WorldWideScience

Sample records for low volume roads

  1. Guidelines for upgrading of low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Division of Roads

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manual is to provide guidelines on the upgrading of gravel low volume roads to roads and maintenance personnel of road authorities of all sizes. Low volume is, for the purpose of this document, defined to be less than 500...

  2. Aeolian sands as material to construct low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian sands are widespread in many semi-arid to arid areas of the world and often provide the only economic source of construction materials for low volume roads. Experience in southern Africa over a number of decades has shown that provided...

  3. Estimating traffic volume on Wyoming low volume roads using linear and logistic regression methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Apronti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic volume is an important parameter in most transportation planning applications. Low volume roads make up about 69% of road miles in the United States. Estimating traffic on the low volume roads is a cost-effective alternative to taking traffic counts. This is because traditional traffic counts are expensive and impractical for low priority roads. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of two alternative means of cost-effectively estimating traffic volumes for low volume roads in Wyoming and to make recommendations for their implementation. The study methodology involves reviewing existing studies, identifying data sources, and carrying out the model development. The utility of the models developed were then verified by comparing actual traffic volumes to those predicted by the model. The study resulted in two regression models that are inexpensive and easy to implement. The first regression model was a linear regression model that utilized pavement type, access to highways, predominant land use types, and population to estimate traffic volume. In verifying the model, an R2 value of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 73.4% were obtained. The second model was a logistic regression model that identified the level of traffic on roads using five thresholds or levels. The logistic regression model was verified by estimating traffic volume thresholds and determining the percentage of roads that were accurately classified as belonging to the given thresholds. For the five thresholds, the percentage of roads classified correctly ranged from 79% to 88%. In conclusion, the verification of the models indicated both model types to be useful for accurate and cost-effective estimation of traffic volumes for low volume Wyoming roads. The models developed were recommended for use in traffic volume estimations for low volume roads in pavement management and environmental impact assessment studies.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low......-volume rural roads, including crash characteristics, driver attributes and behavior, vehicle type, road features, environmental conditions, distance from the nearest hospital, and zone rurality degree. The data consist of a set of crashes occurred on low-volume rural roads in Denmark between 2007 and 2011...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudoelasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (1) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (2) involvement of vulnerable road...

  5. Recommendations on the use of marginal base course materials in low volume roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-04

    Full Text Available have required intermittent maintenance during their lives, they have clearly shown that current materials standards may be too conservative for affordable low volume roads. The study has shown that good drainage and construction quality are the primary...

  6. Performance Prediction Modelling for Flexible Pavement on Low Volume Roads Using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Makendran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction models for low volume village roads in India are developed to evaluate the progression of different types of distress such as roughness, cracking, and potholes. Even though the Government of India is investing huge quantum of money on road construction every year, poor control over the quality of road construction and its subsequent maintenance is leading to the faster road deterioration. In this regard, it is essential that scientific maintenance procedures are to be evolved on the basis of performance of low volume flexible pavements. Considering the above, an attempt has been made in this research endeavor to develop prediction models to understand the progression of roughness, cracking, and potholes in flexible pavements exposed to least or nil routine maintenance. Distress data were collected from the low volume rural roads covering about 173 stretches spread across Tamil Nadu state in India. Based on the above collected data, distress prediction models have been developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Further, the models have been validated using independent field data. It can be concluded that the models developed in this study can serve as useful tools for the practicing engineers maintaining flexible pavements on low volume roads.

  7. BEST PRACTICES TO SUPPORT AND IMPROVE PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR LOW-VOLUME PAVED ROADS – PHASE I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) has been trying to identify the most effective methods for managing low-volume roads (LVRs). These roads are facing multiple challenges including: reductions in maintenance budgets, impact of industria...

  8. The influence of management and construction methods in the repair costs of Spain’s low-volume road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutiquio Gallego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the entire process of the implementation of the Spanish low volume road network, including the design criteria, the construction techniques and the management policies during all the periods. The current situation of low volume roads in Spain was analyzed with respect to the legal framework and their actual condition. In addition, the budget required for the repair of 41 low volume roads throughout Spain was calculated in order to statistically analyze the influence of the pavement materials and the period of construction. The main conclusions were that low volume roads constructed during the 1970´s are currently those in the best state of repair and those requiring the lower repair costs, even lower than those constructed after 1980´s. In addition, low volume roads constructed with higher quality materials and using standardized techniques required five times lower repair costs than those made of lower quality materials.

  9. Field performance of stress-laminated timber bridges on low-volume roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. P. Wacker; S. R. Duwadi

    1995-01-01

    Stress-laminated timber bridges were first introduced in the United States in the late 1980s. Since that time, the concept of stress-laminating has received a great deal of attention and hundreds of bridges have been built. Most of these bridges are located on rural low-volume roads. To evaluate the performance of stress-laminated bridges, the United States Department...

  10. Soft Asphalt and Double Otta Seal—Self-Healing Sustainable Techniques for Low-Volume Gravel Road Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased traffic flow on low-volume gravel roads and deficiencies of national road infrastructure, are increasingly apparent in Lithuania. Gravel roads do not comply with requirements, resulting in low driving comfort, longer travelling time, faster vehicle amortization, and dustiness. The control of dustiness is one of the most important road maintenance activities on gravel roads. Another important issue is the assurance of required driving comfort and safety. Soft asphalt and Otta Seal technologies were proposed as a sustainable solution for the improvement of low-volume roads in Lithuania. Five gravel roads were constructed with soft asphalt, and 13 gravel roads were sealed with double Otta Seal, in 2012. The main aim of this research was to check soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal, on the basis of the results of the qualitative visual assessment of pavement defects and distress. The qualitative visual assessment was carried out twice a year following the opening of the rehabilitated road sections. The results confirmed soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal. The healing effect was more than 13% and 19% on roads with soft asphalt and double Otta Seal, respectively. In addition, on some roads, all cracks observed in spring self-healed during summer.

  11. Accelerated pavement testing of low-volume paved roads with geocell reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed by the highway : departments of Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and New York, has supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project : to study the rehabilitation of low-volum...

  12. Applying the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) design method to low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) has been in use since the 1950s for various applications in pavement investigation. During the 1980s, Kleyn and Van Zyl described a method for upgrading unsealed roads to light sealed road standard based...

  13. Alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses on low volume rural roads: Phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Adviser Abstract Gundo Lashu, the ‘Labour Intensive Rural Roads Maintenance Programme’ that is currently being implemented in Limpopo Province, South Africa has set out to train 24 emerging contractors in rehabilitation of rural gravel roads. All.... The proposal is to treat the in situ materials and sand with a diluted emulsion and a nominal cement application (to assist with breaking of the emulsion) and surface the road with an Otta seal. The aggregate for the Otta seal can be obtained form...

  14. Developing A Framework for Low-Volume Road Implementation of Pervious Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rahman, BSc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pervious concrete pavement is one of the promising pavement technologies, as it can help overcome traditional pavement environmental impacts, assist with stormwater management, and provide an effective low impact development solution. There are many benefits associated with pervious concrete pavement such as assisting with water filtration, absorbing heavy metals and reducing pollution. The most significant aspect, which draws the attention of environmental agencies and cities and municipalities, is its ability to reduce storm water runoff. Pervious concrete is documented as the paramount solution in storm water management by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Though it has been used in the southern United States for years, the practice of using pervious concrete is more recent in northern climates where freeze thaw is observed. In Canada, several pervious concrete parking lots have been constructed over the past few years. However barriers exist for implementing the technology, as designers are not always fully informed on the various functional and structural design considerations. In this paper, a framework is developed to identify how pervious concrete can be integrated into low-volume infrastructure. This paper also summarizes the structural performance and drainage characteristics of pervious concrete parking lots constructed in various provinces of Canada, demonstrating the viability of pervious concrete for low-volume northern applications.

  15. Optimum design of sustainable sealed low volume roads using the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available in a reduction in the need to import large quantities of virgin material. Appropriate testing with the simple DCP test device can be used to assess the in situ conditions including material quality and moisture regimes along the road alignment...

  16. Heavy vehicle simulator and laboratory testing of a light pavement structure for low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Group sandstones in the area. The engineering properties of the pavement materials are summarised in Table 1. The base layer material did not satisfy the grading and CBR requirements (CSRA, 1984) to be classified as a G4 material and the material... upgrading. Table 1. Engineering properties of the material from the main pavement layers on Road 538 Pavement layerEngineering properties Base Subbase Imported Sand In situ sand Grading Modulus (GM) 2.101 1.422 1.179 1.030 Liquid Limit (LL) 17 SP NP...

  17. Accelerated pavement testing of low-volume paved roads with geocell reinforcement : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Midwest States Accelerated Pavement Testing Pooled-Fund Program, financed : by the highway departments of Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, and New York, has : supported an accelerated pavement testing (APT) project to study the rehabilitation : of low-vol...

  18. Performance of Low-Volume Roads with Wearing Course Layer of Silty Sandy Soil Modified with Rice Husk Ash and Lime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behak Katz, L.; Musso Laespiga, M.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) is a by-product of rice milling. Its use as soil stabilizer is a way to replace the final disposal with environmental benefit. However, RHA is not cementitious itself but when mixed with lime forms cements which improve the soil properties. A research of performance of a silty sandy soil modified with RHA and lime as wearing course layer of low-volume roads was conducted through two full-scale test sections with different pavements built in Artigas, northern Uruguay. The alkaline reactivity of RHA is low because the husk burning is not controlled. The soil-RHA-lime mix design was conducted according to the Thompson’s Method. The pavement test sections were monitored through deflection measures by Benkelman beam and observations of surface condition. The deflections decreased over time in both test sections due to the development of cementation of the study materials. After one year, the dust emission was reduced, the wet skid resistance of pavement surfaces improved and there was not rutting. The researched pavements have had a good performance under the existing traffic and environmental conditions, demonstrating that wearing course layer of silty sand modified with RHA and lime is an alternative to improve the condition of low-volume roads and to replace the final disposal of RHA, with environmental, social and economic benefits. (Author)

  19. Life-cycle cost comparison of alternative surfacing for steep slopes on low-volume roads in Ghana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available surfacing options to gravel wearing courses used on steep gradients (in excess of 12%) of feeder roads in Ghana. A major outcome was three surfacing options (i.e. concrete, bituminous and stone setts/cobbles) that would be more effective to address drainage...

  20. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  1. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  2. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  3. Ultra Low Noise Poroelastic Road Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Ejsmont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces.

  4. Safety effects of low-cost engineering measures. An observational study in a Portuguese multilane road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Gomes, Sandra; Cardoso, João Lourenço

    2012-09-01

    Single carriageway multilane roads are not, in general, a very safe type of road, mainly because of the high number of seriously injured victims in head-on collisions, when compared with dual carriageway multilane roads, with a median barrier. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of the application of several low cost engineering measures, aimed at road infrastructure correction and road safety improvement on a multilane road (EN6), are presented. The study was developed by the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC) for the Portuguese Road Administration and involved a comparison of selected aspects of motorized traffic behaviour (traffic volumes and speeds) measured in several sections of EN6, as well as monitoring of road safety developments in the same road. The applied low cost engineering measures allowed a reduction of 10% in the expected annual number of personal injury accidents and a 70% decrease in the expected annual number of head-on collisions; the expected annual frequency of accidents involving killed and seriously injured persons was reduced by 26%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep-related vehicle crashes on low speed roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, A J; Armstrong, K A; Watson, A; Smith, S S

    2017-02-01

    Very little is known about the characteristics of sleep related (SR) crashes occurring on low speed roads compared with current understanding of the role of sleep in crashes occurring on high speed roads e.g. motorways. To address this gap, analyses were undertaken to identify the differences and similarities between (1) SR crashes occurring on roads with low (≤60km/h) and high (≥100km/h) speed limits, and (2) SR crashes and not-SR crashes occurring on roads with low speed limits. Police reports of all crashes occurring on low and high speed roads over a ten year period between 2000 and 2009 were examined for Queensland, Australia. Attending police officers identified all crash attributes, including 'fatigue/fell asleep', which indicates that the police believe the crash to have a causal factor relating to falling asleep, sleepiness due to sleep loss, time of day, or fatigue. Driver or rider involvement in crashes was classified as SR or not-SR. All crash-associated variables were compared using Chi-square tests (Cramer's V=effect size). A series of logistic regression was performed, with driver and crash characteristics as predictors of crash category. A conservative alpha level of 0.001 determined statistical significance. There were 440,855 drivers or riders involved in a crash during this time; 6923 (1.6%) were attributed as SR. SR crashes on low speed roads have similar characteristics to those on high speed roads with young (16-24y) males consistently over represented. SR crashes on low speed roads are noticeably different to not-SR crashes in the same speed zone in that male and young novice drivers are over represented and outcomes are more severe. Of all the SR crashes identified, 41% occurred on low speed roads. SR crashes are not confined to high speed roads. Low speed SR crashes warrant specific investigation because they occur in densely populated areas, exposing a greater number of people to risk and have more severe outcomes than not-SR crashes

  6. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Clara, E-mail: clarabentesgrilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus Universitário, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  7. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  8. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  9. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  10. Noisiness of the Surfaces on Low-Speed Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Gardziejczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is a particular threat to the environment in the vicinity of roads. The level of the noise is influenced by traffic density and traffic composition, as well as vehicle speed and the type of surface. The article presents the results of studies on tire/road noise from passing vehicles at a speed of 40–80 kph, carried out by using the statistical pass-by method (SPB, on seven surfaces with different characteristics. It has been shown that increasing the speed from 40 kph to 50 kph contributes to the increase in the maximum A-weighted sound pressure level by about 3 dB, regardless of the type of surface. For larger differences in speed (30 kph–40 kph increase in noise levels reaches values about 10 dB. In the case of higher speeds, this increase is slightly lower. In this article, special attention is paid to the noisiness from surfaces made of porous asphalt concrete (PAC, BBTM (thin asphalt layer, and stone mastic asphalt (SMA with a maximum aggregate size of 8 mm and 5 mm. It has also been proved that surfaces of porous asphalt concrete, within two years after the commissioning, significantly contribute to a reduction of the maximum level of noise in the streets and roads with lower speed of passing cars. Reduction of the maximum A-weighted sound pressure level of a statistical car traveling at 60 kph reaches values of up to about 6 dB, as compared with the SMA11. Along with the exploitation of the road, air voids in the low-noise surface becomes clogged and acoustic properties of the road decrease to a level similar to standard asphalt.

  11. Road Materials and Pavement Design volume 17(2)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 2 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France...

  12. Road Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17(1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Pavement Design Volume 17, 2016 - Issue 1 Editorial Board Page ebi | Published online: 03 Oct 2016  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2016.1244475 Editors-in-Chief Hervé DI BENEDETTO - University of Lyon/ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France... Andrew Charles COLLOP - De Montfort University, Leicester, UK William G. BUTTLAR - University of Missouri, Urbana-Champaign, USA Editor-in-Chief at Large Jorge B. Sousa - Consulpav, Oeiras, Portugal Associate Editors Morris de Beer - CSIR Built...

  13. A good road lies easy on the land: Water harvesting from low-standard rural roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zeedyk, B.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record This book addresses the construction and maintenance of unpaved rural roads including strategies, techniques and practices for dealing with problems frequently encountered by landowners, land managers and maintenance personnel. Running water is the primary force affecting road condition and generating the need for maintenance. Economical maintenance means dealing effectively with water, but not just surface runoff. Standing water, seeping water, rain, snow, ice, frost ...

  14. Complex Road Intersection Modelling Based on Low-Frequency GPS Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Deng, M.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    It is widely accepted that digital map becomes an indispensable guide for human daily traveling. Traditional road network maps are produced in the time-consuming and labour-intensive ways, such as digitizing printed maps and extraction from remote sensing images. At present, a large number of GPS trajectory data collected by floating vehicles makes it a reality to extract high-detailed and up-to-date road network information. Road intersections are often accident-prone areas and very critical to route planning and the connectivity of road networks is mainly determined by the topological geometry of road intersections. A few studies paid attention on detecting complex road intersections and mining the attached traffic information (e.g., connectivity, topology and turning restriction) from massive GPS traces. To the authors' knowledge, recent studies mainly used high frequency (1 s sampling rate) trajectory data to detect the crossroads regions or extract rough intersection models. It is still difficult to make use of low frequency (20-100 s) and easily available trajectory data to modelling complex road intersections geometrically and semantically. The paper thus attempts to construct precise models for complex road intersection by using low frequency GPS traces. We propose to firstly extract the complex road intersections by a LCSS-based (Longest Common Subsequence) trajectory clustering method, then delineate the geometry shapes of complex road intersections by a K-segment principle curve algorithm, and finally infer the traffic constraint rules inside the complex intersections.

  15. Is vertebrate mortality correlated to potential permeability by underpasses along low-traffic roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Juan D; Morelli, Federico; Arroyo, Natalia L; Durán, Jorge; Rodríguez, Alexandra; Rosal, Antonio; Palenzuela, María Del Valle; Rodríguez, Jesús D G P

    2018-09-01

    Road permeability to animal movements depends among several factors on structures which, integrated in the road design, operate as safe conducts to mitigate vehicle collision and barrier effects. There is abundant evidence that wildlife makes use of such structures as safe passages to cross roads. We analyzed the spatial relationship between road drainage elements (N = 253; mostly culverts) as potential faunal underpasses, and mortality due to vehicle collisions in two seasons and on four relatively low-traffic roads (roads, identifying and characterizing all potential underpasses. Overall frequencies of casualties and spatial distribution were highly variable both within and among these roads. We obtained an estimation of potential permeability for the different roads. We detected, located and described a wide supply and a very variable pattern of drainage culverts and other underpasses, with differences among roads in passage attributes potentially affecting permeability for wildlife, such as spatial arrangement, number, density (frequency or concentration of passages) and dimensions. We used Mantel tests to assess spatial congruence of passages and road-killed animals. We applied generalized linear mixed models fitted by maximum likelihood through Akaike Information Criterion to explain the variation in the distance of the 238 casualties to the nearest underpasses, with road transect and season as random factors, and traffic intensity, speed and vertebrate class as fixed effects. Both road-killed animals and underpass distribution followed aggregated patterns, and casualties were not significantly related to underpasses along any of the 4 roads. There were no differences in distance of casualties to the nearest underpass for the three vertebrate classes. Although existing underpasses were abundant, we could not correlate potential permeability with reduced mortality along these roads, and other factors potentially affecting roadkill aggregations should be

  16. Simplified methods for evaluating road prism stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Mark Ballerini; David Hall

    2003-01-01

    Mass failure is one of the most common failures of low-volume roads in mountainous terrain. Current methods for evaluating stability of these roads require a geotechnical specialist. A stability analysis program, XSTABL, was used to estimate the stability of 3,696 combinations of road geometry, soil, and groundwater conditions. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to...

  17. Econometric models of road use, accidents, and road investment decisions. Volume 1 : introductory overview, the barely revealed preference behind road investment priorities (essay 1), measuring the contribution of randomness, exposure, weather, and daylig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This volume contains the forst part of the author's PhD dissertation, and includes an introductory overview as well as two essays. The first essay entitled "The barely revealed preference behind road investment priorities," co-authored by Rune Elvik,...

  18. An estimation of vehicle kilometer traveled and on-road emissions using the traffic volume and travel speed on road links in Incheon City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Kim, Jounghwa; Kim, Jeongsoo; Hong, Dahee; Park, Dongjoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) and on-road emissions using the traffic volume in urban. We estimated two VKT; one is based on registered vehicles and the other is based on traffic volumes. VKT for registered vehicles was 2.11 times greater than that of the applied traffic volumes because each VKT estimation method is different. Therefore, we had to define the inner VKT is moved VKT inner in urban to compare two values. Also, we focused on freight modes because these are discharged much air pollutant emissions. From analysis results, we found middle and large trucks registered in other regions traveled to target city in order to carry freight, target city has included many industrial and logistics areas. Freight is transferred through the harbors, large logistics centers, or via locations before being moved to the final destination. During this process, most freight is moved by middle and large trucks, and trailers rather than small trucks for freight import and export. Therefore, these trucks from other areas are inflow more than registered vehicles. Most emissions from diesel trucks had been overestimated in comparison to VKT from applied traffic volumes in target city. From these findings, VKT is essential based on traffic volume and travel speed on road links in order to estimate accurately the emissions of diesel trucks in target city. Our findings support the estimation of the effect of on-road emissions on urban air quality in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight: the roles of air pollution, heat, noise, and road-adjacent trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvand, Payam; Ostro, Bart; Figueras, Francesc; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Valentín, Antònia; Martinez, David; Beelen, Rob; Cirach, Marta; Hoek, Gerard; Jerrett, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-07-01

    Maternal residential proximity to roads has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there is no study investigating mediators or buffering effects of road-adjacent trees on this association. We investigated the association between mothers' residential proximity to major roads and term low birth weight (LBW), while exploring possible mediating roles of air pollution (PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), PM(10), PM(2.5) absorbance, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides), heat, and noise and buffering effect of road-adjacent trees on this association. This cohort study was based on 6438 singleton term births in Barcelona, Spain (2001-2005). Road proximity was measured as both continuous distance to and living within 200 m from a major road. We assessed individual exposures to air pollution, noise, and heat using, respectively, temporally adjusted land-use regression models, annual averages of 24-hour noise levels across 50 m and 250 m, and average of satellite-derived land-surface temperature in a 50-m buffer around each residential address. We used vegetation continuous fields to abstract tree coverage in a 200-m buffer around major roads. Living within 200 m of major roads was associated with a 46% increase in term LBW risk; an interquartile range increase in heat exposure with an 18% increase; and third-trimester exposure to PM(2.5), PM(2.5-10), and PM10 with 24%, 25%, and 26% increases, respectively. Air pollution and heat exposures together explained about one-third of the association between residential proximity to major roads and term LBW. Our observations on the buffering of this association by road-adjacent trees were not consistent between our 2 measures of proximity to major roads. An increased risk of term LBW associated with proximity to major roads was partly mediated by air pollution and heat exposures.

  20. Econometric models of road use, accidents, and road investment decisions. Volume 2 : an econometric model of car ownership, road use, accidents, and their severity (Essay 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Using a fairly large cross-section/time-series data base, covering all provinces of Norway and all months between January 1973 and December 1994, we estimate non-linear (Box-Cox) regression equations explaining aggregate car ownership, road use, seat...

  1. Headlights on tobacco road to low birthweight outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Bache, Stefan Holst; Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    2013-01-01

    Low birthweight outcomes are associated with considerable social and economic costs, and therefore the possible determinants of low birthweight are of great interest. One such determinant which has received considerable attention is maternal smoking. From an economic perspective this is in part d...... includes many relevant control variables for socio-economic, wealth, and personal characteristics....

  2. corrosion response of low carbon steel in tropical road mud

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Corrosion Mitigation efforts using readily available anti- corrosion coatings to protect low carbon steel test coupons against the ... The following protective coating devices were effective: ..... 2 West, J.M (1986): Basic Corrosion and Oxidation,.

  3. Association between mobile phone traffic volume and road crash fatalities: A population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Bruzzone, Silvia; Pelliccioni, Armando; Forastiere, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data. A case-crossover study design was applied to estimate the relative risks of road accident for increases in each type of mobile phone traffic volumes in underlying population present in the small areas where accidents occurred. Effect modification was evaluated by weekday/weekend, hour of the day, meteorological conditions, and street densities. Positive associations between road crashes rates and the number of calls, texts, and Internet connections were found, with incremental risks of 17.2% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 7.7, 27.6), 8.4% (CI 0.7, 16.8), and 54.6% (CI 34.0, 78.5) per increases (at 15 min intervals) of 5 calls/100 people, 3 text/100 people, and 40 connections/100 people, respectively. Small differences across cities were detected. Working days, nighttime and morning hours were associated with greater phone use and more road accidents. The relationship between mobile phone use and road fatalities at population level is strong. Strict controls on cellular phone in the vehicle may results in a large health benefit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  5. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  6. IRI performance models for recently constructed low and medium-traffic two lane roads of the province of Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Acebo, H.; Gonzalo-Orden, H.

    2016-07-01

    Reliable pavement prediction models are needed for pavement management systems (PMS), as they are a key component to forecast future conditions of the pavement and to prioritize maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction strategies. The International Roughness Index (IRI) is the most used parameter worldwide for calibrating pavement roughness and measures reasonably the ride comfort perceived by occupants of passenger cars. The Regional Government of Biscay also collects this value on the road network under its control These surveys are carried out regularly in the XXI century. Several IRI performance models have been proposed by different authors and administrations, varying greatly in their comprehensiveness, the ability to predict performance with accurancy and input data requirements. The aim of this paper is to develop a roughness performance model for Biscay's roads, based on availablbe IRI data, taking into account heavy traffic volume and the age of pavement. Local characteristics as climate conditions and average rainfall are not considered. IRI performance models have been suggested for regional two lane highways with low and medium heavy traffic constructed in the last 20 years in the province of Biscay, with no treatments during their life. They can be applied for flexible pavements, but no logical coherent results have been concluded for semi-rigid pavements. (Author)

  7. Market overview: Volume and prices remain low

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in February 1997 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers

  8. Untreated runoff quality from roof and road surfaces in a low intensity rainfall climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2016-04-15

    Sediment and heavy metals in stormwater runoff are key pollutants of urban waterways, and their presence in stormwater is driven by climatic factors such as rainfall intensity. This study describes the total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metal concentrations found in runoff from four different urban surfaces within a residential/institutional catchment, in a climate where rainfall is typically of low intensity (runoff quality from a compilation of international studies. The road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper and galvanized roof runoff had the highest copper and zinc concentrations, respectively. Pollutant concentrations were found to be significantly different between surfaces; quantification and prediction of pollutant contributions from urban surfaces should thus take account of the different surface materials, instead of being aggregated into more generalized categories such as land use. The TSS and heavy metal concentrations were found to be at the low to medium end of ranges observed internationally, except for total copper and zinc concentrations generated by dissolution of copper and galvanized roofing material respectively; these concentrations were at least as high as those reported internationally. TSS wash-off from the roofs was seen to be a source-limited process, where all available TSS is washed off during the rain event despite the low intensity rainfall, whereas both road TSS and heavy metals wash-off from roof and road surfaces appeared to all be transport-limited and therefore some carryover of pollutants occurs between rain events. A first flush effect was seen from most surfaces for TSS, but not for heavy metals. This study demonstrates that in low intensity rainfall climates, quantification of untreated runoff quality from key individual surface types in a catchment are needed to enable development of targeted and appropriately sized stormwater treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-scale road safety programmes in low- and middle-income countries: an opportunity to generate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Allen, Katharine A; Peters, David H; Chandran, Aruna; Bishai, David

    2013-01-01

    The growing burden of road traffic injuries, which kill over 1.2 million people yearly, falls mostly on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite this, evidence generation on the effectiveness of road safety interventions in LMIC settings remains scarce. This paper explores a scientific approach for evaluating road safety programmes in LMICs and introduces such a road safety multi-country initiative, the Road Safety in 10 Countries Project (RS-10). By building on existing evaluation frameworks, we develop a scientific approach for evaluating large-scale road safety programmes in LMIC settings. This also draws on '13 lessons' of large-scale programme evaluation: defining the evaluation scope; selecting study sites; maintaining objectivity; developing an impact model; utilising multiple data sources; using multiple analytic techniques; maximising external validity; ensuring an appropriate time frame; the importance of flexibility and a stepwise approach; continuous monitoring; providing feedback to implementers, policy-makers; promoting the uptake of evaluation results; and understanding evaluation costs. The use of relatively new approaches for evaluation of real-world programmes allows for the production of relevant knowledge. The RS-10 project affords an important opportunity to scientifically test these approaches for a real-world, large-scale road safety evaluation and generate new knowledge for the field of road safety.

  10. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels.

  11. Air pollution co-benefits of low carbon policies in road transport: a sub-national assessment for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Masui, Toshihiko; Shukla, Priyadarshi R

    2015-01-01

    This letter assesses low carbon scenarios for India at the subnational level in the passenger road transport sector. We estimate the future passenger mobility demand and assess the impact of carbon mitigation policies using the Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment/Enduse models. This letter focuses on the transitions of energy and emissions of passenger transport in India in alternate scenarios i.e. the business-as-usual scenario and a low carbon scenario that aligns to the 2 °C temperature stabilization target agreed under the global climate change negotiations. The modelling results show that passenger mobility demand will rise in all sub-national regions of India in the coming few decades. However, the volume and modal structure will vary across regions. Modelling assessment results show that aligning global low carbon policies with local policies has potential to deliver significant air quality co-benefits. This analysis provides insights into the comparative dynamics of environmental policymaking at sub-national levels. (letter)

  12. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  13. The subjective effect of low frequency content in road traffic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Flindell, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Based on subjective listening trials, Torija and Flindell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 135, 1-4 (2014)] observed that low frequency content in typical urban main road traffic noise appeared to make a smaller contribution to reported annoyance than might be inferred from its objective or physical dominance. This paper reports a more detailed study which was aimed at (i) identifying the difference in sound levels at which low frequency content becomes subjectively dominant over mid and high frequency content and (ii) investigating the relationship between loudness and annoyance under conditions where low frequency content is relatively more dominant, such as indoors where mid and high frequency content is reduced. The results suggested that differences of at least +30 dB between the low frequency and the mid/high frequency content are needed for changes in low frequency content to have as much subjective effect as equivalent changes in mid and high frequency content. This suggests that common criticisms of the A-frequency weighting based on a hypothesized excessive downweighting of the low frequency content may be relatively unfounded in this application area.

  14. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  15. Performance Assessment of Low-Noise Road Surfaces in the Leopoldo Project: Comparison and Validation of Different Measurement Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Licitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost all urban contexts and in many extra-urban conurbations, where road traffic is the main noise pollution source, the use of barriers is not allowed. In these cases, low-noise road surfaces are the most used mitigation action together with traffic flow reduction. Selecting the optimal surface is only the first problem that the public administration has to face. In the second place, it has to consider the issue of assessing the efficacy of the mitigation action. The purpose of the LEOPOLDO project was to improve the knowledge in the design and the characterization of low-noise road surfaces, producing guidelines helpful to the public administrations. Several experimental road surfaces were tested. Moreover, several measurement methods were implemented aiming to select those that are suitable for a correct assessment of the pavement performances laid as mitigation planning. In this paper, the experience gained in the LEOPOLDO project will be described, focusing on both the measurement methods adopted to assess the performance of a low-noise road surface and the criteria by which the experimental results have to be evaluated, presenting a comparison of the obtained results and their monitoring along time.

  16. Safer roads in Chad : recommendations for low-cost road safety measures in Chad. On behalf of The World Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the National Transport Support Project, SWOV provided local experts in Chad with technical assistance on road safety. The assistance focused on the development of a comprehensive road safety strategy and physical road safety improvements on urban and inter-urban roads. The

  17. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume (1m3 hr-1) total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter (PM) chamber. The four PM10 and four TSP samplers were also tested in an oil pipe-cleaning field to ev...

  18. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Avenue Urbana , IL 61801-4797 Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...allow validation of each structure’s effectiveness. Approach A research team consisting of members from the University of Illinois, Urbana ...and preferential drainage channel. Furthermore, dry weather conditions on unimproved ERDC/CERL TR-06-31 4 roads generate large volumes of airborne

  19. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  20. Impacts of urbanization on national transport and road energy use: Evidence from low, middle and high income countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumanyvong, Phetkeo; Kaneko, Shinji; Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2012-01-01

    Few attempts have been made to investigate quantitatively and systematically the impact of urbanization on transport energy use for countries of different stages of economic development. This paper examines the influence of urbanization on national transport and road energy use for low, middle and high income countries during 1975–2005, using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) model. After controlling for population size, income per capita and the share of services in the economy, the main results suggest that urbanization influences national transport and road energy use positively. However, the magnitude of its influence varies among the three income groups. Changes in urbanization appear to have a greater impact on transport and road energy use in the high income group than in the other groups. Surprisingly, the urbanization elasticities of transport and road energy use in the middle income group are smaller than those of the low income group. This study not only sheds further light on the existing literature, but also provides policy makers with insightful information on the link between urbanization and transport energy use at the three different stages of development. - Highlights: ► Overall, urbanization increases national transport and road energy use. ► Urbanization elasticities of transport energy use differ across development stages. ► Urbanization elasticities in high-income group are higher than in other groups.

  1. Road following for blindBike: an assistive bike navigation system for low vision persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Lynne; Overell, William

    2017-05-01

    Road Following is a critical component of blindBike, our assistive biking application for the visually impaired. This paper talks about the overall blindBike system and goals prominently featuring Road Following, which is the task of directing the user to follow the right side of the road. This work unlike what is commonly found for self-driving cars does not depend on lane line markings. 2D computer vision techniques are explored to solve the problem of Road Following. Statistical techniques including the use of Gaussian Mixture Models are employed. blindBike is developed as an Android Application and is running on a smartphone device. Other sensors including Gyroscope and GPS are utilized. Both Urban and suburban scenarios are tested and results are given. The success and challenges faced by blindBike's Road Following module are presented along with future avenues of work.

  2. PREPARATION OF ULTRA-LOW VOLUME WEIGHT AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Koutny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoclaved aerated concrete is a modern construction material that gains its popularity especially due to its thermal insulation performance resulting from low volume weight and porous structure with sufficient mechanical strength. Nowadays, there are attempts to use this material for thermal insulation purposes and to replace current systems, which have many disadvantages, mainly concerning durability. The key for improvement of thermal insulation properties is therefore obtaining a material based on autoclaved aerated concrete with extremely low volume weight (below 200 kg/m ³ ensuring good thermal isolation properties, but with sufficient mechanical properties to allow easy manipulation. This material can be prepared by foaming very fine powder materials such as silica fume or very finely ground sand. This paper deals with the possibilities of preparation and summarizes the basic requirements for successful preparation of such a material.

  3. Local government note: new perspectives of unsealed roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available in most countries. In South Africa they make up more than 75 per cent of the total road network and probably 95 per cent of the low volume road network. Unsealed roads come with various disadvantages over sealed roads, primarily the ongoing... and continual maintenance as well as the accompanying environmental problems. The maintenance, whether grader blading to restore riding quality or replacing the gravel lost under traffic and environmental actions is both costly and disruptive to the normal...

  4. Speed-volume relationship and headway distribution analysis of motorcycle (case study: Teuku Nyak Arief Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahara, E.; Prasetya, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    In many developing countries, transportation modes are more varied than the other country. For example, in Jakarta, Indonesia, in some roadway, motorcycle is the most dominant vehicle, with total volume is four times higher than a passenger car. Thus, the traffic characteristic in motorcycle-dominated traffic differs from a common traffic situation. The purpose of this study is to apply the concept and theory developed to analyze motorcycle behaviour under motorcycle-dominated traffic condition. The survey is applied by recording the traffic flow movement of research location at specified time period. The macroscopic characteristic analyzed in this research is a speed-flow relationship based on motorcycle equivalent unit (MCU). Furthermore, a detail microscopic characteristic analyzed that is motorcycle time headway regarding traffic flow. MCU values computed were consists of motorcycle (MC), light vehicle (LV) and heavy vehicle (HV). Those values were calculated 1.00, 6.13 and 10.71 respectively. The speed and volume relationship result is showing a linear regression model with R2 value is 0.58, it can be explained that the correlation between two variables is intermediate. The headway distribution of motorcycle is compatible with the negative exponential distribution which fitted with the proposed theory for a small vehicle such as a motorcycle.

  5. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  6. Influence of low impact development construction on pollutant process of road-deposited sediments and associated heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yukun; Gong, Manli; Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2018-02-01

    Intense Low-Impact Development (LID) construction in China could lead to increasingly severe stormwater and receiving water pollution due to the lack of appropriate regulation for mitigating pollution from LID construction. Samples of road-deposited sediments (RDS) were collected from 50 study sites at seven LID construction stages and four road hierarchies to analyze the pollution process and determine the size of the region influenced by LID construction. Six heavy metals were analyzed, and the RDS index model was adopted to estimate the potential heavy metal load washed off by stormwater runoff. Analysis of variance revealed that the excavation and gravel filling of rain gardens and excavation of porous pavements were critical LID construction stages that contributed the largest masses of RDS per unit area to road surfaces. Although the concentration of heavy metals at LID construction sites was lower than at sites without LID construction, the load of heavy metals washed off from LID construction was much higher. In addition, the sizes of regions influenced by accumulated RDS from LID construction descended in the following order: arterial road (600-775m)>collector road (150-200m)>access road (100-150m)>laneway (20-30m). According to the characteristics of LID construction at the study sites, the potential total solid loads in stormwater throughout China were estimated to reach 36,694t by 2020 and 146,777t by 2030. According to the results of analysis, several recommendations are provided for designing LID construction regulations to mitigate stormwater pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards the Mainstreaming of an Approach to Include Social Benefits Within Road Appraisal : A Case Study from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Odoki, Jennaro B.; Ahmed, Farhad; Taylor, Gary; Okello, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    Developing countries dedicate a considerable share of total infrastructure investment to roads. The adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals and an increasing emphasis on justifying road investments in terms of their contribution to poverty reduction have directed considerable attention to low volume rural roads. Often the poorest of the poor live in remote rural areas and impr...

  8. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  9. Volume reduction through incineration of low-activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymeri, J.; Gauthey, J.C.; Chaise, D.; Lafite, G.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the waste treatment plant, designed by Technicatome (CEA) for an Indonesian Nuclear Research Center, is to reduce through incineration the volume of low-activity radioactive wastes such as technological solids (cotton, PVC, paper board), biological solids (animal bones) and liquids (cutting fluids...). The complete combustion is realized with a total air multi-fuel burner (liquid wastes) and flash pyrolysis-complete combustion (solid wastes). A two stage flue gas filtration system, a flue gas washing system, and an ash recovery system are used. A test platform has been built. 3 figs

  10. Korean working towards low and intermediate level waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Jae Song; Jong-Kil Park

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance. This paper describes the results, efforts, and prospects for the safe management of radioactive wastes having been performed by the Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) of the Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Firstly, KEPCO's efforts and results for waste volume reduction are summarized to show how the number of waste drums generated per reactor-year could be reduced by about 60% during the last 10 years. Secondly, a new treatment technology, a technology for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) vitrification, was introduced to prospect how the technology reduces the waste volume and increases the inherent safety for LILW disposal. It is expected that the vitrification technology will contribute not only to reduce LILW volume to around 1/14 ∼ 1/32 but also to change the 'Not In My Back Yard' (NIMBY) syndrome to the 'Please In My Front Yard' (PIMFY) attitude of local communities/residents for LILW disposal. (author)

  11. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakeer M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Bakeer,1 Taha Taha Abdelgawad,1 Raed El-Metwaly,1 Ahmed El-Morsi,1 Mohammad Khairy El-Badrawy,1 Solafa El-Sharawy2 1Chest Medicine Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR, using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery.Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue.Methods: Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications.Results: In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively. In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively. All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality.Conclusion: BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. Keywords: BLVR, bronchoscopy, COPD, interventional pulmonology

  12. Low contrast media volume in pre-TAVI CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Madeleine; Turek, Jakub; Mihl, Casper; Reinartz, Sebastian D; Gohmann, Robin F; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kats, Suzanne; van Ommen, Vincent G; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate image quality using reduced contrast media (CM) volume in pre-TAVI assessment. Forty-seven consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI examination were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 BMI  28 kg/m(2) (n = 18). Patients received a combined scan protocol: retrospective ECG-gated helical CTA of the aortic root (80kVp) followed by a high-pitch spiral CTA (group 1: 70 kV; group 2: 80 kVp) from aortic arch to femoral arteries. All patients received one bolus of CM (300 mgI/ml): group 1: volume = 40 ml; flow rate = 3 ml/s, group 2: volume = 53 ml; flow rate = 4 ml/s. Attenuation values (HU) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured at the levels of the aortic root (helical) and peripheral arteries (high-pitch). Diagnostic image quality was considered sufficient at attenuation values > 250HU and CNR > 10. Diagnostic image quality for TAVI measurements was obtained in 46 patients. Mean attenuation values and CNR (HU ± SD) at the aortic root (helical) were: group 1: 381 ± 65HU and 13 ± 8; group 2: 442 ± 68HU and 10 ± 5. At the peripheral arteries (high-pitch), mean values were: group 1: 430 ± 117HU and 11 ± 6; group 2: 389 ± 102HU and 13 ± 6. CM volume can be substantially reduced using low kVp protocols, while maintaining sufficient image quality for the evaluation of aortic root and peripheral access sites. • Image quality could be maintained using low kVp scan protocols. • Low kVp protocols reduce contrast media volume by 34-67 %. • Less contrast media volume lowers the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

  13. Rubber friction on road surfaces: Experiment and theory for low sliding speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J. [PGI, FZ Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oh, Y. R.; Nam, S. K.; Jeon, S. H. [Hankook Tire Co. LTD., 112 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-725 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-21

    We study rubber friction for tire tread compounds on asphalt road surfaces. The road surface topographies are measured using a stylus instrument and atomic force microscopy, and the surface roughness power spectra are calculated. The rubber viscoelastic modulus mastercurves are obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis measurements and the large-strain effective modulus is obtained from strain sweep data. The rubber friction is measured at different temperatures and sliding velocities, and is compared to the calculated data obtained using the Persson contact mechanics theory. We conclude that in addition to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber surface by the road asperities, there is an important contribution to the rubber friction from shear processes in the area of contact. The analysis shows that the latter contribution may arise from rubber molecules (or patches of rubber) undergoing bonding-stretching-debonding cycles as discussed in a classic paper by Schallamach.

  14. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  15. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  16. The potential of natural gas as a bridging technology in low-emission road transportation in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Helmreich Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emission reductions are at the centre of national and international efforts to mitigate climate change. In road transportation, many politically incentivised measures focus on increasing the energy efficiency of established technologies, or promoting electric or hybrid vehicles. The abatement potential of the former approach is limited, electric mobility technologies are not yet market-ready. In a case study for Germany, this paper focuses on natural gas powered vehicles as a bridging technology in road transportation. Scenario analyses with a low level of aggregation show that natural gas-based road transportation in Germany can accumulate up to 464 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent emission reductions until 2030 depending on the speed of the diffusion process. If similar policies were adopted EU-wide, the emission reduction potential could reach a maximum of about 2.5 billion tonnes of CO2-equivalent. Efforts to promote natural gas as a bridging technology may therefore contribute to significant emissions reductions.

  17. Dust Prevention and Low-Volume Road Construction in South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Rasmus; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The dust reducing agent Dustex, which is made by lignosulphonate, has some more qualities than reducing the dust amounts. In several cases it is shown that the stability is increased. This is documented under some conditions, but some investigations could still be carried out. The use of the prod...

  18. Aggregate strength for bituminous surfacings for low volume roads: a heavy vehicle simulator experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an investigation using the CSIR Transportek Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to determine the impact of using aggregates softer than specified in chip seals and to propose possible relaxations in the currently specified strength...

  19. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  20. A Few Large Roads or Many Small Ones? How to Accommodate Growth in Vehicle Numbers to Minimise Impacts on Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R.; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24646891

  1. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Rhodes

    Full Text Available Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1 increasing the number of roads, and (2 increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  2. A few large roads or many small ones? How to accommodate growth in vehicle numbers to minimise impacts on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jonathan R; Lunney, Daniel; Callaghan, John; McAlpine, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    Roads and vehicular traffic are among the most pervasive of threats to biodiversity because they fragmenting habitat, increasing mortality and opening up new areas for the exploitation of natural resources. However, the number of vehicles on roads is increasing rapidly and this is likely to continue into the future, putting increased pressure on wildlife populations. Consequently, a major challenge is the planning of road networks to accommodate increased numbers of vehicles, while minimising impacts on wildlife. Nonetheless, we currently have few principles for guiding decisions on road network planning to reduce impacts on wildlife in real landscapes. We addressed this issue by developing an approach for quantifying the impact on wildlife mortality of two alternative mechanisms for accommodating growth in vehicle numbers: (1) increasing the number of roads, and (2) increasing traffic volumes on existing roads. We applied this approach to a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population in eastern Australia and quantified the relative impact of each strategy on mortality. We show that, in most cases, accommodating growth in traffic through increases in volumes on existing roads has a lower impact than building new roads. An exception is where the existing road network has very low road density, but very high traffic volumes on each road. These findings have important implications for how we design road networks to reduce their impacts on biodiversity.

  3. Low-volume plus ascorbic acid vs high-volume plus simethicone bowel preparation before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontone, Stefano; Angelini, Rita; Standoli, Monica; Patrizi, Gregorio; Culasso, Franco; Pontone, Paolo; Redler, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of low-volume plus ascorbic acid [polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (PEG + Asc)] and high-volume plus simethicone [polyethylene glycol plus simethicone (PEG + Sim)] bowel preparations. METHODS: A total of one hundred and forty-four outpatients (76 males), aged from 20 to 84 years (median age 59.5 years), who attended our Department, were divided into two groups, age and sex matched, and underwent colonoscopy. Two questionnaires, one for patients reporting acceptability and the other for endoscopists evaluating bowel cleansing effectiveness according to validated scales, were completed. Indications, timing of examination and endoscopical findings were recorded. Biopsy forceps were used as a measuring tool in order to determine polyp endoscopic size estimation. Difficulty in completing the preparation was rated in a 5-point Likert scale (1 = easy to 5 = unable). Adverse experiences (fullness, cramps, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache and insomnia), number of evacuations and types of activities performed during preparation (walking or resting in bed) were also investigated. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were selected for each group. The two groups were age and sex matched as well as being comparable in terms of medical history and drug therapies taken. Fourteen patients dropped out from the trial because they did not complete the preparation procedure. Ratings of global bowel cleansing examinations were considered to be adequate in 91% of PEG + Asc and 88% of PEG + Sim patients. Residual Stool Score indicated similar levels of amount and consistency of residual stool; there was a significant difference in the percentage of bowel wall visualization in favour of PEG + Sim patients. In the PEG + Sim group, 12 adenomas ≤ 10 mm diameter (5/left colon + 7/right colon) vs 9 (8/left colon + 1/right colon) in the PEG + Asc group were diagnosed. Visualization of small lesions seems to be one of the primary advantages of the

  4. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  5. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  6. Low-level waste volume reduction--physicochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    In some cases, volume reduction (VR) equipment may be called upon to reduce noncombustible liquid wastes to essentially dry salts and/or oxides. In other cases, it may be called upon to reduce combustible solids and liquids to ashes and innocuous gases. In brand terms, four kinds of processes are available to further reduce the volume of waste generated at nuclear facilities. These include high-solids evaporation, alternative evaporative designs, extruders/mixers, and calciner/incinerators. This paper discusses the following VR processes for radioactive wastes at nuclear facilities: evaporator/crystallizer; fluid bed dryer/incinerator; fluid bed calciner/incinerator; inert carrier radwaste processor; and molten glass incinerator

  7. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0183] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume... Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction (Policy Statement). This statement encouraged licensees to take..., the NRC staff issued SECY-10-0043, ``Blending of Low-Level Radioactive Waste'' (ADAMS Accession No...

  8. Low tube voltage and low contrast material volume cerebral CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Song; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming; Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Qi, Li; Schoepf, U.J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of low kVp and low contrast material volume cerebral CT angiography (CTA) in intracranial aneurysm detection. One hundred twenty patients were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40 for each): Group A, 70 ml iodinated contrast agent/120 kVp; group B, 30 ml/100 kVp; group C, 30 ml/80 kVp. The CT numbers, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Subjective image quality was evaluated. For patients undergoing DSA, diagnostic accuracy of CTA was calculated with DSA as reference standard and compared. CT numbers of ICA and MCA were higher in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). SNR and CNR in groups A and B were higher than in group C (both P < 0.05). There was no difference in subjective image quality among the three groups (P = 0.939). Diagnostic accuracy for aneurysm detection among these groups had no statistical difference (P = 1.00). Compared with group A, the radiation dose of groups B and C was decreased by 45 % and 74 %. Cerebral CTA at 100 or 80 kVp using 30 ml contrast agent can obtain diagnostic image quality with a low radiation dose while maintaining the same diagnostic accuracy for aneurysm detection. (orig.)

  9. Road Safety Risk Assessment: An Analysis of Transport Policy and Management for Low-, Middle-, and High-Income Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syyed Adnan Raheel Shah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road safety assessment has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of transport management systems. This paper focuses on risk evaluation in the Asian region by exploring the interaction between road safety risk and influencing factors. In the first stage, a data envelopment analysis (DEA method is applied to calculate and rank the road safety risk levels of Asian countries. In the second stage, a structural equation model (SEM with latent variables is applied to analyze the interaction between the road safety risk level and the latent variables, measured by six observed performance indicators, i.e., financial impact, institutional framework, infrastructure and mobility, legislation and policy, vehicular road users, and trauma management. Finally, this paper illustrates the applicability of this DEA-SEM approach for road safety performance analysis.

  10. Ultra-protective tidal volume: how low should we go?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Eduardo LV; Amato, Marcelo BP

    2013-01-01

    Applying tidal volumes of less than 6 mL/kg might improve lung protection in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In a recent article, Retamal and colleagues showed that such a reduction is feasible with conventional mechanical ventilation and leads to less tidal recruitment and overdistension without causing carbon dioxide retention or auto-positive end-expiratory pressure. However, whether the compensatory increase in the respiratory rate blunts the lung protection remains une...

  11. Low Tidal Volume Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Liquid Ventilation in Piglets With Severe Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Feng, Huizhen; Chen, Xiaofan; Liang, Kaifeng; Ni, Chengyao

    2017-05-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO 2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively. Extracorporeal CO 2 removal was applied in low tidal volume group to improve CO 2 clearance and in high tidal volume group as sham control. Gas exchange and hemodynamic status were monitored every 30 min during TLV. At the end of the study, pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by collecting lung tissue and blood samples from piglets. Arterial blood pressure, PaO 2 , and PaCO 2 showed no remarkable difference between groups during the observation period. Compared with high tidal volume strategy, low tidal volume resulted in 76% reduction of minute volume and over 80% reduction in peak inspiratory pressure during TLV. In addition, low tidal volume significantly diminished pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic level of IL-6 and IL-8. We conclude that during TLV, low tidal volume reduces lung inflammation in piglets with acute lung injury without compromising gas exchange. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Use of porous asphalt on major roads in Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Roads with high traffic volumes are synonymous with high road related noise levels. In Johannesburg road related noise pollution is recognised as a negative environmental impact. The Noise Pollution Unit of Johannesburg City Council regularly...

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among shopkeepers/salesman at model town link road, lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Taufiq, F.; Hassan, T.U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find the prevalence and intensity of low back pain (LBP) among shopkeepers and their associated risk factors and to determine working postures and activities of shopkeepers which make them vulnerable to low back pain. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at Model Town Link Road, Lahore, Pakistan for a period of five months. 96 shopkeepers were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Prevalence was measured by modified Nordic questionnaire and intensity of pain by Visual Analog Scale. Results: Prevalence of LBP was 56.25%. Of these, 81(84.38%) were male and 15(15.63%) were female. LBP was most common in age group 18-24 years. 58.8% of them had difficulty at job due to LBP. More working hours and prolonged standing or sitting in poor postures were associated with LBP. Conclusion: About half of the shopkeepers (56.25%) suffered from LBP. Working hours and poor posture were risk factors. Therefore, ergonomic advice is needed to prevent from low back pain. (author)

  14. Very Low Cerebral Blood Volume Predicts Parenchymal Hematoma in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  15. ISED: Constructing a high-resolution elevation road dataset from massive, low-quality in-situ observations derived from geosocial fitness tracking data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant McKenzie

    Full Text Available Gaining access to inexpensive, high-resolution, up-to-date, three-dimensional road network data is a top priority beyond research, as such data would fuel applications in industry, governments, and the broader public alike. Road network data are openly available via user-generated content such as OpenStreetMap (OSM but lack the resolution required for many tasks, e.g., emergency management. More importantly, however, few publicly available data offer information on elevation and slope. For most parts of the world, up-to-date digital elevation products with a resolution of less than 10 meters are a distant dream and, if available, those datasets have to be matched to the road network through an error-prone process. In this paper we present a radically different approach by deriving road network elevation data from massive amounts of in-situ observations extracted from user-contributed data from an online social fitness tracking application. While each individual observation may be of low-quality in terms of resolution and accuracy, taken together they form an accurate, high-resolution, up-to-date, three-dimensional road network that excels where other technologies such as LiDAR fail, e.g., in case of overpasses, overhangs, and so forth. In fact, the 1m spatial resolution dataset created in this research based on 350 million individual 3D location fixes has an RMSE of approximately 3.11m compared to a LiDAR-based ground-truth and can be used to enhance existing road network datasets where individual elevation fixes differ by up to 60m. In contrast, using interpolated data from the National Elevation Dataset (NED results in 4.75m RMSE compared to the base line. We utilize Linked Data technologies to integrate the proposed high-resolution dataset with OpenStreetMap road geometries without requiring any changes to the OSM data model.

  16. ISED: Constructing a high-resolution elevation road dataset from massive, low-quality in-situ observations derived from geosocial fitness tracking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Grant; Janowicz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Gaining access to inexpensive, high-resolution, up-to-date, three-dimensional road network data is a top priority beyond research, as such data would fuel applications in industry, governments, and the broader public alike. Road network data are openly available via user-generated content such as OpenStreetMap (OSM) but lack the resolution required for many tasks, e.g., emergency management. More importantly, however, few publicly available data offer information on elevation and slope. For most parts of the world, up-to-date digital elevation products with a resolution of less than 10 meters are a distant dream and, if available, those datasets have to be matched to the road network through an error-prone process. In this paper we present a radically different approach by deriving road network elevation data from massive amounts of in-situ observations extracted from user-contributed data from an online social fitness tracking application. While each individual observation may be of low-quality in terms of resolution and accuracy, taken together they form an accurate, high-resolution, up-to-date, three-dimensional road network that excels where other technologies such as LiDAR fail, e.g., in case of overpasses, overhangs, and so forth. In fact, the 1m spatial resolution dataset created in this research based on 350 million individual 3D location fixes has an RMSE of approximately 3.11m compared to a LiDAR-based ground-truth and can be used to enhance existing road network datasets where individual elevation fixes differ by up to 60m. In contrast, using interpolated data from the National Elevation Dataset (NED) results in 4.75m RMSE compared to the base line. We utilize Linked Data technologies to integrate the proposed high-resolution dataset with OpenStreetMap road geometries without requiring any changes to the OSM data model.

  17. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Case mix-adjusted cost of colectomy at low-, middle-, and high-volume academic centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex L; Kim, Young; Ertel, Audrey E; Hoehn, Richard S; Wima, Koffi; Abbott, Daniel E; Shah, Shimul A

    2017-05-01

    Efforts to regionalize surgery based on thresholds in procedure volume may have consequences on the cost of health care delivery. This study aims to delineate the relationship between hospital volume, case mix, and variability in the cost of operative intervention using colectomy as the model. All patients undergoing colectomy (n = 90,583) at 183 academic hospitals from 2009-2012 in The University HealthSystems Consortium Database were studied. Patient and procedure details were used to generate a case mix-adjusted predictive model of total direct costs. Observed to expected costs for each center were evaluated between centers based on overall procedure volume. Patient and procedure characteristics were significantly different between volume tertiles. Observed costs at high-volume centers were less than at middle- and low-volume centers. According to our predictive model, high-volume centers cared for a less expensive case mix than middle- and low-volume centers ($12,786 vs $13,236 and $14,497, P case mix at low-volume centers, which may lead to perceived poor performance at these centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic 3D relief acquisition and georeferencing of road sides by low-cost on-motion SfM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Bornemann, Perrick; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    3D terrain relief acquisition is important for a large part of geosciences. Several methods have been developed to digitize terrains, such as total station, LiDAR, GNSS or photogrammetry. To digitize road (or rail tracks) sides on long sections, mobile spatial imaging system or UAV are commonly used. In this project, we compare a still fairly new method -the SfM on-motion technics- with some traditional technics of terrain digitizing (terrestrial laser scanning, traditional SfM, UAS imaging solutions, GNSS surveying systems and total stations). The SfM on-motion technics generates 3D spatial data by photogrammetric processing of images taken from a moving vehicle. Our mobile system consists of six action cameras placed on a vehicle. Four fisheye cameras mounted on a mast on the vehicle roof are placed at 3.2 meters above the ground. Three of them have a GNNS chip providing geotagged images. Two pictures were acquired every second by each camera. 4K resolution fisheye videos were also used to extract 8.3M not geotagged pictures. All these pictures are then processed with the Agisoft PhotoScan Professional software. Results from the SfM on-motion technics are compared with results from classical SfM photogrammetry on a 500 meters long alpine track. They were also compared with mobile laser scanning data on the same road section. First results seem to indicate that slope structures are well observable up to decimetric accuracy. For the georeferencing, the planimetric (XY) accuracy of few meters is much better than the altimetric (Z) accuracy. There is indeed a Z coordinate shift of few tens of meters between GoPro cameras and Garmin camera. This makes necessary to give a greater freedom to altimetric coordinates in the processing software. Benefits of this low-cost SfM on-motion method are: 1) a simple setup to use in the field (easy to switch between vehicle types as car, train, bike, etc.), 2) a low cost and 3) an automatic georeferencing of 3D points clouds. Main

  20. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  1. Towards successful SPP treatment of local materials for road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-17

    Full Text Available This report discusses the use of certain proprietary soil stabilisers in low volume roads in South Africa. Although ionic soil stabilisers have been in use for many years, they have not been marketed to their fullest potential and in many cases have...

  2. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  3. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  4. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  5. Waste isolation in the U.S., technical programs and public education. Volume 2 - low level waste, volume reduction methodologies and economics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    This volume presents information regarding low-level waste, volume reduction methodologies and economics. Topics include: public education on nuclear waste; economics of low-level waste management systems; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques; solidification of waste; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques--incineration; regional plans for the disposal of low-level waste; radwaste system modifications at nuclear power plants; operating experience with advanced volume reduction techniques--operations and on-site storage issues; and economic impact of 10CFR61

  6. Optimising the road to a low carbon competitive energy sector in Europe. An essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.

    2011-10-01

    In the strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy the European Commission stressed the urgency of far-reaching changes in energy production, use, and supply. The stated priorities are energy efficiency, integrated markets, energy security, innovation and external actions. In March 2011, an energy efficiency plan was proposed with measures leading to 20% efficiency improvement in 2020. The Commission also launched the Roadmap for a Low Carbon Economy in 2050. In December 2011, the European Commission launched its Energy Roadmap 2050. This paper will evaluate their optimality for the three basic goals: competitive, sustainable and secure. The key question addressed in this essay is: Do current and envisaged EU energy and climate policies allow for optimal introduction of new energy technologies towards a globally competitive, sustainable and secure energy system? The key findings are: (1) To ensure an affordable future energy supply and combat climate change, a global transition of the energy sector is needed. Europe has to make its choices in that global context. This process will take several decades and will be surrounded with many uncertainties; (2) Reinforcing and expanding the European emission trading scheme (ETS) to include other sectors and regions in coming decades is the preferred element in a robust regulatory framework. Stable and higher carbon prices are an essential condition for low carbon investment planning and many other Member State policies. When prices are high and stable the market will seek the most cost efficient mix; (3) Renewables and energy efficiency are important solutions for the long run. Assuming the ETS will be significantly strengthened overall EU targets and policies for renewable and efficiency beyond 2020 have to fit within the ETS framework; (4) If renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for separate MS and sectors are set, they need to be flexible in order to avoid suboptimal economic outcomes. After 2020 a

  7. Association of Very Low-Volume Practice With Vascular Surgery Outcomes in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Goodney, Philip; Cronenwett, Jack; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-08-01

    Little research has focused on very low-volume surgery, especially in the context of decreasing vascular surgery volume with the adoption of endovascular procedures. To investigate the existence and outcomes of open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (OAR) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) performed by very low-volume surgeons in New York. This cohort study examined inpatient data of patients undergoing elective OAR or CEA from 2000 to 2014 from all New York hospitals. Surgeons who performed 1 or less designated procedure per year on average were considered very low volume, as opposed to higher-volume surgeons. Temporal trends of the existence of very low-volume practice were evaluated. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to compare in-hospital outcomes and health care resource use between patients treated by very low-volume surgeons and higher-volume surgeons for both OAR and CEA, adjusting for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics. There were 8781 OAR procedures and 68 896 CEA procedures included in the study. The mean (SD) patient age was 71.7 (8.4) years for OAR and 71.5 (9.1) years for CEA. A total of 614 surgeons performed OAR and 1071 performed CEA in New York during the study period. Of these, 318 (51.8%) and 512 (47.8%), respectively, were very low-volume surgeons. Very low-volume surgeons were less likely to be vascular surgeons. The number and proportion of very low-volume surgeons decreased over years. Compared with patients treated by higher-volume surgeons, those treated by very low-volume surgeons were more likely to have higher in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.41-3.08) following OAR and higher risks of postoperative myocardial infarction (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.03-3.26) and stroke (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.21-2.62) following CEA. Patients treated by very low-volume surgeons also had greater health care resource use following both surgeries, including prolonged length of stay (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) following OAR as

  8. Optimism about safety and group-serving interpretations of safety among pedestrians and cyclists in relation to road use in general and under low light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M J; Wood, J M; Lacherez, P F; Marszalek, R P

    2012-01-01

    Drivers are known to be optimistic about their risk of crash involvement, believing that they are less likely to be involved in a crash than other drivers. However, little comparative research has been conducted among other road users. In addition, optimism about crash risk is conceptualised as applying only to an individual's assessment of his or her personal risk of crash involvement. The possibility that the self-serving nature of optimism about safety might be generalised to the group-level as a cyclist or a pedestrian, i.e., becoming group-serving rather than self-serving, has been overlooked in relation to road safety. This study analysed a subset of data collected as part of a larger research project on the visibility of pedestrians, cyclists and road workers, focusing on a set of questionnaire items administered to 406 pedestrians, 838 cyclists and 622 drivers. The items related to safety in various scenarios involving drivers, pedestrians and cyclists, allowing predictions to be derived about group differences in agreement with items based on the assumption that the results would exhibit group-serving bias. Analysis of the responses indicated that specific hypotheses about group-serving interpretations of safety and responsibility were supported in 22 of the 26 comparisons. When the nine comparisons relevant to low lighting conditions were considered separately, seven were found to be supported. The findings of the research have implications for public education and for the likely acceptance of messages which are inconsistent with current assumptions and expectations of pedestrians and cyclists. They also suggest that research into group-serving interpretations of safety, even for temporary roles rather than enduring groups, could be fruitful. Further, there is an implication that gains in safety can be made by better educating road users about the limitations of their visibility and the ramifications of this for their own road safety, particularly in low

  9. Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aurélie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Salmi, L Rachid

    2018-02-28

    Delayed implementation of effective road safety policies must be considered when quantifying the avoidable part of the fatal and nonfatal injuries burden. We sought to assess the avoidable part of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing road safety laws in low- and lower-middle-income countries. We chose one country for each of the regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank (WB) country income levels. We used freely available data sets (WHO, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group, the WB). Delays in implementation were calculated until 2013, from the year mandatory use of safety belts by motor vehicle front seat occupants was first introduced worldwide. We used life expectancy tables and age groups as social values in the DALY calculation model. From the estimated total burden, avoidable DALYs were calculated using estimates of the effectiveness of seat belt laws on fatal and nonfatal injuries combined, as extracted from published international reviews of evidence. From the reference year 1972, implementation delays varied from 27 years (Uzbekistan) to 41 years in Bolivia (no seat belt law as of 2013). During delays, total absolute numbers of DALYs lost due to road traffic injuries reached 8,462,099 in Nigeria, 7,203,570 in Morocco, 4,695,500 in Uzbekistan, 3,866,391 in Cambodia, 3,253,359 in Bolivia, and 3,128,721 in Sri Lanka. Using effectiveness estimates ranging from 3 to 20% reduction, the avoidable burden of road traffic injuries for car occupants was highest in Uzbekistan (avoidable part from 1.2 to 10.4%) and in Morocco (avoidable part from 1.5 to 12.3%). In countries where users of public transport and pedestrians were the most affected by the burden, the avoidable parts ranged from 0.5 to 4.4% (Nigeria) and from 0.5 to 3.4% (Bolivia). Burden of road traffic injuries mostly affected motorcyclists in Sri Lanka and Cambodia where the avoidable parts were

  10. A new generic method for the semi-automatic extraction of river and road networks in low and mid-resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL; Soille, Pierre [EC JRC

    2010-10-21

    This paper addresses the problem of semi-automatic extraction of road or hydrographic networks in satellite images. For that purpose, we propose an approach combining concepts arising from mathematical morphology and hydrology. The method exploits both geometrical and topological characteristics of rivers/roads and their tributaries in order to reconstruct the complete networks. It assumes that the images satisfy the following two general assumptions, which are the minimum conditions for a road/river network to be identifiable and are usually verified in low- to mid-resolution satellite images: (i) visual constraint: most pixels composing the network have similar spectral signature that is distinguishable from most of the surrounding areas; (ii) geometric constraint: a line is a region that is relatively long and narrow, compared with other objects in the image. While this approach fully exploits local (roads/rivers are modeled as elongated regions with a smooth spectral signature in the image and a maximum width) and global (they are structured like a tree) characteristics of the networks, further directional information about the image structures is incorporated. Namely, an appropriate anisotropic metric is designed by using both the characteristic features of the target network and the eigen-decomposition of the gradient structure tensor of the image. Following, the geodesic propagation from a given network seed with this metric is combined with hydrological operators for overland flow simulation to extract the paths which contain most line evidence and identify them with the target network.

  11. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Reopening of comment... for public comment a draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste...-based approaches to managing waste are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The...

  12. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  13. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  14. Injury patterns in road traffic victims comparing road user categories: Analysis of 811 consecutive cases in the emergency department of a level I institution in a low-income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chichom-Mefire

    Full Text Available Background: More than a million people die every day on world's roads and according to current estimates traffic related injuries will become the 5th highest killer in the world by 2030. Low and middle-income countries carry over 90% of this burden with substantial socio-economic consequences. Policies to reduce this burden are currently centered on preventive measures and the care of the injured is still neglected. This study aims at describing the crash characteristics and pattern of injuries in an urban area of a middle-income country with particular emphasis on the differential analysis of various road user categories. Methods: in this prospective cohort analysis conducted over a period of 5 months in the casualty department of the largest hospital in the city of Douala in Cameroon, all patients admitted after sustaining a traffic related injury were analyzed for crash characteristics, pattern and severity of injury and final outcome after a maximum follow-up period of 1 week. The analysis compared various user categories for different variables. Results: a total of 811 cases could be analyzed. These included 586 (72.2% males for a sex-ratio of 2.6/1. Motorized two-wheelers and pedestrians represented overall over 80% of all victims and the most frequent collision involved a motorcycle and a tourist car. Over 95% of victims did not use a protective device. Most patients sustained external soft tissue lesions frequently involving the limbs and face. A total of 280 patients (34.52% sustained a limb fracture. The most frequently fractured bones were the tibia, fibula and femur. Most injury cases were minor or moderate and collision between a motorcycle and a truck resulted in a significantly more severe injury. Motorized two-wheelers and pedestrian were significantly more exposed to external injuries while car occupants were more exposed to chest and spine injuries. Conclusion: crash characteristics in Douala are greatly influenced by the

  15. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  16. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  17. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  18. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we call an Integrated Road Accident Recordkeeping System in -which the combined value of the linked files is greater than that of the sum of their individual values.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: revised waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste generated in the eleven Northeast states has undergone significant change since the inital 1982 analysis and projection. These revised projections incorporate improved data reporting and evidence of sharp declines in certain categories of waste. Volumes in the 1982-1983 period reflect waste shipped for disposal as reported by disposal site operators. Projected waste volumes represent waste intended for disposal. The recent dramatic changes in source reduction and waste management practices underscore the need for annual review of waste volume projections. The volume of waste shipped for off-site disposal has declined approximately 12% in two years, from an average 1,092,500 ft 3 annually in 1979 to 1981 to an average annual 956,500 ft 3 in 1982 to 1983; reactor waste disposal volumes declined by about 39,000 ft 3 or 7% during this period. Non-reactor waste volumes shipped for disposal declined by over 70,000 ft 3 or 15% during this period. The data suggest that generators increased their use of such management practices as source reduction, compaction, or, for carbon-14 and tritium, temporary storage followed by disposal as non-radioactive waste under the NRC de minimus standard effective March 1981. Using the Technical Subcommittee projection methodology, the volume of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states, individually and collectively, is expected to increase through the year 2000, but at a significantly lower rate of increase than initially projected. By the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 1,137,600 ft 3 of waste annually, an increase of about 20% over 1982 to 1983 average volume

  20. Linking road accident data to other files : an integrated road accident recordkeeping system. Contribution in Proceedings of Seminar P 'Road Safety' held at the 14th PTHC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Sussex, England, from 14-17 July 1986. Volume P 284, p. 55-86.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, S.

    1986-01-01

    The road accident data which the police collect is of great value to road safety research and is used extensively. This data increases greatly in value if it can be linked to other files which contain more detailed information on exposure. Linking road accident data to other files results in what we

  1. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  2. Service expectations from high- and low-volume customers in the alcoholic beverage industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Beukes

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This research study investigated the relationship between the volume a customer buys from an alcoholic beverage supply company and what influence this volume has on their customer service expectations. Motivation for the study: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate what influence the volume an organisation buys from alcoholic beverage suppliers has on their service quality expectations. Research design, approach and method: A non-probability judgement sample method was used, with a sample size of 220 respondents. The questionnaire requested respondents (high- and low-volume to rank their customer service expectations and opinions with reference to Parasuraman’s service delivery dimensions. Ranking was done using a five-point Likert scale. Main findings: The findings of the study indicated that both the high- and low-volume customers felt that alcoholic beverage supply companies had to deliver on all five service delivery dimensions but failed to do so to full satisfaction. Practical and managerial implications: It is recommended that the alcoholic beverage supply companies should address the problem areas identified in this study to avoid defection of customers. Contribution and value add: This may assist alcoholic beverage supply companies to better understand the customers’ demographic profiles. The study also revealed that the satisfaction level experienced by customers in both sections of the study (high- and low-demand, with a considerable gap between expectations and opinions within the empathy dimension.

  3. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  4. Nuclear energy in a low carbon future: updating the IEA/NEA nuclear technology road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, H.; Cameron, R.; ); Tam, C.; )

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology road-map is one of 20 technology road-maps which the International Energy Agency (IEA) has published. The 2010 road-map, produced jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), came out in a year which saw 16 new construction starts, a number that had not been reached since 1985. The IEA's Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) 'Blue Map' scenario, also published in 2010, projected at that time that the installed world nuclear capacity would need to reach 1200 GW (gross) by 2050 as part of a global effort to de-carbonise the electricity sector assuming least cost optimisation. The 'nuclear renaissance' then stalled for a number of reasons which include the consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 on public acceptance and energy policies. The economic crisis that was already looming in 2010, as well as delays and cost overruns in the first Generation III new build projects in Europe also played a role in the significant drop in new projects. Finally, the US shale gas revolution and the potential role that unconventional oil and gas could play have also changed the prospects for nuclear development in many countries. Four years after the publication of the first road-map, the IEA and the NEA are updating the nuclear energy road-map, taking into account the recent challenges facing the development of this technology. The presentation of this paper will explain the process followed to update the road-map, through stakeholder engagement workshops that took place between January and April 2014. It will most importantly provide some insight into its contents and preliminary milestones and recommendations. The draft of the road-map will be peer-reviewed over the summer and will be published at the end of 2014. The vision developed in the road-map still relates to the contribution that nuclear energy can make to the de-carbonisation of the power system, described in

  5. Low-volume and slow-burning vegetation for planting on clearings in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamor C. Nord; Lisle R. Green

    1977-01-01

    Vegetation that is low-growing and either low in volume, slow burning, or both, is needed for reduction of fire hazard on fuelbreaks and other brush cleared areas in California. Of over 50 shrub species and many grass species that were test planted, about 20 shrubs and an equal number of grasses were chosen for plot and field trials. Creeping sage, a few saltbushes,...

  6. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  7. Thermosetting resins with high fractions of free volume and inherently low dielectric constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Kai; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Su, Wen-Chiung; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2015-08-18

    This work demonstrates a new class of thermosetting resins, based on Meldrum's acid (MA) derivatives, which have high fractions of free volume and inherently low k values of about 2.0 at 1 MHz. Thermal decomposition of the MA groups evolves CO2 and acetone to create air-trapped cavities so as to reduce the dielectric constants.

  8. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

    1999-03-01

    This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  9. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ( 242 Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 242 Cm can be found and 242 Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body

  10. Lean Production Control at a High-Variety, Low-Volume Parts Manufacturer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, Jos A. C.; Slomp, Jannes

    2010-01-01

    Eaton Electric General Supplies, a parts manufacturing unit that supplies parts for Eaton's electrical business unit, implemented several lean control elements in its high-variety, low-volume production units. These control elements include a constant work-in-process mechanism to limit and control

  11. Electrokinetic pumping and detection of low-volume flows in nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, P.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Electrokinetic pumping of low-volume rates was performed on-chip in channels of small cross sectional area and height in the sub-m range. The flow was detected with the current monitoring technique by monitoring the change in resistance of the fluid in the channel upon the electroosmosis-driven

  12. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 14: Americium-241

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.; Garcia, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 14 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of americium-241 ( 241 Am). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 241 Am can be found and 241 Am behavior in the environment and in the human body

  13. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: disposal volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The northeastern states, with support of the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG), are developing compact(s) for the disposal and management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in the eleven northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont). The Technical Subcommittee has made a projection of future low-level radioactive waste to the year 2000 based on existing waste volume data and anticipated growth in the Northeast states. Aware of the difficulties involved with any long range projection - unforeseen events can drastically change projections based on current assumptions - the Technical Subcommittee believes that waste volume projections should be reviewed annually as updated information becomes available. The Technical Subcommittee made the following findings based upon a conservative projection methodology: volumes of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states individually and collectively are expected to grow continually through the year 2000 with the rate of increase varying by state; by the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 58,000 m 3 of low-level waste annually, about 1.9 times the current average; and based on current estimates, 47% of the total projected waste volume in the year 2000 will be produced by nuclear power plants, compared to the current average of 54%. Non-reactor wastes will equal 53% of the total in the year 2000 compared to the current 46%

  14. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ({sup 242}Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 242}Cm can be found and {sup 242}Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  15. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. Assessment of low impact development in road and street planning Case study at Telthusbakken in central Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerlid, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Master thesis - Chalmers University of Technology. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Division of Geo and water Engineering. Climate change and urbanization puts heavy pressure on today’s water systems due to increased rain intensities and development of impervious surfaces. As a result, cities and their road and street environment in urban Norway is subject to more frequent flooding and water related damages. Moreover, the urban watersheds are subject to various p...

  17. Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

  18. Low versus high volume of culture medium during embryo transfer: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalos, George Α; Michalopoulos, Yannis; Kastoras, Athanasios G; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlahos, Nikos F

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized control trial was to evaluate if the use of two different volumes (20-25 vs 40-45 μl) of media used for embryo transfer affects the clinical outcomes in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. In total, 236 patients were randomized in two groups, i.e., "low volume" group (n = 118) transferring the embryos with 20-25 μl of medium and "high volume" group (n = 118) transferring the embryos with 40-45 μl of medium. The clinical pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared between the two groups. No statistically significant differences were observed in clinical pregnancy (46.8 vs 54.3%, p = 0.27), implantation (23.7 vs 27.8%, p = 0.30), and ongoing pregnancy (33.3 vs 40.0%, p = 0.31) rates between low and high volume group, respectively. Higher volume of culture medium to load the embryo into the catheter during embryo transfer does not influence the clinical outcome in fresh IVF cycles. NCT03350646.

  19. Low power digital communication in implantable devices using volume conduction of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ning; Lee, Heung-No; Sclabassi, R J; Sun, Mingui

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates the data communication problem of implantable devices using fundamental theories in communications. We utilize the volume conduction property of biological tissues to establish a digital communications link. Data obtained through animal experiments are used to analyze the time and frequency response of the volume conduction channel as well as to characterize the biological signals and noises present in the system. A low power bandwidth efficient channel-coded modulation scheme is proposed to conserve battery power and reduce the health risks associated.

  20. National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ( 238 U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which 238 U can be found, and 238 U behavior in the environment and in the human body

  1. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  2. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). 23 figures

  3. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  4. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  5. Volume reduction options for the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Lerch, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Volume reduction options that are now or soon will be available for low-level wastes are examined. These wastes generally are in the form of combustible solids, noncombustible solids, and wet wastes (solid/liquid). Initially, the wastes are collected and stored onsite. Preconditioning may be required, e.g., sorting, shredding, and classifying the solids into combustible and noncombustible fractions. The volume of combustible solids can be reduced by compaction, incineration/pyrolysis, acid digestion, or molten salt combustion. Options for reducing the volume of noncombustible solids include compaction, size reduction and decontamination, meltdown-casting, dissolution and electropolishing. Burnable wet wastes (e.g., organic wastes) can be evaporated or combusted; nonburnable wet wastes can be treated by various evaporative or nonevaporative processes. All radioactive waste processing operations result in some equipment contamination and the production of additional radioactively contaminated wastes (secondary wastes). The additional waste quantities must be considered in evaluating performance and overall volume reduction factors for the various systems. In the selection of an optimum waste management plan for a given facility, other important factors (e.g., relative stability of the waste product form) should be considered along with the savings accrued due to volume reduction

  6. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].

  8. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  9. A low-temperature (4-300K) constant volume gas thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300K may be obtained. The principle is outlined, then the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are briefly described; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and a table shows the values obtained [fr

  10. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  11. Beneficial Use of Scrap Tire Rubber in Low-volume Road and Bridge Construction with Expansive Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    Billions of dollars in damages are attributed to expansive soils in the United States (Jones and Jones 1987) and in many other countries each year. Geotechnical design and analyses in/on/with expansive soils may involve additional complications that ...

  12. A framework to measure myocardial extracellular volume fraction using dual-phase low dose CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yixun; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher T.; Bluemke, David A.; Nacif, Marcelo S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECVF) is a surrogate imaging biomarker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of pathologic ventricular remodeling. Low dose cardiac CT is emerging as a promising modality to detect diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis due to its fast acquisition and low radiation; however, the insufficient contrast in the low dose CT images poses great challenge to measure ECVF from the image. Methods: To deal with this difficulty, the authors present a complete ECVF measurement framework including a point-guided myocardial modeling, a deformable model-based myocardium segmentation, nonrigid registration of pre- and post-CT, and ECVF calculation. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on 20 patients by two observers. Compared to the manually delineated reference segmentations, the accuracy of our segmentation in terms of true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and average surface distance (ASD), were 92.18% ± 3.52%, 0.31% ± 0.10%, 0.69 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The interobserver variability measured by concordance correlation coefficient regarding TPVF, FPVF, and ASD were 0.95, 0.90, 0.94, respectively, demonstrating excellent agreement. Bland-Altman method showed 95% limits of agreement between ECVF at CT and ECVF at MR. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrates its efficiency, accuracy, and noninvasiveness in ECVF measurement and dramatically advances the ECVF at cardiac CT toward its clinical use

  13. A framework to measure myocardial extracellular volume fraction using dual-phase low dose CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yixun; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua, E-mail: JYao@cc.nih.gov [Clinical Image Processing Service, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher T.; Bluemke, David A. [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 and Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Nacif, Marcelo S. [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1182 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECVF) is a surrogate imaging biomarker of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, a hallmark of pathologic ventricular remodeling. Low dose cardiac CT is emerging as a promising modality to detect diffuse interstitial myocardial fibrosis due to its fast acquisition and low radiation; however, the insufficient contrast in the low dose CT images poses great challenge to measure ECVF from the image. Methods: To deal with this difficulty, the authors present a complete ECVF measurement framework including a point-guided myocardial modeling, a deformable model-based myocardium segmentation, nonrigid registration of pre- and post-CT, and ECVF calculation. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on 20 patients by two observers. Compared to the manually delineated reference segmentations, the accuracy of our segmentation in terms of true positive volume fraction (TPVF), false positive volume fraction (FPVF), and average surface distance (ASD), were 92.18% ± 3.52%, 0.31% ± 0.10%, 0.69 ± 0.14 mm, respectively. The interobserver variability measured by concordance correlation coefficient regarding TPVF, FPVF, and ASD were 0.95, 0.90, 0.94, respectively, demonstrating excellent agreement. Bland-Altman method showed 95% limits of agreement between ECVF at CT and ECVF at MR. Conclusions: The proposed framework demonstrates its efficiency, accuracy, and noninvasiveness in ECVF measurement and dramatically advances the ECVF at cardiac CT toward its clinical use.

  14. High tidal volume decreases adult respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and ventilator days compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Andersen, Clark R; Ali, Arham; Benjamin, Nicole C; Granchi, Thomas; Suman, Oscar E; Mlcak, Ronald P

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation injury, which is among the causes of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), continues to represent a significant source of mortality in burned patients. Inhalation injury often requires mechanical ventilation, but the ideal tidal volume strategy is not clearly defined in burned pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low and high tidal volume on the number of ventilator days, ventilation pressures, and incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia, and ARDS in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury within 1 year post burn injury. From 1986 to 2014, inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy in pediatric burned patients (n = 932). Patients were divided into 3 groups: unventilated (n = 241), high tidal volume (HTV, 15 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 190), and low tidal volume (LTV, 9 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 501). High tidal volume was associated with significantly decreased ventilator days (p tidal volume significantly decreases ventilator days and the incidence of both atelectasis and ARDS compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury. Therefore, the use of HTV may interrupt sequences leading to lung injury in our patient population. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemodynamic stability ensured by a low dose, low volume, unilateral hypobaric spinal block: modification of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, L; Marcus, M; Peek, D; Borg, P; Jansen, J; Koster, J; Enk, D

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of an 89-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension, intermittent rapid atrial fibrillation and severe aortic valve stenosis, suffering from femoral neck fracture. Hyperbaric unilateral spinal anesthesia is a known technique to obtain stable hemodynamics combined with the possibility of continuous neurologic evaluation and preservation of cognitive functions. Because a hyperbaric unilateral technique can be very painful in case of traumatic hip fracture, a low dose, low volume, unilateral hypobaric spinal block may be an adequate alternative. In the present case report, a unilateral hypobaric spinal anesthesia was performed using 5 mg of bupivacaine in a 1.5 mL volume and a slow and steady, "air-buffered", directed injection technique, to allow an urgent hip arthroplasty. During surgery the patient was kept in the lateral recumbent position. Hemodynamics remained stable throughout the entire procedure without any need for vasoconstrictors. The impact of aortic valve stenosis combined with atrial fibrillation on anesthetic management and our considerations to opt for a unilateral hypobaric spinal anesthesia are discussed.

  16. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  17. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  18. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seehofnerová, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; Haan, Michiel J.W. de; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100 kV. A bolus of 50 ml CM (Iopromide 300 mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6 ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR = 1.8 g/s; Iodine load 15 g) followed by a saline bolus of 40 ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 324 ± 28 HU. Mean attenuation was 350 ± 60 HU at the thoracic aorta and 315 ± 83 HU at the abdominal aorta. A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging

  19. Mitigation of environmental impacts due to ghat road formation in Palamalai Hills, South India, by optimizing cut and fill volumes using GPS and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, R; Subramani, T; Sukumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Formation of new roads generally brings about adverse impact on the environment, and in the case of hill roads, the impact is diverse and effective measures are required to mitigate it. The common problems in hill road formation are tree cutting, destruction of canopies, change in land use pattern, soil erosion, slope instability, induced landslides, invasion of foreign species, and so on. Removal of trees and vegetations causes rapid soil erosion, landslides, and invasion of foreign species posing danger to the survival of weak native species. Dumping of surplus earth materials on the valley side poses a significant threat to the environment as it would cause induced landslides. Using the cut earth for filling in road formation and dumping, the surplus cut earth in safe locations will reduce environmental degradation considerably. Conventionally, hill road alignments are finalized using traditional survey methods using ghat tracer, compass, and leveling surveys which require enormous complicated field and office works. Any revision to reduce the quantum of earthwork is difficult in this method due to its complex nature. In the present study at Palamalai Hills, South India, an alignment for a length of 7.95 km was prepared by traditional methods using ghat tracer and total station instruments for survey works. The earthwork quantities were ascertained from the longitudinal profile of the alignment. A GPS survey was also conducted along the alignment to examine its utility in alignment modification. To modify the stretches, where the earthwork cutting and filling are above normal and unbalanced and result in surplus earth, repeated GPS surveys were conducted along different paths to optimize the earthwork. The earthwork quantities of the original alignment were analyzed, and its correlation with environmental effect and the usefulness of the GPS survey in this task are presented in this paper.

  20. Abdominal injuries in a low trauma volume hospital--a descriptive study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkari, Patrik; Bylund, Per-Olof; Lindgren, Hans; Öman, Mikael

    2014-08-15

    Abdominal injuries occur relatively infrequently during trauma, and they rarely require surgical intervention. In this era of non-operative management of abdominal injuries, surgeons are seldom exposed to these patients. Consequently, surgeons may misinterpret the mechanism of injury, underestimate symptoms and radiologic findings, and delay definite treatment. Here, we determined the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of traumatic abdominal injuries at our hospital to provide a basis for identifying potential hazards in non-operative management of patients with these injuries in a low trauma volume hospital. This retrospective study included prehospital and in-hospital assessments of 110 patients that received 147 abdominal injuries from an isolated abdominal trauma (n = 70 patients) or during multiple trauma (n = 40 patients). Patients were primarily treated at the University Hospital of Umeå from January 2000 to December 2009. The median New Injury Severity Score was 9 (range: 1-57) for 147 abdominal injuries. Most patients (94%) received computed tomography (CT), but only 38% of patients with multiple trauma were diagnosed with CT management succeeded in 82 patients. Surgery was performed for 28 patients, either immediately (n = 17) as result of operative management or later (n = 11), due to non-operative management failure; the latter mainly occurred with hollow viscus injuries. Patients with multiple abdominal injuries, whether associated with multiple trauma or an isolated abdominal trauma, had significantly more non-operative failures than patients with a single abdominal injury. One death occurred within 30 days. Non-operative management of patients with abdominal injuries, except for hollow viscus injuries, was highly successful in our low trauma volume hospital, even though surgeons receive low exposure to these patients. However, a growing proportion of surgeons lack experience in decision-making and performing trauma laparotomies. Quality assurance

  1. Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc. should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED. In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap and low-capacity (Lo-Cap sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%. However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection.

  2. Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Alías, Francesc; Socoró, Joan Claudi; Orga, Ferran

    2018-04-20

    One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc.) should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED). In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap) and low-capacity (Lo-Cap) sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%). However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection.

  3. Low-induction pulse current generator with a volume bus arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, Yu.N.; Krivosheev, S.I.; Lapin, N.G.; Shneerson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse current generator (PC6) with 38 kj stored energy designed for up to 50 kV charging voltage used to obtain magnetic fields within megagauss range, is described. Space (volume) bus arrangement of its modules is used to reduce eigen inductance of PC6. Current is commutated by solid-body spark gaps. Under 3uH inductive load PC6 provides for formation of up to 2.25 MA current pulse with 3.3x10 12 A/s pulse rise time. Technique to determine low inductances as applied to PC6 elements is described. The described PC6 is used for experiments on generation of super-strong pulse magnetic fields in single-loop solenoid with volume occupied by magnetic field, 5-7 mm. Magnetic field with up to 350 T induction amplitude is obtained in these experiments

  4. Combined low-volume polyethylene glycol solution plus stimulant laxatives versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution: A prospective, randomized study of colon cleansing before colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookey, Lawrence C; Depew, William T; Vanner, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG) for colon cleansing is often limited by the inability of patients to drink adequate portions of the 4 L solution. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a reduced volume of PEG combined with stimulant laxatives would be better tolerated and as or more effective than the standard dose. METHODS Patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy were randomly assigned to receive either low-volume PEG plus sennosides (120 mg oral sennosides syrup followed by 2 L PEG) or the standard volume preparation (4 L PEG). The subjects rated the tolerability of the preparations and their symptoms. Colonoscopists were blind to the colonic cleansing preparation and graded the cleansing efficacy using a validated tool (the Ottawa scale). RESULTS The low-volume PEG plus sennosides preparation was significantly better tolerated than the standard large volume PEG (Psennosides preparation was better tolerated, it was not as effective as standard large-volume PEG. However, in view of the significant difference in tolerance, further research investigating possible improvements in the reduced-volume regimen seems warranted. PMID:16482236

  5. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  6. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 2, Niobium-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to, state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information used to produce this series of reports and an introductory report. This report is Volume 11 of the series. It outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of niobium-94, waste types and forms that contain it, and its behavior in environmental media such as soils, plants, groundwater, air, animals and the human body

  8. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  9. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  10. The low-energy effective theory of QCD at small quark masses in a finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, Christoph

    2010-01-15

    At low energies the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be described effectively in terms of the lightest particles of the theory, the pions. This approximation is valid for temperatures well below the mass difference of the pions to the next heavier particles. We study the low-energy effective theory at very small quark masses in a finite volume V. The corresponding perturbative expansion in 1/{radical}(V) is called {epsilon} expansion. At each order of this expansion a finite number of low-energy constants completely determine the effective theory. These low-energy constants are of great phenomenological importance. In the leading order of the {epsilon} expansion, called {epsilon} regime, the theory becomes zero-dimensional and is therefore described by random matrix theory (RMT). The dimensionless quantities of RMT are mapped to dimensionful quantities of the low-energy effective theory using the leading-order lowenergy constants {sigma} and F. In this way {sigma} and F can be obtained from lattice QCD simulations in the '' regime by a fit to RMT predictions. For typical volumes of state-of-the-art lattice QCD simulations, finite-volume corrections to the RMT prediction cannot be neglected. These corrections can be calculated in higher orders of the {epsilon} expansion. We calculate the finite-volume corrections to {sigma} and F at next-to-next-to-leading order in the {epsilon} expansion. We also discuss non-universal modifications of the theory due to the finite volume. These results are then applied to lattice QCD simulations, and we extract {sigma} and F from eigenvalue correlation functions of the Dirac operator. As a side result, we provide a proof of equivalence between the parametrization of the partially quenched low-energy effective theory without singlet particle and that of the super-Riemannian manifold used earlier in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume without

  11. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available be reduced, the result remains environmentally unsustainable. Low cost but appropriate techniques for upgrading these roads cost-effectively to sealed standards have been implemented in many countries recently. These techniques optimize the use of local...

  12. Protein fiber linear dichroism for structure determination and kinetics in a low-volume, low-wavelength couette flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafforn, Timothy R; Rajendra, Jacindra; Halsall, David J; Serpell, Louise C; Rodger, Alison

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of soluble globular proteins relies heavily on x-ray crystallography techniques. Such an approach is often ineffective for investigations into the structure of fibrous proteins as these proteins generally do not crystallize. Thus investigations into fibrous protein structure have relied on less direct methods such as x-ray fiber diffraction and circular dichroism. Ultraviolet linear dichroism has the potential to provide additional information on the structure of such biomolecular systems. However, existing systems are not optimized for the requirements of fibrous proteins. We have designed and built a low-volume (200 microL), low-wavelength (down to 180 nm), low-pathlength (100 microm), high-alignment flow-alignment system (couette) to perform ultraviolet linear dichroism studies on the fibers formed by a range of biomolecules. The apparatus has been tested using a number of proteins for which longer wavelength linear dichroism spectra had already been measured. The new couette cell has also been used to obtain data on two medically important protein fibers, the all-beta-sheet amyloid fibers of the Alzheimer's derived protein Abeta and the long-chain assemblies of alpha1-antitrypsin polymers.

  13. Solid low-level radioactive waste volume projections at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, K.; Minton-Hughes, J.; Peper, C.

    1995-01-01

    In response to regulatory requirements, the current economic environment, and diminishing on-site low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, LANL needed to develop a system to collect data on future LLW generation that would comply with DOE Order 5820. 2A and be an effective facility planning tool. The LANL Volume Projections Project (VPP) was created to meet these needs. This paper describes objectives, scope, and components of the VPP that will provide information essential to future facility planning and development

  14. Timing of low tidal volume ventilation and intensive care unit mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Yang, Ting; Dinglas, Victor D; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Shanholtz, Carl; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J; Colantuoni, Elizabeth

    2015-01-15

    Reducing tidal volume decreases mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the effect of the timing of low tidal volume ventilation is not well understood. To evaluate the association of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality with initial tidal volume and with tidal volume change over time. Multivariable, time-varying Cox regression analysis of a multisite, prospective study of 482 patients with ARDS with 11,558 twice-daily tidal volume assessments (evaluated in milliliter per kilogram of predicted body weight [PBW]) and daily assessment of other mortality predictors. An increase of 1 ml/kg PBW in initial tidal volume was associated with a 23% increase in ICU mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.44; P = 0.008). Moreover, a 1 ml/kg PBW increase in subsequent tidal volumes compared with the initial tidal volume was associated with a 15% increase in mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29; P = 0.019). Compared with a prototypical patient receiving 8 days with a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg PBW, the absolute increase in ICU mortality (95% CI) of receiving 10 and 8 ml/kg PBW, respectively, across all 8 days was 7.2% (3.0-13.0%) and 2.7% (1.2-4.6%). In scenarios with variation in tidal volume over the 8-day period, mortality was higher when a larger volume was used earlier. Higher tidal volumes shortly after ARDS onset were associated with a greater risk of ICU mortality compared with subsequent tidal volumes. Timely recognition of ARDS and adherence to low tidal volume ventilation is important for reducing mortality. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00300248).

  15. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Norshakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infrastructure in Malaysia. The research signifies the impact of road hazards during the observations and the impact of road infrastructure types on road accidents. The F050 (Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat road case study showed that infrastructure risk is closely related with number of accident. As the infrastructure risk increase, the number of road accidents also increase. It was also found that different road zones along Jalan Kluang-Batu Pahat showed different level of intersection volume due to number of road intersection. Thus, it is hoped that by implementing continuous assessment on road infrastructures, it might be able to reduce road accidents and fatalities among drives and the community.

  16. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  17. Comparison of the outcomes for laparoscopic gastrectomy performed by the same surgeon between a low-volume hospital and a high-volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2014-05-01

    The volume-outcome relationship in laparoscopic surgery is controversial. This study was designed to identify differences in laparoscopic gastrectomy outcomes between a low-volume hospital and a high-volume center and to provide guidelines for overcoming the problems associated with a low-volume hospital. From April 2009 to November 2012, one surgeon performed 134 totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomies (TLDGs) at a high-volume center (HVC; ASAN Medical Center) and at a low-volume hospital (LVH; Hanyang University Guri Hospital). All laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies were excluded from this study. During the early period of laparoscopic gastrectomy at the low-volume hospital, TLDG with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (RYGJ) was performed according to the surgeon's choice. The reconstruction method was classified as gastroduodenostomy (GD) or RYGJ. Early surgical outcomes achieved at the LVH were investigated and compared with those obtained at the HVC. The early surgical outcomes differed significantly between the two hospitals. In particular, the postoperative complication rate for the patients who underwent TLDG RYGJ at the LVH was higher than at the HVC (LVH 15.4 % vs. HVC 0 %; p = 0.037). Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the mean operation time (TLDG GD: LVH 141.0 min vs. HVC 117.4 min, p = 0.001; TLDG RYGJ: LVH 186.3 min vs. HVC 134.6 min, p = 0.009) and length of hospital stay (TLDG GD: LVH 8.1 days vs. HVC 7.2 days, p = 0.044; TLDG RYGJ: LVH 11.5 day vs. HVC 6.8 day, p = 0.009). Although all the operations were performed by one experienced surgeon, the early surgical outcomes differed significantly between the low- and high-volume hospitals. Low-volume hospitals often lack well-trained surgical professionals such as first assistants and scrub nurses. Therefore, the authors recommend that a surgeon who works at an LVH should assess potential personnel shortages and find a solution before operating.

  18. Methodology to Forecast Volume and Cost of Cancer Drugs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoda M. Martei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, frequent outages of the stock of cancer drugs undermine cancer care delivery and are potentially fatal for patients with cancer. The aim of this study is to describe a methodologic approach to forecast chemotherapy volume and estimate cost that can be readily updated and applied in most LMICs. Methods: Prerequisite data for forecasting are population-based incidence data and cost estimates per unit of drug to be ordered. We used the supplementary guidelines from the WHO list of essential medicines for cancer to predict treatment plans and ordering patterns. We used de-identified aggregate data from the Botswana National Cancer Registry to estimate incident cases. The WHO Management Sciences for Health International Price Indicator was used to estimate unit costs per drug. Results: Chemotherapy volume required for incident cancer cases was estimated as the product of the standardized dose required to complete a full treatment regimen per patient, with a given cancer diagnosis and stage, multiplied by the total number of incident cancer cases with the respective diagnosis. The estimated chemotherapy costs to treat the 10 most common cancers in the public health care sector of Botswana is approximately 2.3 million US dollars. An estimated 66% of the budget is allocated to costs of rituximab and trastuzumab alone, which are used by approximately 10% of the cancer population. Conclusion: This method provides a reproducible approach to forecast chemotherapy volume and cost in LMICs. The chemotherapy volume and cost outputs of this methodology provide key stakeholders with valuable information that can guide budget estimation, resource allocation, and drug-price negotiations for cancer treatment. Ultimately, this will minimize drug shortages or outages and reduce potential loss of lives that result from an erratic drug supply.

  19. Evaluation of low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume in an apheresis donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F

    2009-09-01

    Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.

  20. Performance of chip seals using local and minimally processed aggregates for preservation of low traffic volume roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the performance of two low traffic volume experimental chip seals constructed using : locally available, minimally processed sand and gravel aggregates after four winters of service. The projects : were constructed by CDOT maint...

  1. Size-Selective Sampling Performance of Six Low-Volume “Total” Suspended Particulate (TSP) Inlets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from the comprehensive wind tunnel evaluation of six low-volume aerosol inlets are presented as a function of wind speed and aerodynamic particle diameter....

  2. Comparing colon cancer outcomes: The impact of low hospital case volume and case-mix adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C; Lingsma, H F; van Leersum, N; Tollenaar, R A E M; Wouters, M W; Steyerberg, E W

    2015-08-01

    When comparing performance across hospitals it is essential to consider the noise caused by low hospital case volume and to perform adequate case-mix adjustment. We aimed to quantify the role of noise and case-mix adjustment on standardized postoperative mortality and anastomotic leakage (AL) rates. We studied 13,120 patients who underwent colon cancer resection in 85 Dutch hospitals. We addressed differences between hospitals in postoperative mortality and AL, using fixed (ignoring noise) and random effects (incorporating noise) logistic regression models with general and additional, disease specific, case-mix adjustment. Adding disease specific variables improved the performance of the case-mix adjustment models for postoperative mortality (c-statistic increased from 0.77 to 0.81). The overall variation in standardized mortality ratios was similar, but some individual hospitals changed considerably. For the standardized AL rates the performance of the adjustment models was poor (c-statistic 0.59 and 0.60) and overall variation was small. Most of the observed variation between hospitals was actually noise. Noise had a larger effect on hospital performance than extended case-mix adjustment, although some individual hospital outcome rates were affected by more detailed case-mix adjustment. To compare outcomes between hospitals it is crucial to consider noise due to low hospital case volume with a random effects model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The forgotten role of central volume in low frequency oscillations of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ferrario

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that central volume plays a key role in the source of low frequency (LF oscillations of heart rate variability (HRV was tested in a population of end stage renal disease patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (HD treatment, and thus subject to large fluid shifts and sympathetic activation. Fluid overload (FO in 58 chronic HD patients was assessed by whole body bioimpedance measurements before the midweek HD session. Heart Rate Variability (HRV was measured using 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram recordings starting before the same HD treatment. Time domain and frequency domain analyses were performed on HRV signals. Patients were retrospectively classified in three groups according to tertiles of FO normalized to the extracellular water (FO/ECW%. These groups were also compared after stratification by diabetes mellitus. Patients with the low to medium hydration status before the treatment (i.e. 1st and 2nd FO/ECW% tertiles showed a significant increase in LF power during last 30 min of HD compared to dialysis begin, while no significant change in LF power was seen in the third group (i.e. those with high pre-treatment hydration values. In conclusion, several mechanisms can generate LF oscillations in the cardiovascular system, including baroreflex feedback loops and central oscillators. However, the current results emphasize the role played by the central volume in determining the power of LF oscillations.

  4. The forgotten role of central volume in low frequency oscillations of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Manuela; Moissl, Ulrich; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna N; Tetta, Ciro; Signorini, Maria G; Ronco, Claudio; Grassmann, Aileen; Cerutti, Sergio; Guzzetti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis that central volume plays a key role in the source of low frequency (LF) oscillations of heart rate variability (HRV) was tested in a population of end stage renal disease patients undergoing conventional hemodialysis (HD) treatment, and thus subject to large fluid shifts and sympathetic activation. Fluid overload (FO) in 58 chronic HD patients was assessed by whole body bioimpedance measurements before the midweek HD session. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was measured using 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram recordings starting before the same HD treatment. Time domain and frequency domain analyses were performed on HRV signals. Patients were retrospectively classified in three groups according to tertiles of FO normalized to the extracellular water (FO/ECW%). These groups were also compared after stratification by diabetes mellitus. Patients with the low to medium hydration status before the treatment (i.e. 1st and 2nd FO/ECW% tertiles) showed a significant increase in LF power during last 30 min of HD compared to dialysis begin, while no significant change in LF power was seen in the third group (i.e. those with high pre-treatment hydration values). In conclusion, several mechanisms can generate LF oscillations in the cardiovascular system, including baroreflex feedback loops and central oscillators. However, the current results emphasize the role played by the central volume in determining the power of LF oscillations.

  5. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low.

  6. Ultra-low-volume space sprays in mosquito control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, J A S

    2012-06-01

    The availability of tools to control mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors that transmit disease is often limited by a variety of economic, environmental and social issues. In emergency conditions (epidemics, hurricanes, floods etc.), the application of pesticides as space sprays (either by ground or air) is the common method of choice in order to rapidly limit adult local mosquito production in the affected area. Space spray application now employs ultra-low-volume technology for the control of adult mosquitoes. However, the use of space sprays often raises social and environmental concerns by the general public that is served. This review will define and illustrate modern ultra-low-volume technology for the purpose of application as a space spray, as well as describing the engineering controls that have been developed to minimize the environmental impact. The primary social concern is validity and efficacy of application. To address this point, the review will attempt to synthesize the global literature to address the effectiveness of space sprays to significantly impact mosquito vectors in relation to human disease. © 2012 The Author. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Patients without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Paradigm Shift in Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipes, Jed; Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Lellouche, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Protective ventilation with low tidal volume has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low tidal volume ventilation is associated with particular clinical challenges and is therefore often underutilized as a therapeutic option in clinical practice. Despite some potential difficulties, data have been published examining the application of protective ventilation in patients without lung inj...

  8. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O'Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types

  9. Risk factors for injury associated with low, moderate, and high mileage road marching in a U.S. Army infantry brigade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh-Renner, Anna; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Hauschild, Veronique D; Roy, Tanja C; Fletcher, Jeremy; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    Road marching is an important physical training activity that prepares soldiers for a common occupational task. Continued exploration of risk factors for road marching-related injuries is needed. This analysis has assessed the association between modifiable characteristics of physical training and injury risk. Injuries in the previous 6 months were captured by survey from 831 U.S. Army infantry soldiers. Road marching-related injuries were reported as those attributed to road marching on foot for specified distances while carrying equipment. Frequencies, means, and relative risk ratios (RR) for road marching-related injury with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for leading risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Retrospective cohort study. Half (50%) of reported injuries were attributed to road marching or running. When miles of exposure were considered, injury risk during road marching was higher than during running (RR road marching/running =1.8, 95% CI: 1.38-2.37). A higher product of road marching distance and weight worn (pound-miles per month) resulted in greater injury risk (RR ≥1473 pound-miles/Road marching-related injuries were associated with carrying a load >25% of one's body weight (OR >25%/1-20% =2.09, 95% CI: 1.08-4.05), having high occupational lifting demands (OR 50-100+lbs/25-50lbs =3.43, 95% CI: 1.50-7.85), road marching ≥5 times per month (OR ≥5 times/4 times =2.11, 95% CI: 1.14-3.91), and running road marching-related injuries. Since this is not always operationally feasible, reducing the cumulative overloading from both physical training and occupational tasks may help prevent injury. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preferential effects of low volume versus high volume replacement with crystalloid fluid in a hemorrhagic shock model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponschab, Martin; Schöchl, Herbert; Keibl, Claudia; Fischer, Henrik; Redl, Heinz; Schlimp, Christoph J

    2015-10-06

    Fluid resuscitation is a core stone of hemorrhagic shock therapy, and crystalloid fluids seem to be associated with lower mortality compared to colloids. However, as redistribution starts within minutes, it has been suggested to replace blood loss with a minimum of a three-fold amount of crystalloids. The hypothesis was that in comparison to high volume (HV), a lower crystalloid volume (LV) achieves a favorable coagulation profile and exerts sufficient haemodynamics in the acute phase of resuscitation. In 24 anaesthetized pigs, controlled arterial blood loss of 50 % of the estimated blood volume was either (n = 12) replaced with a LV (one-fold) or a HV (three-fold) volume of a balanced, acetated crystalloid solution at room temperature. Hemodynamic parameters, dilution effects and coagulation profile by standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry at baseline and after resuscitation were determined in both groups. LV resuscitation increased MAP significantly less compared to the HV, 61 ± 7 vs. 82 ± 14 mmHg (p controlled blood loss, a one fold LV crystalloid replacement strategy is sufficient to adequately raise blood pressure up to a mean arterial pressure >50 mm Hg. The concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR) with permissive hypotension may be better met by using LV as compared to a three fold HV resuscitation strategy. High volume administration of an acetated balanced crystalloid does not lead to hyperchloraemic acidosis, but may negatively influence clinical parameters, such as higher blood pressure, lower body temperature and impaired coagulation parameters, which could potentially increase bleeding after trauma. Replacement of acute blood loss with just an equal amount of an acetated balanced crystalloid appears to be the preferential treatment strategy in the acute phase after controlled bleeding.

  12. Prevalence of radiographic lumbar spondylosis and its association with low back pain in elderly subjects of population-based cohorts: the ROAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, S; Oka, H; Akune, T; Mabuchi, A; En-Yo, Y; Yoshida, M; Saika, A; Suzuki, T; Yoshida, H; Ishibashi, H; Yamamoto, S; Nakamura, K; Kawaguchi, H; Yoshimura, N

    2009-09-01

    Although lumbar spondylosis is a major cause of low back pain and disability in elderly people, few epidemiological studies have been performed. The prevalence of radiographic lumbar spondylosis was investigated in a large-scale population study and the association with low back pain was examined. From a nationwide cohort study (Research on Osteoarthritis Against Disability; ROAD), 2288 participants aged > or =60 years (818 men and 1470 women) living in urban, mountainous and coastal communities were analysed. The radiographic severity at lumbar intervertebral levels from L1/2 to L5/S was determined by Kellgren/Lawrence (KL) grading. In the overall population the prevalence of radiographic spondylosis with KL> or =2 and > or =3 at the severest intervertebral level was 75.8% and 50.4%, respectively, and that of low back pain was 28.8%. Although KL> or =2 spondylosis was more prevalent in men, KL> or =3 spondylosis and low back pain were more prevalent in women. Age and body mass index were risk factors for both KL > or =2 and KL> or =3 spondylosis. Although KL = 2 spondylosis was not significantly associated with low back pain compared with KL = 0 or 1, KL> or =3 spondylosis was related to the pain only in women. This cross-sectional study in a large population revealed a high prevalence of radiographic lumbar spondylosis in elderly subjects. Gender seems to be distinctly associated with KL> or =2 and KL> or =3 lumbar spondylosis, and disc space narrowing with or without osteophytosis in women may be a risk factor for low back pain.

  13. Prioritizing Road Treatments using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) to Improve Watershed Conditions in the Wall Creek Watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K. T.; Black, T.; Clifton, C.; Luce, C.; McCune, S.; Nelson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wall Creek, tributary to the North Fork John Day River in eastern Oregon, was identified as a priority watershed by the Umatilla National Forest for restoration in 2002. Most streams in this 518 km2 multi-ownership watershed are designated critical habitat for threatened steelhead. Eight streams are listed on the Oregon 303(d) list for elevated temperatures and excess sedimentation. Over 1000 km of public and private roads in the watershed present a major source of potential water quality and habitat impairment. We conducted a watershed-wide inventory of roads using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) in 2009 to quantify sediment contributions from roads to streams. GRAIP is a field and GIS-based model developed by the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Utah State University that georeferences and quantifies road hydrologic connectivity, sediment production and delivery, mass wasting, and risk of diversion and plugging at stream crossings. Field survey and modeling produced data for 6,473 drainage locations on 726 km of road (most of the publically owned roads) quantifying the location and mass of sediment produced and delivered to streams. Findings indicate a relatively small subset of roads deliver the majority of road-produced fine sediment; 12 percent of the road length delivers 90 percent of the total fine sediment to streams. Overall fine sediment production in the watershed is relatively low (with an estimated background erosion rate of 518,000 kg/yr for the watershed) and sediment produced and delivered from the road system appears to be a modest addition. Road surfaces produce approximately 81,455 kg of fine sediment per year, with 20,976 kg/year delivered to the stream network. Fifty-nine gullies were observed, 41 of which received road runoff. Sixteen road-related landslides were also observed. The excavated volume of these features totals 3,922,000 kg which is equivalent to 175 years of fine sediment delivery at

  14. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter C.; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break

  15. Regular or low-fat? An investigation of the long-run impact of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchase volumes and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Geyskens, Kelly; Verhoef, Peter C.; Pennings, Joost M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Health organizations stimulate the development of low-fat variants to fight the obesity epidemic. We examine the effectiveness of this policy by studying the short- and long-term consequences of the first low-fat purchase on subsequent purchased volume and calories. Using a structural break

  16. The volume reduction of low-activity solid wastes. Report of a panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.; Parsons, P.J.; Malasek, E.

    1970-01-01

    The accumulation of large volumes of low-level solid radioactive wastes is a matter of concern to waste management authorities, particularly when the wastes are produced close to urban areas. Some of the older and larger nuclear establishments are situated in relatively sparsely populated regions where the problem of dealing with such wastes can even be solved on-site, usually by burial, with little or no pre-treatment. This is the most economical solution. Now, however, increasing amounts of wastes are being produced in more populated areas, and local storage can constitute a hindrance to urban development. It is therefore often necessary to transport the wastes elsewhere; to effect this economically the volume and, if possible, the weight must be reduced, so that the wastes can be transported in regulation packages. The present report is concerned with the methods by which this can be achieved for a large variety of solid materials that accrue as radioactive wastes. It has been compiled largely from information and experience gained at major establishments dealing with large quantities of waste, but articular attention has been paid to the interests of the waste management specialists working at smaller nuclear centres. The manual supplements the guides which have already appeared in IAEA publications series and have dealt with some specific aspect of waste management and, like them, it is oriented in the operational rather than the research direction

  17. Neurologic Outcomes After Low-Volume, Ultrasound-Guided Interscalene Block and Ambulatory Shoulder Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Gaurav; Winger, Daniel G; Cortazzo, Megan; Kentor, Michael L; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative neurologic symptoms after interscalene block and shoulder surgery have been reported to be relatively frequent. Reports of such symptoms after ultrasound-guided block have been variable. We evaluated 300 patients for neurologic symptoms after low-volume, ultrasound-guided interscalene block and arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients underwent ultrasound-guided interscalene block with 16 to 20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine or a mix of 0.2% bupivacaine/1.2% mepivacaine solution, followed by propofol/ketamine sedation for ambulatory arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were called at 10 days for evaluation of neurologic symptoms, and those with persistent symptoms were called again at 30 days, at which point neurologic evaluation was initiated. Details of patient demographics and block characteristics were collected to assess any association with persistent neurologic symptoms. Six of 300 patients reported symptoms at 10 days (2%), with one of these patients having persistent symptoms at 30 days (0.3%). This was significantly lower than rates of neurologic symptoms reported in preultrasound investigations with focused neurologic follow-up and similar to other studies performed in the ultrasound era. There was a modest correlation between the number of needle redirections during the block procedure and the presence of postoperative neurologic symptoms. Ultrasound guidance of interscalene block with 16- to 20-mL volumes of local anesthetic solution results in a lower frequency of postoperative neurologic symptoms at 10 and 30 days as compared with investigations in the preultrasound period.

  18. Volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste with a hammermill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    A Jacobson Model J-3 Hammermill was recently installed at the University of Rochester to process low-level radioactive wastes from hospital and research laboratories. The hammermill will handle both glass and plastic vials of all types. The waste is poured into a hopper located on the top of the seven foot high assembly. The material is gravity fed into the hammermill which is driven by a 15-horsepower motor at 3600 rpm. The waste is pounded by the rotating hammers into a metal screen perforated with one inch holes. The gound-up product is discharged from the bottom of the unit into a 55-gallon shipping drum. A volume reduction of 4:1 has been acheived on an equal mixture of glass and plastic vials

  19. Accurate measurement of indoor radon concentration using a low-effective volume radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Aya; Minami, Nodoka; Mukai, Takahiro; Yasuoka, Yumi; Iimoto, Takeshi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun

    2017-01-01

    AlphaGUARD is a low-effective volume detector and one of the most popular portable radon monitors which is currently available. This study investigated whether AlphaGUARD can accurately measure the variable indoor radon levels. The consistency of the radon-concentration data obtained by AlphaGUARD is evaluated against simultaneous measurements by two other monitors (each ∼10 times more sensitive than AlphaGUARD). When accurately measuring radon concentration with AlphaGUARD, we found that the net counts of the AlphaGUARD were required of at least 500 counts, <25% of the relative percent difference. AlphaGUARD can provide accurate measurements of radon concentration for the world average level (∼50 Bq m -3 ) and the reference level of workplace (1000 Bq m -3 ), using integrated data over at least 3 h and 10 min, respectively. (authors)

  20. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: Concepts for Lightweight & Low Volume EVA Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Calle, Carlos; Mantovani, James

    2013-01-01

    This RFI response is targeting Area 5. Crew Systems for Asteroid Exploration: concepts for lightweight and low volume robotic and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems, such as space suits, tools, translation aids, stowage containers, and other equipment. The NASA KSC Surface Systems Office, Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab and the Electrostatics & Surface Physics Lab (ESPL) are dedicated to developing technologies for operating in regolith environments on target body surfaces. We have identified two technologies in our current portfolio that are highly relevant and useful for crews that will visit a re-directed asteroid in Cis-Lunar Space. Both technologies are at a high TRL of 5/6 and could be rapidly implemented in time for an ARM mission in this decade.

  1. DNA profiling of spermatozoa by laser capture microdissection and low volume-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Li

    Full Text Available Genetic profiling of sperm from complex biological mixtures such as sexual assault casework samples requires isolation of a pure sperm population and the ability to analyze low abundant samples. Current standard procedure for sperm isolation includes preferential lysis of epithelial contaminants followed by collection of intact sperm by centrifugation. While effective for samples where sperm are abundant, this method is less effective when samples contain few spermatozoa. Laser capture microdissection (LCM is a proven method for the isolation of cells biological mixtures, even when found in low abundance. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of LCM coupled with on-chip low volume PCR (LV-PCR for the isolation and genotyping of low abundance sperm samples. Our results indicate that this method can obtain complete profiles (13-16 loci from as few as 15 sperm cells with 80% reproducibility, whereas at least 40 sperm cells are required to profile 13-16 loci by standard 'in-tube' PCR. Further, LCM and LV-PCR of a sexual assault casework sample generated a DNA genotype that was consistent with that of the suspect. This method was unable, however, to analyze a casework sample from a gang rape case in which two or more sperm contributors were in a mixed population. The results indicate that LCM and LV-PCR is sensitive and effective for genotyping sperm from sperm/epithelial cell mixtures when epithelial lysis may be insufficient due to low abundance of sperm; LCM and LV-PCR, however, failed in a casework sample when spermatozoa from multiple donors was present, indicating that further study is necessitated.

  2. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  3. To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Reed, Robert N.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Roads are significant barriers to landscape-scale movements of individuals or populations of many wildlife taxa. The decision by an animal near a road to either cross or not cross may be influenced by characteristics of the road, environmental conditions, traits of the individual animal, and other aspects of the context within which the decision is made. We considered such factors in a mixed-effects logistic regression model describing the nightly road crossing probabilities of invasive nocturnal Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) through short-term radiotracking of 691 snakes within close proximity to 50 road segments across the island of Guam. All measures of road magnitude (traffic volume, gap width, surface type, etc.) were significantly negatively correlated with crossing probabilities. Snake body size was the only intrinsic factor associated with crossing rates, with larger snakes crossing roads more frequently. Humidity was the only environmental variable affecting crossing rate. The distance of the snake from the road at the start of nightly movement trials was the most significant predictor of crossings. The presence of snake traps with live mouse lures during a portion of the trials indicated that localized prey cues reduced the probability of a snake crossing the road away from the traps, suggesting that a snake's decision to cross roads is influenced by local foraging opportunities. Per capita road crossing rates of Brown Treesnakes were very low, and comparisons to historical records suggest that crossing rates have declined in the 60+ yr since introduction to Guam. We report a simplified model that will allow managers to predict road crossing rates based on snake, road, and contextual characteristics. Road crossing simulations based on actual snake size distributions demonstrate that populations with size distributions skewed toward larger snakes will result in a higher number of road crossings. Our method of modeling per capita road crossing

  4. Development of an Inline Dry Power Inhaler That Requires Low Air Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Dale; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2017-12-20

    Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are actuated by an external air source and have distinct advantages for delivering aerosols to infants and children, and to individuals with compromised lung function or who require ventilator support. However, current inline DPIs either perform poorly, are difficult to operate, and/or require large volumes (∼1 L) of air. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a new inline DPI for aerosolizing spray-dried formulations with powder masses of 10 mg and higher using a dispersion air volume of 10 mL per actuation that is easy to load (capsule-based) and operate. Primary features of the new low air volume (LV) DPIs are fixed hollow capillaries that both pierce the capsule and provide a continuous flow path for air and aerosol passing through the device. Two different configurations were evaluated, which were a straight-through (ST) device, with the inlet and outlet capillaries on opposite ends of the capsule, and a single-sided (SS) device, with both the inlet and outlet capillaries on the same side of the capsule. The devices were operated with five actuations of a 10 mL air syringe using an albuterol sulfate (AS) excipient-enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. Device emptying and aerosol characteristics were evaluated for multiple device outlet configurations. Each device had specific advantages. The best case ST device produced the smallest aerosol [mean mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) = 1.57 μm; fine particle fraction <5 μm (FPF <5μm ) = 95.2%)] but the mean emitted dose (ED) was 61.9%. The best case SS device improved ED (84.8%), but produced a larger aerosol (MMAD = 2.13 μm; FPF <5μm  = 89.3%) that was marginally higher than the initial deaggregation target. The new LV-DPIs produced an acceptable high-quality aerosol with only 10 mL of dispersion air per actuation and were easy to load and operate. This performance should enable application in high and low flow

  5. 76 FR 50500 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... issued when disposal space was scarce since two of the three operating low level radioactive waste (LLRW... radioactive waste management program. While the Commission continues to favor the disposal of LLRW over... on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  6. Road to Grid Parity through Deployment of Low-Cost 21.5% N-Type Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velundur, Vijay [Suniva, Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This project seeks to develop and deploy differentiated 21.5% efficient n-type Si solar cells while reaching the SunShot module cost goal of ≤ $0.50/W. This objective hinges on development of enabling low cost technologies that simplify the manufacturing process and reduce overall processing costs. These comprise of (1) Boron emitter formation and passivation; (2) Simplified processing process for emitter and BSF layers; and (3) Advanced metallization for the front and back contacts.

  7. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Compact Region: Volume 2, Management plan: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management has begun the development of a regional low-level radioactive waste management plan. They have reviewed and analyzed existing data on current low-level radioactive waste volumes shipped for disposal by generators in the Southeast region and have supplemented existing data by direct contact with State regulatory personnel, disposal site operators, and individual generators. The Commission has also projected the amounts and types of waste expected to require offsite disposal. This characterized data base and the projections of waste volumes and types through 1996 are included in this volume. Alternative disposal and treatment technologies were evaluated for management of the waste in the region. This evaluation consisted of a review of the literature concerning the several technologies in low level radioactive waste management. This information is summarized in Appendix A. 72 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs

  8. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  9. Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Terramechanics Volume 47, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 97-111 Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation H.M. Ngwangwaa, P.S. Heynsa, , , F...

  10. Prevalence and prognosis of low-volume, oligorecurrent, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer amenable to lesion ablative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruycker, Aurélie; Lambert, Bieke; Claeys, Tom; Delrue, Louke; Mbah, Chamberlain; De Meerleer, Gert; Villeirs, Geert; De Vos, Filip; De Man, Kathia; Decaestecker, Karel; Fonteyne, Valérie; Lumen, Nicolaas; Ameye, Filip; Billiet, Ignace; Joniau, Steven; Vanhaverbeke, Friedl; Duthoy, Wim; Ost, Piet

    2017-12-01

    To describe the anatomical patterns of prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence after primary therapy and to investigate if patients with low-volume disease have a better prognosis as compared with their counterparts. Patients eligible for an 18-F choline positron-emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Eligible patients had asymptomatic biochemical recurrence after primary PCa treatment and testosterone levels >50 ng/mL. The number of lesions was counted per scan. Patients with isolated local recurrence (LR) or with ≤3 metastases (with or without LR) were considered to have low-volume disease and patients with >3 metastases to have high-volume disease. Descriptive statistics were used to report recurrences. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of prognostic variables on the time to developing castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). In 208 patients, 625 sites of recurrence were detected in the lymph nodes (N1/M1a: 30%), the bone (18%), the prostate (bed; 11%), viscera (4%), or a combination of any of the previous (37%). In total, 153 patients (74%) had low-volume recurrence and 55 patients (26%) had high-volume recurrence. The 3-year CRPC-free survival rate for the whole cohort was 79% (95% confidence interval 43-55), 88% for low-volume recurrences and 50% for high-volume recurrences (P < 0.001). Longer PSA doubling time at time of recurrence and low-volume disease were associated with a longer time to CRPC. Three out of four patients with PCa with a 18-F choline PET-CT-detected recurrence have low-volume disease, potentially amenable to local therapy. Patients with low-volume disease have a better prognosis as compared with their counterparts. Lymph node recurrence was the most dominant failure pattern. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Utilizing Forced Vital Capacity to Predict Low Lung Compliance and Select Intraoperative Tidal Volume During Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoftman, Nir; Eikermann, Eric; Shin, John; Buckley, Jack; Navab, Kaveh; Abtin, Fereidoun; Grogan, Tristan; Cannesson, Maxime; Mahajan, Aman

    2017-12-01

    Tidal volume selection during mechanical ventilation utilizes dogmatic formulas that only consider a patient's predicted body weight (PBW). In this study, we investigate whether forced vital capacity (FVC) (1) correlates better to total lung capacity (TLC) than PBW, (2) predicts low pulmonary compliance, and (3) provides an alternative method for tidal volume selection. One hundred thirty thoracic surgery patients had their preoperative TLC calculated via 2 methods: (1) pulmonary function test (PFT; TLCPFT) and (2) computed tomography 3D reconstruction (TLCCT). We compared the correlation between TLC and PBW with the correlation between TLC and FVC to determine which was stronger. Dynamic pulmonary compliance was then calculated from intraoperative ventilator data and logistic regression models constructed to determine which clinical measure best predicted low compliance. Ratios of tidal volume/FVC plotted against peak inspiratory pressure were utilized to construct a new model for tidal volume selection. Calculated tidal volumes generated by this model were then compared with those generated by the standard lung-protective formula Vt = 7 cc/kg. The correlation between FVC and TLC (0.82 for TLCPFT and 0.76 for TLCCT) was stronger than the correlation between PBW and TLC (0.65 for TLCPFT and 0.58 for TLCCT). Patients with very low compliance had significantly smaller lung volumes (forced expiratory volume at 1 second, FVC, TLC) and lower diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide when compared with patients with normal compliance. An FVC cutoff of 3470 cc was 100% sensitive and 51% specific for predicting low compliance. The proposed equation Vt = FVC/8 significantly reduced calculated tidal volume by a mean of 22.5% in patients with low pulmonary compliance without affecting the mean tidal volume in patients with normal compliance (mean difference 0.9%). FVC is more strongly correlated to TLC than PBW and a cutoff of about 3.5 L can be utilized to predict

  12. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in mechanically ventilated rats following LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpanath, Thomas G V; Smeding, Lonneke; Hirsch, Alexander; Lagrand, Wim K; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2015-10-07

    High tidal volume ventilation has shown to cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), possibly contributing to concomitant extrapulmonary organ dysfunction. The present study examined whether left ventricular (LV) function is dependent on tidal volume size and whether this effect is augmented during lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced lung injury. Twenty male Wistar rats were sedated, paralyzed and then randomized in four groups receiving mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 6 ml/kg or 19 ml/kg with or without intrapulmonary administration of LPS. A conductance catheter was placed in the left ventricle to generate pressure-volume loops, which were also obtained within a few seconds of vena cava occlusion to obtain relatively load-independent LV systolic and diastolic function parameters. The end-systolic elastance / effective arterial elastance (Ees/Ea) ratio was used as the primary parameter of LV systolic function with the end-diastolic elastance (Eed) as primary LV diastolic function. Ees/Ea decreased over time in rats receiving LPS (p = 0.045) and high tidal volume ventilation (p = 0.007), with a lower Ees/Ea in the rats with high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS compared to the other groups (p tidal volume ventilation without LPS (p = 0.223). A significant interaction (p tidal ventilation and LPS for Ees/Ea and Eed, and all rats receiving high tidal volume ventilation plus LPS died before the end of the experiment. Low tidal volume ventilation ameliorated LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction while preventing death following LPS-induced lung injury in mechanically ventilated rats. Our data advocates the use of low tidal volumes, not only to avoid VILI, but to avert ventilator-induced myocardial dysfunction as well.

  13. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  14. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi V; Chen, Fu-Lin; Xue, Jianping

    2017-12-15

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR) models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD), All-Traffic Density (ATD) and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD) which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT), and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT) in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC), a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS). The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with -0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m) that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM) analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses indicate that

  15. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi V. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as land use regression (LUR models has improved exposure estimation. To better understand the relationship between vehicle emissions and near-road air pollution, we evaluated three traffic density-based indices: Major-Road Density (MRD, All-Traffic Density (ATD and Heavy-Traffic Density (HTD which represent the proportions of major roads, major road with annual average daily traffic (AADT, and major road with commercial annual average daily traffic (CAADT in a buffered area, respectively. We evaluated the potential of these indices as vehicle emission-specific near-road air pollutant indicators by analyzing their correlation with black carbon (BC, a marker for mobile source air pollutants, using measurement data obtained from the Near-road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS. The average BC concentrations during a day showed variations consistent with changes in traffic volume which were classified into high, medium, and low for the morning rush hours, the evening rush hours, and the rest of the day, respectively. The average correlation coefficients between BC concentrations and MRD, ATD, and HTD, were 0.26, 0.18, and 0.48, respectively, as compared with −0.31 and 0.25 for two commonly used traffic indicators: nearest distance to a major road and total length of the major road. HTD, which includes only heavy-duty diesel vehicles in its traffic count, gives statistically significant correlation coefficients for all near-road distances (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 m that were analyzed. Generalized linear model (GLM analyses show that season, traffic volume, HTD, and distance from major roads are highly related to BC measurements. Our analyses

  16. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pratipal; Jain, Paresh; Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil; Dubey, Deepak; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patient...

  17. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  18. Very Low Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is More Effective in Young Than Old Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulas Krusnauskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.

  19. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  20. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  1. High- versus low-volume polyethylene glycol plus laxative versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Horvath, Andrea; Szychta, Monika; Woynarowski, Marek; Wegner, Agnieszka; Wiernicka, Anna; Dadalski, Maciej; Teisseyre, Mikolaj; Dziechciarz, Piotr

    2013-08-01

    Many protocols of bowel preparation are available for use in children; however, none of them is commonly accepted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) versus low-volume PEG combined with bisacodyl (BPEG) versus sennosides for colonoscopy preparation in children. Participants ages 10 to 18 years were randomly assigned to receive either PEG 60 or PEG 30 mL kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ plus oral bisacodyl 10 to 15 mg/day or sennosides 2 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for 2 days. A blinded assessment of bowel cleansing was made by the endoscopist according to the Aronchick and Ottawa scales. Patient acceptability was evaluated with the visual-analog scale. Analysis was done on an available case analysis basis. Of 240 patients enrolled in the study 234 patients were available for analysis of the efficacy of colon cleansing. There were no significant differences found among the 3 groups for the proportions of participants with excellent/good (PEG: 35/79, BPEG: 26/79, sennosides 25/76) and poor/inadequate (PEG: 20/79, BPEG: 28/79, sennosides 28/76) bowel preparation evaluated with the Aronchick scale and for the mean Ottawa total score (PEG: 5.47 ± 3.63, BPEG: 6.22 ± 3.3, sennosides: 6.18 ± 3.53). Acceptability of bowel cleansing protocol was similar in all of the groups (P = 0.8). All 3 cleansing methods showed similar efficacy and tolerability; however, none of them was satisfactory.

  2. Mobile encapsulation and volume reduction system for wet low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the results of the program entitled ''A Preconceptual Study for a Transportable Vitrification Process''. The objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of a Mobile Encapsulation and Volume Reduction System (MEVS). The report contains design criteria, a preconceptual design of the system, a comparison of disposal costs with other solidification technologies, and an assessment of utility interests in the transportable volume reduction service MEVS can provide. The MEVS design employs the use of a joule-heated glass melter to convert the wet low-level wastes into glass. The process is self-sufficient, requiring no direct facility services or reactor personnel. It is capable of servicing one waste type from a minimum of three reactors. The design was used to prepare capital and operating cost estimates. The capital cost for the MEVS is $4,680,000, which includes all labor necessary for design, engineering, inspection, and licensing. The operating cost of the system for servicing a minimum of three reactors is $1,530,000/y for resins or $2,280,000/y for concentrated liquids. The cost estimates compared favorably to the more common solidification process of cementation. Total MEVS operating costs which include processing, transportation and burial, are $191 to $218/ft 3 waste, whereas quoted costs for cementation and disposal from reactor operators range from $155 to $350/ft 3 . The report concludes with the requirements for additional development, which can be accomplished for less than one sixth of the capital costs. The report also presents the results of an assessment conducted with utility representatives to obtain their expressions of interest in a service of this type

  3. Oxygen-transfer performance of a newly designed, very low-volume membrane oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Felice; Ciocan, Sorin; Carmona, Natalia Mendez; Berner, Marion; Sourdon, Joevin; Carrel, Thierry P; Tevaearai Stahel, Hendrik T; Longnus, Sarah L

    2015-09-01

    Oxygenation of blood and other physiological solutions are routinely required in fundamental research for both in vitro and in vivo experimentation. However, very few oxygenators with suitable priming volumes (parallel-oriented microporous polypropylene hollow fibres, placed inside a hollow shell with a lateral-luer outlet, and sealed at both extremities. With this design, perfusate is delivered via the core-tube to the centre of the mini-oxygenator, and exits via the luer port. A series of mini-oxygenators were constructed and tested in an in vitro perfusion circuit by monitoring oxygen transfer using modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer or whole porcine blood. Effects of perfusion pressure and temperature over flows of 5-60 ml × min(-1) were assessed. Twelve mini-oxygenators with a mean priming volume of 1.5 ± 0.3 ml were evaluated. With buffer, oxygen transfer reached a maximum of 14.8 ± 1.0 ml O2 × l(-1) (pO2: 450 ± 32 mmHg) at perfusate flow rates of 5 ml × min(-1) and decreased with an increase in perfusate flow to 7.8 ± 0.7 ml ml O2 × l(-1) (pO2: 219 ± 24 mmHg) at 60 ml × min(-1). Similarly, with blood perfusate, oxygen transfer also decreased as perfusate flow increased, ranging from 33 ± 5 ml O2 × l(-1) at 5 ml × min(-1) to 11 ± 2 ml O2 × l(-1) at 60 ml × min(-1). Furthermore, oxygen transfer capacity remained stable with blood perfusion over a period of at least 2 h. We have developed a new miniaturized membrane oxygenator with an ultra-low priming volume (circuits, such as small animal extracorporeal circulation and ex vivo organ perfusion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Auto-segmentation of low-risk clinical target volume for head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinzhong; Beadle, Beth M; Garden, Adam S; Gunn, Brandon; Rosenthal, David; Ang, Kian; Frank, Steven; Williamson, Ryan; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence; Dong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To investigate atlas-based auto-segmentation methods to improve the quality of the delineation of low-risk clinical target volumes (CTVs) of unilateral tonsil cancers. Sixteen patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy for left tonsil tumors. These patients were treated by a total of 8 oncologists, who delineated all contours manually on the planning CT image. We chose 6 of the patients as atlas cases and used atlas-based auto-segmentation to map each the atlas CTV to the other 10 patients (test patients). For each test patient, the final contour was produced by combining the 6 individual segmentations from the atlases using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation algorithm. In addition, for each test patient, we identified a single atlas that produced deformed contours best matching the physician's manual contours. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the physician's manual contours using the slice-wise Hausdorff distance (HD), the slice-wise Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and a total volume overlap index. No single atlas consistently produced good results for all 10 test cases. The multiatlas segmentation achieved a good agreement between auto-segmented contours and manual contours, with a median slice-wise HD of 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, median slice-wise DSC of 80.2% ± 5.9%, and total volume overlap of 77.8% ± 3.3% over the 10 test cases. For radiation oncologists who contoured both the test case and one of the atlas cases, the best atlas for a test case had almost always been contoured by the oncologist who had contoured that test case, indicating that individual physician's practice dominated in target delineation and was an important factor in optimal atlas selection. Multiatlas segmentation may improve the quality of CTV delineation in clinical practice for unilateral tonsil cancers. We also showed that individual physician's practice was an important factor in selecting the optimal atlas for atlas-based auto

  5. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Patients without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Paradigm Shift in Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed Lipes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective ventilation with low tidal volume has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Low tidal volume ventilation is associated with particular clinical challenges and is therefore often underutilized as a therapeutic option in clinical practice. Despite some potential difficulties, data have been published examining the application of protective ventilation in patients without lung injury. We will briefly review the physiologic rationale for low tidal volume ventilation and explore the current evidence for protective ventilation in patients without lung injury. In addition, we will explore some of the potential reasons for its underuse and provide strategies to overcome some of the associated clinical challenges.

  6. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation in Patients without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Paradigm Shift in Mechanical Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipes, Jed; Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Lellouche, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Protective ventilation with low tidal volume has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low tidal volume ventilation is associated with particular clinical challenges and is therefore often underutilized as a therapeutic option in clinical practice. Despite some potential difficulties, data have been published examining the application of protective ventilation in patients without lung injury. We will briefly review the physiologic rationale for low tidal volume ventilation and explore the current evidence for protective ventilation in patients without lung injury. In addition, we will explore some of the potential reasons for its underuse and provide strategies to overcome some of the associated clinical challenges. PMID:22536499

  7. Low-volume high-intensity swim training is superior to high-volume low-intensity training in relation to insulin sensitivity and glucose control in inactive middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Luke J; Nordsborg, Nikolai B; Nyberg, Michael; Weihe, Pál; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low-volume high-intensity swimming has a larger impact on insulin sensitivity and glucose control than high-volume low-intensity swimming in inactive premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Sixty-two untrained premenopausal women were randomised to an inactive control (n = 20; CON), a high-intensity low-volume (n = 21; HIT) or a low-intensity high-volume (n = 21; LIT) training group. During the 15-week intervention period, HIT performed 3 weekly 6-10 × 30-s all-out swimming intervals (average heart rate (HR) = 86 ± 3 % HRmax) interspersed by 2-min recovery periods and LIT swam continuously for 1 h at low intensity (average HR = 73 ± 3 % HRmax). Fasting blood samples were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted pre- and post-intervention. After HIT, resting plasma [insulin] was lowered (17 ± 34 %; P high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective and time-efficient training strategy for improving insulin sensitivity, glucose control and biomarkers of vascular function in inactive, middle-aged mildly hypertensive women.

  8. Intraarterial CT Angiography Using Ultra Low Volume of Iodine Contrast – Own Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcarek, Jerzy; Kurcz, Jacek; Guziński, Maciej; Banasik, Mirosław; Miś, Marcin; Gołębiowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    High volume of intravenous contrast in CT-angiography may result in contrast-induced nephropathy. Intraarterial ultra-low volume of contrast medium results in its satisfactory blood concentration with potentially good image quality. The first main purpose was to assess the influence of the method on function of transplanted kidney in patients with impaired graft function. The second main purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of this method for detection of gastrointestinal and head-and-neck haemorrhages. Between 2010 and 2013 intraarterial CT-angiography was performed in 56 patients, including 28 with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There were three main subgroups: 18 patients after kidney transplantation, 10 patients with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 8 patients with head-and-neck hemorrhage. Contralateral or ipsilateral inguinal arterial approach was performed. The 4-French vascular sheaths and 4F-catheters were introduced under fluoroscopy. Intraarterial CT was performed using 64-slice scanner. The scanning protocol was as follows: slice thickness 0.625 mm, pitch 1.3, gantry rotation 0.6 sec., scanning delay 1–2 sec. The extent of the study was established on the basis of scout image. In patients with CKD 6–8 mL of Iodixanol (320 mg/mL) diluted with saline to 18–24 mL was administered at a speed of 4–5 mL/s. Vasculature was properly visualized in all patients. In patients with impaired renal function creatinine/eGFR levels remained stable in all but one case. Traditional arteriography failed and CT-angiography demonstrated the site of bleeding in 3 of 10 patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal bleeding (30%). In 8 patients with head-and-neck bleeding CT-angiography did not prove beneficial when compared to traditional arteriography. 1. Ultra-low contrast intraarterial CT-angiography does not deteriorate the function of transplanted kidneys in patients with impaired graft function. 2. 3D reconstructions allow for excellent visualization of

  9. Just-in-Time Training for High-Risk Low-Volume Therapies: An Approach to Ensure Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Stephanie; Lisanti, Amy Jo; Adams, Ann; Field, Cynthia; Davis, Katherine Finn

    2016-01-01

    High-risk low-volume therapies are those therapies that are practiced infrequently and yet carry an increased risk to patients because of their complexity. Staff nurses are required to competently manage these therapies to treat patients' unique needs and optimize outcomes; however, maintaining competence is challenging. This article describes implementation of Just-in-Time Training, which requires validation of minimum competency of bedside nurses managing high-risk low-volume therapies through direct observation of a return-demonstration competency checklist.

  10. Short-term performance effects of three different low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training.......001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players....

  11. The numerical model for parametric studies of forest haul roads pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Ševelová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads pavement structures are considered to be low volume roads. These roads serve as a mean of transport of wood and people. Besides they are currently often used for recreational purpose. The construction of the pavements should be suitable for forest transportation irrespective of their low bearing capacity. These pavement structures are very specific for special unbound materials that are used in their construction. To meet the requirements of the pavement designs and simulation analysis the FEM model in the software ANSYS was created.This paper compares two material models used for the description of the behaviour of unbound materials. The first is linear elastic according to Hook theory (H model and the second one is nonlinear plastic model Drucker-Prager (D–P model. ANSYS software has been used to create flexible model based on the parametrers of variable principle. The flexible model is parametric to realize repeated calculations useful for optimization analysis.

  12. Capacity of two-lane roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kennedy, DA

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships of speed vs density, volume and percentage loop occupation are investigated. The effect of differing directional splits in traffic volumes is also examined. A method of determining the Level-of Service of two-lane roads in terms...

  13. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  14. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  15. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2018-03-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL -1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  17. Conceptual design of volume reduction system for ITER low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Je Keun, E-mail: jekeun.chon@iter.org; Beaudoin, Virginie; Pitcher, Charles S.

    2016-11-01

    For ITER Type A (low-level radwaste) radioactive waste process system, the super-compaction of solid wastes is introduced to reduce the waste volume in order to increase the quantity of waste to be enclosed in a final package. A study has been conducted to develop the conceptual design of super-compaction system by exploring the optimum design features of available equipment. The principal finding of the study is that a compactor with a vertical extrusion die that can apply a compressive force of up to 7000 kN will be fit for purpose of ITER Type A waste treatment. The confinement box has been proposed to limit the spread of aerial effluents that might escape from the compacted pellets. In order to increase the packing efficiency of the disposal containers, the height of each pellet will be recorded, enabling the disposal containers to be filled as close as possible to their limit if pellets of an appropriate size are available. The proposed conceptual design of super-compaction system is capable of meeting the objectives and constraints of target waste streams from ITER operation.

  18. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. - Highlights: • PAHs build-up on road surfaces varies with traffic and land use conditions. • RDS characteristics and PAH composition were considered in ecological risk assessment. • ΣPAH concentration attached to RDS cannot represent their overall ecological risk. • Higher percentage of 5–6 rings PAHs can pose higher ecological risk. • TC exerts more important influences on 5–6 rings PAHs build-up compared with TV.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with road deposited solid and their ecological risk: Implications for road stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, An [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Li, Yang; Zhang, Lixun; Zhang, Guijuan [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Graduate school at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control (MARC), Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-01

    Reusing stormwater is becoming popular worldwide. However, urban road stormwater commonly contains toxic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which could undermine reuse safety. This study investigated pollution level of PAHs and their composition build-up on urban roads in a typical megacity in South China. The potential ecological risk posed by PAHs associated with road deposited solid (RDS) was also assessed. Results showed that ecological risk levels varied based on different land use types, which could be significantly influenced by the composition of PAHs and characteristics of RDS. A higher percentage of high-ring PAHs, such as more than four rings, could pose higher ecological risk and are more likely to undermine stormwater reuse safety. Additionally, the degree of traffic congestion rather than traffic volume was found to exert a more significant influence on the generation of high-ring PAH generation. Therefore, stormwater from more congested roads might need proper treatment (particularly for removing high-ring PAHs) before reuse or could be suitable for purposes requiring low-water-quality. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to adequate stormwater reuse strategy development and to enhance the safety of urban road stormwater reuse. - Highlights: • PAHs build-up on road surfaces varies with traffic and land use conditions. • RDS characteristics and PAH composition were considered in ecological risk assessment. • ΣPAH concentration attached to RDS cannot represent their overall ecological risk. • Higher percentage of 5–6 rings PAHs can pose higher ecological risk. • TC exerts more important influences on 5–6 rings PAHs build-up compared with TV.

  1. Molar volume dependence of the pressure of solid 3He at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamiya, T.; Sawada, A.; Fukuyama, H.; Iwahashi, K.; Masuda, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The pressure of solid 3 He has been measured as a function of temperature T between 0.3 and 50 mK at molar volumes between 24.19 and 23.31 cm 3 . The entropy discontinuity obtained from the pressure jump at the ordering transition turned out to be almost independent of molar volumes, being about 0.40Rln2 in the studied range of molar volumes

  2. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  3. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Volume I of this report presents a summary of DOE's complex-wide review of its low-level waste management system, including the assessment scope and methodology, site-specific and complex-wide vulnerabilities, and DOE's conclusions and recommendations. Volume II presents a more detailed discussion of the assessment methodology and evaluation instruments developed by the Assessment Working Group for identifying site-specific vulnerabilities, categorizing and classifying vulnerabilities, and identifying and analyzing complex-wide vulnerabilities. Attachments A and B of this volume contain, respectively, the Site Evaluation Survey and the Vulnerability Assessment Form used in those processes. Volume III contains the site-specific assessment reports for the 36 sites (38 facilities) assessed in the complex-wide review from which the complex-wide vulnerabilities were drawn

  4. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators are shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  5. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning and lizards (in the afternoon, daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide

  6. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i) describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii) assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii) model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning) and lizards (in the afternoon), daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days) for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide conservation and transportation agencies with accurate numbers of road

  7. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  8. Low plasma volume coincides with sympathetic hyperactivity and reduced baroreflex sensitivity in formerly preeclamptic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtar, D.A.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Aardenburg, R.; Janssen, B.J.; Peeters, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with enhanced sympathetic activity as well as subnormal plasma volume. Meanwhile, in over 50% of these complicated pregnancies, the subnormal plasma volume has been found to persist for a prolonged period after pregnancy. The objective of this study is to test

  9. Prepregnancy low-plasma volume and predisposition to preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Sep, S.; Peeters, L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether recurrence risks of preeclampsia, preterm birth, and fetal growth restriction relate to prepregnancy plasma volume. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 580 formerly preeclamptic women and a control group. In all women we measured plasma volume

  10. Low level radioactive waste disposal siting: a social and technical plan for Pennsylvania. Volume 2. Socioeconomic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aron, G.; Bord, R.J.; Clemente, F.A.; Dornsife, W.P.; Jarrett, A.R.; Jester, W.A.; Schmalz, R.F.; Witzig, W.F.

    1984-09-01

    Volume II comprises five chapters: Socioeconomic Screening Criteria for LLRW Facility Siting and An Application to Counties in Pennsylvania; Evaluating Public Participation Options for the Case of Low Level Radioactive Waste Siting in Pennsylvania; Potential Socioeconomic Impacts of a LLRW Facility in Pennsylvania; The Role of Community Incentives in Low Level Radioactive Waste Management; and Institutional Aspects of LLRW Site Development and Operations in Pennsylvania

  11. Field evaluation of indoor thermal fog and ultra-low volume applications for control of Aedes aegypti, in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacies of a hand-held thermal fogger (PatriotTM) and hand-held Ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer (TwisterTM) with combinations of two different adulticides and an insect growth regulator (pyriproxyfen) were field assessed and compared for their impact on reducing dengue vector populations in Thaila...

  12. Volume reduction and solidification of liquid and solid low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief background of the development of a method of radioactive waste volume reduction using a unique fluidized bed calciner/incinerator. The volume reduction system is capable of processing a variety of liquid chemical wastes, spent ion exchange resin beads, filter treatment sludges, contaminated lubricating oils, and miscellaneous combustible solids such as paper, rags, protective clothing, wood, etc. All of these wastes are processed in one chemical reaction vessel. Detailed process data is presented that shows the system is capable of reducing the total volume of disposable radioactive waste generated by light water reactors by a factor of 10. Equally important to reducing the volume of power reactor radwaste is the final form of the stored or disposable radwaste. This paper also presents process data related to a new radwaste solidification system, presently being developed, that is particularly suited for immobilizing the granular solids and ashes resulting from volume reduction by calcination and/or incineration

  13. Construction and maintenance of underground mine roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, A.S.; Seedsman, R.W. [Coffey Partners International Pty. Ltd. (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Good roads are essential in moving men and materials to and from the underground workplace. An underground coal industry funded project was recently completed on underground mine road construction and maintenance. This paper discusses practical approaches to construction and maintenance of underground mine roads using transferable civil technologies and innovative techniques. Mine pavements are generally low-cost (relative to civil roads), constructed to varying standards using locally available materials to best meet the mobility needs of the mine. Performance of pavements is thus largely dependent on the environmental conditions, quality of the available road making materials, maintenance policies and available resources. This paper explains the causes of bad roads in various underground environments. It details available management strategies, construction and water control techniques, road maintenance and vehicle considerations. It concludes that the trend to larger rubber tires mining equipment needs to be matched with construction and maintenance of high quality road surfaces. For large operations, the total cost due to poor roads may equate to in excess of $A1 million per annum. The strategies outlined in this paper provide the basis for construction and maintenance of underground mine roads to help achieve desired production targets. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  14. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  15. Association between road accidents and low-grade hepatic encephalopathy among Sri Lankan drivers with cirrhosis: a prospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, S K C E; Nandamuni, Y; Ranasinghe, S; Niriella, M A; Miththinda, J K N D; Dassanayake, A; de Silva, A P; de Silva, H J

    2016-06-13

    Low-grade hepatic encephalopathy (LGHE) comprises minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and grade 1 hepatic encephalopathy. LGHE has no or minimal recognizable symptoms but has mild cognitive and psychomotor deficits. Studies in Western countries have demonstrated increased road accidents (RA) among patients with MHE. Our objective was to investigate the association between Sri Lankan LGHE phenotype and RA. A prospective, case-control study was conducted in the University Medical Unit, North Colombo Teaching Hospital, Ragama Sri Lanka. Patients with cirrhosis of any aetiology, without OHE, who had been driving during previous 1 month were included. A similar number of age matched, healthy control drivers were also enrolled. Both groups were subjected to five pencil-paper based psychometric tests used to detect LGHE in cirrhotics. Self-reported RA during the previous 1 month were recorded: categorized as 'major' when resulted in hospitalization of the involved, 'minor' when there were injuries, but not serious enough for hospitalization of the involved and 'other' when limited to damages to vehicle or environment without injuries. Among 55 drivers with cirrhosis and LGHE [males, median age 53 years (range 30-60)], 7 (12.7 %) reported RA compared to 6 (10.9 %) among 55 controls [males; median age 51 years (range 30-60)]. There were no 'major' accidents in either group. 2/55 (3.6 %) cases and 2/55 (3.6 %) controls reported 'minor' accidents. There was no increased frequency of RA among Sri Lankan drivers with LGHE compared to healthy controls. This is with the limitation of the study based only on self reported RA.

  16. Low Cerebral Blood Volume Identifies Poor Outcome in Stent Retriever Thrombectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protto, Sara; Pienimäki, Juha-Pekka; Seppänen, Janne; Numminen, Heikki; Sillanpää, Niko

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundMechanical thrombectomy (MT) is an efficient treatment of acute stroke caused by large-vessel occlusion. We evaluated the factors predicting poor clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, mRS >2) although MT performed with modern stent retrievers.MethodsWe prospectively collected the clinical and imaging data of 105 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent MT after multimodal CT imaging. Patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery up to the M2 segment were included. We recorded baseline clinical, procedural and imaging variables, technical outcome, 24-h imaging outcome and the clinical outcome. Differences between the groups were studied with appropriate statistical tests and binary logistic regression analysis.ResultsLow cerebral blood volume Alberta stroke program early CT score (CBV-ASPECTS) was associated with poor clinical outcome (median 7 vs. 9, p = 0.01). Lower collateral score (CS) significantly predicted poor outcome in regression modelling with CS = 0 increasing the odds of poor outcome 4.4-fold compared to CS = 3 (95% CI 1.27–15.5, p = 0.02). Lower CBV-ASPECTS significantly predicted poor clinical outcome among those with moderate or severe stroke (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–1, p = 0.05) or poor collateral circulation (CS 0–1, OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.90, p = 0.009) but not among those with mild strokes or good collaterals.ConclusionsCBV-ASPECTS estimating infarct core is a significant predictor of poor clinical outcome among anterior circulation stroke patients treated with MT, especially in the setting of poor collateral circulation and/or moderate or severe stroke.

  17. Low Cerebral Blood Volume Identifies Poor Outcome in Stent Retriever Thrombectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protto, Sara, E-mail: sara.protto@pshp.fi; Pienimäki, Juha-Pekka; Seppänen, Janne [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center (Finland); Numminen, Heikki [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Finland); Sillanpää, Niko [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center (Finland)

    2017-04-15

    BackgroundMechanical thrombectomy (MT) is an efficient treatment of acute stroke caused by large-vessel occlusion. We evaluated the factors predicting poor clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, mRS >2) although MT performed with modern stent retrievers.MethodsWe prospectively collected the clinical and imaging data of 105 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent MT after multimodal CT imaging. Patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery up to the M2 segment were included. We recorded baseline clinical, procedural and imaging variables, technical outcome, 24-h imaging outcome and the clinical outcome. Differences between the groups were studied with appropriate statistical tests and binary logistic regression analysis.ResultsLow cerebral blood volume Alberta stroke program early CT score (CBV-ASPECTS) was associated with poor clinical outcome (median 7 vs. 9, p = 0.01). Lower collateral score (CS) significantly predicted poor outcome in regression modelling with CS = 0 increasing the odds of poor outcome 4.4-fold compared to CS = 3 (95% CI 1.27–15.5, p = 0.02). Lower CBV-ASPECTS significantly predicted poor clinical outcome among those with moderate or severe stroke (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68–1, p = 0.05) or poor collateral circulation (CS 0–1, OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.90, p = 0.009) but not among those with mild strokes or good collaterals.ConclusionsCBV-ASPECTS estimating infarct core is a significant predictor of poor clinical outcome among anterior circulation stroke patients treated with MT, especially in the setting of poor collateral circulation and/or moderate or severe stroke.

  18. Volume reduction of low-level, combustible, transuranic waste at Mound Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.H.; Doty, J.W.; Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Luthy, D.F.

    Low-level combustible waste (<100 nCi per g of waste) generated during plutonium-238 processing is collected and stored in 55-gallon (200-liter) drums. The composition of this waste is approximately 32 wt % paper, 46% plastic, 16% rubber and cloth, and 6% metal. Treatment of this waste is initiated by burning in the Mound Cyclone Incinerator, which consists of a burning chamber, deluge tank, venturi scrubber and blower. During the two years of operating the Cyclone Incinerator, experiments have been performed on particle distribution throughout the system using various mixtures of feed material. Measurements were taken at the incinerator outlet, after the spray tank, and after the venturi scrubber. An average emission of 0.23 g of particles per kg of feed at the venturi outlet was determined. The distribution of chlorine from the combustion of polyvinyl chloride was studied. Analyses of the off-gas and scrubber solution show that approximately 75 wt % of the chlorine was captured by the scrubber solution and approximately 17 wt % remained in the off-gas after the venturi scrubber. Measurements of the amount of NO/sub chi/ present in the off-gas were also made during the chloride studies. An average of approximately 200 ppM NO/sub chi/ was produced during each incineration run. Immobilization of the incinerator ash is being studied with regard to long-term behavior of the product. The immobilization matrix which looks most promising is ash mixed with Portland 1A cement in a 65/35 wt % ash-to-cement ratio. This matrix exhibits good mechanical properties while maintaining a maximum volume reduction

  19. Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K.D. Peterson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin® and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30 formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern.

  20. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p < 0.05). Magnitude of changes using effect size (ES) was examined between groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) in muscle and fat mass and percentages for whole body, upper limbs and trunk for ssMMF, but only upper limbs for ssRP. Body composition ES's ranged moderate to large for ssMMF (0.56 to 1.27) and ranged small to moderate for ssRP (0.28 to 0.52). ssMMF also significantly improved (P<0.05) total abdominal fat and increased intracellular water with moderate ES's (-0.62 and 0.56, respectively). Training to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  1. Echocardiography underestimates stroke volume and aortic valve area: implications for patients with small-area low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Calvin W L; Khaw, Hwan J; Luo, Elton; Tan, Shuwei; White, Audrey C; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2014-09-01

    Discordance between small aortic valve area (AVA; area (LVOTarea) and stroke volume alongside inconsistencies in recommended thresholds. One hundred thirty-three patients with mild to severe AS and 33 control individuals underwent comprehensive echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Stroke volume and LVOTarea were calculated using echocardiography and MRI, and the effects on AVA estimation were assessed. The relationship between AVA and MPG measurements was then modelled with nonlinear regression and consistent thresholds for these parameters calculated. Finally the effect of these modified AVA measurements and novel thresholds on the number of patients with small-area low-gradient AS was investigated. Compared with MRI, echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea (n = 40; -0.7 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.6 to 1.3), stroke volumes (-6.5 mL/m(2); 95% CI, -28.9 to 16.0) and consequently, AVA (-0.23 cm(2); 95% CI, -1.01 to 0.59). Moreover, an AVA of 1.0 cm(2) corresponded to MPG of 24 mm Hg based on echocardiographic measurements and 37 mm Hg after correction with MRI-derived stroke volumes. Based on conventional measures, 56 patients had discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Using MRI-derived stroke volumes and the revised thresholds, a 48% reduction in discordance was observed (n = 29). Echocardiography underestimated LVOTarea, stroke volume, and therefore AVA, compared with MRI. The thresholds based on current guidelines were also inconsistent. In combination, these factors explain > 40% of patients with discordant small-area low-gradient AS. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complex Liver Resections for Colorectal Metastases: Are They Safe in the Low-Volume, Resource-Poor Caribbean Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir O. Cawich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although many authorities suggest that major liver resections should only be carried out in high-volume specialized centres, many patients in the Caribbean do not have access to these health care systems. Presentation of a Case. A 50-year-old woman with a solitary colorectal metastasis invading the inferior vena cava underwent an extended left hepatectomy with caval resection and reconstruction. Several technical maneuvers were utilized that were suited to the resource-poor environment. Conclusion. We suggest that good outcomes can still be attained in the resource-poor, low-volume centres once dedicated and appropriately trained teams are available.

  3. An organizational analysis of road traffic crash prevention to explain the difficulties of a national program in a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tania; Reinharz, Daniel; Gripenberg, Marissa; Barennes, Hubert

    2015-09-28

    Road traffic crashes (RTC), that daily kill 3400 people and leave 15,000 with a permanent disability could be prevented through the implementation of safety programs developed in partnership with governments and institutions. The relationship between key stakeholders can be a crucial determinant to the effectiveness of road safety programs. This issue has rarely been addressed. We conducted a detailed organizational analysis of the stakeholders involved in road safety programs in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). A case study was performed. The framework used was a snowball effect in which the characterization of all key stakeholders and the links between them, as well as the factors that led to these links, were determined. The effect of the relations between key stakeholders on the prevention of RTC was assessed through an analysis of the transactional, intangible and controlling factors that influence these relationships. The design and implementation of road safety programs in Lao PDR suffer from weak relationships between stakeholders and a poorly functional bicephal leadership between the Ministry of Public Works and Transport and the non-governmental organisation called Handicap International. This poor coordination between key stakeholders is evident, particularly in the area of collective action and is reinforced by a lack of interest from several different stakeholders. Most agencies do not prioritize road safety. Uneven distribution of funding is another contributing factor. Strengthening the leadership is crucial to the success of the program. Some organisations have skills, power the decision making and the allocation of resources in regards to road safety programs. Encouraging participation of these organizations through a more prominent position would thus result in a better collaboration. Non-monetary rewards would further help to strengthen collaborative work. The bicephal nature of the leadership of road safety programs proves

  4. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, William F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Erosion control treatments were applied to abandoned logging roads in California, with the goal of reducing road-related sediment input to streams and restoring natural hydrologic patterns on the landscape. Treatment of stream crossings involved excavating culverts and associated road fill and reshaping streambanks. A variety of techniques were applied to road benches, which included decompacting the road surface, placing unstable road fill in more stable locations, and re-establishing natural surface drainage patterns. Following treatment and a 12-year recurrence-interval storm, some road reaches and excavated stream crossings showed evidence of mass movement failures, gullying, bank erosion and channel incision. Post-treatment erosion from excavated stream crossings was related to two variables: a surrogate for stream power (drainage area × channel gradient) and the volume of fill excavated from the channel. Post-treatment erosion on road reaches was related to four explanatory variables: method of treatment, hillslope position (upper, mid-slope or lower), date of treatment, and an interaction term (hillslope position × method of treatment). Sediment delivery from treated roads in upper, middle and lower hillslope positions was 10, 135 and 550 m3 of sediment per kilometre of treated roads, respectively. In contrast, inventories of almost 500 km of forest roads in adjacent catchments indicate that untreated roads produced 1500 to 4700 m3 of sediment per kilometre of road length. Erosion from 300 km of treated roads contributed less than 2 per cent of the total sediment load of Redwood Creek during the period 1978 to 1998. Although road removal treatments do not completely eliminate erosion associated with forest roads, they do substantially reduce sediment yields from abandoned logging roads.

  6. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of low-volume polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid versus standard-volume polyethylene glycol solution as bowel preparations for colonoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Standard-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG gut lavage solutions are safe and effective, but they require the consumption of large volumes of fluid. A new lower-volume solution of PEG plus ascorbic acid has been used recently as a preparation for colonoscopy. AIM: A meta-analysis was performed to compare the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. STUDY: Electronic and manual searches were performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared the performance of low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid with standard-volume PEG as bowel preparation for colonoscopy. After a methodological quality assessment and data extraction, the pooled estimates of bowel preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing, compliance with preparation, willingness to repeat the same preparation, and the side effects were calculated. We calculated pooled estimates of odds ratios (OR by fixed- and/or random-effects models. We also assessed heterogeneity among studies and the publication bias. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were identified for analysis. The pooled OR for preparation efficacy during bowel cleansing and for compliance with preparation for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were 1.08 (95% CI = 0.98-1.28, P = 0.34 and 2.23 (95% CI = 1.67-2.98, P<0.00001, respectively, compared with those for standard-volume PEG. The side effects of vomiting and nausea for low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid were reduced relative to standard-volume PEG. There was no significant publication bias, according to a funnel plot. CONCLUSIONS: Low-volume PEG plus ascorbic acid gut lavage achieved non-inferior efficacy for bowel cleansing, is more acceptable to patients, and has fewer side effects than standard-volume PEG as a bowel preparation method for colonoscopy.

  7. Volume reduction of low-level contaminated metal waste by melting: selection of method and conceptual plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.; Mateer, R.S.

    1978-06-01

    A review of the literature and prior experience led to selection of induction melting as the most promising method for volume reduction of low-level transuranic contaminated metal waste. The literature indicates that melting with the appropriate slags significantly lowers the total contamination level of the metals by preferentially concentrating contaminants in the smaller volume of slag. Surface contamination not removed to the slag is diluted in the ingot and is contained uniformly in the metal. This dilution and decontamination offers the potential of lower cost disposal such as shallow burial rather than placement in a national repository. A processing plan is proposed as a model for economic analysis of the collection and volume reduction of contaminated metals. Further development is required to demonstrate feasibility of the plan

  8. Low minute ventilation episodes during anesthesia recovery following intraperitoneal surgery as detected by a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Martin, Yvette N; Sprung, Juraj; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Weingarten, Toby N

    2017-12-20

    An electrical impedance-based noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) accurately reports minute volume, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Here we used the RVM to quantify the occurrence of and evaluate the ability of clinical factors to predict respiratory depression in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RVM generated respiratory data were collected from spontaneously breathing patients following intraperitoneal surgeries under general anesthesia admitted to the PACU. Respiratory depression was defined as low minute ventilation episode (LMVe, respiratory rate (respiratory rate was a poor predictor of LMVe (sensitivity = 11.8%). Other clinical variables (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) were not found to be predictors of LMVe. Using RVM we identified that mild, clinically nondetectable, respiratory depression prior to opioid administration in the PACU was associated with the development of substantial subsequent respiratory depression during the PACU stay.

  9. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  10. Acute responses of circulating microRNAs to low-volume sprint interval cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Fang eCui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-volume high-intensity interval training is an efficient and practical method of inducing physiological responses in various tissues to develop physical fitness and may also change the expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether miRNAs for muscle, heart, somatic tissue and metabolism were affected by 30-s intervals of intensive sprint cycling. We also examined the relationship of these miRNAs to conventional biochemical and performance indices. Eighteen healthy young males performed sprint interval cycling. Circulating miRNAs in plasma were detected using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR and normalized to Let-7d/g/i. In addition, we determined the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, testosterone and cortisol, and anaerobic capacity. Compared to plasma levels before exercise muscle-specific miR-1 (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.09 ± 0.02, miR-133a (0.46 ± 0.10 vs. 0.31 ± 0.06 and miR-133b (0.19 ± 0.02 vs. 0.10 ± 0.01 decreased (all P < 0.05, while miR-206 and miR-499 remained unchanged. The levels of metabolism related miR-122 (0.62 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.03 and somatic tissues related miR-16 (1.74 ± 0.27 vs. 0.94 ± 0.12 also decreased (both P < 0.05. The post-exercise IGF-1 and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased, while testosterone concentrations did not. Plasma levels of miR-133b correlated to peak power (r = 0.712, P = 0.001 and miR-122 correlated to peak power ratio (r = 0.665, P = 0.003. In conclusion sprint exercise provokes genetic changes for RNA related to specific muscle or metabolism related miRNAs suggesting that miR-133b and miR-122 may be potential useful biomarkers for actual physiological strain or anaerobic capacity. Together, our findings on the circulating miRNAs may provide new insight into the physiological responses that are being performed during exercise and delineate mechanisms by which exercise confers distinct phenotypes and improves performance.

  11. Effects of tidal volume and methacholine on low-frequency total respiratory impedance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchen, K R; Jackson, A C

    1990-05-01

    The frequency dependence of respiratory impedance (Zrs) from 0.125 to 4 Hz (Hantos et al., J. Appl. Physiol. 60: 123-132, 1986) may reflect inhomogeneous parallel time constants or the inherent viscoelastic properties of the respiratory tissues. However, studies on the lung alone or chest wall alone indicate that their impedance features are also dependent on the tidal volumes (VT) of the forced oscillations. The goals of this study were 1) to identify how total Zrs at lower frequencies measured with random noise (RN) compared with that measure with larger VT, 2) to identify how Zrs measured with RN is affected by bronchoconstriction, and 3) to identify the impact of using linear models for analyzing such data. We measured Zrs in six healthy dogs by use of a RN technique from 0.125 to 4 Hz or with a ventilator from 0.125 to 0.75 Hz with VT from 50 to 250 ml. Then methacholine was administered and the RN was repeated. Two linear models were fit to each separate set of data. Both models assume uniform airways leading to viscoelastic tissues. For healthy dogs, the respiratory resistance (Rrs) decreased with frequency, with most of the decrease occurring from 0.125 to 0.375 Hz. Significant VT dependence of Rrs was seen only at these lower frequencies, with Rrs higher as VT decreased. The respiratory compliance (Crs) was dependent on VT in a similar fashion at all frequencies, with Crs decreasing as VT decreased. Both linear models fit the data well at all VT, but the viscoelastic parameters of each model were very sensitive to VT. After methacholine, the minimum Rrs increased as did the total drop with frequency. Nevertheless the same models fit the data well, and both the airways and tissue parameters were altered after methacholine. We conclude that inferences based only on low-frequency Zrs data are problematic because of the effects of VT on such data (and subsequent linear modeling of it) and the apparent inability of such data to differentiate parallel

  12. High frequency oscillatory ventilation with lung volume optimization in very low birth weight newborns – a nine-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of very low birth weight newborns, submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with a strategy of early lung volume optimization. Methods: Descriptive prospective study in a nine-year period, between 1999 January 1st to 2008 January 1st. All the very low birth weight newborns were born in Dr. Alfredo da Costa Maternity, Lisbon, Portugal, were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization; these newborns were followed-up since birth and their charts were analyzed periodically until hospital discharge. Rresults: From a total population of 730 very low birth weight inborns, 117 babies died (16% and 613 survived (84%. The median of birth weight was 975 g and the gestational age median was 28 weeks. For the survivors, the median ventilation and oxygenation times were 3 and 18 days, respectively. The incidence of chronic lung disease was 9.5%, with nine newborns discharged on oxygen therapy. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage III – IV (total population group was 11.5% and the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity grade 3 or higher was 8.0%. Cconclusions: High frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization strategy reduced the need of respiratory support, and improved pulmonary and global outcomes in very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE's obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option

  15. Road icing forecasting and detecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongke; Zheng, Jinnan; Li, Peiqi; Wang, Qiucai

    2017-05-01

    Regard for the facts that the low accuracy and low real-time of the artificial observation to determine the road icing condition, and it is difficult to forecast icing situation, according to the main factors influencing the road-icing, and the electrical characteristics reflected by the pavement ice layer, this paper presents an innovative system, that is, ice-forecasting of the highway's dangerous section. The system bases on road surface water salinity measurements and pavement temperature measurement to calculate the freezing point of water and temperature change trend, and then predicts the occurrence time of road icing; using capacitance measurements to verdict the road surface is frozen or not; This paper expounds the method of using single chip microcomputer as the core of the control system and described the business process of the system.

  16. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd; Schwenke, Carsten; Huppertz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m 2 ) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G 30 , 30 mL; G 40 , 40 mL; G 50 , 50 mL; G 60 , 60 mL; G 70 , 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G 30 to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G 70 . Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P 30 , G 40 , G 50 , G 60 and G 70 were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  18. Low-volume resuscitation using polyethylene glycol-20k in a preclinical porcine model of hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Valerie; Limkemann, Ashley; Liebrecht, Loren; Blocher, Charles; Ferrada, Paula; Aboutanos, Michel; Mangino, Martin J

    2016-12-01

    Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k) is highly effective for low-volume resuscitation (LVR) by increasing tolerance to the low-volume state. In our rodent shock model, PEG-20k increased survival and expanded the "golden hour" 16-fold compared to saline. The molecular mechanism is largely attributed to normalizations in cell and tissue fluid shifts after low-flow ischemia resulting in efficient microvascular exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate PEG-20k as an LVR solution for hemorrhagic shock in a preclinical model. Anesthetized male Yorkshire pigs (30-40 kg) were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 to 40 mm Hg. Once lactate reached 7 mmol/L, either saline (n = 5) or 10% PEG-20k (n = 5) was rapidly infused at 10% calculated blood volume. The primary outcome was LVR time, defined by the time from LVR administration to the time when lactate again reached 7 mmol/L. Other outcomes measured included MAP, heart rate, cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, splanchnic blood flow, and hemoglobin. Relative to saline, PEG-20k given after controlled hemorrhage increased LVR time by 16-fold, a conservative estimate given that the lactate never rose after LVR in the PEG-20k group. Survival was 80% for PEG-20k LVR compared to 0% for the saline controls (p the intravascular compartment. In a preclinical model of controlled hemorrhagic shock, PEG-20k-based LVR solution increased tolerance to the shock state 16-fold compared to saline. Polyethylene glycol-20k is a superior crystalloid for LVR that may increase safe transport times in the prehospital setting and find use in hospital emergency departments and operating rooms for patients awaiting volume replacement or normalization of cell, tissue, and compartment fluid volumes.

  19. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  20. The impact of road improvements on road safety and related characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Francis John Gichaga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the historical and cultural background relating to road improvement and road safety characteristics in Kenya, a developing country in East Africa. Some who come from low-developed areas of developing countries often take time to comprehend the modern transportation infrastructure, especially roads, and have difficulty assimilating and customizing the same to their culturally tailored modes. This paper discusses two case studies: one on the socio-economic impact followin...

  1. Road and Street Centerlines, Average Freeway/Arterial/Low Speed Arterial Travel Speeds - Spring and Fall 2010 Data collected during PM Peak period (4:30 - 6:30pm) and AM Peak Period (7 - 9am) on selected roadways - GPS travel speeds at 1,000 ft interval, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Baltimore Metropolitan Council.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 2010. Average Freeway/Arterial/Low Speed Arterial Travel Speeds - Spring and Fall 2010 Data collected during PM...

  2. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  3. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  4. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  5. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  6. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  7. Effect of low dose of Vitex agnus castus on volume and surface area of oocyte in mice

    OpenAIRE

    HAMIDIAN, Gholamreza; YAHYAVI, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Vitex agnus-castus L. (VAC) is a deciduous shrub that is native to Mediterranean, Europe and Central Asia. VAC extract has been used traditionally in the treatment of menstrual disorders (amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), corpus luteum insufficiency, uterine bleeding, fibroid cysts, infertility, acne, menopause, disrupted lactation and hyperprolactinaemia. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of low dose of VAC essential oil on volume and surface area of oocyte...

  8. A novel concept for tumour targeting with radiation: Inverse dose-painting or targeting the "Low Drug Uptake Volume".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaromina, Ala; Granzier, Marlies; Biemans, Rianne; Lieuwes, Natasja; van Elmpt, Wouter; Shakirin, Georgy; Dubois, Ludwig; Lambin, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    We tested a novel treatment approach combining (1) targeting radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells with the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 and (2) inverse radiation dose-painting to boost selectively non-hypoxic tumour sub-volumes having no/low drug uptake. 18 F-HX4 hypoxia tracer uptake measured with a clinical PET/CT scanner was used as a surrogate of TH-302 activity in rhabdomyosarcomas growing in immunocompetent rats. Low or high drug uptake volume (LDUV/HDUV) was defined as 40% of the GTV with the lowest or highest 18 F-HX4 uptake, respectively. Two hours post TH-302/saline administration, animals received either single dose radiotherapy (RT) uniformly (15 or 18.5Gy) or a dose-painted non-uniform radiation (15Gy) with 50% higher dose to LDUV or HDUV (18.5Gy). Treatment plans were created using Eclipse treatment planning system and radiation was delivered using VMAT. Tumour response was quantified as time to reach 3 times starting tumour volume. Non-uniform RT boosting tumour sub-volume with low TH-302 uptake (LDUV) was superior to the same dose escalation to HDUV (pvolume with no/low activity of hypoxia-activated prodrugs. This strategy applies on average a lower radiation dose and is as effective as uniform dose escalation to the entire tumour. It could be applied to other type of drugs provided that their distribution can be imaged. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Note: Stored grain volume measurement using a low density point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mass of stored grain is often determined from volume measurements by crop insurers, government auditors, and stored grain managers conducting inventories. Recent increases in bin size have accentuated the difficulty of accounting for irregularities and variations in surface conditions in calcula...

  10. A lean production control system for high-variety/low-volume environments : a case study implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, J.; Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Germs, R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the success of lean manufacturing, many companies are interested in implementing a lean production control system. Lean production control principles include the levelling of production, the use of pull mechanisms and takt time control. These principles have mainly been applied in high volume

  11. High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography with low volumes of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembcke, Alexander; Hein, Patrick A.; Knobloch, Gesine; Durmus, Tahir; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten [SCO:SSiS - Schwenke Consulting, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); ISI - Imaging Science Institute Charite, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To assess the effect of lower volumes of contrast medium (CM) on image quality in high-pitch dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). One-hundred consecutive patients (body weight 65-85 kg, stable heart rate ≤65 bpm, cardiac index ≥2.5 L/min/m{sup 2}) referred for CTCA were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups of different CM volumes (G{sub 30}, 30 mL; G{sub 40}, 40 mL; G{sub 50}, 50 mL; G{sub 60}, 60 mL; G{sub 70}, 70 mL; flow rate 5 mL/s each, iodine content 370 mg/mL). Attenuation within the proximal and distal coronary artery segments was analysed. Mean attenuation for men and women ranged from 345.0 and 399.1 HU in G{sub 30} to 478.2 and 571.8 HU in G{sub 70}. Mean attenuation values were higher in groups with higher CM volumes (P < 0.0001) and higher in women than in men (P < 0.0001). The proportions of segments with attenuation of at least 300 HU in G{sub 30}, G{sub 40}, G{sub 50}, G{sub 60} and G{sub 70} were 89 %, 95 %, 98 %, 98 % and 99 %. CM volume of 30 mL in women and 40 mL in men proved to be sufficient to guarantee attenuation of at least 300 HU. In selected patients high-pitch dual-source CTCA can be performed with CM volumes of 40 mL in men or 30 mL in women. (orig.)

  12. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  13. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  14. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...... and actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number...

  15. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  16. Low volume, large force (>1mN) and nanometer resolution, electrostatic microactuator for low displacement applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic microactuator suitable for low displacement applications is proposed. The actuator employs a large number of basic units working in parallel together with a built-in mechanical transformation to generate large force. Influence of distinct design parameters on actuator

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  18. Determining soil erosion from roads in coastal plain of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFero Grace; W.J. Elliot

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports soil losses and observed sediment deposition for 16 randomly selected forest road sections in the National Forests of Alabama. Visible sediment deposition zones were tracked along the stormwater flow path to the most remote location as a means of quantifying soil loss from road sections. Volumes of sediment in deposition zones were determined by...

  19. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    follows: heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. These vital signs are, however, notoriously unreliable.2,3 As...additional tests using specific equipment.22 Base deficit (BD) is a rapidly and widely available serum laboratory marker of systemic acidosis that...and mortality.23,24 BD can increase, however, because of any derangement causing metabolic acidosis and is not limited to intravascular volume loss

  20. Perception of alcohol strength impaired by low and high volume distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo; Agobiani, E.; Fernandes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated impaired discrimination of alcohol strength under distracting conditions. The present study aimed to extend this by examining the effects of distraction volume on alcohol perception. In the study here (between subjects design, 34 females/20 males), participants completed standardized taste and olfactory tests, followed by a taste test of alcoholic beverages (0, 1.9, 3.9, 5.6 and 7.5pct abv) in a randomly allocated distractive or control condition [Control, Shadow ...

  1. Development of volume reduction treatment techniques for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Yasuzi

    1984-01-01

    The solid wastes packed in drums are preserved in the stores of nuclear establishments in Japan, and the quantity of preservation has already reached about 60 % of the capacity. It has become an important subject to reduce the quantity of generation of radioactive wastes and how to reduce the volume of generated wastes. As the result of the research aiming at the development of the solidified bodies which are excellent in the effect of volume reduction and physical properties, it was confirmed that the plastic solidified bodies using thermosetting resin were superior to conventional cement or asphalt solidification. The plastic solidifying system can treat various radioactive wastes. After radioactive wastes are dried and powdered, they are solidified with plastics, therefore, the effect of volume reduction is excellent. The specific gravity, strength and the resistance to water, fire and radiation were confirmed to be satisfacotory. The plastic solidifying system comprises three subsystems, that is, drying system, powder storing and supplying system and plastic solidifying system. Also the granulation technique after drying and powdering, acid decomposition technique, the microwave melting and solidifying technique for incineration ash, plasma melting process and electrolytic polishing decontamination are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Low cost sensing of vegetation volume and structure with a Microsoft Kinect sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, G.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    The market for videogames and digital entertainment has decreased the cost of advanced technology to affordable levels. The Microsoft Kinect sensor for Xbox 360 is an infrared time of flight camera designed to track body position and movement at a single-articulation level. Using open source drivers and libraries, we acquired point clouds of vegetation directly from the Kinect sensor. The data were filtered for outliers, co-registered, and cropped to isolate the plant of interest from the surroundings and soil. The volume of single plants was then estimated with several techniques, including fitting with solid shapes (cylinders, spheres, boxes), voxel counts, and 3D convex/concave hulls. Preliminary results are presented here. The volume of a series of wild artichoke plants was measured from nadir using a Kinect on a 3m-tall tower. The calculated volumes were compared with harvested biomass; comparisons and derived allometric relations will be presented, along with examples of the acquired point clouds. This Kinect sensor shows promise for ground-based, automated, biomass measurement systems, and possibly for comparison/validation of remotely sensed LIDAR.

  3. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  4. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trina Rytwinski

    Full Text Available Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill. For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we

  5. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  6. A combined volume-of-fluid method and low-Mach-number approach for DNS of evaporating droplets in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino

    2017-11-01

    Our objective is to perform DNS of finite-size droplets that are evaporating in isotropic turbulence. This requires fully resolving the process of momentum, heat, and mass transfer between the droplets and surrounding gas. We developed a combined volume-of-fluid (VOF) method and low-Mach-number approach to simulate this flow. The two main novelties of the method are: (i) the VOF algorithm captures the motion of the liquid gas interface in the presence of mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation without requiring a projection step for the liquid velocity, and (ii) the low-Mach-number approach allows for local volume changes caused by phase change while the total volume of the liquid-gas system is constant. The method is verified against an analytical solution for a Stefan flow problem, and the D2 law is verified for a single droplet in quiescent gas. We also demonstrate the schemes robustness when performing DNS of an evaporating droplet in forced isotropic turbulence.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment

  9. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratipal; Jain, Paresh; Dharaskar, Anand; Mandhani, Anil; Dubey, Deepak; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patients were followed up clinically and with diuretic renogram at regular intervals. Results: Mean age, renal pelvic volume and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 25 years, 43.6 ml and 42.5 ml/min, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 21 years, 34.4 ml and 39.9 ml/min, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Mean operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement and mean hospital stay was 100min, 250 mg and 4 days, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 210 min, 300 mg and 4 days, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Only operative time was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05). Mean follow-up was 36 and 39 months and success rates were 91.2% and 88.8% in laparoscopy and endopyelotomy group, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant complication was seen in endopyelotomy group while two patients had hematuria (one requiring blood transfusion) and three had increased drain output for more than 3 days in laparoscopy group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endopyelotomy is associated with significantly less operative time and postoperative complication rate and provides equivalent success in comparison to nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with UPJO and low volume pelvis. It can be a preferred minimally invasive treatment modality for such patients. PMID:19468432

  10. Minimal invasive treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in low volume pelvis: A comparative study of endopyelotomy and laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratipal Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty and percutaneous endopyelotomy for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO with low volume renal pelvis. Material and Methods: Retrospective acquired data of 34 patients of laparoscopic nondismembered pyeloplasty was compared with 26 patients of UPJO with pelvic volume less than 50 ml undergoing antegrade endopyelotomy and analyzed for clinical parameters, operative outcomes and success of procedures. All patients were followed up clinically and with diuretic renogram at regular intervals. Results: Mean age, renal pelvic volume and preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR was 25 years, 43.6 ml and 42.5 ml/min, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 21 years, 34.4 ml and 39.9 ml/min, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Mean operative time, postoperative analgesic requirement and mean hospital stay was 100min, 250 mg and 4 days, respectively in endopyelotomy group and 210 min, 300 mg and 4 days, respectively in laparoscopic pyeloplasty group. Only operative time was significantly different between two groups (P < 0.05. Mean follow-up was 36 and 39 months and success rates were 91.2% and 88.8% in laparoscopy and endopyelotomy group, respectively (P < 0.05. No significant complication was seen in endopyelotomy group while two patients had hematuria (one requiring blood transfusion and three had increased drain output for more than 3 days in laparoscopy group. Conclusion: Percutaneous endopyelotomy is associated with significantly less operative time and postoperative complication rate and provides equivalent success in comparison to nondismembered laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with UPJO and low volume pelvis. It can be a preferred minimally invasive treatment modality for such patients.

  11. Effect of dexamethasone in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blinded randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Alarasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: With the use of ultrasound, a minimal effective volume of 20 ml has been described for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. However achieving a long duration of analgesia with this minimal volume remains a challenge. We aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of analgesia in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Material and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group C received saline (2 ml + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and Group D received dexamethasone (8 mg + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Hemodynamic variables and visual analog scale (VAS score were noted at regular intervals until 450 min. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were measured. The incidence of "Halo" around brachial plexus was observed. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly earlier in dexamethasone group (10.36 ± 1.99 and 12 ± 1.64 minutes compared to control group (12.9 ± 2.23 and 18.03 ± 2.41 minutes. The duration of sensory and motor block was significantly prolonged in dexamethasone group (366 ± 28.11 and 337.33 ± 28.75 minutes compared to control group (242.66 ± 26.38 and 213 ± 26.80 minutes. The VAS score was significantly lower in dexamethasone group after 210 min. "Halo" was present around the brachial plexus in all patients in both the groups. Conclusion: Dexamethasone addition significantly increases the duration of analgesia in patients receiving low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. No significant side-effects were seen in patients receiving dexamethasone as an adjunct.

  12. Method for volume reduction and encapsulation of water-bearing, low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to the processing of water-bearing wastes, especially those containing radioactive materials from nuclear power plants like light-water moderated and cooled reactors. The invention provides a method to reduce the volume of wastes like contaminated coolants and to dispose them safely. According to the invention, azeotropic drying is applied to remove the water. Distilation temperatures are chosen to be lower than the lowest boiling point of the mixture components. In the preferred version, a polymerizing monomer is used to obtain the azeotropic mixture. In doing so, encapsulation is possible by combination with a co-reactive polymer that envelopes the waste material. (G.J.P.)

  13. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  14. Intraoperative and postoperative evaluation of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative condition of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation in laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients. Methods: A total of 176 cases of elderly patients (more than 60 years old receiving laparoscopic surgery in our hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, each group included 88 cases, control group received conventional ventilation strategy, observation group received low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation strategy, and then levels of hemodynamic indexes, respiratory mechanical indexes, serology indexes and cerebral vessel related indexes, etc of two groups were compared. Results: Intraoperative and postoperative heart rate and mean arterial pressure levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and oxygenation index levels were higher than those of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative APIP and Pplat values of observation group were lower than those of control group, Cs value was higher than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative and postoperative serum IL-8 and TNF-α levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, IL-10 level was higher than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05; intraoperative and postoperative PjvO2, SjvO2 and CjvO2 levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, Da-jvO2 level was lower than that of control group and differences had statistical significance (P<0.05. Conclusions: When elderly patients receive laparoscopic surgery, the use of low tidal volume combined with low-level positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation strategy can stabilize hemodynamic

  15. A Small-Volume, Low-Cost, and Versatile Continuous Culture Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick Matteau

    Full Text Available Continuous culture devices can be used for various purposes such as establishing reproducible growth conditions or maintaining cell populations under a constant environment for long periods. However, commercially available instruments are expensive, were not designed to handle small volumes in the milliliter range, and can lack the flexibility required for the diverse experimental needs found in several laboratories.We developed a versatile continuous culture system and provide detailed instructions as well as a graphical user interface software for potential users to assemble and operate their own instrument. Three culture chambers can be controlled simultaneously with the proposed configuration, and all components are readily available from various sources. We demonstrate that our continuous culture device can be used under different modes, and can easily be programmed to behave either as a turbidostat or chemostat. Addition of fresh medium to the culture vessel can be controlled by a real-time feedback loop or simply calibrated to deliver a defined volume. Furthermore, the selected light-emitting diode and photodetector enable the use of phenol red as a pH indicator, which can be used to indirectly monitor the bulk metabolic activity of a cell population rather than the turbidity.This affordable and customizable system will constitute a useful tool in many areas of biology such as microbial ecology as well as systems and synthetic biology.

  16. Development and Application of a Low-Volume Flow System for Solution-State in Vivo NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Anaraki, Maryam; Dutta Majumdar, Rudraksha; Wagner, Nicole; Soong, Ronald; Kovacevic, Vera; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Ortiz Almirall, Xavier; Lane, Daniel; Simpson, Myrna J; Heumann, Hermann; Schmidt, Sebastian; Simpson, André J

    2018-06-18

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a particularly powerful technique, since it allows samples to be analyzed in their natural, unaltered state, criteria paramount for living organisms. In this study, a novel continuous low-volume flow system, suitable for in vivo NMR metabolomics studies, is demonstrated. The system allows improved locking, shimming, and water suppression, as well as allowing the use of trace amounts of expensive toxic contaminants or low volumes of precious natural environmental samples as stressors. The use of a double pump design with a sump slurry pump return allows algal food suspensions to be continually supplied without the need for filters, eliminating the possibility of clogging and leaks. Using the flow system, the living organism can be kept alive without stress indefinitely. To evaluate the feasibility and applicability of the flow system, changes in the metabolite profile of 13 C enriched Daphnia magna over a 24-h period are compared when feeding laboratory food vs exposing them to a natural algal bloom sample. Clear metabolic changes are observed over a range of metabolites including carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and a nucleotide demonstrating in vivo NMR as a powerful tool to monitor environmental stress. The particular bloom used here was low in microcystins, and the metabolic stress impacts are consistent with the bloom being a poor food source forcing the Daphnia to utilize their own energy reserves.

  17. Modulating ventilation - low cost VAV for office buildings. [Variable Air Volume]; Modulerende ventilation - low cost VAV til kontor-bygninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoej Christensen, A.; Olsen, Hans; Drivsholm, C.

    2012-02-15

    The report describes a concept for renovating older existing Constant Air Volume (CAV) ventilation systems to modulating low-cost Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems. The concept is based on the total ventilated area being divided into appropriate indoor climate zones, which can cover from one to several offices with similar climate needs. For this initial climate assessment two relatively ''simple'' tools were developed that can estimate the temperature level in one room from the ventilation airflow, heat loads, etc.: - BSimFast (24-hour mean temperature calculation according to SBI-196, 2000); - BSimLight (Temperature simulation based on Danvak Textbook of Heat and Climate Technology). The concept of 'one room' can also be extended to 'one zone' with appropriate assumptions. However, only one mean room temperature is calculated. The different climate zones were equipped with Halton HFB control unit at the air supply and exhaust side. The project the following feedback options were used: - HFB unit's damper opening degree (0 to 90 degrees); - HFB unit's current flow; - HFB unit's exhaust temperature; and feedback from: - Frequency transformer (fan speed); - The central static duct pressure at the ventilation unit. In the project a control algorithm is developed that ensures a robust control of the entire ventilation system without adverse cyclic variations, based among other things on the exhaust temperature for each climate zone, and with the requirement that at least one throttle valve is always at least 80% open. It turned out that information on the current partial air volumes was necessary in addition to the individual throttle settings. Otherwise, a cyclic variations could not be controlled..Thus, it was the exhaust temperature from individual climate zones that defined the respective volumes of air. The concept was implemented on a complete CAV system and on part of a large CAV system, respectively. (LN)

  18. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  19. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  20. EVALUATION OF ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR OPERATION AT LOW TO MODERATE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A test program was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency Incineration Research Facility to study the effectiveness of incineration at low-to-moderate temperatures in decontaminating soils containing organic compounds with different volatilities (boiling points). The da...

  1. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  2. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  3. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  4. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  5. Stereological estimation of ovarian volume and number of follicles in low dose of Vitex agnus castus treated mice

    OpenAIRE

    HAMIDIAN, Gholamreza; YAHYAVI, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus (VAC) has been proven to have a wide range of biological activities. It is commonly used in the treatment of menstrual disorders resulting from corpus luteum deficiency, including premenstrual symptoms and spasmodic dysmenorrheal, for certain menopausal conditions, and for insufficient lactation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low dose of VAC essential oil on ovarian volume and oocyte number in mice by stereological technique. In this study 10 young...

  6. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of a water-jet for low volume harvesting of fat tissue for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobek Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements of a water-jet for water-assisted liposuction (WAL are carried out to investigate the distribution of velocity and therefore momentum and acting force on the human sub-cutaneous fat tissue. These results shall validate CFD simulations and force sensor measurements of the water-jet and support the development of a new WAL device that is able to harvest low volumes of fat tissue for regenerative medicine even gentler than regular WAL devices.

  7. On the problem of low-temperature air adsorption studies by the volume method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur'yanov, V.V.; Gashin, V.M.; Shcherbakov, V.P.; Misin, M.S.; Sizova, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of a porous structure and the adsorption of a series of carbon adsorbents at 77 K were studied. It was shown that isotherms may be constructed within the framework of the theory of volume filling only for a degree of filling of theta>20.5. Deviations from theoretical curves are observed with practically no accumulation in the high-vacuum equipment of carbon-adsorbed helium, hydrogen, and neon. Therefore the initial parts of the air-adsorption isotherm at 77 K may not be used for characterizing the adsorption properties and parameters of the porous structure of a microporous adsorbent. The effect of adsorbent microporosity on the adsorption isotherm begins to appear only when the pressure of the poorly sorbed components of the air is less than the total pressure of the nitrogen and oxygen

  8. A New Technique in saving Fingerprint with low volume by using Chaos Game and Fractal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashourzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the simplest and most reliable biometric features of human for identification. In this study by using fractal theory and by the assistance of Chaos Game a new fractal is made from fingerprint. While making the new fractal by using Chaos Game mechanism some parameters, which can be used in identification process, can be deciphered. For this purpose, a fractal is made for each fingerprint, we save 10 parameters for every fingerprint, which have necessary information for identity, as said before. So we save 10 decimal parameters with 0.02 accuracy instead of saving the picture of a fingerprint or some parts of it. Now we improve the great volume of fingerprint pictures by using this model which employs fractal for knowing the personality

  9. Is it possible to predict low-volume and insignificant prostate cancer by core needle biopsies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Toft, Birgitte Grønkaer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2013-01-01

    M: tumour ≤5% of total prostate volume and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤10 ng/mL. In all definitions, Gleason score (GS) was ≤6 and the tumour was organ confined. Biopsies alone performed poorly as a predictor of unifocal and unilateral cancer in the prostatectomy specimens with positive predictive......In an attempt to minimize overtreatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa) active surveillance (AS) and minor invasive procedures have received increased attention. We investigated the accuracy of pre-operative findings in defining insignificant disease and distinguishing between unilateral.......9% and 12.0%, respectively, for identifying InsigM, InsigW and InsigE in the prostate specimen. Conclusively, routine prostate biopsies cannot predict unifocal and unilateral PCa, and must be regarded insufficient to select patients for focal therapy. Although candidates for AS may be identified using...

  10. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  11. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  12. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…

  13. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume I: The View from the Farm--Special Problems of Minority and Low-Income Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    This is the first of two volumes of papers examining the impact of national agricultural policy on the rural poor. The seven articles in this volume offer personal accounts of minority and low-income farmers struggling to gain a foothold in American agriculture. "'It's Too Late for Our Family,'" by Marian Lenzen, describes a family's…

  14. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  15. Common Graphics Library (CGL). Volume 2: Low-level user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nancy L.; Hammond, Dana P.; Theophilos, Pauline M.

    1989-01-01

    The intent is to instruct the users of the Low-Level routines of the Common Graphics Library (CGL). The Low-Level routines form an application-independent graphics package enabling the user community to construct and design scientific charts conforming to the publication and/or viewgraph process. The Low-Level routines allow the user to design unique or unusual report-quality charts from a set of graphics utilities. The features of these routines can be used stand-alone or in conjunction with other packages to enhance or augment their capabilities. This library is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77, and currently uses a CORE-based underlying graphics package, and is therefore machine-independent, providing support for centralized and/or distributed computer systems.

  16. Volume reduction of low- and medium-level waste by incineration/calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear installations generate large quantities of low- and medium-level radwaste. This waste comes from various installations in the fuel cycle, reactor operation, research institute, hospitals, nuclear plate dismantling, etc.. TECHNICATOME did the project development work for the incineration plant of PIERRELATE (France) on behalf of COGEMA (Compagnie Generale des d'Etudes Technique). This plant has been in active service since November 1987. In addition, TECHNICATOME was in charge of the incinerator by a turnkey contract. This incinerator was commissioned in 1992. For a number of years, TECHNICATOME has been examining, developing and producing incineration and drying/calcination installations. They are used for precessing low- and medium-level radwaste

  17. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 7: Appendices K--P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  18. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 3: Main report -- Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information.

  19. Critical Void Volume Fraction fc at Void Coalescence for S235JR Steel at Low Initial Stress Triaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorz Kossakowski, Paweł; Wciślik, Wiktor

    2017-10-01

    The paper is concerned with the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microdefects in the form of voids in S235JR steel. The material is known to be one of the basic steel grades commonly used in the construction industry. The theory and methods of damage mechanics were applied to determine and describe the failure mechanisms that occur when the material undergoes deformation. Until now, engineers have generally employed the Gurson-Tvergaard- Needleman model. This material model based on damage mechanics is well suited to define and analyze failure processes taking place in the microstructure of S235JR steel. It is particularly important to determine the critical void volume fraction fc , which is one of the basic parameters of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman material model. As the critical void volume fraction fc refers to the failure stage, it is determined from the data collected for the void coalescence phase. A case of multi-axial stresses is considered taking into account the effects of spatial stress state. In this study, the parameter of stress triaxiality η was used to describe the failure phenomena. Cylindrical tensile specimens with a circumferential notch were analysed to obtain low values of initial stress triaxiality (η = 0.556 of the range) in order to determine the critical void volume fraction fc . It is essential to emphasize how unique the method applied is and how different it is from the other more common methods involving parameter calibration, i.e. curve-fitting methods. The critical void volume fraction fc at void coalescence was established through digital image analysis of surfaces of S235JR steel, which involved studying real, physical results obtained directly from the material tested.

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    -related quality of life in lower New York Heart Association-stage HF patients, despite less time required as well as lower energy expenditure during TRE than during AMC. Therefore, TRE might represent a time-efficient exercise modality for improving adherence to exercise in patients with class I-II HF.......PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling...... (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function. METHODS: Twenty-eight HF patients (New York Heart Association class I-II) performed AMC (n = 14) or TRE (n = 14). Maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life...

  1. Volume reduction and encapsulation process for water containing low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.P.; Fox, D.W.; Weech, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    In encapsulating solutions or slurries of radio-active waste within polymeric material for disposal, the water is removed therefrom by adding a water insoluble liquid forming a low boiling azeotrope and evaporating the azeotrope, and then a polymerisable composition is dispersed throughout the dewatered waste and allowed to set. (author)

  2. On the representative volume element of asphalt concrete at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasteanu, Mihai; Cannone Falchetto, Augusto; Velasquez, Raul; Le, Jia-Liang

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of characterizing asphalt mixtures' rheological and failure properties at low temperatures by means of the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) is investigated in this paper. The main issue is the use of thin beams of asphalt mixture in experimental procedures that may not capture the true behavior of the material used to construct an asphalt pavement.

  3. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmly, Lloyd M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m{sup 2} vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m{sup 2}, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  4. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmly, Lloyd M.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R.; Mangold, Stefanie; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m 2 vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m 2 , P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  5. Low volume tubes are not effective to reduce the rate of hemolyzed specimens from the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Bonelli, Patrizia; Graiani, Virna; Caleffi, Catia; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-02-01

    Spurious hemolysis is the leading source of nonconformities that can be recorded in diagnostic samples, especially those collected in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to assess whether the shift from regular to low volume blood collection tubes may reduce the rate of hemolysis in a large urban ED, where approximately 80% of blood collections are performed through catheters. In a former 5-month period, blood collection in the ED was performed using 5.0mL (13×100mm) plastic serum tubes, which were then completely replaced with 3.5mL (13×75mm) plastic serum tubes for another period of 5months. The rate of hemolyzed specimens (i.e., those containing a cell-free hemoglobin ≥0.5gL) collected in the two periods was compared by Fisher exact test. The rate of hemolyzed specimens received from the ED increased from 3.5% using 5.0mL plastic serum tubes to 5.2% after introduction of 3.5mL plastic serum tubes (p<0.001). The use of low volume tubes was not effective to decrease the hemolysis rate in a large urban ED. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  8. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  9. LLW (Low-Level Waste) Notes, Volume 13, Number 1, February 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    LLW Notes is a newsletter distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties. This issue focuses on the following topics: DOI approves Ward Valley permit application; Project evidentiary hearings begin in Texas; and Summary judgment motions in California breach of contract action

  10. LLW (Low-Level Waste) Notes, Volume 13, Number 1, February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    LLW Notes is a newsletter distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties. This issue focuses on the following topics: DOI approves Ward Valley permit application; Project evidentiary hearings begin in Texas; and Summary judgment motions in California breach of contract action.

  11. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  12. Dual-energy MDCT: Comparison of pulmonary artery enhancement on dedicated CT pulmonary angiography, routine and low contrast volume studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Myrna C.B., E-mail: migbarco@gmail.com [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Heller, Samantha L.; Naidich, David P.; Assadourian, Bernard [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Leidecker, Christianne [Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA (United States); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim (Germany); Vlahos, Ioannis [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); St. George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was (a) to compare arterial enhancement in simultaneously acquired high- and low-kilovoltage images; and (b) to determine whether low tube-voltage imaging would permit PE evaluation on routine chest CT studies or CTPA studies performed with a low volume of contrast media. Materials and methods: We compared 20 CTPA studies (CTPA group), 20 routine thoracic CT studies (RT group) and 10 CTPA studies performed with reduced volume of contrast media (RC group). HU values were measured in all groups at 80 kVp and 140 kVp images in multiple pulmonary arterial segments bilaterally. The diagnostic quality of the central and peripheral vascular enhancement and the image noise were evaluated at both energies using a five-point scale. Results: For all patients, the mean CT attenuation values were greater at 80 kVp than 140 kVp images (p < 0.001). At 80 kVp, CTPA group attenuation values were greater than RT group (p = 0.03) with a similar trend at 140 kVp (p = 0.08). At both 140 kVp and 80 kVp, CTPA group attenuation values were greater than RC group (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Qualitative analysis showed that at 140 kVp CTPA studies had better global image quality scores than RT (p = 0.003) and RC (p = 0.001) groups. However, at 80 kVp, there was no significant difference of global image quality between CTPA and the other groups (p = 0.4 and p = 0.5, respectively). Although measurable image noise was greater at 80 kVp than 140 kVp (p < 0.001), qualitative analysis revealed lower image noise at 80 kVp images. Conclusion: DECT at 80 kVp increases arterial enhancement in both CTPA and routine studies. For routine studies this results in central and peripheral enhancement quality equivalent to that of CTPA studies. Low tube-voltage imaging allows marked contrast volume reduction for CTPA. In selected cases, satisfactory lower radiation dose CT might be achievable using lower kVp imaging alone.

  13. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 4. Mission application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Results of initial efforts to investigate application of selenide thermoelectric RTG's to specific missions as well as an indication of development requirements to enable satisfaction of emerging RTG performance criteria are presented. Potential mission applications in DoD such as SURVSATCOM, Advance Defense Support Program, Laser Communication Satellite, Satellite Data System, Global Positioning Satellite, Deep Space Surveillance Satellite, and Unmanned Free Swimming Submersible illustrate power requirements in the range of 500 to 1000 W. In contrast, the NASA applications require lower power ranging from 50 W for outer planetary atmospheric probes to about 200 W for spacecraft flights to Jupiter and other outer planets. The launch dates for most of these prospective missions is circa 1980, a requirement roughly compatible with selenide thermoelectric and heat source technology development. A discussion of safety criteria is included to give emphasis to the requirements for heat source design. In addition, the observation is made that the potential accident environments of all launch vehicles are similar so that a reasonable composite set of design specifications may be derived to satisfy almost all applications. Details of the LCHPG application potential is afforded by three designs: an 80 W RTG using improved selenide thermoelectric material, a 55 to 65 W LCHPG using current and improved selenide materials, and the final 500 W LCHPG as reported in Volume 2. The final results of the LCHPG design study have shown that in general, all missions can expect an LCHPG design which yields 10 percent efficiency at 3 W/lb with the current standard selenide thermoelectric materials, with growth potential to 14 percent at greater than 4 W/lb in the mid 1980's time frame

  14. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  15. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  16. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site

  17. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  18. Effect of interfractional shoulder motion on low neck nodal targets for patients treated using volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of interfractional shoulder motion on targets in the low neck for head and neck patients treated with volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT.Methods: Three patients with head and neck cancer were selected. All three required treatment to nodal regions in the low neck in addition to the primary tumor site. The patients were immobilized during simulation and treatment with a custom thermoplastic mask covering the head and shoulders. One VMAT plan was created for each patient utilizing two full 360° arcs and a second plan was created consisting of two superior VMAT arcs matched to an inferior static AP supraclavicular field. A CT-on-rails alignment verification was performed weekly during each patient’s treatment course. The weekly CT images were registered to the simulation CT and the target contours were deformed and applied to the weekly CT. The two VMAT plans were copied to the weekly CT datasets and recalculated to obtain the dose to the deformed low neck contours.Results: The average observed shoulder position shift in any single dimension relative to simulation was 2.5 mm. The maximum shoulder shift observed in a single dimension was 25.7 mm. Low neck target mean doses, normalized to simulation and averaged across all weekly recalculations were 0.996, 0.991, and 1.033 (Full VMAT plan and 0.986, 0.995, and 0.990 (Half-Beam VMAT plan for the three patients, respectively. The maximum observed deviation in target mean dose for any individual weekly recalculation was 6.5%, occurring with the Full VMAT plan for Patient 3.Conclusion: Interfractional variation in dose to low neck nodal regions was quantified for three head and neck patients treated with VMAT. Mean dose was 3.3% higher than planned for one patient using a Full VMAT plan. A Half-Beam technique is likely a safer choice when treating the supraclavicular region with VMAT.-------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Casey K

  19. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  20. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...... of continued conservation rather than road development....

  1. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  2. ERGONOMICS AND ROAD SAFETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are

  3. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  4. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  5. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  6. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    vehicles enable more renewable electricity to be integrated onto the electricity grid. This is particularly evident in 2050, since the price of fossil fuels increases while the price of renewable electricity and batteries decreases. Finally, the electric road scenarios can facilitate more reductions......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  7. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Investigation of high-current low pressure quasistationary volume discharge in cross-field ExH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashutin, O.A.; Vovchenko, E.D.; Kirnev, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Different types of high current discharge permitted to create large volume of high density homogeneous plasma are widely used in modern technique. Such discharges are applied as plasma emitters of charged particles and also in various technologies for sputtering, implantation and etching of materials. The results of a plasma electron density dynamics investigation of low pressure quasistationary volume discharge in cross-field E x H is described in this paper. The discharge was created in a quadrupole magnetic system with special form electrodes and has following characteristics current up to 1,8 kA, voltage on the interval 80-120 V, existence time up to 1,5 ms. The discharge conserves diffusive character of plasma and cathode layer on all current range. On a first research stage plasma parameters of discharge were determined by means of Langmuir probe, that could been used in central discharge region only, where magnetic field was equal to zero. An obtained plasma density was reached 1,5*10 15 cm -3 with electron temperature T e =10 eV. The research of discharge plasma in regions with magnetic field had required to use interferometric measurement technique

  9. WasteChem Corporation's Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system for low-level radwaste treatment: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Since 1965, low and medium level radwastes from nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants and nuclear research centers have been stabilized using the Volume Reduction and Solidification (VRS) system. The VRS system uses an extruder/evaporator to evaporate the liquids from waste influents, while simultaneously incorporating the remaining radioactive solids in an asphalt binder. In the period 1965 to 1986 a minimum of 700,000 cubic feet of wastes have been processed with the VRS system. This report provides current operating data from various systems including the volume reduction factors achieved, and the progress of start-ups in the US. The report also provides previously unpublished experience with mixed wastes including uranium raffinate and nitrate-bearing sludges from surface impoundments. VRS systems in the US are currently operating at the Palisades and Hope Creek nuclear stations. These systems produce a variety of waste types including boric acid, bead resin, sodium sulfate and powdered resins. There are three start-ups of VRS systems scheduled in the US in 1987. These systems are at Fermi 2, Seabrook, and Nine Mile Point 2. Overseas, the startup of new systems continues with three VRS process lines coming on-line at the LaHague Reprocessing Center in France in 1986 and a start-up scheduled for 1987 at the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The US systems are operating continuously and with little required maintenance. Data on maintenance and the operator exposure are provided in this report. 6 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  11. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  12. DESIGNING ROADS IN GRENLAND USING GIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel A.Z. Barten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing a road in the Arctic (Greenland which stretches 157 km between the towns of Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq was very challenging. Difficult climatic and geotechnical conditions and presence of permafrost required some in-depth analysis and research. Geotechnical investigations were conducted along the entire route. The investigations included field geological and geophysical studies and survey using aerial photography.Based on the investigations a digital model of the area 2 km Ѕ 170 km was prepared. Using a Novapoint software a detailed geometric model was created which allowed for calculationsof the volume of earthworks and creation of transverse and longitudinal sections of the road. A virtual model of the entire road and a movie were made based on the results of all investigations.

  13. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  14. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques

  15. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 2, Annual report for FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program is to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that will be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluating the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites are being employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results over the past year on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of the annual report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides has been developed during this study

  16. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase 1 and Phase 2. Volume 3: Systems description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. B.

    The major fraction of hydrothermal resources with the prospect of economic usefulness for the generation of electricity are in the 300(0)F to 425(0)F temperature range. Cost effective conversion of the geothermal energy to electricity requires new ideas to improve conversion efficiency, enhance brine flow, reduce plant costs, increase plant availability, and shorten the time between investment and return. The problems addressed are those inherent in the geothermal environment, in the binary fluid cycle, in the difficulty of efficiently converting the energy of a low temperature resource, and in geothermal economics some of these problems are explained. The energy expended by the down hole pump; the difficulty in designing reliable down hole equipment; fouling of heat exchanger surfaces by geothermal fluids; the unavailability of condenser cooling water at most geothermal sites; the large portion of the available energy used by the feed pump in a binary system; the pinch effect, a loss in available energy in transferring heat from water to an organic fluid; flow losses in fluids that carry only a small amount of useful energy to begin with; high heat exchanger costs, the lower the temperature interval of the cycle, the higher the heat exchanger costs in $/kW; the complexity and cost of the many auxiliary elements of proposed geothermal plants; and the unfortunate cash flow vs. investment curve caused by the many years of investment required to bring a field into production before any income is realized.

  17. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  18. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ( 63 Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of 63 Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of 63 Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain 63 Ni. The primary source of 63 Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable 62 Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. 63 Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of 63 Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq a per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). 63 Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from 235 U or 239 Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in 63 Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains ∼9% total Ni or ∼0.3% 63 Ni)

  19. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. Volume 10, Nickel-63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboneau, M.L.; Adams, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of nickel-63 ({sup 63}Ni) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 63}Ni in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 63}Ni production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 63}Ni. The primary source of {sup 63}Ni in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 62}Ni that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. {sup 63}Ni enters the environment from the dismantling activities associated with nuclear reactor decommissioning. However, small amounts of {sup 63}Ni have been detected in the environment following the testing of thermonuclear weapons in the South Pacific. Concentrations as high as 2.7 Bq{sup a} per gram of sample (or equivalently 0.0022 parts per billion) were observed on Bikini Atoll (May 1954). {sup 63}Ni was not created as a fission product species (e.g., from {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu fissions), but instead was produced as a result of neutron capture in {sup 63}Ni, a common nickel isotope present in the stainless steel components of nuclear weapons (e.g., stainless-304 contains {approximately}9% total Ni or {approximately}0.3% {sup 63}Ni).

  20. Study on air pollution monitoring in Korea using low volume air sampler by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Jong Hwa Moon, Young Ju Chung; Seung Yeon Cho; Sang Hun Kang

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this research was to enhance the use of nuclear analytical techniques for air pollution studies and to study the feasibility of the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a routine monitoring tool to reveal environmental pollution sources. For the collection of air particulate samples, the Gent stacked filter unit, low volume sampler with Nucleopore membrane filters were used. Trace elements in samples collected at two suburban residential sites, Taejon and Wonju city in the Republic of Korea, were analyzed by INAA. Variations of the elemental concentrations were measured monthly and the enrichment factors were calculated for the fine (< 2 μm EAD) and coarse size (2-10 μm EAD) fractions. The analytical data were treated statistically to estimate the relationship between the two variables, the concentrations of elements and the total suspended particulate matter. The results were used to describe the emission source and their correlation. (author)

  1. Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Setälä, Heikki; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Kotze, D Johan

    2014-12-01

    Traffic is a major source of pollutants in cities. In this well-replicated study we analysed a broad array of contaminants in snowpacks along roads of different traffic intensities. The majority of pollutants showed a similar pattern with respect to traffic intensity: pH and conductivity as well as concentrations of PAHs, total suspended solids, phosphorus and most heavy metals were higher next to high intensity roads compared to low intensity roads. These pollutant levels also decreased considerably up to 5 m distance from the roads. Furthermore, apart from nitrogen, these variables increased in concentration from control sites in urban forest patches to road bank sites next to roads of low, intermediate and high traffic intensities. The deposition pattern of various traffic-derived pollutants--whether gaseous or particle-bound--was the same. Such information can be useful for the purposes of managing pollutants in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training in a community setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, Dejan; Wittmann, Felix; Fischer, Joachim E

    2018-06-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as an effective and time-efficient exercise strategy for health promotion. However, most HIIT studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient "low-volume" HIIT is based mainly on demanding "all-out" protocols. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30 min time-effort/week), non-all-out HIIT protocols, performed 2 ×/week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre. Thirty-four sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-min HIIT (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-min HIIT (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85-95% maximal heart rate (HR max ), or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, 76 min/week) at 65-75% HR max . The exercise protocols were well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. 2 × 4-HIIT and 5 × 1-HIIT exhibited lower dropout rates (17 and 8 vs. 30%) than MICT. All training modes improved VO 2max (2 × 4-HIIT: + 20%, P HIIT: + 27%, P HIIT protocols required 60% less time commitment. Both HIIT protocols and MICT had positive impact on cholesterol profiles. Only 5 × 1-HIIT significantly improved waist circumference (P HIIT can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) HIIT that requires as little as 30 min/week, either performed as 2 × 4-HIIT or 5 × 1-HIIT, may induce significant improvements in VO 2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.

  3. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series: Volume 12, Cobalt-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological and chemical characteristics of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of {sup 60}Co in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of {sup 60}Co production, waste types, and waste forms that contain {sup 60}Co. All cobalt atoms contain 27 protons (Z = 27) and various numbers of neutrons (typically N = 27 to 37 neutrons) within the atom`s nucleus. There is only one stable isotope of cobalt, namely {sup 59}Co. All other cobalt isotopes, including {sup 60}Co, are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of cobalt have half-lives ranging from less than a second ({sup 54}Co-0.19 s) to 5.2 years ({sup 60}Co). The radioactive isotopes of cobalt are not a normal constituent of the natural environment and are generated as a result of human activities. The primary source of {sup 60}Co in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable {sup 59}Co that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. This isotope is also intentionally produced, usually in reactors but also to some degree in accelerators for industrial and medical uses, such as for radiation sources for cancer treatment and nondestructive testing of metals and welds. {sup 60}Co may enter the environment as a result of the activities associated with nuclear reactor operations and decommissioning and when industrial and medical sources are being used, manufactured, or disposed.

  5. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series: Volume 12, Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    This report outlines the basic radiological and chemical characteristics of cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) and examines how these characteristics affect the behavior of 60 Co in various environmental media, such as soils, groundwater, plants, animals, the atmosphere, and the human body. Discussions also include methods of 60 Co production, waste types, and waste forms that contain 60 Co. All cobalt atoms contain 27 protons (Z = 27) and various numbers of neutrons (typically N = 27 to 37 neutrons) within the atom's nucleus. There is only one stable isotope of cobalt, namely 59 Co. All other cobalt isotopes, including 60 Co, are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of cobalt have half-lives ranging from less than a second ( 54 Co-0.19 s) to 5.2 years ( 60 Co). The radioactive isotopes of cobalt are not a normal constituent of the natural environment and are generated as a result of human activities. The primary source of 60 Co in the environment has been low-level radioactive waste material generated as a result of neutron activation of stable 59 Co that is present in the structural components of nuclear reactor vessels. This isotope is also intentionally produced, usually in reactors but also to some degree in accelerators for industrial and medical uses, such as for radiation sources for cancer treatment and nondestructive testing of metals and welds. 60 Co may enter the environment as a result of the activities associated with nuclear reactor operations and decommissioning and when industrial and medical sources are being used, manufactured, or disposed

  6. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  7. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetta, P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) developed by Pierson et al. (1990) at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories "ditch effectiveness", "geologic characteristic", "volume of rockfall/block size", "climate and water circulation" and "rockfall history" have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991) improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories "decision sight distance" and "road geometry". For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR) have been used (CNR, 1980). The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145) in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is unacceptable and it should

  8. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS developed by Pierson et al. (1990 at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories 'ditch effectiveness', 'geologic characteristic', 'volume of rockfall/block size', 'climate and water circulation' and 'rockfall history' have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991 improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories 'decision sight distance' and 'road geometry'. For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR have been used (CNR, 1980. The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145 in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is

  9. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  10. Impact of surgical experience on management and outcome of pancreatic surgery performed in high- and low-volume centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Marco; Bissolati, Massimiliano; Gentile, Daniele; Arriciati, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is one of the procedures in general surgery with the highest rate of life-threatening complications. The positive impact of the volume-outcome ratio on outcomes and mortality in pancreatic surgery (PS) has led to policy-level efforts toward centralization of care for PS that is currently under evaluation by some Regional Health Services. The role of the surgeon's experience and training is still under debate. The aim of this paper is to compare the outcomes of PS by the same surgeon in a high volume (HV) and in a low volume (LV) hospital to assess whether a specific training in PS could outdo the benefits of hospital volume. 124 pancreatic resections (98 PD) were conducted by a single surgeon from 2004 to 2014 in two different Italian hospitals with different PS volumes as well as in general surgical activities. The results were retrospectively analyzed. All data regarding demographics, oncological characteristics, surgical parameters and post-operative outcomes were compared between patients operated on in the HV (group A) and LV hospital (group B). The surgical experience in the LV hospital has been then divided into a first period (group B1) and in a second period (group B2). χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test (when variables were dichotomous) was used. The unpaired t test was used to compare continuous data between the two groups. Values are expressed as n. of cases (percent) for categorical data or as mean (standard deviation) for continuous data. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. From 2004 to 2014, 124 patients underwent pancreatic resection by the same surgeon: 69 in an HV hospital (group A) and 55 in an LV hospital (group B). We focused our attention on PD outcomes, 54 in group A and 44 in group B (22 in group B1 and 22 in group B2, accordingly to the aforementioned criteria). A higher incidence of ASA 3 patients, although not statistically significant, was found in group B than in group A (34 vs. 18%; p

  11. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Gardner, Toby A.; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called ‘roadless volume (RV)’ at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  12. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  13. Snow Roads at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    is minimized distribution of low strength areas (also called “ holidays ”). Holidays are actually areas of pulverized snow that are missed or inade...quately processed. Though holidays usually occur sporadically, any single flaw may extend through the entire thickness of an unelevated road. The...Pegasus Road and the LDB pad. A few additional sites were chosen for comparison (Williams Field, virgin snow, etc.). Williams Field Road densities

  14. Application of magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods in environmental studies of urban pollution generated by road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucko, M.

    2012-11-01

    Road traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic particles, heavy metals and other compounds generated by traffic can greatly affect ambient air quality and have direct implications for human health. The general aim of this research was to identify and characterize magnetic vehicle-derived particulates using magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods. A combination of three different methods was used to discriminate sources of particular anthropogenic particles. Special emphasis was placed on the application of various collectors (roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags) to monitor spatial and temporal distribution of traffic pollution on roadsides. The spatial distribution of magnetic parameters of road dust accumulated in roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags indicates that the highest concentration of magnetic particles is in the sampling points situated closest to the road edge. The concentration of magnetic particles decreases with increasing distance from the road indicating vehicle traffic as a major source of emission. Significant differences in horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility were observed between soil and snow. Magnetic particles derived from road traffic deposit on soil within a few meters from the road, but on snow up to 60 m from the road. The values of magnetic susceptibility of road dust deposited near busy urban motorway are significantly higher than in the case of low traffic road. These differences are attributed to traffic volume, which is 30 times higher on motorway than on local road. Moss bags placed at the edge of urban parks situated near major roads show higher values of magnetic susceptibility than moss bags from parks located near minor routes. Enhanced concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co) were observed in the studied samples. This may be associated with specific sources of vehicle emissions (e.g. exhaust and non

  15. Road Impact on Deforestation and Jaguar Habitat Loss in the Mayan Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    The construction of roads, either as an economic tool or as necessity for the implementation of other infrastructure projects is increasing in the tropical forest worldwide. However, roads are one of the main deforestation drivers in the tropics. In this study we analyzed the impact of road...... and important role in high developed areas. In the short term, the impact of a road in a low developed area is lower than in a road in a high developed area, which could be the result of the lag effect between road construction and forest colonization. This is consistent since roads resulted to be a significant...... investments on both deforestation and jaguar habitat loss, in the Mayan Forest. As well we used these results to forecast the impact of two road investments planned in the region. Our results show that roads are the single deforestation driver in low developed areas, whether many other drivers play...

  16. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  17. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  18. Variation in critical care unit admission rates and outcomes for patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure among high- and low-volume cardiac hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Bakal, Jeffrey A; Lin, Meng; Kaul, Padma; McAlister, Finlay A; Ezekowitz, Justin A

    2015-02-27

    Little is known about cross-hospital differences in critical care units admission rates and related resource utilization and outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or heart failure (HF). Using a population-based sample of 16,078 patients admitted to a critical care unit with a primary diagnosis of ACS (n=14,610) or HF (n=1467) between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2013 in Alberta, Canada, we stratified hospitals into high (>250), medium (200 to 250), or low (<200) volume based on their annual volume of all ACS and HF hospitalization. The percentage of hospitalized patients admitted to critical care units varied across low, medium, and high-volume hospitals for both ACS and HF as follows: 77.9%, 81.3%, and 76.3% (P<0.001), and 18.0%, 16.3%, and 13.0% (P<0.001), respectively. Compared to low-volume units, critical care patients with ACS and HF admitted to high-volume hospitals had shorter mean critical care stays (56.6 versus 95.6 hours, P<0.001), more critical care procedures (1.9 versus 1.2 per patient, <0.001), and higher resource-intensive weighting (2.8 versus 1.5, P<0.001). No differences in in-hospital mortality (5.5% versus 6.2%, adjusted odds ratio 0.93; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.41) were observed between high- and low-volume hospitals; however, 30-day cardiovascular readmissions (4.6% versus 6.8%, odds ratio 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and cardiovascular emergency-room visits (6.6% versus 9.5%, odds ratio 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.94) were lower in high-volume compared to low-volume hospitals. Outcomes stratified by ACS or HF admission diagnosis were similar. Cardiac patients hospitalized in low-volume hospitals were more frequently admitted to critical care units and had longer hospitals stays despite lower resource-intensive weighting. These findings may provide opportunities to standardize critical care utilization for ACS and HF patients across high- and low-volume hospitals. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  19. Study On Risk Handling Strategy Of Road Contruction Projects In Jayapura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Project risk is an event or an uncertain condition which if it appears will have a threat on the project object. Many contractors still do not understand the threats that occur in the project they still assume that risks are always harmful. Based on data from the Papua Public Works procurement service that the implementation of road improvement projects always faces problems. This research is an explorative and descriptive study which explores the risks threats that occur in the project from the contractors perspective in Jayapura Papua Province Indonesia. The object of this research is the company contractor involved in the implementation of road improvement project in Jayapura whereas the respondent is the project manager and the field supervisor involved in the implementation of road improvement project The analysis result shows that the overall level of risk is in very low category and the biggest risks affecting contractors in sequence are 1 material delays from suppliers 2 material inventories 3 design difficulties 4 incorrectly shipped material volumes 5 changes to specifications by the owner 6 difficulty in obtaining materials and equipment 7 material price increases 8 over quality 9 damage to machine tools 10 weakening the bearing capacity of subgrade soil. While the response to risks threats that occur in road improvement projects is to reduce and avoid.

  20. Defining the implant treatment volume for patients with low risk prostate cancer: does the anterior base need to be treated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Davis, Ann; Vargas, Sara O.; Renshaw, Andrew A.; Jiroutek, Michael; Richie, Jerome P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: An increased incidence of acute urinary retention has been reported after interstitial prostate radiation therapy when the anterior base of the prostate gland receives 100% of the prescription dose. The frequency of prostate cancer in this location as a function of the pre-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason score, and 1992 American Joint Commission on Cancer Staging (AJCC) was determined. Methods and Materials: One hundred four men treated at the Brigham and Women's Hospital with radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1995-1996 comprised the study population. Prostatectomy specimens were whole mounted and the location of each tumor foci enumerated. Results: Of 269 foci of prostate cancer found in 39 low-risk prostate cancer patients (PSA 1c,2a ), a single focus (0.37%) was noted in the anterior base. Conversely, 20/355 (5.6%) and 18/251 (7.2%) tumor foci were noted in the anterior base in 43 patients with intermediate risk and 24 patients with high-risk disease, respectively. Conclusions: A new definition of the treatment volume excluding the anterior base for low-risk prostate cancer patients may be justified

  1. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a comprehensive complex-wide review of its management of low-level waste (LLW) and the radioactive component of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This review was conducted in response to a recommendation from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) which was established and authorized by Congress to oversee DOE. The DNFSB's recommendation concerning conformance with safety standards at DOE LLW sites was issued on September 8, 1994 and is referred to as Recommendation 94-2. DOE's Implementation Plan for its response to Recommendation 94-2 was submitted to the DNFSB on March 31, 1995. The DNFSB recommended that a complex-wide review of DOE's LLW management be initiated. The goal of the complex-wide review of DOE's LLW management system was to identify both programmatic and physical vulnerabilities that could lead to unnecessary radiation exposure of workers or the public or unnecessary releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Additionally, the DNFSB stated that an objective of the complex-wide review should be to establish the dimensions of the DOE LLW problem and support the identification of corrective actions to address safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes of LLW. The complex-wide review involved an evaluation of LLW management activities at 38 DOE facilities at 36 sites that actively manage LLW and MLLW

  2. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  3. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  4. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  5. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  6. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  7. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  8. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  9. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  10. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  11. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  12. Over-pressure in road tankers; Ueberdrucksicherung an Tankfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frobese, Dirk-Hans; Pape, Harald [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This work was aimed at determining possible causes of overpressure damages on road tankers. In cooperation with the manufacturers of road tankers, the equipment of road tankers usually used today was, therefore, discussed and possible error sources determined. In measurements performed at two filling stations, real pressure, temperature and volume flow ratios for the loading of a road tanker were recorded. Parallel to it, tests in a cold chamber were carried out to determine the possibility and the general conditions of an icing of the tilting valve and the flame arrester. With these results, scenarios have been worked out which can explain known overpressure damaging events. On the basis of a risk assessment, measures are described how such overpressure damages on road tankers can in future be avoided. (orig.)

  13. Modeling an impact of road geometric design on vehicle energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luin, Blaž; Petelin, Stojan; Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2017-11-01

    Some roads connect traffic origins and destinations directly, some use winding, indirect routes. Indirect connections result in longer distances driven and increased fuel consumption. A similar effect is observed on congested roads and mountain roads with many changes in altitude. Therefore a framework to assess road networks based on energy consumption is proposed. It has been shown that road geometry has significant impact on overall traffic energy consumption and emissions. The methodology presented in the paper analyzes impact of traffic volume, shares of vehicle classes, road network configuration on the energy used by the vehicles. It can be used to optimize energy consumption with efficient traffic management and to choose optimum new road in the design phase. This is especially important as the energy consumed by the vehicles shortly after construction supersedes the energy spent for the road construction.

  14. Analysis of the reduction in waste volumes received for disposal at the low-level radioactive waste site in the State of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.

    1988-01-01

    The commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal site at Richland, Washington has been receiving waste from generators nationwide since 1965 and is one of the three sites in the nation currently receiving commercial LLRW for disposal. In the past, volumes of LLRW have been increasing steadily, however, this trend has reversed since 1986. This paper addresses waste volume and activity of the waste disposed, factors which have caused this dramatic reduction in LLRW volume, and regulatory concerns regarding environmental protection, and public and occupational health and safety. Future volumes of LLRW that are disposed at the Richland site depend on economic, technological, political and regulatory variables. Provided there is a continual increase in industrial growth, and a demand for medical research and diagnosis, the volume of LLRW increases. However, this volume also offsets by an increase in demand for volume reduction due to economic and institutional pressures. Yet, if all generators continue to volume reduce their LLRW, some time in future, a limit will be reached when the facility site operator needs to increase the unit disposal cost to cover the fixed cost and maintain a profit margin in order to operate the site

  15. Increased expression of AQP 1 and AQP 5 in rat lungs ventilated with low tidal volume is time dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabregat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND GOALS: Mechanical ventilation (MV can induce or worsen pulmonary oedema. Aquaporins (AQPs facilitate the selective and rapid bi-directional movement of water. Their role in the development and resolution of pulmonary oedema is controversial. Our objectives are to determine if prolonged MV causes lung oedema and changes in the expression of AQP 1 and AQP 5 in rats. METHODS: 25 male Wistar rats were subjected to MV with a tidal volume of 10 ml/kg, during 2 hours (n = 12 and 4 hours (n = 13. Degree of oedema was compared with a group of non-ventilated rats (n = 5. The expression of AQP 1 and AQP 5 were determined by western immunoblotting, measuring the amount of mRNA (previously amplified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining of AQPs 1 and 5 in lung samples from all groups. RESULTS: Lung oedema and alveolar-capillary membrane permeability did not change during MV. AQP-5 steady state levels in the western blot were increased (p<0.01 at 2 h and 4 h of MV. But in AQP-1 expression these differences were not found. However, the amount of mRNA for AQP-1 was increased at 2 h and 4 h of MV; and for AQP 5 at 4 h of MV. These findings were corroborated by representative immunohistochemical lung samples. CONCLUSION: In lungs from rats ventilated with a low tidal volume the expression of AQP 5 increases gradually with MV duration, but does not cause pulmonary oedema or changes in lung permeability. AQPs may have a protective effect against the oedema induced by MV.

  16. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  17. Civilian use transport of radioactive substances on public road. Volume 1: Shipment accreditation and approval requests. Guide Nr 7, Revision 2 of 15 February 2016. Volume 2: safety file of package models, European guide 'Package Design Safety Report'. Civilian use transport of radioactive packages or substances on public road. Volume 3: Compliance of package models not subject to accreditation. Guide Nr 7, Revision 7 of the 2015/11/13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled the regulatory context and sanctions susceptible to be applied, the first volume presents the accreditation process for a package model: file content, tests programme, safety file, certification studies, documents to be produced, accreditation prorogation request, accreditation extension or package model modifications, instruction delays. Some peculiar cases are described. Models of accreditation certificate are provided, and obligations concerning packaging design, fabrication, use and maintenance are briefly discussed. The second volume is a European technical guide which is intended to assist in the preparation of the Package Design Safety Report (PDSR) to demonstrate compliance of a package design for the transport of radioactive material with the regulatory requirements. It covers package designs requiring competent authority approval, and also covers package designs not requiring competent authority approval. In its first two chapters, this document provides a generic structure and contents of a PDSR which applies to all package types. The contents are described in a comprehensive way to cover all important aspects. Some of these aspects may not be applicable to specific package type and details can be found in the annexes which provide further guidance for the scope of the contents of a PDSR, specifically for each package type. The third volume presents recommendations made by the ASN for all stakeholders to guarantee the compliance to regulation of package models which are 'not submitted to competent authority approval'. After an indication and a comment of the regulatory context, it presents requirements to be applied for the design of those package models, and then describes and comments the structure and content of a safety file for such package models (generalities, authorised contents, packaging description, safety demonstration, receipt, use and maintenance instruction, management system). The last part presents the

  18. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  19. Road grip test in Arjeplog

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Niclas; Andrén, Henrik; Nybacka, Mikael; Fransson, Lennart; Larsson, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish road administration sees a need to improve the road grip estimation capacity for the Swedish road system. The challenge is to find methods to measure road grip fast and reliable. There where six different system types at the tests in Arjeplog, three continuous, two system measuring road grip through deceleration and one system based on GPS and accelerometers. Two system types used air craft runway tires. The other systems used either studded winter tires or friction winter tires. ...

  20. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, Markus; Kappe, C. Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. ► Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 °C/20 bar). ► Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. ► Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5–1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 °C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC–MS or LC–MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 ± 11 μg caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 ± 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 °C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of ∼150 μg caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee extracts and the headspace volatiles was performed, placing special emphasis on headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction (SPME

  1. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  2. Very low tidal volume ventilation with associated hypercapnia--effects on lung injury in a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Fuchs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventilation using low tidal volumes with permission of hypercapnia is recommended to protect the lung in acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the most lung protective tidal volume in association with hypercapnia is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different tidal volumes with associated hypercapnia on lung injury and gas exchange in a model for acute respiratory distress syndrome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this randomized controlled experiment sixty-four surfactant-depleted rabbits were exposed to 6 hours of mechanical ventilation with the following targets: Group 1: tidal volume = 8-10 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 40 mm Hg; Group 2: tidal volume = 4-5 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 80 mm Hg; Group 3: tidal volume = 3-4 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 120 mm Hg; Group 4: tidal volume = 2-3 ml/kg/PaCO(2 = 160 mm Hg. Decreased wet-dry weight ratios of the lungs, lower histological lung injury scores and higher PaO(2 were found in all low tidal volume/hypercapnia groups (group 2, 3, 4 as compared to the group with conventional tidal volume/normocapnia (group 1. The reduction of the tidal volume below 4-5 ml/kg did not enhance lung protection. However, oxygenation and lung protection were maintained at extremely low tidal volumes in association with very severe hypercapnia and no adverse hemodynamic effects were observed with this strategy. CONCLUSION: Ventilation with low tidal volumes and associated hypercapnia was lung protective. A tidal volume below 4-5 ml/kg/PaCO(2 80 mm Hg with concomitant more severe hypercapnic acidosis did not increase lung protection in this surfactant deficiency model. However, even at extremely low tidal volumes in association with severe hypercapnia lung protection and oxygenation were maintained.

  3. Low Tidal Volume versus Non-Volume-Limited Strategies for Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkey, Allan J; Goligher, Ewan C; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Hodgson, Carol L; Adhikari, Neill K J; Wunsch, Hannah; Meade, Maureen O; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Hess, Dean; Talmor, Daniel S; Thompson, B Taylor; Brower, Roy G; Fan, Eddy

    2017-10-01

    Trials investigating use of lower tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown mixed results. To compare clinical outcomes of mechanical ventilation strategies that limit tidal volumes and inspiratory pressures (LTV) to strategies with tidal volumes of 10 to 15 ml/kg among patients with ARDS. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials investigating LTV mechanical ventilation strategies. We used random effects models to evaluate the effect of LTV on 28-day mortality, organ failure, ventilator-free days, barotrauma, oxygenation, and ventilation. Our primary analysis excluded trials for which the LTV strategy was combined with the additional strategy of higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), but these trials were included in a stratified sensitivity analysis. We performed metaregression of tidal volume gradient achieved between intervention and control groups on mortality effect estimates. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology to determine the quality of evidence. Seven randomized trials involving 1,481 patients met eligibility criteria for this review. Mortality was not significantly lower for patients receiving an LTV strategy (33.6%) as compared with control strategies (40.4%) (relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.08; heterogeneity statistic I 2  = 46%), nor did an LTV strategy significantly decrease barotrauma or ventilator-free days when compared with a lower PEEP strategy. Quality of evidence for clinical outcomes was downgraded for imprecision. Metaregression showed a significant inverse association between larger tidal volume gradient between LTV and control groups and log odds ratios for mortality (β, -0.1587; P = 0.0022). Sensitivity analysis including trials that protocolized an LTV/high PEEP cointervention showed lower mortality associated with LTV (nine trials and 1

  4. Effectiveness of road safety education in Nigeria using a quasi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic injuries pose a serious public health problem worldwide, especially in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a post-license road safety education intervention programme in terms of increased knowledge and self-reported behaviour among commercial minibus drivers ...

  5. Cold Regions Issues for Off-Road Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    the operation of off-road autonomous vehicles . Low-temperature effects on lubricants, materials, and batteries can impair a robot’s ability to operate...demanding that off-road autonomous vehicles must be designed for and tested in cold regions if they are expected to operate there successfully.

  6. Sphere of equivalence--a novel target volume concept for intraoperative radiotherapy using low-energy X rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskind, Carsten; Griebel, Jürgen; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated partial breast radiotherapy with low-energy photons from a miniature X-ray machine is undergoing a randomized clinical trial (Targeted Intra-operative Radiation Therapy [TARGIT]) in a selected subgroup of patients treated with breast-conserving surgery. The steep radial dose gradient implies reduced tumor cell control with increasing depth in the tumor bed. The purpose was to compare the expected risk of local recurrence in this nonuniform radiation field with that after conventional external beam radiotherapy. The relative biologic effectiveness of low-energy photons was modeled using the linear-quadratic formalism including repair of sublethal lesions during protracted irradiation. Doses of 50-kV X-rays (Intrabeam) were converted to equivalent fractionated doses, EQD2, as function of depth in the tumor bed. The probability of local control was estimated using a logistic dose-response relationship fitted to clinical data from fractionated radiotherapy. The model calculations show that, for a cohort of patients, the increase in local control in the high-dose region near the applicator partly compensates the reduction of local control at greater distances. Thus a "sphere of equivalence" exists within which the risk of recurrence is equal to that after external fractionated radiotherapy. The spatial distribution of recurrences inside this sphere will be different from that after conventional radiotherapy. A novel target volume concept is presented here. The incidence of recurrences arising in the tumor bed around the excised tumor will test the validity of this concept and the efficacy of the treatment. Recurrences elsewhere will have implications for the rationale of TARGIT.

  7. CONWIP versus POLCA: A comparative analysis in a high-mix, low-volume (HMLV) manufacturing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, T.; Standridge, C.

    2016-07-01

    Few studies comparing manufacturing control systems as they relate to high-mix, low-volume applications have been reported. This paper compares two strategies, constant work in process (CONWIP) and Paired-cell Overlapping Loops of Cards with Authorization (POLCA), for controlling work in process (WIP) in such a manufacturing environment. Characteristics of each control method are explained in regards to lead time impact and thus, why one may be advantageous over the other. An industrial system in the Photonics industry is studied. Discrete event simulation is used as the primary tool to compare performance of CONWIP and POLCA controls for the same WIP level with respect to lead time. Model verification and validation are accomplished by comparing historic data to simulation generated data including utilizations. Both deterministic and Poisson distributed order arrivals are considered. For the system considered in this case study, including order arrival patterns, a POLCA control can outperform a CONWIP parameter in terms of average lead time for a given level of WIP. At higher levels of WIP, the performance of POLCA and CONWIP is equivalent. The POLCA control helps limit WIP in specific áreas of the system where the CONWIP control only limits the overall WIP in the system. Thus, POLCA can generate acceptably low lead times at lower levels of WIP for conditions equivalent to the HMLV manufacturing systems studied. The study compliments and extends previous studies of CONWIP and POLCA performance to a HMLV manufacturing environment. It demonstrates the utility of discrete event simulation in that regard. It shows that proper inventory controls in bottleneck áreas of a system can reduce average lead time. (Author)

  8. Impact of image denoising on image quality, quantitative parameters and sensitivity of ultra-low-dose volume perfusion CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ahmed E.; Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikoubashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of denoising on ultra-low-dose volume perfusion CT (ULD-VPCT) imaging in acute stroke. Simulated ULD-VPCT data sets at 20 % dose rate were generated from perfusion data sets of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kVp/180 mAs. Four data sets were generated from each ULD-VPCT data set: not-denoised (ND); denoised using spatiotemporal filter (D1); denoised using quanta-stream diffusion technique (D2); combination of both methods (D1 + D2). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured in the resulting 100 data sets. Image quality, presence/absence of ischemic lesions, CBV and CBF scores according to a modified ASPECTS score were assessed by two blinded readers. SNR and qualitative scores were highest for D1 + D2 and lowest for ND (all p ≤ 0.001). In 25 % of the patients, ND maps were not assessable and therefore excluded from further analyses. Compared to original data sets, in D2 and D1 + D2, readers correctly identified all patients with ischemic lesions (sensitivity 1.0, kappa 1.0). Lesion size was most accurately estimated for D1 + D2 with a sensitivity of 1.0 (CBV) and 0.94 (CBF) and an inter-rater agreement of 1.0 and 0.92, respectively. An appropriate combination of denoising techniques applied in ULD-VPCT produces diagnostically sufficient perfusion maps at substantially reduced dose rates as low as 20 % of the normal scan. (orig.)

  9. Effects of Low Volume Fraction of Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Kun Yew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of low volume fraction (Vf of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA fibers on the mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS high strength lightweight concrete mixtures. The slump, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity under various curing conditions have been measured and evaluated. The results indicate that an increase in PVA fibers decreases the workability of the concrete and decreases the density slightly. The 28-day compressive strength of oil palm shell fiber-reinforced concrete (OPSFRC high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC subject to continuous moist curing was within the range of 43–49 MPa. The average modulus of elasticity (E value is found to be 16.1 GPa for all mixes, which is higher than that reported in previous studies and is within the range of normal weight concrete. Hence, the findings of this study revealed that the PVA fibers can be used as an alternative material to enhance the properties of OPS HSLWC for building and construction applications.

  10. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Guidelines for selecting codes for ground-water transport modeling of low-level waste burial sites. Volume 2. Special test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.; Cole, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This document was written for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide guidance for managers and site operators who need to select ground-water transport codes for assessing shallow-land burial site performance. The guidance given in this report also serves the needs of applications-oriented users who work under the direction of a manager or site operator. The guidelines are published in two volumes designed to support the needs of users having different technical backgrounds. An executive summary, published separately, gives managers and site operators an overview of the main guideline report. Volume 1, titled ''Guideline Approach,'' consists of Chapters 1 through 5 and a glossary. Chapters 2 through 5 provide the more detailed discussions about the code selection approach. This volume, Volume 2, consists of four appendices reporting on the technical evaluation test cases designed to help verify the accuracy of ground-water transport codes. 20 refs

  12. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source references. Part 2. Bibliography for treatment, storage, disposal and transportation regulatory constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Federal, state, and local regulations affect the decision process for selecting technology applications. Regulations may favor a particular technology and may prevent application of others. Volume 3, part 2 presents abstracts of the regulatory constraint documents that relate to all phases of LLRW management (e.g., treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal).

  13. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. [Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  14. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves

  15. Why are some animal populations unaffected or positively affected by roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2013-11-01

    In reviews on effects of roads on animal population abundance we found that most effects are negative; however, there are also many neutral and positive responses [Fahrig and Rytwinski (Ecol Soc 14:21, 2009; Rytwinski and Fahrig (Biol Conserv 147:87-98, 2012)]. Here we use an individual-based simulation model to: (1) confirm predictions from the existing literature of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to negative effects of roads on animal population abundance, and (2) improve prediction of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to neutral and positive effects of roads on animal population abundance. Simulations represented a typical situation in which road mitigation is contemplated, i.e. rural landscapes containing a relatively low density (up to 1.86 km/km(2)) of high-traffic roads, with continuous habitat between the roads. In these landscapes, the simulations predict that populations of species with small territories and movement ranges, and high reproductive rates, i.e. many small mammals and birds, should not be reduced by roads. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results also predict that populations of species that obtain a resource from roads (e.g. vultures) do not increase with increasing road density. In addition, our simulations support the predation release hypothesis for positive road effects on prey (both small- and large-bodied prey), whereby abundance of a prey species increased with increasing road density due to reduced predation by generalist road-affected predators. The simulations also predict an optimal road density for the large-bodied prey species if it avoids roads or traffic emissions. Overall, the simulation results suggest that in rural landscapes containing high-traffic roads, there are many species for which road mitigation may not be necessary; mitigation efforts should be tailored to the species that show negative population responses to roads.

  16. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  17. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a treatment strategy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the low tidal volume era: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Bourke W; Klingel, Michelle L; Iansavichene, Alla E; Ball, Ian M; Nagpal, A Dave

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the hospital survival in patients with severe ARDS managed with ECMO and low tidal volume ventilation as compared to patients managed with low tidal volume ventilation alone. Electronic databases were searched for studies of at least 10 adult patients with severe ARDS comparing the use of ECMO with low tidal volume ventilation to mechanical ventilation with a low tidal volume alone. Only studies reporting hospital or ICU survival were included. All identified studies were assessed independently by two reviewers. Of 1782 citations, 27 studies (n=1674) met inclusion criteria. Hospital survival for ECMO patients ranged from 33.3 to 86%, while survival with conventional therapy ranged from 36.3 to 71.2%. Five studies were identified with appropriate control groups allowing comparison, but due to the high degree of variability between studies (I 2 =63%), their results could not be pooled. Two of these studies demonstrated a significant difference, both favouring ECMO over conventional therapy. Given the lack of studies with appropriate control groups, our confidence in a difference in outcome between the two therapies remains weak. Future studies on the use of ECMO for severe ARDS are needed to clarify the role of ECMO in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and Development of Virtual Reality Simulation for Teaching High-Risk Low-Volume Problem-Prone Office-Based Medical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemheney, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians' offices are not the usual place where emergencies occur; thus how staff remains prepared and current regarding medical emergencies presents an ongoing challenge for private practitioners. The very nature of low-volume, high-risk, and problem-prone medical emergencies is that they occur with such infrequency it is difficult for staff to…

  19. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  20. Comparing low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral-obturator block for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Katja; Jensen, Kenneth; Tanggaard, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-RC) is often associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain even with a multimodal analgesic regimen. We aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy of low volume saphenous-obturator block with placebo and femoral- obturator block in p...

  1. Emphysema quantification on low-dose CT using percentage of low-attenuation volume and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions: Effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Mizuho, E-mail: nmizuho@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Matsumoto, Sumiaki, E-mail: sumatsu@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Seki, Shinichiro, E-mail: sshin@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Koyama, Hisanobu, E-mail: hkoyama@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu, E-mail: yosirad@kobe-u.ac.jp [Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Fujisawa, Yasuko, E-mail: yasuko1.fujisawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); Sugihara, Naoki, E-mail: naoki.sugihara@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, 1385 Shimoishigami, Otawara, Tochigi 324-8550 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Emphysema quantification (LAV% and D) was affected by image noise on low-dose CT. • For LAV% and D, AIDR 3D improved agreement of quantification on low-dose CT. • AIDR 3D has the potential to quantify emphysema accurately on low-dose CT. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of adaptive iterative dose reduction using 3D processing (AIDR 3D) for quantification of two measures of emphysema: percentage of low-attenuation volume (LAV%) and size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Method and materials: : Fifty-two patients who underwent standard-dose (SDCT) and low-dose CT (LDCT) were included. SDCT without AIDR 3D, LDCT without AIDR 3D, and LDCT with AIDR 3D were used for emphysema quantification. First, LAV% was computed at 10 thresholds from −990 to −900 HU. Next, at the same thresholds, linear regression on a log–log plot was used to compute the power law exponent (D) for the cumulative frequency-size distribution of low-attenuation lung regions. Bland–Altman analysis was used to assess whether AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D. Results: The mean relative differences in LAV% between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 3.73%–88.18% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were −6.61% to 0.406%. The mean relative differences in D between LDCT without AIDR 3D and SDCT were 8.22%–19.11% and between LDCT with AIDR 3D and SDCT were 1.82%–4.79%. AIDR 3D improved agreement between LDCT and SDCT at thresholds from −930 to −990 HU for LAV% and at all thresholds for D. Conclusion: AIDR 3D improved the consistency between LDCT and SDCT for emphysema quantification of LAV% and D.

  2. Road-edge effects on herpetofauna in a lowland Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross J. Maynard; Nathalie C. Aall; Daniel Saenz; Paul S. Hamilton; Matthew A. Kwiatkowski

    2016-01-01

    The impact of roads on the flora and fauna of Neotropical rainforest is perhaps the single biggest driver of habitat modification and population declines in these ecosystems. We investigated the road-edge effect of a low-use dirt road on amphibian and reptile abundance, diversity, and...

  3. Road accidents: a third burden of 'disease' in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onywera, Vincent O; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) continue to be a major cause of death and disability throughout low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this commentary is highlight some of the major causes of RTIs in sub-Saharan Africa and suggests strategies for better road safety as well as suggestions on how to reduce road accidents in LMICs.

  4. Validation of low-volume enrichment protocols for detection of Escherichia coli O157 in raw ground beef components, using commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imtiaz; Hughes, Denise; Jenson, Ian; Karalis, Tass

    2009-03-01

    Testing of beef destined for use in ground beef products for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become an important cornerstone of control and verification activities within many meat supply chains. Validation of the ability of methods to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 is critical to confidence in test systems. Many rapid methods have been validated against standard cultural methods for 25-g samples. In this study, a number of previously validated enrichment broths and commercially available test kits were validated for the detection of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in 375-g samples of raw ground beef component matrices using 1 liter of enrichment broth (large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocol). Standard AOAC International methods for 25-g samples in 225 ml of enrichment broth, using the same media, incubation conditions, and test kits, were used as reference methods. No significant differences were detected in the ability of any of the tests to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in samples of raw ground beef components when enriched according to standard or large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols. The use of large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols provides cost savings for media and logistical benefits when handling and incubating large numbers of samples.

  5. Alcohol and hospitalized road traffic injuries in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Lydia R; Ruiz, Roberto Andres Llanes

    2014-09-01

    Each year, there are approximately 1.24 million deaths due to road traffic injuries, the majority of which occur in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2008, 35 countries have passed legislation to implement road safety strategies. However, many countries have yet to pass comprehensive legislation while others lack adequate enforcement of current policies. The annual global mortality rate due to road trauma remains unacceptably high and reflects the need for governments to prioritize the passage and implementation of road safety legislation. Alcohol is a leading risk factor for road trauma globally and the leading cause of death and disability in the Western Pacific region. Despite the overwhelming evidence that strict enforcement of drunk-driving policies can lead to a drastic reduction in alcohol-related road incidents, many countries in the Western Pacific lack sufficient data that could facilitate the design of appropriate drunk-driving interventions. This paper provides an analysis of the current status of policies and attitudes related to alcohol and road injuries throughout the Western Pacific region, with a specific focus on the Philippines. Following the passage of drunk-driving legislation in 2013, a medical records review of alcohol-related road trauma patients in Manila Doctors Hospital was conducted. The findings of this pilot project further highlight the pervasive problem of missing or unreliable data regarding alcohol's role in road trauma. Assessing the burden of drunk driving is an important step in designing effective interventions and systematically changing attitudes about driving under the influence.

  6. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  7. Sensitivity Analysis Based SVM Application on Automatic Incident Detection of Rural Road in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingliang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional automatic incident detection methods such as artificial neural networks, backpropagation neural network, and Markov chains are not suitable for addressing the incident detection problem of rural roads in China which have a relatively high accident rate and a low reaction speed caused by the character of small traffic volume. This study applies the support vector machine (SVM and parameter sensitivity analysis methods to build an accident detection algorithm in a rural road condition, based on real-time data collected in a field experiment. The sensitivity of four parameters (speed, front distance, vehicle group time interval, and free driving ratio is analyzed, and the data sets of two parameters with a significant sensitivity are chosen to form the traffic state feature vector. The SVM and k-fold cross validation (K-CV methods are used to build the accident detection algorithm, which shows an excellent performance in detection accuracy (98.15% of the training data set and 87.5% of the testing data set. Therefore, the problem of low incident reaction speed of rural roads in China could be solved to some extent.

  8. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  9. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  10. Effects of truck-mounted, ultra low volume mosquito adulticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera) in a suburban field setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Nicholas A.; Danka, Robert G.; Walker, Todd W.; Ottea, James A.; Healy, Kristen B.

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of mosquito adulticides on honey bees under conditions that reflect actual field exposure. Whereas several studies have evaluated the toxicity of mosquito control products on honey bees, most have been laboratory based and have focused solely on acute mortality as a measure of impact. The goal of this study was to determine effects of routine applications of truck-based ultra-low volume (ULV) mosquito adulticides (i.e., Scourge, Duet, and Deltagard) on honey bees in a suburban setting. The mosquito adulticides used in this study were pyrethroids with active ingredients resmethrin (Scourge), prallethrin and sumithrin (Duet), and deltamethrin (Deltagard), in which resmethrin, prallethrin, and sumithrin were synergized with piperonyl butoxide. We measured and compared mortality and detoxification enzyme activities (esterase and glutathione S-transferase) from sentinel beehives within and outside of mosquito control areas. Concurrently, colony health (i.e., number of adult bees, brood quantity and brood quality) was compared throughout the study period. No significant differences were observed in honey bee mortality, colony health or detoxification enzyme activities between treated (five sprayed areas each received one to three insecticide treatment) and control sites (four unsprayed areas that did not receive insecticide treatment) over the seven week study period. However, our laboratory study showed that exposure to resmethrin, the active ingredient in Scourge, caused significant inhibition of esterase activity compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that proper application of truck based insecticides for mosquito control results in little or no exposure and therefore minimal effects on domestic honey bees. PMID:29494661

  11. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Wang

    Full Text Available After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among children in eastern China.This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR with average thyroid volume (Tvol and urinary iodine concentration (UIC in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination.Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects and salt iodine (10,184 samples using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA.TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children.After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  12. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  13. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S.; Tracey, Jeff A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoidpaved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads,but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  14. Permeability of roads to movement of scrubland lizards and small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehme, Cheryl S; Tracey, Jeff A; McClenaghan, Leroy R; Fisher, Robert N

    2013-08-01

    A primary objective of road ecology is to understand and predict how roads affect connectivity of wildlife populations. Road avoidance behavior can fragment populations, whereas lack of road avoidance can result in high mortality due to wildlife-vehicle collisions. Many small animal species focus their activities to particular microhabitats within their larger habitat. We sought to assess how different types of roads affect the movement of small vertebrates and to explore whether responses to roads may be predictable on the basis of animal life history or microhabitat preferences preferences. We tracked the movements of fluorescently marked animals at 24 sites distributed among 3 road types: low-use dirt, low-use secondary paved, and rural 2-lane highway. Most data we collected were on the San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax), cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans) (dirt, secondary paved), and deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) (highway only). San Diego pocket mice and cactus mice moved onto dirt roads but not onto a low-use paved road of similar width or onto the highway, indicating they avoid paved road substrate. Both lizard species moved onto the dirt and secondary paved roads but avoided the rural 2-lane rural highway, indicating they may avoid noise, vibration, or visual disturbance from a steady flow of traffic. Kangaroo rats did not avoid the dirt or secondary paved roads. Overall, dirt and secondary roads were more permeable to species that prefer to forage or bask in open areas of their habitat, rather than under the cover of rocks or shrubs. However, all study species avoided the rural 2-lane highway. Our results suggest that microhabitat use preferences and road substrate help predict species responses to low-use roads, but roads with heavy traffic may deter movement of a much wider range of small animal

  15. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  16. Development of Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS of Urban Road Network Using HDM-4 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Chopra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS for four road sections of urban road network (Patiala, Punjab, India using Highway Development and Management (HDM-4 model. The HDM-4 provides a deterministic approach in data input and process data of existing road condition, traffic volume and pavement composition to predict road deterioration as per the urban road conditions in terms of International Roughness Index (IRI value. This study presents the use of HDM-4 model for the computation of optimum Maintenance and Rehabilitation (M&R strategy for each road section and comparative study of scheduled and condition responsive M&R strategies. The results of present study will be useful for gaining better support for decision-makers for adequate and timely fund allocations for preservation of the urban road network.

  17. Impact of Different Tidal Volume Levels at Low Mechanical Power on Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Moraes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal volume (VT has been considered the main determinant of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Recently, experimental studies have suggested that mechanical power transferred from the ventilator to the lungs is the promoter of VILI. We hypothesized that, as long as mechanical power is kept below a safe threshold, high VT should not be injurious. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of different VT levels and respiratory rates (RR on lung function, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD, alveolar ultrastructure, and expression of genes related to inflammation [interleukin (IL-6], alveolar stretch (amphiregulin, epithelial [club cell secretory protein (CC16] and endothelial [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1] cell injury, and extracellular matrix damage [syndecan-1, decorin, and metalloproteinase (MMP-9] in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS under low-power mechanical ventilation. Twenty-eight Wistar rats received Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally. After 24 h, 21 animals were randomly assigned to ventilation (2 h with low mechanical power at three different VT levels (n = 7/group: (1 VT = 6 mL/kg and RR adjusted to normocapnia; (2 VT = 13 mL/kg; and 3 VT = 22 mL/kg. In the second and third groups, RR was adjusted to yield low mechanical power comparable to that of the first group. Mechanical power was calculated as [(ΔP,L2/Est,L/2]× RR (ΔP,L = transpulmonary driving pressure, Est,L = static lung elastance. Seven rats were not mechanically ventilated (NV and were used for molecular biology analysis. Mechanical power was comparable among groups, while VT gradually increased. ΔP,L and mechanical energy were higher in VT = 22 mL/kg than VT = 6 mL/kg and VT = 13 mL/kg (p < 0.001 for both. Accordingly, DAD score increased in VT = 22 mL/kg compared to VT = 6 mL/kg and VT = 13 mL/kg [23(18.5–24.75 vs. 16(12–17.75 and 16(13.25–18, p < 0.05, respectively]. VT = 22 mL/kg was associated with higher

  18. Mobilizing climate finance - A road-map to finance a low-carbon economy. Report of the Canfin-Grandjean Commission June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Grandjean, Alain; Cochran, Ian; Martini, Mireille

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions of the Canfin-Grandjean Commission and proposes to the President of the French Republic paths of action to mobilize increased public and private funding in the fight against climate change. It also forwards proposals on how the French government could advance the 'innovative climate finance agenda' in the various international forums in which it participates (G7, G20, IMF, OECD, etc.). The present report covers the financial instruments identified more than a decade ago as 'innovative' (financial transaction tax, carbon market auctions revenues, etc.). It, however, goes further to also look at the means of finding 'innovative' ways of using existing tools in the 'toolboxes' of both private and public actors to scale-up financial flows for the low-carbon economy. (authors)

  19. Multi-site, multi-country evaluation of analytical and operational performance of a low-mid volume chemiluminescent immunoassay analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keijzer, M H; Perkins, S; Motta, V; Morelli, D; Cristol, J P; Dupuy, A M; Hong, Y; Watanabe, S; Waerdt, C; Grunewald, R W

    2009-01-01

    A new automated immunoassay low-mid volume (beta-hCG, BNP, and CK-MB) and the time required to complete workloads of 50 and 100 tests with a mixture of 75% routine tests and 25% stat tests was also evaluated. Total precision was typically market and in use for an existing high volume immunoassay system. Stat turn around times were consistent with the fixed analytical time of 15.6 minutes and met the expectations of the laboratories. Measured test throughput ranged from 47 - 54 tests per hour and demonstrated that the analyzer was fit for the intended purpose of supporting a laboratory that performs suitable for use.

  20. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  1. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  2. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  3. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  4. Self-explaining roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kaptein, N.

    1999-01-01

    As a means to a sustainable safe traffic environment the concept of Self-Explaining Roads (SER) has been developed. The SER concept advocates a traffic environment that elicits safe driving behaviour simply by its design. In order to support safe driving behaviour and appropriate speed choice,

  5. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong

    1994-02-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoat condensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i.e., compatible trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compatible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variable and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  6. Development of computer program for the economic evaluation of the volume reduction system for the low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin Yeong; Lee, Kun Jai

    1994-01-01

    This study provides the basis for investigating the benefits of purchasing volume reduction equipment and includes the establishment of a volume reduction data base, the creation of the volume reduction cost analysis computer program PEEVR (Program of Economic Evaluation for the Volume Reduction), and a generic analysis designed to identify the major costs influencing the economics of the various equipment options. In treating the plant types and the wastes, this study considers that condensate polishing system is included or not in PWR and precoatcondensate polishing system, deep bed condensate polishing system in BWR and the 5 waste streams, i. e., compactibIe trash (COTRASH), ion exchange resin (IXRESIN), concentrate liquid (CONCLIQ), filter sludge (FSLUDGE), non compactible trash (COTRASH). This study uses the PVRR and LRR methods to create cost analysis and performs sensitivity analysis for the each cost variables and shows that future burial costs increases are the major factors in the economic evaluation

  7. Quantifying the key factors that create road flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Road flooding is a serious operational hazard in the low-lying areas of southern Louisiana. This hazard is especially acute for the regions emergency evacuation routes, which must be accessible by coastal residents who plan evacuations ahead of an...

  8. Quantifying the key factors that create road flooding : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Road fl ooding is a serious operational hazard for many low-lying areas across southern Louisiana. This hazard is especially acute for : the regions emergency evacuation routes, which must be accessible for safe evacuation prior to an approaching ...

  9. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  10. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data for the purpose of legal prosecution and insurance claims. The accident data P41 form filled at the Police Stations are collated and forwarded to the Roads Department, Ministry of Roads and Public. Works for further processing and analysis (1, 12). The. Roads Department analyses the information in order to determine:.

  11. Combined use of positron emission tomography and volume doubling time in lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Dirksen, A; Jakobsen, Annika Loft

    2011-01-01

    In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules.......In lung cancer screening the ability to distinguish malignant from benign nodules is a key issue. This study evaluates the ability of positron emission tomography (PET) and volume doubling time (VDT) to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules....

  12. Reptile road-kills in Southern Brazil: Composition, hot moments and hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira; Alvares, Diego Janisch; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann; Schuck, Gabriela; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Esperandio, Isadora Beraldi; Anza, Juan; Beduschi, Júlia; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Kindel, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    Understanding road-kill patterns is the first step to assess the potential effects of road mortality on wildlife populations, as well as to define the need for mitigation and support its planning. Reptiles are one of the vertebrate groups most affected by roads through vehicle collisions, both because they are intentionally killed by drivers, and due to their biological needs, such as thermoregulation, which make them more prone to collisions. We conducted monthly road surveys (33months), searching for carcasses of freshwater turtles, lizards, and snakes on a 277-km stretch of BR-101 road in Southernmost Brazil to estimate road-kill composition and magnitude and to describe the main periods and locations of road-kills. We modeled the distribution of road-kills in space according to land cover classes and local traffic volume. Considering the detection capacity of our method and carcass persistence probability, we estimated that 15,377 reptiles are road-killed per year (55reptiles/km/year). Road-kills, especially lizards and snakes, were concentrated during summer, probably due to their higher activity in this period. Road-kill hotspots were coincident among freshwater turtles, lizards, and snakes. Road-kill distribution was negatively related to pine plantations, and positively related to rice plantations and traffic volume. A cost-benefit analysis highlighted that if mitigation measures were installed at road-kill hotspots, which correspond to 21% of the road, they could have avoided up to 45% of recorded reptile fatalities, assuming a 100% mitigation effectiveness. Given the congruent patterns found for all three taxa, the same mitigation measures could be used to minimize the impacts of collision on local herpetofauna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mine haul road fugitive dust emission and exposure characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Excessive dust generation from mine haul roads is a problem common to most surface coal mining operations. Optimal wearing course material selection parameters reduce, but do not toally eliminate the potential to produce dust. For existing operations, which may not have optimally designed and maintained roads, the problem of identifying the haul road dust defect, quantifying its impact on both safety and health and assigning priorities within the constraints of limited capital and manpower is problematic. This is reflected in the fact that most surface mine operators agree dust-free roads are desirable, but find it difficult to translate this into cost-effective betterment activities. The aim of this paper is to describe fugitive dust emission and exposure characteristics associated with ultra-heavy mine haul trucks running on unpaved mine haul roads. Models are described which enable mines to assess the likely dustiness of their chosen haul road material as a function of surface loading of fines, traffic types and volume, together with various material parameters. By combining these models with the results of quantitative exposure profiling, a mine can, in conjunction with the assessment, determine the most cost- and safety-effective haul road dust management strategy. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fatigue cracking in road pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the problem of modelling fatigue phenomena occurring in the road pavement. The example of two selected pavements shows the changes occurring under the influence of the load in different places of the pavement layers. Attention is paid to various values of longitudinal and transverse strains generated at the moment of passing the wheel on the pavement. It was found that the key element in the crack propagation analysis is the method of transferring the load to the pavement by the tire and the strain distribution in the pavement. During the passage of the wheel in the lower layers of the pavement, a complex stress state arises. Then vertical, horizontal and tangent stresses with various values appear. The numerical analyses carried out with the use of finite element methods allowed to assess the strain and stress changes occurring in the process of cracking road pavement. It has been shown that low-thickness pavements are susceptible to fatigue cracks arising "bottom to top", while pavements thicker are susceptible to "top to bottom" cracks. The analysis of the type of stress allowed to determine the cracking mechanism.

  15. Identification of Hazardous Road Locations on the basis of jerks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Jensen, Robin; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    The dark figures for the Danish traffic safety have increased for decades and are now around 91%. As the Hazardous Road Location (HRL) identification, a cornerstone in the traffic safety work, is based on the registered accidents, the identification is increasingly more random and uncertain...... on data from three months of driving by 380 cars, which is equivalent to a distance of 1.9 million km. This indicates that concentrations of decelerations are located where there are high traffic volumes, but not that the design and furniture of the road on the location can explain an HRL. This also...... indicates that concentrations of jerks can be found where the road has safety problems or is inappropriately designed. This is supported by literature dealing with this topic. On the other hand, jerks are very sensitive to unevenness in the road surface, and data from these locations must be removed...

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1

  18. Road Detection by Using a Generalized Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Road detection plays key roles for remote sensing image analytics. Hough transform (HT is one very typical method for road detection, especially for straight line road detection. Although many variants of Hough transform have been reported, it is still a great challenge to develop a low computational complexity and time-saving Hough transform algorithm. In this paper, we propose a generalized Hough transform (i.e., Radon transform implementation for road detection in remote sensing images. Specifically, we present a dictionary learning method to approximate the Radon transform. The proposed approximation method treats a Radon transform as a linear transform, which then facilitates parallel implementation of the Radon transform for multiple images. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we conduct extensive experiments on the popular RSSCN7 database for straight road detection. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is superior to the traditional algorithms in terms of accuracy and computing complexity.

  19. Intermediate Volatility Organic Compound Emissions from On-Road Gasoline Vehicles and Small Off-Road Gasoline Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Nguyen, Ngoc T; Presto, Albert A; Hennigan, Christopher J; May, Andrew A; Robinson, Allen L

    2016-04-19

    Dynamometer experiments were conducted to characterize the intermediate volatility organic compound (IVOC) emissions from a fleet of on-road gasoline vehicles and small off-road gasoline engines. IVOCs were quantified through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of adsorbent samples collected from a constant volume sampler. The dominant fraction (>80%, on average) of IVOCs could not be resolved on a molecular level. These unspeciated IVOCs were quantified as two chemical classes (unspeciated branched alkanes and cyclic compounds) in 11 retention-time-based bins. IVOC emission factors (mg kg-fuel(-1)) from on-road vehicles varied widely from vehicle to vehicle, but showed a general trend of lower emissions for newer vehicles that met more stringent emission standards. IVOC emission factors for 2-stroke off-road engines were substantially higher than 4-stroke off-road engines and on-road vehicles. Despite large variations in the magnitude of emissions, the IVOC volatility distribution and chemical characteristics were consistent across all tests and IVOC emissions were strongly correlated with nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), primary organic aerosol and speciated IVOCs. Although IVOC emissions only correspond to approximately 4% of NMHC emissions from on-road vehicles over the cold-start unified cycle, they are estimated to produce as much or more SOA than single-ring aromatics. Our results clearly demonstrate that IVOCs from gasoline engines are an important class of SOA precursors and provide observational constraints on IVOC emission factors and chemical composition to facilitate their inclusion into atmospheric chemistry models.

  20. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 2: Low-level waste strategy and planning, decontamination and decommissioning, compliance monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Nineteen papers are presented in volume 2. The 11 papers in the LLW Strategy and Planning section discuss plans for disposal facilities in Texas, Pennsylvania, Hanford, the Southwest and Southeast Compacts, and others. Three papers discuss decontamination technology and activities. Environmental monitoring requirements and recommendations at LLW facilities are discussed in 5 papers. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Effects of large volume injection of aliphatic alcohols as sample diluents on the retention of low hydrophobic solutes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor; Galaon, Toma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-03

    Recent studies showed that injection of large volume of hydrophobic solvents used as sample diluents could be applied in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). This study reports a systematic research focused on the influence of a series of aliphatic alcohols (from methanol to 1-octanol) on the retention process in RP-LC, when large volumes of sample are injected on the column. Several model analytes with low hydrophobic character were studied by RP-LC process, for mobile phases containing methanol or acetonitrile as organic modifiers in different proportions with aqueous component. It was found that starting with 1-butanol, the aliphatic alcohols can be used as sample solvents and they can be injected in high volumes, but they may influence the retention factor and peak shape of the dissolved solutes. The dependence of the retention factor of the studied analytes on the injection volume of these alcohols is linear, with a decrease of its value as the sample volume is increased. The retention process in case of injecting up to 200μL of upper alcohols is dependent also on the content of the organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in mobile phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-assessment of road accident data-analysis policy : applying theory from involuntary, high-consequence, low-probability events like nuclear power plant meltdowns to voluntary, low-consequence, high-probability events like traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This report examines the literature on involuntary, high-consequence, low-probability (IHL) events like nuclear power plant meltdowns to determine what can be applied to the problem of voluntary, low-consequence high-probability (VLH) events like tra...

  3. Integrated use of spatial and semantic relationships for extracting road networks from floating car data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xie, Chao; Zhao, Yue

    2012-10-01

    The update frequency of digital road maps influences the quality of road-dependent services. However, digital road maps surveyed by probe vehicles or extracted from remotely sensed images still have a long updating circle and their cost remain high. With GPS technology and wireless communication technology maturing and their cost decreasing, floating car technology has been used in traffic monitoring and management, and the dynamic positioning data from floating cars become a new data source for updating road maps. In this paper, we aim to update digital road maps using the floating car data from China's National Commercial Vehicle Monitoring Platform, and present an incremental road network extraction method suitable for the platform's GPS data whose sampling frequency is low and which cover a large area. Based on both spatial and semantic relationships between a trajectory point and its associated road segment, the method classifies each trajectory point, and then merges every trajectory point into the candidate road network through the adding or modifying process according to its type. The road network is gradually updated until all trajectories have been processed. Finally, this method is applied in the updating process of major roads in North China and the experimental results reveal that it can accurately derive geometric information of roads under various scenes. This paper provides a highly-efficient, low-cost approach to update digital road maps.

  4. Do road planners produce more 'honest numbers' than rail planners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Buhl, Søren L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a review of available data from a database on large-scale transport infrastructure projects, this paper investigates the hypothesis that traffic forecasts for road links in Europe are geographically biased with underestimated traffic volumes in metropolitan areas and overestimated traffic...... volumes in remote regions. The present data do not support this hypothesis. Since previous studies have shown a strong tendency to overestimated forecasts of the number of passengers on new rail projects, it could be speculated that road planners are more skilful and/or honest than rail planners. However......, during the period when the investigated projects were planned (up to the late 1980s), there were hardly any strong incentives for road planners to make biased forecasts in order to place their projects in a more flattering light. Future research might uncover whether the change from the ‘predict...

  5. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  6. Licensing an assured isolation facility for low-level radioactive waste. Volume 1: Licensing strategy and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, D.J.; Bauser, M.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    This report provides a detailed set of proposed criteria and guidance for the preparation of a license application for an assured isolation facility (AIF). The report is intended to provide a detailed planning basis upon which a prospective applicant may begin pre-licensing discussions with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and initiate development of a license application. The report may also be useful to the NRC or to state regulatory agencies that may be asked to review such an application. Volume 1 of this report provides background information, and describes the licensing approach and methodology. Volume 2 identifies specific information that is recommended for inclusion in a license application

  7. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  8. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  9. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  10. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  11. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  13. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  14. Ecological study of road traffic injuries in the eastern Mediterranean region: country economic level, road user category and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoelge, Mathilde; Laflamme, Lucie; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-02-13

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has the second highest number of road traffic injury mortality rates after the African region based on 2013 data, with road traffic injuries accounting for 27% of the total injury mortality in the region. Globally the number of road traffic deaths has plateaued despite an increase in motorization, but it is uncertain whether this applies to the Region. This study investigated the regional trends in both road traffic injury mortality and morbidity and examined country-based differences considering on income level, categories of road users, and gender distribution. Register-based ecological study linking data from Global Burden of Disease Study with the United Nations Statistics Division for population and World Bank definition for country income level. Road traffic injury mortality rates and disability-adjusted life years were compiled for all ages at country level in 1995, 2005, 2015 and combined for a regional average (n = 22) and a global average (n = 122). The data were stratified by country economic level, road user category and gender. Road traffic injury mortality rates in the Region were higher than the global average for all three reference years but suggest a downward trend. In 2015 mortality rates were more than twice as high in low and high income countries compared to global income averages and motor vehicle occupants had a 3-fold greater mortality than the global average. Severe injuries decreased by more than half for high/middle income countries but remained high for low income countries; three times higher for males than females. Despite a potential downward trend, inequalities in road traffic injury mortality and morbidity burden remain high in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Action needs to be intensified and targeted to implement and enforce safety measures that prevent and mitigate severe motor vehicle crashes in high income countries especially and invest in efforts to promote public, active transport

  15. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 4. Proceedings of the workshop on research and development needs for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbee, H.W.; Frederick, E.J.; Jolley, R.L.; Kibbey, A.H.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. As part of this program, a workshop was conducted for determining research and development needs in LLRW treatment. Volume 4, the proceedings of this workshop, includes the formal presentations and both panel and general discussions dealing with such issues as disposal, compaction, and the ''below regulatory concern'' philosophy. Summaries of individual workshops dealing with specific aspects of LLRW treatment are also presented in this volume

  16. Evaluation of hybrid electric road train (HERT) as an alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDSA has been one of the busiest roads in the Philippines and essential component of the spatial structure of the Metro Manila. The decent growth of the areas around the avenue adds a great volume of traffic which cause traffic congestion and at the same time pollution. HERT is a 40 meter long vehicle, powered by an ...

  17. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  18. Evaluation of Traffic Density Parameters as an Indicator of Vehicle Emission-Related Near-Road Air Pollution: A Case Study with NEXUS Measurement Data on Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important factor in evaluating health risk of near-road air pollution is to accurately estimate the traffic-related vehicle emission of air pollutants. Inclusion of traffic parameters such as road length/area, distance to roads, and traffic volume/intensity into models such as...

  19. Research on Dynamic Optimization for Road-friendly Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heavy vehicle brings large dynamic loads to the road surface, which would reduce vehicle ride comfort and shorten road service life. The structure characteristic of heavy vehicle suspension has a significant impact on vehicle performance. Based on the D'Alembert principle, the dynamics models of independent and integral balanced suspension are proposed considering mass and inertia of balancing rod. The sprung mass acceleration and the tire dynamic force for two kinds of balanced suspension and the traditional quarter vehicle model are compared in frequency-domain and time-domain respectively. It is concluded that a quarter vehicle model simplified for balanced suspension could be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle well, but it has some limitations in assessing the vehicle road-friendliness. Then, the sprung mass acceleration and the road damage coefficients are also analyzed under different vehicle design and running parameters at detail. Some conclusions are obtained: low suspension stiffness, high suspension damping and low tire stiffness are all favorable to improve vehicle performance; there is a saturation range of suspension damping enhancing vehicle performance; improving the road surface roughness and avoiding the no-load running are two effective methods to accomplish the better ride comfort and road-friendliness. The suspension stiffness and damping parameters are chosen for optimal parameters matching of road friendliness based on the approximation optimization method.

  20. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D; Barbas, Carmen S V; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-10-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome and the association between occurrence of pulmonary complications and outcome in these patients. Individual patient data analysis. ICU patients not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome at the onset of ventilation. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume. The primary endpoint was development of a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia during hospital stay. Based on the tertiles of tidal volume size in the first 2 days of ventilation, patients were assigned to a "low tidal volume group" (tidal volumes ≤ 7 mL/kg predicted body weight), an "intermediate tidal volume group" (> 7 and volume group" (≥ 10 mL/kg predicted body weight). Seven investigations (2,184 patients) were included. Acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia occurred in 23% of patients in the low tidal volume group, in 28% of patients in the intermediate tidal volume group, and in 31% of the patients in the high tidal volume group (adjusted odds ratio [low vs high tidal volume group], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98; p = 0.042). Occurrence of pulmonary complications was associated with a lower number of ICU-free and hospital-free days and alive at day 28 (10.0 ± 10.9 vs 13.8 ± 11.6 d; p volumes is associated with a lower risk of development of pulmonary complications in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome.