to, and a feasibility study of, a very low cost instrument for on-line and in situ viscosity measurement for engineering applications. It is a simple rotational instrument based on the mixer technique. It utilizes a permanent magnet dc (PMDC) motor which drives a propeller immersed in the test fluid. The viscosity is derived from the motor current when the motor is connected to a fixed supply voltage. The theory which relates PMDC motor current to the resistance to the rotational movement of a body due to the viscosity of the liquid under the test is developed. It is believed that the system provides the basis for a new generation of inexpensive viscometers for process and storage environments. (paper)

  5. Influence of approaching tram on behaviour of pedestrians in signalised crosswalks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszyna, Maciej; Rychlewski, Jeremi

    2013-06-01

    Research done in two Polish cities has uncovered an influence of an approaching tram on pedestrian behaviour. The measurements were done by counting pedestrians waiting for a green signal, crossing on red signal safely, or crossing on red signal taking a risk of being hit by a car, differentiating between pedestrians attempting to board a public transport vehicle and other pedestrians. It was expected, that pedestrian behaviour might be influenced by traffic control predictability, therefore two cities were chosen for the task: Wrocław with fixed time traffic control and Poznań with a majority of traffic responsive traffic signals. Data from the measurements was compared in order to find behaviour patterns - the comparison led to a conclusion, that an attempt to get on board of an incoming public transport vehicle can be a major cause for pedestrians to violate a red signal, including an increase of unsafe behaviour. These pedestrians may provoke other pedestrians to cross on a red signal. On the other hand if traffic control guarantees boarding the public transport vehicle, passengers-to-be may be even more obedient than other pedestrians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A person-oriented approach to hand hygiene behaviour: Emotional empathy fosters hand hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Diefenbacher, Svenja; Siegel, André; Keller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social-psychological approach, this research examines whether emotional empathy, an affective reaction regarding another's well-being, fosters hand hygiene as this affects other's health-related well-being extensively. Three studies tested this notion: (a) a cross-sectional study involving a sample of health care workers at a German hospital, (b) an experiment testing the causal effect of empathy on hand hygiene behaviour and (c) an 11-week prospective study testing whether an empathy induction affected disinfectant usage frequency in two different wards of a hospital. Self-reported hand hygiene behaviour based on day reconstruction method was measured in Study 1, actual hand sanitation behaviour was observed in Study 2 and disinfectant usage frequency in two different hospital wards was assessed in Study 3. Study 1 reveals an association of empathy with hand hygiene cross-sectionally, Study 2 documents the causal effect of empathy on increased hand sanitation. Study 3 shows an empathy induction increases hand sanitiser usage in the hospital. Increasing emotional empathy promotes hand hygiene behaviour, also in hospitals. Besides providing new impulses for the design of effective interventions, these findings bear theoretical significance as they document the explanatory power of empathy regarding a distal explanandum (hand hygiene).

  7. An evaluation of gas release modelling approaches as to their applicability in fuel behaviour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.J.; Sairanen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The release of fission gas from uranium oxide fuel to the voids in the fuel rod affects in many ways the behaviour of LWR fuel rods both during normal operating conditions including anticipated transients and during off-normal and accident conditions. The current trend towards significantly increased discharge burnup of LWR fuel will increase the importance of fission gas release considerations both from the design and safety viewpoints. In the paper fission gas release models are classified to 5 categories on the basis of complexity and physical sophistication. For each category, the basic approach common to the models included in the category is described, a few representative models of the category are singled out and briefly commented in some cases, the advantages and drawbacks of the approach are listed and discussed and conclusions on the practical feasibility of the approach are drawn. The evaluation is based on both literature survey and our experience in working with integral fuel behaviour models. The work has included verification efforts, attempts to improve certain features of the codes and engineering applications. The classification of fission gas release models regarding their applicability in fuel behaviour codes can of course be done only in a coarse manner. The boundaries between the different categories are vague and a model may be well refined in a way which transfers it to a higher category. Some current trends in fuel behaviour research are discussed which seem to motivate further extensive efforts in fission product release modelling and are certain to affect the prioritizing of the efforts. (author)

  8. A behavioural approach in the development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors: an exploratory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, S F A; Bleiker, E M A; Paalman, C H; van der Beek, A J

    2017-09-01

    The application of behavioural change models and theories has not been studied, and behavioural determinants have not been considered, in the context of cancer and work. The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of a behavioural approach in the development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors. Two search strategies were conducted to identify studies on (1) lifestyle interventions (exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and diet), based on behavioural models and theories, in cancer survivors; (2) behavioural determinants regarding work. Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched (2000-2015). Studies were assessed on their eligibility, and findings were listed and categorised. Thirty-four studies exploring lifestyle interventions in cancer survivors were retrieved. The behavioural change models and theories most regularly used were the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory. Furthermore, 26 studies on the role of behavioural determinants regarding work were found. The most frequently considered determinants were self-efficacy, social norms, workers' expectations towards work or recovery, attitude, motivation and meaning of work. The results indicate the significance of behavioural change models and theories and of behavioural determinants in related research areas, which encourages a behavioural approach in the development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Computational Sensing Using Low-Cost and Mobile Plasmonic Readers Designed by Machine Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.

    2017-01-27

    Plasmonic sensors have been used for a wide range of biological and chemical sensing applications. Emerging nanofabrication techniques have enabled these sensors to be cost-effectively mass manufactured onto various types of substrates. To accompany these advances, major improvements in sensor read-out devices must also be achieved to fully realize the broad impact of plasmonic nanosensors. Here, we propose a machine learning framework which can be used to design low-cost and mobile multispectral plasmonic readers that do not use traditionally employed bulky and expensive stabilized light sources or high-resolution spectrometers. By training a feature selection model over a large set of fabricated plasmonic nanosensors, we select the optimal set of illumination light-emitting diodes needed to create a minimum-error refractive index prediction model, which statistically takes into account the varied spectral responses and fabrication-induced variability of a given sensor design. This computational sensing approach was experimentally validated using a modular mobile plasmonic reader. We tested different plasmonic sensors with hexagonal and square periodicity nanohole arrays and revealed that the optimal illumination bands differ from those that are “intuitively” selected based on the spectral features of the sensor, e.g., transmission peaks or valleys. This framework provides a universal tool for the plasmonics community to design low-cost and mobile multispectral readers, helping the translation of nanosensing technologies to various emerging applications such as wearable sensing, personalized medicine, and point-of-care diagnostics. Beyond plasmonics, other types of sensors that operate based on spectral changes can broadly benefit from this approach, including e.g., aptamer-enabled nanoparticle assays and graphene-based sensors, among others.

  10. A REDUNDANT GNSS-INS LOW-COST UAV NAVIGATION SOLUTION FOR PROFESSIONAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Navarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m – which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  11. a Redundant Gnss-Ins Low-Cost Uav Navigation Solution for Professional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J.; Parés, M. E.; Colomina, I.; Bianchi, G.; Pluchino, S.; Baddour, R.; Consoli, A.; Ayadi, J.; Gameiro, A.; Sekkas, O.; Tsetsos, V.; Gatsos, T.; Navoni, R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the current results for the FP7 GINSEC project. Its goal is to build a pre-commercial prototype of a low-cost, accurate and reliable system for the professional UAV market. Low-cost, in this context, stands for the use of sensors in the most affordable segment of the market, especially MEMS IMUs and GNSS receivers. Reliability applies to the ability of the autopilot to cope with situations where unfavourable GNSS reception conditions or strong electromagnetic fields make the computation of the position and / or attitude of the UAV difficult. Professional and accurate mean that, at least using post-processing techniques as PPP, it will be possible to reach cm-level precisions that open the door to a range of applications demanding high levels of quality in positioning, as precision agriculture or mapping. To achieve such goal, a rigorous sensor error modelling approach, the use of redundant IMUs and a dual-GNSS receiver setup, together with close-coupling techniques and an extended Kalman filter with self-analysis capabilities have been used. Although the project is not yet complete, the results obtained up to now prove the feasibility of the aforementioned goal, especially in those aspects related to position determination. Research work is still undergoing to estimate the heading using a dual-GNNS receiver setup; preliminary results prove the validity of this approach for relatively long baselines, although positive results are expected when these are shorter than 1 m - which is a necessary requisite for small-sized UAVs.

  12. Using machine-learning to optimize phase contrast in a low-cost cellphone microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, Rolf; Schadwinkel, Harald; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Cellphones equipped with high-quality cameras and powerful CPUs as well as GPUs are widespread. This opens new prospects to use such existing computational and imaging resources to perform medical diagnosis in developing countries at a very low cost. Many relevant samples, like biological cells or waterborn parasites, are almost fully transparent. As they do not exhibit absorption, but alter the light’s phase only, they are almost invisible in brightfield microscopy. Expensive equipment and procedures for microscopic contrasting or sample staining often are not available. Dedicated illumination approaches, tailored to the sample under investigation help to boost the contrast. This is achieved by a programmable illumination source, which also allows to measure the phase gradient using the differential phase contrast (DPC) [1, 2] or even the quantitative phase using the derived qDPC approach [3]. By applying machine-learning techniques, such as a convolutional neural network (CNN), it is possible to learn a relationship between samples to be examined and its optimal light source shapes, in order to increase e.g. phase contrast, from a given dataset to enable real-time applications. For the experimental setup, we developed a 3D-printed smartphone microscope for less than 100 $ using off-the-shelf components only such as a low-cost video projector. The fully automated system assures true Koehler illumination with an LCD as the condenser aperture and a reversed smartphone lens as the microscope objective. We show that the effect of a varied light source shape, using the pre-trained CNN, does not only improve the phase contrast, but also the impression of an improvement in optical resolution without adding any special optics, as demonstrated by measurements. PMID:29494620

  13. Low-Cost Voltage Zero-Crossing Detector for AC-Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobyov Maxim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are becoming more popular. Some of them like small hydropower turbines, wind turbines and diesel generators produce AC voltage with different frequency and voltage than the main grid. For them power electronics converters are necessary. Power electronics converters presented in industry use two or three level energy conversion, although direct AC to AC converters exist, but one of the main problems is the switch commutation when current or voltage is crossing the zero point. Zero crossing sensors are used to solve this problem. They consist of current or voltage measurement unit and zero crossing detector. Different approaches are used for zero crossing: hardware or software. Hardware approach is simple but it has low precision. Software approach has high precision but it is complicated and expensive. In this paper a simple low cost high precision approach is presented. It takes all advantages from both approaches. While tested with two types of microcontrollers the precision of experimental measurement is 25 μs - 40 μs.

  14. Low-cost viscometer based on energy dissipation in viscous liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, C.; Cristobal, G.; Nicolas, A.; Panizza, P.; Rouch, J.; Ushiki, H.

    2001-04-01

    We describe a new type of low-cost easy-to-use viscometer based on the temperature elevation in a liquid under shear flow. After calibration, this instrument can be used to measure the apparent steady state viscosity for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids with no yield stress. We compute the rise in temperature due to viscous dissipation in a Couette cell and compare it to experimental results for different fluids. We show that the variation of the temperature with shear rate can be used to characterize the rheological behaviour of viscous fluids and to evaluate their viscosity in a large domain, from typically a few cP up to more than 10 P, with an accuracy of about ±5%. In contrast to simple viscometers, non-Newtonian fluids can be studied with this apparatus. We give experimental results for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids and show that they are very similar to those given in the literature by using much more sophisticated instruments.

  15. Design and Development of Low-Cost Water Tunnel for Educational Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, M.; Dol, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    The hydrodynamic behaviour of immersed body is essential in fluid dynamics study. Water tunnel is an example of facility required to provide a controlled condition for fluid flow research. The operational principle of water tunnel is quite similar to the wind tunnel but with different working fluid and higher flow-pumping capacity. Flow visualization in wind tunnel is more difficult to conduct as turbulent flows in wind dissipate quickly whilst water tunnel is more suitable for such purpose due to higher fluid viscosity and wide variety of visualization techniques can be employed. The present work focusses on the design and development of open flow water tunnel for the purpose of studying vortex-induced vibration from turbulent vortex shedding phenomenon. The water tunnel is designed to provide a steady and uniform flow speed within the test section area. Construction details are discussed for development of low-cost water tunnel for quantitative and qualitative fluid flow measurements. The water tunnel can also be used for educational purpose such as fluid dynamics class activity to provide quick access to visualization medium for better understanding of various turbulence motion learnt in class.

  16. Using participatory approaches with children to better understand their physical activity behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayball, Felicity Z.L.; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau

    2018-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The importance of childhood physical activity is widely recognised. Helping children to articulate their opinions is a crucial factor in improving their health and well-being, yet the field is predominantly focused on adult-led quantitative methods and lacks deeper understand......Aims and objectives: The importance of childhood physical activity is widely recognised. Helping children to articulate their opinions is a crucial factor in improving their health and well-being, yet the field is predominantly focused on adult-led quantitative methods and lacks deeper...... physical activity in these places (n = 25). Results: The benefits and challenges associated with using participatory methods to understand how children perceive the environment in relation to their physical activity behaviour are described. Conclusion: Findings contribute to the literature by suggesting...... that participatory approaches are valuable in capturing children’s perceptions of physical activity behaviour in outdoor environments....

  17. The Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR): Low Cost Science and Technology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, R. G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cash, W.; Eberspeaker, P.; Figer, D.; Figueroa, O.; Harris, W.; Kowalski, M.; Maddox, R.; Martin, C.; McCammon, D.; Nordsieck, K.; Polidan, R.; Sanders, W.; Wilkinson, E.; Asrat

    2011-12-01

    The 50-year old NASA sounding rocket (SR) program has been successful in launching scientific payloads into space frequently and at low cost with a 85% success rate. In 2008 the NASA Astrophysics Sounding Rocket Assessment Team (ASRAT), set up to review the future course of the SR program, made four major recommendations, one of which now called Extended Duration Sounding Rocket (EDSR). ASRAT recommended a system capable of launching science payloads (up to 420 kg) into low Earth orbit frequently (1/yr) at low cost, with a mission duration of approximately 30 days. Payload selection would be based on meritorious high-value science that can be performed by migrating sub-orbital payloads to orbit. Establishment of this capability is a essential for NASA as it strives to advance technical readiness and lower costs for risk averse Explorers and flagship missions in its pursuit of a balanced and sustainable program and achieve big science goals within a limited fiscal environment. The development of a new generation of small, low-cost launch vehicles (SLV), primarily the SpaceX Falcon 1 and the Orbital Sciences Minotaur I has made this concept conceivable. The NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF)conducted a detailed engineering concept study, aimed at defining the technical characteristics of all phases of a mission, from design, procurement, assembly, test, integration and mission operations. The work was led by Dr. Raymond Cruddace, a veteran of the SR program and the prime mover of the EDSR concept. The team investigated details such as, the "FAA licensed contract" for launch service procurement, with WFF and NASA SMD being responsible for mission assurance which results in a factor of two cost savings over the current approach. These and other creative solutions resulted in a proof-of-concept Class D mission design that could have a sustained launch rate of at least 1/yr, a mission duration of up to about 3 months, and a total cost of $25-30 million for each mission

  18. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips including: silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives, etc. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. This work provides a simple low cost fabrication method for creating microfluidic devices for biological analysis. Example assays were undertaken and the biocompatibility of our technology was studied, both of which demonstrated the utility of our approach.

  19. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : literature review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Freezing and thawing action induces damage to unbound gravel roads in Iowa resulting in maintenance costs for secondary road departments. Some approaches currently used by County Engineers to deal with this problem include temporarily spreading rock ...

  20. Dutch approach to abating agricultural non-point pollution: farmers' behaviour and their motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloots, K; Spierenburg, P; van der Vlies, A W

    2004-01-01

    In The Netherlands, agricultural activities are one of the major diffuse sources of nutrients and crop protection chemicals. A national legal and regulatory framework has been developed to combat the environmental burden from the agricultural industry. This resulted in the implementation of a government decree (AMvB) in the year 2000. Under pressure from NGOs, the Hollandse Eilanden en Waarden Water Board worked on a regional regulation in advance of this national legislation. ZHEW followed an approach of research, communication and partnering prior to implementing the national decree. The most important result of the chosen approach is that compliance with one of the most important measures, the crop-free zone, is close to 100%. There has been little improvement in the amount of pesticides in the open waters. Both water board and farmers are positive about the approach followed. Monitoring and evaluation proved to be essential when communicating with the agricultural sector. The results of attempts to influence behaviour must be recorded in order maintain the motivation to change behaviour. Information on the effects of the approach adopted to combating diffuse agricultural sources is gathered from a number of sources.

  1. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  2. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  3. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the ‘stages of change model’, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to ‘global good’, so-called ‘social marketing’, to improve ‘welfare of the individual and society’ is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement ‘antibiotic mainstreaming’ as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  4. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  5. Integrating UML, the Q-model and a Multi-Agent Approach in Process Specifications and Behavioural Models of Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Savimaa

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient estimation and representation of an organisation's behaviour requires specification of business processes and modelling of actors' behaviour. Therefore the existing classical approaches that concentrate only on planned processes are not suitable and an approach that integrates process specifications with behavioural models of actors should be used instead. The present research indicates that a suitable approach should be based on interactive computing. This paper examines the integration of UML diagrams for process specifications, the Q-model specifications for modelling timing criteria of existing and planned processes and a multi-agent approach for simulating non-deterministic behaviour of human actors in an organisation. The corresponding original methodology is introduced and some of its applications as case studies are reviewed.

  6. Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Photogrammetry for the Analysis of Cranial Deformation in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero-García, Inés; Lerma, José Luis; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Miranda, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    Cranial deformation, including deformational plagiocephaly, brachycephaly, and craniosynostosis, is a condition that affects a large number of infants. Despite its prevalence, there are no standards for the systematic evaluation of the cranial deformation. Usually, the deformation is measured manually by the use of calipers. Experts, however, do not agree on the suitability of these measurements to correctly represent the deformation. Other methodologies for evaluation include 3-dimensional (3D) photography and radiologic scanners. These techniques require either patient's sedation and ionizing radiation or high investment. The aim of this study is to develop a novel, low-cost, and minimally invasive methodology to correctly evaluate the cranial deformation using 3D imagery. A smart phone was used to record a slow motion video sequence on 5 different patients. Then, the videos were processed to create accurate 3D models of the patients' head, and the results were compared with the measurements obtained by the manual caliper. The correspondence between the manual and the photogrammetric 3D model measurements was high as far as head marks are available, with differences of 2 mm ± 0.9 mm; without marks, measurement results differed up to 20 mm. Smartphone-based photogrammetry is a low-cost, highly useful methodology to evaluate cranial deformation. This technique provides a much larger quantity of information than linear measurements with a similar accuracy as far as head marks exist. In addition, a new approach for the evaluation is pointed out: the comparison between the head 3D model and an ideal head, represented by a 3-axis ellipsoid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Open source software and low cost sensors for teaching UAV science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Sanchez-Bragado, R.; El-Haddad, G.; Araus, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drones, also known as UASs (unmanned aerial systems), UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft systems), are both useful advanced scientific platforms and recreational toys that are appealing to younger generations. As such, they can make for excellent education tools as well as low-cost scientific research project alternatives. However, the process of taking pretty pictures to remote sensing science can be daunting if one is presented with only expensive software and sensor options. There are a number of open-source tools and low cost platform and sensor options available that can provide excellent scientific research results, and, by often requiring more user-involvement than commercial software and sensors, provide even greater educational benefits. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm implementations, such as the Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE), which can create quality 2D image mosaics with some motion and terrain adjustments and VisualSFM (Structure from Motion), which can provide full image mosaicking with movement and orthorectification capacities. RGB image quantification using alternate color space transforms, such as the BreedPix indices, can be calculated via plugins in the open-source software Fiji (http://fiji.sc/Fiji; http://github.com/george-haddad/CIMMYT). Recent analyses of aerial images from UAVs over different vegetation types and environments have shown RGB metrics can outperform more costly commercial sensors. Specifically, Hue-based pixel counts, the Triangle Greenness Index (TGI), and the Normalized Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) consistently outperformed NDVI in estimating abiotic and biotic stress impacts on crop health. Also, simple kits are available for NDVI camera conversions. Furthermore, suggestions for multivariate analyses of the different RGB indices in the "R program for statistical computing", such as classification and regression trees can allow for a more approachable

  8. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  9. Low-cost Citizen Science Balloon Platform for Measuring Air Pollutants to Improve Satellite Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Beck-Winchatz, B.; Ritter, P.

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for citizen science and formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere, including measuring atmospheric pollutants in the planetary boundary layer. With a large number of citizen scientist flights, these data can be used to constrain satellite retrieval algorithms. In this poster presentation, we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT trackers for hikers) that do not require a radio license. Our scientific goal is to measure air quality in the lower troposphere. For example, particulate matter (PM) is an air pollutant that varies on small spatial scales and has sources in rural areas like biomass burning and farming practices such as tilling. Our HAB platform test flight incorporates an optical PM sensor, an integrated single board computer that records the PM sensor signal in addition to flight parameters (pressure, location and altitude), and a low-cost tracking system. Our goal is for the entire platform to cost less than $500. While the datasets generated by these flights are typically small, integrating a network of flight data from citizen scientists into a form usable for comparison to satellite data will require big data techniques.

  10. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  11. Design of a low-cost hybrid powertrain with large fuel savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Romers, L.H.J.; Vroemen, B.G.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of a low-cost hybrid powertrain with large fuel savings. The hybrid powertrain contains only low-cost mechanical components, such as a flywheel module and a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Noelectrical motor/generator or battery is used. Based on

  12. Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) Headset Design for Widespread Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    therefore did not implement or test actual sensors or electronic components (analog-to-digital conversion, power , and the wireless transmission ...ARL-TR-7703 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless Electroencephalography...originator. ARL-TR-7703 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Evaluation of a Prototype Low-Cost, Modular, Wireless

  13. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Vinolas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources. PMID:29382039

  14. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...

  15. A low cost rapid prototype platform for a three phase PFC rectifier application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Frerk; Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a low cost rapid prototype platform for a Three Phase PFC rectifier application is presented. The active rectifier consists of a SiC-MOSFET based PWM converter and a low cost rapid prototype platform for simulating and implementing the digital control...

  16. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Heath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process.

  17. Low-Cost Virtual Laboratory Workbench for Electronic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achumba, Ifeyinwa E.; Azzi, Djamel; Stocker, James

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory component of undergraduate engineering education poses challenges in resource constrained engineering faculties. The cost, time, space and physical presence requirements of the traditional (real) laboratory approach are the contributory factors. These resource constraints may mitigate the acquisition of meaningful laboratory…

  18. The Effectiveness of Low-Cost Tele-Lecturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Hiromitsu; Kikuta, Reiko; Hamano, Takashi; Maesako, Takanori

    1997-01-01

    Compares distance education using PictureTel, a compressed-digital-video system via telephone lines (audio and visual interactive communication) in terms of its costs and effectiveness with traditional in-class education. Costing less than half the traditional approach, the study suggested distance education would be economical if used frequently.…

  19. Preventing behavioural and emotional problems in children who have a developmental disability: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and childhood behavioural problems: a quasi-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Layte, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional paper examines the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and children's behavioural problems at 9 years of age independent of a wide range of possible confounders. The final sample comprised 7,505 nine-year-old school children participating in the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland study. The children were selected through the Irish national school system using a 2-stage sampling method and were representative of the nine-year population. Information on maternal smoking during pregnancy was obtained retrospectively at 9 years of age via parental recall and children's behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire across separate parent and teacher-report instruments. A quasi-experimental approach using propensity score matching was used to create treatment (smoking) and control (non-smoking) groups which did not differ significantly in their propensity to smoke in terms of 16 observed characteristics. After matching on the propensity score, children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were 3.5 % (p parent and teacher-report respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was more strongly associated with externalising than internalising behavioural problems. Analysis of the dose-response relationship showed that the differential between matched treatment and control groups increased with level of maternal smoking. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, the promotion of successful cessation in pregnancy may prevent potentially adverse long-term consequences.

  1. A new approach for categorizing pig lying behaviour based on a Delaunay triangulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirahmadi, A; Hensel, O; Edwards, S A; Sturm, B

    2017-01-01

    Machine vision-based monitoring of pig lying behaviour is a fast and non-intrusive approach that could be used to improve animal health and welfare. Four pens with 22 pigs in each were selected at a commercial pig farm and monitored for 15 days using top view cameras. Three thermal categories were selected relative to room setpoint temperature. An image processing technique based on Delaunay triangulation (DT) was utilized. Different lying patterns (close, normal and far) were defined regarding the perimeter of each DT triangle and the percentages of each lying pattern were obtained in each thermal category. A method using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, to automatically classify group lying behaviour of pigs into three thermal categories, was developed and tested for its feasibility. The DT features (mean value of perimeters, maximum and minimum length of sides of triangles) were calculated as inputs for the MLP classifier. The network was trained, validated and tested and the results revealed that MLP could classify lying features into the three thermal categories with high overall accuracy (95.6%). The technique indicates that a combination of image processing, MLP classification and mathematical modelling can be used as a precise method for quantifying pig lying behaviour in welfare investigations.

  2. An intelligent control strategy based on ANFIS techniques in order to improve the performance of a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle vision system

    OpenAIRE

    Marichal, G. N.; Hernández, A.; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Acosta, L.; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent control approach based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems is presented. A model of a low-cost vision platform for an unmanned aerial system is taken in the study. A simulation platform including this low-cost vision system and the influence of the helicopter vibrations over this system is shown. The intelligent control approach has been inserted in this simulation platform. Several trials taking these Neuro-Fuzzy systems as a fundamental part of the control strategy have bee...

  3. Social interactions of eating behaviour among high school students: a cellular automata approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a global epidemic posing problems for both developed and developing nations. The prevalence is particularly alarming in developed nations, such as the United States, where approximately one in three school-aged adolescents (ages 12-19) are overweight or obese. Evidence suggests that weight gain in school-aged adolescents is related to energy imbalance exacerbated by the negative aspects of the school food environment, such as presence of unhealthy food choices. While a well-established connection exists between the food environment, presently there is a lack of studies investigating the impact of the social environment and associated interactions of school-age adolescents. This paper uses a mathematical modelling approach to explore how social interactions among high school adolescents can affect their eating behaviour and food choice. Methods In this paper we use a Cellular Automata (CA) modelling approach to explore how social interactions among school-age adolescents can affect eating behaviour, and food choice. Our CA model integrates social influences and transition rules to simulate the way individuals would interact in a social community (e.g., school cafeteria). To replicate these social interactions, we chose the Moore neighbourhood which allows all neighbours (eights cells in a two-dimensional square lattice) to influence the central cell. Our assumption is that individuals belong to any of four states; Bring Healthy, Bring Unhealthy, Purchase Healthy, and Purchase Unhealthy, and will influence each other according to parameter settings and transition rules. Simulations were run to explore how the different states interact under varying parameter settings. Results This study, through simulations, illustrates that students will change their eating behaviour from unhealthy to healthy as a result of positive social and environmental influences. In general, there is one common characteristic of

  4. Starling flock networks manage uncertainty in consensus at low cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F Young

    Full Text Available Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors. We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks.

  5. Starling Flock Networks Manage Uncertainty in Consensus at Low Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, George F.; Scardovi, Luca; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Leonard, Naomi E.

    2013-01-01

    Flocks of starlings exhibit a remarkable ability to maintain cohesion as a group in highly uncertain environments and with limited, noisy information. Recent work demonstrated that individual starlings within large flocks respond to a fixed number of nearest neighbors, but until now it was not understood why this number is seven. We analyze robustness to uncertainty of consensus in empirical data from multiple starling flocks and show that the flock interaction networks with six or seven neighbors optimize the trade-off between group cohesion and individual effort. We can distinguish these numbers of neighbors from fewer or greater numbers using our systems-theoretic approach to measuring robustness of interaction networks as a function of the network structure, i.e., who is sensing whom. The metric quantifies the disagreement within the network due to disturbances and noise during consensus behavior and can be evaluated over a parameterized family of hypothesized sensing strategies (here the parameter is number of neighbors). We use this approach to further show that for the range of flocks studied the optimal number of neighbors does not depend on the number of birds within a flock; rather, it depends on the shape, notably the thickness, of the flock. The results suggest that robustness to uncertainty may have been a factor in the evolution of flocking for starlings. More generally, our results elucidate the role of the interaction network on uncertainty management in collective behavior, and motivate the application of our approach to other biological networks. PMID:23382667

  6. A Low Cost Structurally Optimized Design for Diverse Filter Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Majida; Aziz, Arshad; Akhtar, Pervez; Ikram, Nassar

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of image processing applications deploys two dimensional (2D)-filters for performing diversified tasks such as image enhancement, edge detection, noise suppression, multi scale decomposition and compression etc. All of these tasks require multiple type of 2D-filters simultaneously to acquire the desired results. The resource hungry conventional approach is not a viable option for implementing these computationally intensive 2D-filters especially in a resource constraint environment. Thus it calls for optimized solutions. Mostly the optimization of these filters are based on exploiting structural properties. A common shortcoming of all previously reported optimized approaches is their restricted applicability only for a specific filter type. These narrow scoped solutions completely disregard the versatility attribute of advanced image processing applications and in turn offset their effectiveness while implementing a complete application. This paper presents an efficient framework which exploits the structural properties of 2D-filters for effectually reducing its computational cost along with an added advantage of versatility for supporting diverse filter types. A composite symmetric filter structure is introduced which exploits the identities of quadrant and circular T-symmetries in two distinct filter regions simultaneously. These T-symmetries effectually reduce the number of filter coefficients and consequently its multipliers count. The proposed framework at the same time empowers this composite filter structure with additional capabilities of realizing all of its Ψ-symmetry based subtypes and also its special asymmetric filters case. The two-fold optimized framework thus reduces filter computational cost up to 75% as compared to the conventional approach as well as its versatility attribute not only supports diverse filter types but also offers further cost reduction via resource sharing for sequential implementation of diversified image

  7. A self-synchronizing and low-cost structural health monitoring scheme based on zero crossing detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël; Li, Kaixiang; Gauthier, Jean-Yves; Monnier, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their high specific strength and stiffness, composite materials are increasingly being used in aeronautics and astronautics, but such materials are vulnerable to impact damage and delamination. Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detecting such defects in recent years. In situ, self-powered and low-cost SHM systems are a developmental tendency of this technique. This paper introduces the principles of a low-cost and self-synchronizing scheme for SHM. Based on the Lamb wave interactions with the structure, the proposed technique relies on detecting zero crossing time instants in order to derive an estimation of the structural state. It is shown that such a method provides a very simple and low-cost way to assess the structural integrity while being computationally efficient. Experimental investigations carried out on a composite plate with an increasing penetration hold validating the proposed technique show its effectiveness for detecting the damage. The proposed approach has also been applied on an aircraft outboard flap to detect the impact damage. The robustness is discussed versus time-shift and magnitude jitter assumptions by using the plate case. The temperature effect is also considered by defining a coefficient array in order to compensate for the material property changes. Finally, an embedded implementation of such a SHM technique is presented by using the proposed damage index

  8. Planar junctionless phototransistor: A potential high-performance and low-cost device for optical-communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new junctionless optical controlled field effect transistor (JL-OCFET) and its comprehensive theoretical model is proposed to achieve high optical performance and low cost fabrication process. Exhaustive study of the device characteristics and comparison between the proposed junctionless design and the conventional inversion mode structure (IM-OCFET) for similar dimensions are performed. Our investigation reveals that the proposed design exhibits an outstanding capability to be an alternative to the IM-OCFET due to the high performance and the weak signal detection benefit offered by this design. Moreover, the developed analytical expressions are exploited to formulate the objective functions to optimize the device performance using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) approach. The optimized JL-OCFET not only demonstrates good performance in terms of derived drain current and responsivity, but also exhibits superior signal to noise ratio, low power consumption, high-sensitivity, high ION/IOFF ratio and high-detectivity as compared to the conventional IM-OCFET counterpart. These characteristics make the optimized JL-OCFET potentially suitable for developing low cost and ultrasensitive photodetectors for high-performance and low cost inter-chips data communication applications.

  9. a Precise, Low-Cost Rtk Gnss System for Uav Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempfhuber, W.; Buchholz, M.

    2011-09-01

    High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1-3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance), and farming (precision farming) as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.). The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin - and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project in the area of

  10. A PRECISE, LOW-COST RTK GNSS SYSTEM FOR UAV APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Stempfhuber

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1–3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance, and farming (precision farming as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.. The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin – and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project

  11. A low-cost method for visible fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Crissy L; Pusey, Marc

    2017-12-01

    A wide variety of crystallization solutions are screened to establish conditions that promote the growth of a diffraction-quality crystal. Screening these conditions requires the assessment of many crystallization plates for the presence of crystals. Automated systems for screening and imaging are very expensive. A simple approach to imaging trace fluorescently labeled protein crystals in crystallization plates has been devised, and can be implemented at a cost as low as $50. The proteins β-lactoglobulin B, trypsin and purified concanavalin A (ConA) were trace fluorescently labeled using three different fluorescent probes: Cascade Yellow (CY), Carboxyrhodamine 6G (CR) and Pacific Blue (PB). A crystallization screening plate was set up using β-lactoglobulin B labeled with CR, trypsin labeled with CY, ConA labeled with each probe, and a mixture consisting of 50% PB-labeled ConA and 50% CR-labeled ConA. The wells of these plates were imaged using a commercially available macro-imaging lens attachment for smart devices that have a camera. Several types of macro lens attachments were tested with smartphones and tablets. Images with the highest quality were obtained with an iPhone 6S and an AUKEY Ora 10× macro lens. Depending upon the fluorescent probe employed and its Stokes shift, a light-emitting diode or a laser diode was used for excitation. An emission filter was used for the imaging of protein crystals labeled with CR and crystals with two-color fluorescence. This approach can also be used with microscopy systems commonly used to observe crystallization plates.

  12. “You can get there from here”: Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Adam M.; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Schaffner, Jake; Sweeting, Martin

    2005-07-01

    microsatellite from a typical 700 km sun-synchronous orbit to a lower or higher orbit using a low cost 40 N thrust concentrated hydrogen peroxide/kerosene bipropellant engine. A spin stabilized 'tug' concept capable of providing between 130 and 300 m/s of deltaV to the payload is described. Transfer of an enhanced microsatellite from LEO to lunar orbit using a novel, storable propellant solar thermal propulsion system under development at the Surrey Space Centre. The solar thermal propulsion unit is designed for low cost small satellite support and will be compared with a more traditional approach using and industry standard storable bipropellant chemical engine. Nanosatellite manoeuvring for formation flying using advanced low power electric propulsion. A colloid thruster system concept is planned for development jointly between SSTL, Queen Mary University London and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. The colloid thruster system is designed to complement an existing butane resistojet to give full 3-axis manoeuvrability to an upgraded SNAP nanosatellite platform which could be reflown in 2007 alongside ESA's Proba 2 technology demonstrator microsatellite. A comparison between low power resistojets, a colloid thruster system, and pulsed plasma thrusters for orbit manoeuvring of microsatellites will be made. This paper's final section will briefly describe some of the interplanetary missions which have been considered at the Surrey Space Centre, and will highlight the few as yet practical solutions for sending small spacecraft on high deltaV missions without the use of a costly upper stage.

  13. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The high cost of acquiring geodetic data from the sea floor has limited the observations available to help us understand and model the behavior of seafloor geodetic processes. To address this problem, the Pacific GPS Facility at the University of Hawaii is developing a cost effective approach for accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure without the requirement for costly ship time. There is a recognized need to vastly increase our underwater geodetic observing capacity. Most of the largest recorded earthquakes and most devastating tsunamis are generated at subduction zones underwater. Similarly, many volcanoes are partly (e.g. Santorini) or completely (e.g. Loihi) submerged, and are not well observed and understood. Furthermore, landslide features ring many ocean basins, and huge debris deposits surround many volcanic oceanic islands. Our approach will lower the cost of collecting sea-floor geodetic data, reducing the barriers preventing us from acquiring the information we need to observe and understand these types of structures and provide a direct societal benefit in improving hazard assessment. The capability is being developed by equipping one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders with an integrated acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, processing unit, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the sea floor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data, but seafloor pressure data includes contribution from a variety of sources and on its own may not provide the accuracy required for geodetic investigations. Independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height can be used to remove these contributions from the observed sea floor pressure timeseries. We will integrate our seafloor pressure measurements with air

  14. Reliable sagittal plane kinematic gait assessments are feasible using low-cost webcam technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Robert J; Washabaugh, Edward P; Krishnan, Chandramouli

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) motion capture systems are commonly used for gait analysis because they provide reliable and accurate measurements. However, the downside of this approach is that it is expensive and requires technical expertise; thus making it less feasible in the clinic. To address this limitation, we recently developed and validated (using a high-precision walking robot) a low-cost, two-dimensional (2-D) real-time motion tracking approach using a simple webcam and LabVIEW Vision Assistant. The purpose of this study was to establish the repeatability and minimal detectable change values of hip and knee sagittal plane gait kinematics recorded using this system. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two kinematic assessments while walking on a treadmill at a range of gait velocities. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values were calculated for commonly used hip and knee kinematic parameters to demonstrate the reliability of the system. Additionally, Bland-Altman plots were generated to examine the agreement between the measurements recorded on two different days. The system demonstrated good to excellent reliability (ICC>0.75) for all the gait parameters tested on this study. The MDC values were typically low (gait assessments using webcam technology can be reliably used for clinical and research purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Prasch, Monika; Schmid, Lino; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements. PMID:25384007

  16. No Cost – Low Cost Compressed Air System Optimization in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharma, A.; Budiarsa, N.; Watiniasih, N.; Antara, N. G.

    2018-04-01

    Energy conservation is a systematic, integrated of effort, in order to preserve energy sources and improve energy utilization efficiency. Utilization of energy in efficient manner without reducing the energy usage it must. Energy conservation efforts are applied at all stages of utilization, from utilization of energy resources to final, using efficient technology, and cultivating an energy-efficient lifestyle. The most common way is to promote energy efficiency in the industry on end use and overcome barriers to achieve such efficiency by using system energy optimization programs. The facts show that energy saving efforts in the process usually only focus on replacing tools and not an overall system improvement effort. In this research, a framework of sustainable energy reduction work in companies that have or have not implemented energy management system (EnMS) will be conducted a systematic technical approach in evaluating accurately a compressed-air system and potential optimization through observation, measurement and verification environmental conditions and processes, then processing the physical quantities of systems such as air flow, pressure and electrical power energy at any given time measured using comparative analysis methods in this industry, to provide the potential savings of energy saving is greater than the component approach, with no cost to the lowest cost (no cost - low cost). The process of evaluating energy utilization and energy saving opportunities will provide recommendations for increasing efficiency in the industry and reducing CO2 emissions and improving environmental quality.

  17. Low cost label-free live cell imaging for biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniya, C.; Towers, C. E.; Towers, D. P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the progress to develop a practical phase measuring microscope offering new capabilities in terms of phase measurement accuracy and quantification of cell:cell interactions over the longer term. A novel, low cost phase interference microscope for imaging live cells (label-free) is described. The method combines the Zernike phase contrast approach with a dual mirror design to enable phase modulation between the scattered and un-scattered optical fields. Two designs are proposed and demonstrated, one of which retains the common path nature of Zernike's original microscopy concept. In both setups the phase shift is simple to control via a piezoelectric driven mirror in the back focal plane of the imaging system. The approach is significantly cheaper to implement than those based on spatial light modulators (SLM) at approximately 20% of the cost. A quantitative assessment of the performance of a set of phase shifting algorithms is also presented, specifically with regard to broad bandwidth illumination in phase contrast microscopy. The simulation results show that the phase measurement accuracy is strongly dependent on the algorithm selected and the optical path difference in the sample.

  18. Online Learning Algorithm for Time Series Forecasting Suitable for Low Cost Wireless Sensor Networks Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pardo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources.

  19. Online Learning Algorithm for Time Series Forecasting Suitable for Low Cost Wireless Sensor Networks Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martínez, Francisco; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources. PMID:25905698

  20. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS. For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0 and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements.

  1. Polarization digital holographic microscopy using low-cost liquid crystal polarization rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovhaliuk, Rostyslav Yu

    2018-02-01

    Polarization imaging methods are actively used to study anisotropic objects. A number of methods and systems, such as imaging polarimeters, were proposed to measure the state of polarization of light that passed through the object. Digital holographic and interferometric approaches can be used to quantitatively measure both amplitude and phase of a wavefront. Using polarization modulation optics, the measurement capabilities of such interference-based systems can be extended to measure polarization-dependent parameters, such as phase retardation. Different kinds of polarization rotators can be used to alternate the polarization of a reference beam. Liquid crystals are used in a rapidly increasing number of different optoelectronic devices. Twisted nematic liquid crystals are widely used as amplitude modulators in electronic displays and light valves or shutter glass. Such devices are of particular interest for polarization imaging, as they can be used as polarization rotators, and due to large-scale manufacturing have relatively low cost. A simple Mach-Zehnder polarized holographic setup that uses modified shutter glass as a polarization rotator is demonstrated. The suggested approach is experimentally validated by measuring retardation of quarter-wave film.

  2. Dynamic wavefront sensing and correction with low-cost twisted nematic spatial light modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Vicente; Climent, Vicent; Lancis, Jesus; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Bara, Salvador; Arines, Justo; Ares, Jorge; Andres, Pedro; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Off-the-shelf twisted nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCDs) show some interesting features such as high spatial resolution, easy handling, wide availability, and low cost. We describe a compact adaptive optical system using just one TNLCD to measure and compensate optical aberrations. The current system operates at a frame rate of the order of 10 Hz with a four level codification scheme. Wavefront estimation is performed through conventional Hartmann-Shack sensing architecture. The system has proved to work properly with a maximum rms aberration of 0.76 microns and wavefront gradient of 50 rad/mm at a wavelength of 514 nm. These values correspond to typical aberrations found in human eyes. The key of our approach is careful characterization and optimization of the TNLCD for phase-only modulation. For this purpose, we exploit the so-called retarder-rotator approach for twisted nematic liquid crystal cells. The optimization process has been successfully applied to SLMs working either in transmissive or in reflective mode, even when light depolarization effects are observed.

  3. Online learning algorithm for time series forecasting suitable for low cost wireless sensor networks nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martínez, Francisco; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma

    2015-04-21

    Time series forecasting is an important predictive methodology which can be applied to a wide range of problems. Particularly, forecasting the indoor temperature permits an improved utilization of the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems in a home and thus a better energy efficiency. With such purpose the paper describes how to implement an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm in a low cost system-on-chip to develop an autonomous intelligent wireless sensor network. The present paper uses a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) to monitor and forecast the indoor temperature in a smart home, based on low resources and cost microcontroller technology as the 8051MCU. An on-line learning approach, based on Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm for ANNs, has been developed for real-time time series learning. It performs the model training with every new data that arrive to the system, without saving enormous quantities of data to create a historical database as usual, i.e., without previous knowledge. Consequently to validate the approach a simulation study through a Bayesian baseline model have been tested in order to compare with a database of a real application aiming to see the performance and accuracy. The core of the paper is a new algorithm, based on the BP one, which has been described in detail, and the challenge was how to implement a computational demanding algorithm in a simple architecture with very few hardware resources.

  4. Design, evaluation, and fabrication of low-cost composite blades for intermediate-size wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, O.

    1981-01-01

    Low cost approaches for production of 60 ft long glass fiber/resin composite rotor blades for the MOD-OA wind turbine were identified and evaluated. The most cost-effective configuration was selected for detailed design. Subelement and subscale specimens were fabricated for testing to confirm physical and mechanical properties of the composite blade materials, to develop and evaluate blade fabrication techniques and processes, and to confirm the structural adequacy of the root end joint. Full-scale blade tooling was constructed and a partial blade for tool and process tryout was built. Then two full scale blades were fabricated and delivered to NASA-LeRC for installation on a MOD-OA wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico for operational testing. Each blade was 60 ft. long with 4.5 ft. chord at root end and 2575 lbs weight including metal hub adapter. The selected blade configuration was a three cell design constructed using a resin impregnated glass fiber tape winding process that allows rapid wrapping of primarily axially oriented fibers onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The ring winder/transverse filament tape process combination was used for the first time on this program to produce entire rotor blade structures. This approach permitted the complete blade to be wound on stationary mandrels, an improvement which alleviated some of the tooling and process problems encountered on previous composite blade programs.

  5. Why older adults spend time sedentary and break their sedentary behaviour: a mixed methods approach using life-logging equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon L Dontje

    2015-10-01

    It can be concluded that a mixed methods approach, by combining objective data of an activity monitor with contextual information from time-lapse photos and subjective information from people regarding their own behaviour, is an useful method to provide indepth information about (breaking sedentary behaviour in older adults. The results of this study showed that there is a difference in what older adults believe that are reasons for them to remain sedentary or break their sedentary time and what their actual reasons are. A personal story board based on objective measurements of sedentary behaviour can be a useful method to raise awareness and find individual and tailored ways to reduce sedentary behaviour and to increase the number of breaks in sedentary behaviour without much interference in daily routine.

  6. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  7. Low-Cost Carriers, Local Economy and Tourism Development at Four Portuguese Airports. A Model of Cost–Benefit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of air transport created a new era in the sector. The entry of low-cost carriers triggered dynamism and consequently changed the behaviours of the demand and supply of air transport services. The volume of traffic at Portuguese airports increased from 17 million passengers in 2002 to more than 30 million in 2012, representing cumulative growth of 75%. The commitment to low-cost carriers (LCCs was a determining factor for this growth in that, in 2012, these carriers recorded a market share of 33%. This study aims to analyse the evolution of LCC air traffic in Portugal and its impact on regional economic development. Through a model of cost–benefit analysis, we determine the costs, benefits and net welfare in the developmet of the region driven by the LCC routes of 4 Portuguese airports, Faro, Lisbon, Funchal and Porto, between 2005 and 2012. The methodology proves the existence of a positive net impact driven by LCCs on the local economy, directly through job creation and increased consumption in the tourism sector and indirectly by the increased demand from other sectors.

  8. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  9. Low-cost wave characterization modules for oil spill response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Skinner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills can be remediated by mechanical skimmers in calm waters, but performance degrades with increased wave height. We have developed and demonstrated a system that quantifies local wave characteristics with an uncertainty of four inches of heave. Our system is intended for the measurement of wave characteristics during oil spill recovery. It conveys this information to coordinators and responders in real time via WiFi and remote reporting through a satellite network. This information will allow for enhanced situational awareness during an oil spill response, assisting stakeholders and optimizing mechanical skimming operations. Our wave characterization module (WCM uses accelerometer outputs from a very small inertial measurement unit (IMU to generate wave statistics and calculate wave characteristics. It is configured such that a WCM can either be attached to a skimmer float or incorporated into a microbuoy. Wave height and period are transmitted via WiFi and/or a satellite-enabled mesh-grid network to a cloud-hosted geographic information system (GIS. Here, we discuss the bare-bones sensors-plus-algorithm approach we developed by using spring-mass systems to approximate the wave height and period regime of interest. We then describe open water tests carried out using that development system both mounted to a weir skimmer mockup and packaged in a microbuoy. Finally, we present controlled tests in the wave tank at Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey, with the WCMs communicating the wave characteristics via WiFi to tankside laptops and via satellite to the cloud-based GIS. Snapshot determinations of wave height calculated using the scalar magnitude of the three-axis accelerometer in the IMU were within four inches of the benchmark wave measurement system at Ohmsett. Keywords: Oil spill, Wave characterization module, Inertial measurement unit, Microbuoy

  10. Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

    2005-05-31

    The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

  11. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  12. The impact of densification by means of informal shacks in the backyards of low-cost houses on the environment and service delivery in cape town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Thashlin; Barnes, Jo M; Pieper, Clarissa H

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the state-sponsored low cost housing provided to previously disadvantaged communities in the City of Cape Town. The strain imposed on municipal services by informal densification of unofficial backyard shacks was found to create unintended public health risks. Four subsidized low-cost housing communities were selected within the City of Cape Town in this cross-sectional survey. Data was obtained from 1080 persons with a response rate of 100%. Illegal electrical connections to backyard shacks that are made of flimsy materials posed increased fire risks. A high proportion of main house owners did not pay for water but sold water to backyard dwellers. The design of state-subsidised houses and the unplanned housing in the backyard added enormous pressure on the existing municipal infrastructure and the environment. Municipal water and sewerage systems and solid waste disposal cannot cope with the increased population density and poor sanitation behaviour of the inhabitants of these settlements. The low-cost housing program in South Africa requires improved management and prudent policies to cope with the densification of state-funded low-cost housing settlements.

  13. Low cost realization of space-borne synthectic aperture radar - MicroSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D.; Hall, C.

    associated with implementing spaceborne SAR systems is an aspect of work that has been addressed over the past decade by the main S RA system expert companies. As the experimental systems have been realized and understood, so there has been a move to transfer these systems from the research and scientific domains into operational and commercial implementations. The end of the cold war, combined with the ever increasingly competitive telecommunications market, have assisted in driving down the launch costs, a significant cost element in any space system budget. To take maximum benefit from this it is still necessary to be able to make light weight satellites, in the region of 450 Kgs or less. Typically SAR satellites have been in the neighbourhood of 1.5 to 2.5 Tonnes. In order to achieve the low cost systems, not only the satellite mass needs to be tackled but also several other factors:- Design complexity- Production costs- Performance- Calibration and verification A novel approach has been established to address all of these factors. Developments are already in progress to prove the approach and that the low costs are achievable. This is called MicroSAR. This paper starts with an overview of the market status. A description of the MicroSAR system, its developments, calibration philosophy, trade-offs carried out, its performance envelope and an outline of the steps taken to achieve a low cost Synthetic Aperture Radar system are then presented.

  14. Performance enhancement of low-cost, high-accuracy, state estimation for vehicle collision prevention system using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, Kamal; Abdel-Hafez, Mamoun F.; Jaradat, Mohammad A.; Jarrah, Mohammad Amin

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a low-cost navigation system that fuses the measurements of the inertial navigation system (INS) and the global positioning system (GPS) receiver is developed. First, the system's dynamics are obtained based on a vehicle's kinematic model. Second, the INS and GPS measurements are fused using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach. Subsequently, an artificial intelligence based approach for the fusion of INS/GPS measurements is developed based on an Input-Delayed Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (IDANFIS). Experimental tests are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the two sensor fusion approaches. It is found that the use of the proposed IDANFIS approach achieves a reduction in the integration development time and an improvement in the estimation accuracy of the vehicle's position and velocity compared to the EKF based approach.

  15. A low cost, printed microwave based level sensor with integrated oscillator readout circuitry

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extremely low cost, tube conformable, printed T-resonator based microwave level sensor, whose resonance frequency shifts by changing the level of fluids inside the tube. Printed T-resonator forms the frequency selective

  16. A low-cost Raman spectrometer design used to study Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The paper discusses the design of a low cost Raman spectrometer. ... system. We observe both the radial-breathing mode (RBM) and the tangential mode ... broadened due to the inherent tube diameter distribution present in the material.

  17. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  18. Measuring In-Flight Angular Motion With a Low-Cost Magnetometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harkins, Thomas E; Wilson, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    A technique for obtaining pitch, yaw, and roll rates of a projectile from a single, low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf magnetometer has been developed at the Advanced Munitions Concepts Branch of the U.S...

  19. Low-Cost Planar PTF Sensors for the Identity Verification of Smartcard Holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The properties of mechanical flexibility, low-cost and planar geometry make polymer thick film (PTF) sensors attractive for embedded smartcard biometrics. PTF piezoelectric and piezoresistive pressure sensors are investigated for their potential to capture spatial human characteristics. However, it

  20. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).