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Sample records for low equation

  1. Chew-Low equations as Cremoma transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerikh, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    The Chew-Low equations for the p-wave pion-nucleon scattering with the crossing-symmetry matrix (3x3) are investigated in their well-known formulation as a system of nonlinear difference equations. These equations interpreted as geometrical transformations are shown to be a special case of the Cremona transformaions. Using the properties of the Cremona transformations we obtain the general 3-parametric functional equation on invariant algebraic and nonalgebraic curves in the space solutions of the Chew- Low equations. It is proved that there exists only one invariant algebraic curve, the parabola corresponding to the well-known solution. Analysis of the general functional equation on invariant nonalgebraic curves makes it possible to select in addition to this parabola 3 invariant forms defining implicitly 3 nonalgebraic curves and to concretize for them the general equation by means of fixing the parameters. From the transformational properties of the invariant forms with respect to the Cremona transformations, there follows an important result that the ration of these forms in proper powers is the general integral of the nonlinear system of the Chew-Low equations, which is an even antiperiodic function. The structure of the second general integral is given and the functional equations which determinne this integral are presented [ru

  2. Crossing-symmetric solutions to low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Crossing symmetric models of the pion-nucleon interaction in which crossing symmetry is kept to lowest order in msub(π)/msub(N) are investigated. Two iterative techniques are developed to solve the crossing-symmetric Low equation. The techniques are used to solve the original Chew-Low equations and their generalizations to include the coupling to the pion-production channels. Small changes are found in comparison with earlier results which used an iterative technique proposed by Chew and Low and which did not produce crossing-symmetric results. The iterative technique of Chew and Low is shown to fail because of its inability to produce zeroes in the amplitude at complex energies while physical solutions to the model require such zeroes. We also prove that, within the class of solutions such that phase shifts approach zero for infinite energy, the solution to the Low equation is unique. (orig.)

  3. Crossing symmetric solution of the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An N/D dispersion theory is developed which solves crossing symmetric Low equations. The method is used to generate crossing symmetric solutions to the Chew-Low model. We show why the technique originally proposed by Chew and Low was incapable of producing solutions. (orig.)

  4. Inverse scattering solution of the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for solving the inverse scattering problem are applied to the Chew-Low equation to obtain the nucleon form factor directly from the experimental phase shifts. A new dispersion relation is derived for the P 11 wave because of its sign-changing phase shift. A self-consistent solution for each channel is obtained, but the universality of form factor is not confirmed. Also, an iterative procedure based on Omnes' method is developed in order to solve coupled-channel, singular integral equations. (orig.)

  5. On a new solution of Chew-Low type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerikh, K.V.

    1985-01-01

    The system is investigated of Chew-Low type equations, defined by the crossing symmetry matrix A(1, 1) for S-matrix elements as dfunctions of the uniformmizing variable w, in terms of which this system is a system of nonlinear difference equations. The quadratic Cremona transformation for unknown functions reducing the initial equations to a vey simple form is found. New particular solutions are obtained as functions of variable exp(cw). Existence of the new first integral γ(w) that is an even periodical function of w is estalished. The structure of the general solution depending on γ(w) and the relation of the found particular solutions with the first integral are discussed

  6. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quimbay, C.J., E-mail: cjquimbayh@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C. (Colombia); CIF, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.

  7. A systematic iterative approach to the equations of low type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear singular integral equations of the Low type appear in the description of π-N scattering amplitude at relativistic energies. The standard iteration solution differs and does not give sufficiently exact results even using the Pade approximation. A new approach is proposed. Its essence lies in a repeated formal simplification of the equation accompanied by a representation of the simplified amplitude in a generalized continued-fractional form. A simple example demonstrate that the new method improves the convergence of previous approach and essentially expands the region of its convergence. From the other side, its nonequivalence to a more complicate Newton-Kantorovich method is shown. In the future more realistic applications of the method one can expect increasing of result reliability

  8. Problems of low-parameter equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, G. G.

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the system approach to problems of low-parametric equations of state (EOS). It is a continuation of the investigations in the field of substantiated prognosis of properties on two levels, molecular and thermodynamic. Two sets of low-parameter EOS have been considered based on two very simple molecular-level models. The first one consists of EOS of van der Waals type (a modification of van der Waals EOS proposed for spheres). The main problem of these EOS is a weak connection with the micro-level, which raise many uncertainties. The second group of EOS has been derived by the author independently of the ideas of van der Waals based on the model of interacting point centers (IPC). All the parameters of the EOS have a meaning and are associated with the manifestation of attractive and repulsive forces. The relationship between them is found to be the control parameter of the thermodynamic level. In this case, EOS IPC passes into a one-parameter family. It is shown that many EOS of vdW-type can be included in the framework of the PC model. Simultaneously, all their parameters acquire a physical meaning.

  9. LOW-TEMPERATURE EQUATION OF STATE OF SOLID METHANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Yakub

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical equation of state for solid methane, developed within the framework of perturbation theory, with the crystal consisting of spherical molecules as zero-order approximation, and octupole – octupole interaction of methane molecules as a perturbation, is proposed. Thermodynamic functions are computed on the sublimation line up to the triple point. The contribution of the octupole – octupole interaction to the thermodynamic properties of solid methane is estimated.

  10. Low-mode truncation methods in the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Chuyu.

    1991-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author studies the chaotic and coherent motions (i.e., low-dimensional chaotic attractor) in some near integrable partial differential equations, particularly the sine-Gordon equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In order to study the motions, he uses low mode truncation methods to reduce these partial differential equations to some truncated models (low-dimensional ordinary differential equations). By applying many methods available to low-dimensional ordinary differential equations, he can understand the low-dimensional chaotic attractor of PDE's much better. However, there are two important questions one needs to answer: (1) How many modes is good enough for the low mode truncated models to capture the dynamics uniformly? (2) Is the chaotic attractor in a low mode truncated model close to the chaotic attractor in the original PDE? And how close is? He has developed two groups of powerful methods to help to answer these two questions. They are the computation methods of continuation and local bifurcation, and local Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov exponents. Using these methods, he concludes that the 2N-nls ODE is a good model for the sine-Gordon equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation provided one chooses a 'good' basis and uses 'enough' modes (where 'enough' depends on the parameters of the system but is small for the parameter studied here). Therefore, one can use 2N-nls ODE to study the chaos of PDE's in more depth

  11. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Miah, M. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Wefel, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of about 10 deg but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 Km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969-1982) of the intensity.

  12. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, T.G.; Miah, M.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Wefel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of ∼10 0 but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969--1982) of the intensity. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  13. Low regularity solutions of the Chern-Simons-Higgs equations in the Lorentz gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Bournaveas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We prove local well-posedness for the 2+1-dimensional Chern-Simons-Higgs equations in the Lorentz gauge with initial data of low regularity. Our result improves earlier results by Huh [10, 11].

  14. Solutions of the Low equation in the no-crossing approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.S.; Nogami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    In solving the Low equation for the Chew-Low model, if the crossing term is dropped a ghost state appears in the repulsive channels for a sufficiently large coupling constant. Ernst et al. suggested recently that this difficulty could be avoided by adopting a solution with a Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) pole in its denominator. Contrary to this suggestion, we show that the inclusion of the CDD pole, rather than avoiding the difficulty, only compounds it. We also reexamine Dyson's interpretation of the ''redundant'' CDD solutions, and point out that the Low equation we study possesses solutions to which Dyson's interpretation does not seem to apply

  15. Analytical calculation of an invariant curve for Chew-Low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    The local structure of the one-parameter set of invariant curves for Chew-Low equations having the form of the convergent series is considered. Coefficients of this series βsub(i)(C) are polynomials in set parameter C. The transition to the general solution of Chew-Low equations is carried out by replacing the parameter C by arbitrary even, real, meromorphic function C(w) with the property C(w+1)=-C(w). The procedure for calculation of coefficients βsub(i)(C), which is based on the solution of nonlinear functional eqtions, following from Chew-Low equations, is developed. First twelve coefficients βsub(i)(C) are calculated analytically by computer, using program system SCHOONSCHIP

  16. Computer local construction of a general solution for the Chew-Low equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    General solution of the dynamic form of the Chew-Low equations in the vicinity of the restpoint is considered. A method for calculating coefficients of series being members of such solution is suggested. The results of calculations, coefficients of power series and expansions carried out by means of the SCHOONSCHIP and SYMBAL systems are given. It is noted that the suggested procedure of the Chew-Low equation solutions basing on using an electronic computer as an instrument for analytical calculations permits to obtain detail information on the local structure of general solution

  17. Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bogaert, Ignace; Cools, Kristof; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Bagci, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers

  18. A solution of the DGLAP equation for gluon at low x

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We obtain a solution of the DGLAP equation for the gluon at low first by expanding the gluon in a Taylor series and then using the method of characteristics. We test its validity by comparing it with that of Glück, Reya and Vogt. The convergence criteria of the approximation used are also discussed. We also calculate ...

  19. The πHe3H3 coupling constant estimation using the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.; Nichitiu, F.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an estimation of the πHe 3 H 3 coupling constant using the Chew-Low equation and a semi-phenomenological analysis of the π -+ He 3 elastic differential cross sections at 98, 120, 135 and 156 MeV

  20. Low equation, pion-nucleon scattering, and Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K.; Nogami, Y.

    1986-01-01

    We examine the p-wave πN scattering at medium energies by means of the Low equation with a view to determining the form factor of the πN interaction. Solutions of the equation with and without a Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) pole are used. The solution with no CDD pole corresponds to the old Chew-Low model, whereas the one with a CDD pole corresponds to the quark version of the Chew-Low model. The πN interaction form factor is determined so that the Δ resonance is well reproduced. We find that the solution with a CDD pole leads to a softer form factor but is not as soft as those expected from the nucleon size in the quark model. Using the solutions and form factors thus determined, we also examine the pionic contributions to the nucleon magnetic moment and the nucleon mass

  1. Lifting index of the niosh lifting equation and low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Remor Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of the Lifting Index obtained through the application of the NIOSH Lifting Equation and the incidence of low back pain among forty-eight workers involved in manual lifting tasks. It was applied the equation in eleven tasks and the workers were interviewed. The most unfavorable conditions presented themselves in the lifting destination. The variables that most contributed to the inadequate values of the Lifting Index were: the horizontal location, the lifting frequency and the vertical distance, beyond the high weight of the load. The incidence of low back pain in the last twelve months was 19%, whereas the incidence of work-related low back pain in the same period was 10%. In 72.7% of the tasks evaluated the Composite Lifting Index was more than three, which are considered as high ergonomic risk.

  2. Coarse-mesh discretized low-order quasi-diffusion equations for subregion averaged scalar fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, D. Y.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we develop homogenization procedure and discretization for the low-order quasi-diffusion equations on coarse grids for core-level reactor calculations. The system of discretized equations of the proposed method is formulated in terms of the subregion averaged group scalar fluxes. The coarse-mesh solution is consistent with a given fine-mesh discretization of the transport equation in the sense that it preserves a set of average values of the fine-mesh transport scalar flux over subregions of coarse-mesh cells as well as the surface currents, and eigenvalue. The developed method generates numerical solution that mimics the large-scale behavior of the transport solution within assemblies. (authors)

  3. Splitting Method for Solving the Coarse-Mesh Discretized Low-Order Quasi-Diffusion Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruta, Hikaru; Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the development is presented of a splitting method that can efficiently solve coarse-mesh discretized low-order quasi-diffusion (LOQD) equations. The LOQD problem can reproduce exactly the transport scalar flux and current. To solve the LOQD equations efficiently, a splitting method is proposed. The presented method splits the LOQD problem into two parts: (a) the D problem that captures a significant part of the transport solution in the central parts of assemblies and can be reduced to a diffusion-type equation and (b) the Q problem that accounts for the complicated behavior of the transport solution near assembly boundaries. Independent coarse-mesh discretizations are applied: the D problem equations are approximated by means of a finite element method, whereas the Q problem equations are discretized using a finite volume method. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of the methodology presented. This methodology can be used to modify existing diffusion codes for full-core calculations (which already solve a version of the D problem) to account for transport effects

  4. Dark energy equation of state parameter and its evolution at low redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Ashutosh; Sangwan, Archana; Jassal, H.K., E-mail: ashutosh_tripathi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: archanakumari@iisermohali.ac.in, E-mail: hkjassal@iisermohali.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, SAS Nagar, Mohali 140306, Punjab (India)

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we constrain dark energy models using a compendium of observations at low redshifts. We consider the dark energy as a barotropic fluid, with the equation of state a constant as well the case where dark energy equation of state is a function of time. The observations considered here are Supernova Type Ia data, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation data and Hubble parameter measurements. We compare constraints obtained from these data and also do a combined analysis. The combined observational constraints put strong limits on variation of dark energy density with redshift. For varying dark energy models, the range of parameters preferred by the supernova type Ia data is in tension with the other low redshift distance measurements.

  5. Enhancement accuracy of approximated solutions of the nonlinear singular integral equations of Chew-Low type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhidkov, E.P.; Nguen Mong; Khoromskij, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The ways of enhancement of the accuracy of approximate solutions of the Chew-Low type equation are considered. Difference schemes are proposed which allow one to obtain solution expansion in degrees of lattice step. On the basis of the expansion by the Richardson method the refinement of approximated solutions is made. Besides, the iteration process is constructed which reduces immediately to the solution of enhanced accuracy. The efficiency of the methods proposed is illustrated by numerical examples

  6. CRPropa 3.1—a low energy extension based on stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, Lukas; Tjus, Julia Becker; Eichmann, Björn [Theoretische Physik IV: Plasma-Astroteilchenphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Fichtner, Horst [Theoretische Physik IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Sigl, Günter, E-mail: lukas.merten@rub.de, E-mail: julia.tjus@rub.de, E-mail: hf@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: eiche@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: guenter.sigl@desy.de [II Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). We developed a new module for the publicly available propagation software CRPropa 3.1, where we implemented an algorithm to solve the transport equation using stochastic differential equations. This technique allows us to use a diffusion tensor which is anisotropic with respect to an arbitrary magnetic background field. The source code of CRPropa is written in C++ with python steering via SWIG which makes it easy to use and computationally fast. In this paper, we present the new low-energy propagation code together with validation procedures that are developed to proof the accuracy of the new implementation. Furthermore, we show first examples of the cosmic ray density evolution, which depends strongly on the ratio of the parallel κ{sub ∥} and perpendicular κ{sub ⊥} diffusion coefficients. This dependency is systematically examined as well the influence of the particle rigidity on the diffusion process.

  7. CRPropa 3.1—a low energy extension based on stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merten, Lukas; Tjus, Julia Becker; Eichmann, Björn; Fichtner, Horst; Sigl, Günter

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). We developed a new module for the publicly available propagation software CRPropa 3.1, where we implemented an algorithm to solve the transport equation using stochastic differential equations. This technique allows us to use a diffusion tensor which is anisotropic with respect to an arbitrary magnetic background field. The source code of CRPropa is written in C++ with python steering via SWIG which makes it easy to use and computationally fast. In this paper, we present the new low-energy propagation code together with validation procedures that are developed to proof the accuracy of the new implementation. Furthermore, we show first examples of the cosmic ray density evolution, which depends strongly on the ratio of the parallel κ ∥ and perpendicular κ ⊥ diffusion coefficients. This dependency is systematically examined as well the influence of the particle rigidity on the diffusion process.

  8. CRPropa 3.1—a low energy extension based on stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Lukas; Becker Tjus, Julia; Fichtner, Horst; Eichmann, Björn; Sigl, Günter

    2017-06-01

    The propagation of charged cosmic rays through the Galactic environment influences all aspects of the observation at Earth. Energy spectrum, composition and arrival directions are changed due to deflections in magnetic fields and interactions with the interstellar medium. Today the transport is simulated with different simulation methods either based on the solution of a transport equation (multi-particle picture) or a solution of an equation of motion (single-particle picture). We developed a new module for the publicly available propagation software CRPropa 3.1, where we implemented an algorithm to solve the transport equation using stochastic differential equations. This technique allows us to use a diffusion tensor which is anisotropic with respect to an arbitrary magnetic background field. The source code of CRPropa is written in C++ with python steering via SWIG which makes it easy to use and computationally fast. In this paper, we present the new low-energy propagation code together with validation procedures that are developed to proof the accuracy of the new implementation. Furthermore, we show first examples of the cosmic ray density evolution, which depends strongly on the ratio of the parallel κ∥ and perpendicular κ⊥ diffusion coefficients. This dependency is systematically examined as well the influence of the particle rigidity on the diffusion process.

  9. Multigrid solution of the Navier-Stokes equations at low speeds with large temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockol, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    Multigrid methods for the Navier-Stokes equations at low speeds and large temperature variations are investigated. The compressible equations with time-derivative preconditioning and preconditioned flux-difference splitting of the inviscid terms are used. Three implicit smoothers have been incorporated into a common multigrid procedure. Both full coarsening and semi-coarsening with directional fine-grid defect correction have been studied. The resulting methods have been tested on four 2D laminar problems over a range of Reynolds numbers on both uniform and highly stretched grids. Two of the three methods show efficient and robust performance over the entire range of conditions. In addition, none of the methods has any difficulty with the large temperature variations

  10. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.

    1981-10-01

    A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency

  11. Weakly intrusive low-rank approximation method for nonlinear parameter-dependent equations

    KAUST Repository

    Giraldi, Loic; Nouy, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a weakly intrusive strategy for computing a low-rank approximation of the solution of a system of nonlinear parameter-dependent equations. The proposed strategy relies on a Newton-like iterative solver which only requires evaluations of the residual of the parameter-dependent equation and of a preconditioner (such as the differential of the residual) for instances of the parameters independently. The algorithm provides an approximation of the set of solutions associated with a possibly large number of instances of the parameters, with a computational complexity which can be orders of magnitude lower than when using the same Newton-like solver for all instances of the parameters. The reduction of complexity requires efficient strategies for obtaining low-rank approximations of the residual, of the preconditioner, and of the increment at each iteration of the algorithm. For the approximation of the residual and the preconditioner, weakly intrusive variants of the empirical interpolation method are introduced, which require evaluations of entries of the residual and the preconditioner. Then, an approximation of the increment is obtained by using a greedy algorithm for low-rank approximation, and a low-rank approximation of the iterate is finally obtained by using a truncated singular value decomposition. When the preconditioner is the differential of the residual, the proposed algorithm is interpreted as an inexact Newton solver for which a detailed convergence analysis is provided. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  12. Weakly intrusive low-rank approximation method for nonlinear parameter-dependent equations

    KAUST Repository

    Giraldi, Loic

    2017-06-30

    This paper presents a weakly intrusive strategy for computing a low-rank approximation of the solution of a system of nonlinear parameter-dependent equations. The proposed strategy relies on a Newton-like iterative solver which only requires evaluations of the residual of the parameter-dependent equation and of a preconditioner (such as the differential of the residual) for instances of the parameters independently. The algorithm provides an approximation of the set of solutions associated with a possibly large number of instances of the parameters, with a computational complexity which can be orders of magnitude lower than when using the same Newton-like solver for all instances of the parameters. The reduction of complexity requires efficient strategies for obtaining low-rank approximations of the residual, of the preconditioner, and of the increment at each iteration of the algorithm. For the approximation of the residual and the preconditioner, weakly intrusive variants of the empirical interpolation method are introduced, which require evaluations of entries of the residual and the preconditioner. Then, an approximation of the increment is obtained by using a greedy algorithm for low-rank approximation, and a low-rank approximation of the iterate is finally obtained by using a truncated singular value decomposition. When the preconditioner is the differential of the residual, the proposed algorithm is interpreted as an inexact Newton solver for which a detailed convergence analysis is provided. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  13. Correction factor determination on failure rate equation of MacLaurin series for low and high mode application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok R. Biyanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety Instrumented Function (SIF is implemented on the system to prevent hazard in process industry. In general, most of SIF implementation in process industry works in low demand condition. Safety valuation of SIF that works in low demand can be solved by using quantitative method. The quantitative method is a simplified exponential equation form of MacLaurin series, which can be called simplified equation. Simplified equation used in high demand condition will generate a higher Safety Integrity Level (SIL and it will affect the higher safety cost. Therefore, the value of low or high demand rate limit should be determined to prevent it. The result of this research is a first order equation that can fix the error of SIL, which arises from the usage of simplified equation, without looking the demand rate limit for low and high demand. This equation is applied for SIL determination on SIF with 1oo1 vote. The new equation from this research is λ = 0.9428 λMC + 1.062E−04 H/P, with 5% average of error, where λMC is a value of λ from the simplified equation, Hazardous event frequency (H is a probabilistic frequency of hazard event and P is Probability of Failure on Demand (PFD in Independent Protection Layers (IPLs. The equation generated from this research could correct SIL of SIF in various H and P. Therefore, SIL design problem could be solved and it provides an appropriate SIL.

  14. Solution of the Chew-Low equations in the quadratic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Zharkov, A.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of the iteration scheme for constructing the general solution of the Chew-Low equations as suggested earlier the second order power contributions are found. In contrast to the linear approximation obtained before the quadratic approximation includes an infinite number of poles on the complex plane of the uniformizing variable w. It is shown that taking into account the second order corrections in the general solution allows us to select the class of solutions possessing the Born pole at w=0. The most cumbersome part of analytical computations has been carried out by computer using the algebraic system REDUCE-2

  15. Transport Equations Resolution By N-BEE Anti-Dissipative Scheme In 2D Model Of Low Pressure Glow Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraloua, B.; Hennad, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine electric and physical properties by 2D modelling of glow discharge low pressure in continuous regime maintained by term constant source. This electric discharge is confined in reactor plan-parallel geometry. This reactor is filled by Argon monatomic gas. Our continuum model the order two is composed the first three moments the Boltzmann's equations coupled with Poisson's equation by self consistent method. These transport equations are discretized by the finite volumes method. The equations system is resolved by a new technique, it is about the N-BEE explicit scheme using the time splitting method.

  16. An implicit turbulence model for low-Mach Roe scheme using truncated Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Gang; Tsubokura, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    The original Roe scheme is well-known to be unsuitable in simulations of turbulence because the dissipation that develops is unsatisfactory. Simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 show that, with the 'low-Mach-fix for Roe' (LMRoe) proposed by Rieper [J. Comput. Phys. 230 (2011) 5263-5287], the Roe dissipation term potentially equates the simulation to an implicit large eddy simulation (ILES) at low Mach number. Thus inspired, a new implicit turbulence model for low Mach numbers is proposed that controls the Roe dissipation term appropriately. Referred to as the automatic dissipation adjustment (ADA) model, the method of solution follows procedures developed previously for the truncated Navier-Stokes (TNS) equations and, without tuning of parameters, uses the energy ratio as a criterion to automatically adjust the upwind dissipation. Turbulent channel flow at two different Reynold numbers and the Taylor-Green vortex were performed to validate the ADA model. In simulations of turbulent channel flow for Reτ = 180 at Mach number of 0.05 using the ADA model, the mean velocity and turbulence intensities are in excellent agreement with DNS results. With Reτ = 950 at Mach number of 0.1, the result is also consistent with DNS results, indicating that the ADA model is also reliable at higher Reynolds numbers. In simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex at Re = 3000, the kinetic energy is consistent with the power law of decaying turbulence with -1.2 exponents for both LMRoe with and without the ADA model. However, with the ADA model, the dissipation rate can be significantly improved near the dissipation peak region and the peak duration can be also more accurately captured. With a firm basis in TNS theory, applicability at higher Reynolds number, and ease in implementation as no extra terms are needed, the ADA model offers to become a promising tool for turbulence modeling.

  17. Scilab software as an alternative low-cost computing in solving the linear equations problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Fahrul; Haviluddin

    2017-02-01

    Numerical computation packages are widely used both in teaching and research. These packages consist of license (proprietary) and open source software (non-proprietary). One of the reasons to use the package is a complexity of mathematics function (i.e., linear problems). Also, number of variables in a linear or non-linear function has been increased. The aim of this paper was to reflect on key aspects related to the method, didactics and creative praxis in the teaching of linear equations in higher education. If implemented, it could be contribute to a better learning in mathematics area (i.e., solving simultaneous linear equations) that essential for future engineers. The focus of this study was to introduce an additional numerical computation package of Scilab as an alternative low-cost computing programming. In this paper, Scilab software was proposed some activities that related to the mathematical models. In this experiment, four numerical methods such as Gaussian Elimination, Gauss-Jordan, Inverse Matrix, and Lower-Upper Decomposition (LU) have been implemented. The results of this study showed that a routine or procedure in numerical methods have been created and explored by using Scilab procedures. Then, the routine of numerical method that could be as a teaching material course has exploited.

  18. Low- and high-density nuclear equation of state and the hyperon puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Giuseppe; Sedrakian, Armen [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-07-01

    The measurements of the unusually high mass of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230 (1.97 ± 0.04 M {sub CircleDot}) imposes a strong constraint on the nuclear Equation of State (EoS), in particular for what concerns the finite density behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. In my talk I first discuss a model for the low-density part of the EoS, based on chiral one-pion exchange. I consider a self-consistent approach at finite temperature and density and show that even in a fully-relativistic theory the one-pion exchange contribution is dominated by a contact interaction. Then, a relativistic mean-field approach is used to discuss the high-density part of the EoS, including the presence of hyperons. In the latter, a density dependent parametrization is used and a parameter study on the hyperon-scalar meson coupling is performed.

  19. Calibration of the 7—Equation Transition Model for High Reynolds Flows at Low Mach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonia, S.; Leble, V.; Steijl, R.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The numerical simulation of flows over large-scale wind turbine blades without considering the transition from laminar to fully turbulent flow may result in incorrect estimates of the blade loads and performance. Thanks to its relative simplicity and promising results, the Local-Correlation based Transition Modelling concept represents a valid way to include transitional effects into practical CFD simulations. However, the model involves coefficients that need tuning. In this paper, the γ—equation transition model is assessed and calibrated, for a wide range of Reynolds numbers at low Mach, as needed for wind turbine applications. An aerofoil is used to evaluate the original model and calibrate it; while a large scale wind turbine blade is employed to show that the calibrated model can lead to reliable solutions for complex three-dimensional flows. The calibrated model shows promising results for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows, even if cross-flow instabilities are neglected.

  20. Clinical and microperimetric predictors of reading speed in low vision patients: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Giovanni; Virgili, Gianni; Giansanti, Fabrizio; Sato, Giovanni; Cappello, Ezio; Cruciani, Filippo; Varano, Monica; Menchini, Ugo

    2013-06-27

    To investigate the simultaneous association of several psychophysical measures with reading ability in patients with mild and moderate low vision attending rehabilitation services. Standard measurements of reading ability (Minnesota Reading [MNREAD] charts), visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] charts), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson charts), reading contrast threshold (Reading Explorer [REX] charts), retinal sensitivity, and fixation stability and localization (Micro Perimeter 1 [MP1] fundus perimetry) were obtained in 160 low vision patients with better eye visual acuity ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution and affected by either age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. All variables were moderately associated with reading performance measures (MNREAD reading speed and reading acuity and REX reading contrast threshold), as well as among each other. In a structural equation model, REX reading contrast threshold was highly associated with MNREAD reading speed (standardized coefficient, 0.63) and moderately associated with reading acuity (standardized coefficient, -0.30). REX test also mediated the effects of Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (standardized coefficient, 0.44), MP1 fixation eccentricity (standardized coefficient, -0.19), and the mean retinal sensitivity (standardized coefficient, 0.23) on reading performance. The MP1 fixation stability was associated with both MNREAD reading acuity (standardized coefficient, -0.24) and MNREAD reading speed (standardized coefficient, 0.23), while ETDRS visual acuity only affected reading acuity (standardized coefficient, 0.44). Fixation instability and contrast sensitivity loss are key factors limiting reading performance of patients with mild or moderate low vision. REX charts directly assess the impact of text contrast on letter recognition and text navigation and may be a useful aid in reading rehabilitation.

  1. Fractional Boltzmann equation for multiple scattering of resonance radiation in low-temperature plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T, E-mail: vuchaikin@gmail.com, E-mail: ren_sib@bk.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, 432000, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-08

    The fractional Boltzmann equation for resonance radiation transport in plasma is proposed. We start with the standard Boltzmann equation; averaging over photon frequencies leads to the appearance of a fractional derivative. This fact is in accordance with the conception of latent variables leading to hereditary and non-local dynamics (in particular, fractional dynamics). The presence of a fractional material derivative in the equation is concordant with heavy tailed distribution of photon path lengths and with spatiotemporal coupling peculiar to the process. We discuss some methods of solving the obtained equation and demonstrate numerical results in some simple cases.

  2. Fractional Boltzmann equation for multiple scattering of resonance radiation in low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T

    2011-01-01

    The fractional Boltzmann equation for resonance radiation transport in plasma is proposed. We start with the standard Boltzmann equation; averaging over photon frequencies leads to the appearance of a fractional derivative. This fact is in accordance with the conception of latent variables leading to hereditary and non-local dynamics (in particular, fractional dynamics). The presence of a fractional material derivative in the equation is concordant with heavy tailed distribution of photon path lengths and with spatiotemporal coupling peculiar to the process. We discuss some methods of solving the obtained equation and demonstrate numerical results in some simple cases.

  3. Low-lying qq(qq)-bar states in a relativistic model based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, B.; Kriss, V.

    1985-01-01

    Low-lying qq(qq)-bar states are analysed in a previously given relativistic model based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is not got M-diquonia, P-mesonia, or meson molecules, but it is got T-diquonia

  4. Low Dimensional Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie Algebras of Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutwig Campoamor-Stursberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A direct approach to non-linear second-order ordinary differential equations admitting a superposition principle is developed by means of Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebras of a dimension not exceeding three. This procedure allows us to describe generic types of second-order ordinary differential equations subjected to some constraints and admitting a given Lie algebra as Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebra. In particular, well-known types, such as the Milne-Pinney or Kummer-Schwarz equations, are recovered as special cases of this classification. The analogous problem for systems of second-order differential equations in the real plane is considered for a special case that enlarges the generalized Ermakov systems.

  5. A new equation of state for porous materials with ultra-low densities

    CERN Document Server

    Geng Hua Yun; Wu Qiang

    2002-01-01

    A thermodynamic equation of state is derived which is appropriate for investigating the thermodynamic variations along isobaric paths to predict compression behaviours of porous materials. This equation-of-state model is tested on porous iron, copper, lead and tungsten with different initial densities. The calculated Hugoniots are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data published previously. This shows that this model can satisfactorily predict the Hugoniots of porous materials with wide porosity and pressure ranges.

  6. Diffusion Coefficient Calculations With Low Order Legendre Polynomial and Chebyshev Polynomial Approximation for the Transport Equation in Spherical Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasa, F.; Anli, F.; Guengoer, S.

    2007-01-01

    We present analytical calculations of spherically symmetric radioactive transfer and neutron transport using a hypothesis of P1 and T1 low order polynomial approximation for diffusion coefficient D. Transport equation in spherical geometry is considered as the pseudo slab equation. The validity of polynomial expansionion in transport theory is investigated through a comparison with classic diffusion theory. It is found that for causes when the fluctuation of the scattering cross section dominates, the quantitative difference between the polynomial approximation and diffusion results was physically acceptable in general

  7. Hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions.

  8. Hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP 3 equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP 3 ) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

  9. Simplified equations for transient heat transfer problems at low Fourier numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Gram; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and validated for infinite slabs, infinite cylinders and spheres and by an industrial application example, covering the center temperature and the volume average temperature. The approach takes ground in the residual difference between a 1 term series solution and a 100 term solution to the Fourier equation...... of the thermal response for solids subjected to convective heat transfer. By representing the residual thermal response as a function of the Biot number and the first eigenvalue, the new approach enables the description of the thermal response in the whole Fourier regime. The presented equation is simple...

  10. Numerical resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a low Mach number by a spectral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohlich, Jochen

    1990-01-01

    The low Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, also called isobar, is an approximation which is less restrictive than the one due to Boussinesq. It permits strong density variations while neglecting acoustic phenomena. We present a numerical method to solve these equations in the unsteady, two dimensional case with one direction of periodicity. The discretization uses a semi-implicit finite difference scheme in time and a Fourier-Chebycheff pseudo-spectral method in space. The solution of the equations of motion is based on an iterative algorithm of Uzawa type. In the Boussinesq limit we obtain a direct method. A first application is concerned with natural convection in the Rayleigh-Benard setting. We compare the results of the low Mach number equations with the ones in the Boussinesq case and consider the influence of variable fluid properties. A linear stability analysis based on a Chebychev-Tau method completes the study. The second application that we treat is a case of isobaric combustion in an open domain. We communicate results for the hydrodynamic Darrieus-Landau instability of a plane laminar flame front. [fr

  11. Solving ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction of spheroidal wave equation at low frequency by supersymmetric quantum mechanics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wen-Lin; Tian Gui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The spheroidal wave functions are found to have extensive applications in many branches of physics and mathematics. We use the perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics to obtain the analytic ground eigenvalue and the ground eigenfunction of the angular spheroidal wave equation at low frequency in a series form. Using this approach, the numerical determinations of the ground eigenvalue and the ground eigenfunction for small complex frequencies are also obtained.

  12. Low-frequency scaling of the standard and mixed magnetic field and Müller integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bogaert, Ignace

    2014-02-01

    The standard and mixed discretizations for the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) and the Müller integral equation (MUIE) are investigated in the context of low-frequency (LF) scattering problems involving simply connected scatterers. It is proved that, at low frequencies, the frequency scaling of the nonsolenoidal part of the solution current can be incorrect for the standard discretization. In addition, it is proved that the frequency scaling obtained with the mixed discretization is correct. The reason for this problem in the standard discretization scheme is the absence of exact solenoidal currents in the rotated RWG finite element space. The adoption of the mixed discretization scheme eliminates this problem and leads to a well-conditioned system of linear equations that remains accurate at low frequencies. Numerical results confirm these theoretical predictions and also show that, when the frequency is lowered, a finer and finer mesh is required to keep the accuracy constant with the standard discretization. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  13. Entropy-based viscous regularization for the multi-dimensional Euler equations in low-Mach and transonic flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc O Delchini; Jean E. Ragusa; Ray A. Berry

    2015-07-01

    We present a new version of the entropy viscosity method, a viscous regularization technique for hyperbolic conservation laws, that is well-suited for low-Mach flows. By means of a low-Mach asymptotic study, new expressions for the entropy viscosity coefficients are derived. These definitions are valid for a wide range of Mach numbers, from subsonic flows (with very low Mach numbers) to supersonic flows, and no longer depend on an analytical expression for the entropy function. In addition, the entropy viscosity method is extended to Euler equations with variable area for nozzle flow problems. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated using various 1-D and 2-D benchmark tests: flow in a converging–diverging nozzle; Leblanc shock tube; slow moving shock; strong shock for liquid phase; low-Mach flows around a cylinder and over a circular hump; and supersonic flow in a compression corner. Convergence studies are performed for smooth solutions and solutions with shocks present.

  14. Boltzmann-equation simulations of radio-frequency-driven, low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drallos, P.J.; Riley, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a method for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation (BE) describing plasma electrons. We apply the method to a capacitively-coupled, radio-frequency-driven He discharge in parallel-plate (quasi-1D) geometry which contains time scales for physical processes spanning six orders of magnitude. Our BE solution procedure uses the method of characteristics for the Vlasov operator with interpolation in phase space at early time, allowing storage of the distribution function on a fixed phase-space grid. By alternating this BE method with a fluid description of the electrons, or with a novel time-cycle-average equation method, we compute the periodic steady state of a He plasma by time evolution from startup conditions. We find that the results compare favorably with measured current-voltage, plasma density, and ''cited state densities in the ''GEC'' Reference Cell. Our atomic He model includes five levels (some are summed composites), 15 electronic transitions, radiation trapping, and metastable-metastable collisions

  15. Boltzmann-equation simulations of radio-frequency-driven, low-temperature plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drallos, P.J.; Riley, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a method for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation (BE) describing plasma electrons. We apply the method to a capacitively-coupled, radio-frequency-driven He discharge in parallel-plate (quasi-1D) geometry which contains time scales for physical processes spanning six orders of magnitude. Our BE solution procedure uses the method of characteristics for the Vlasov operator with interpolation in phase space at early time, allowing storage of the distribution function on a fixed phase-space grid. By alternating this BE method with a fluid description of the electrons, or with a novel time-cycle-average equation method, we compute the periodic steady state of a He plasma by time evolution from startup conditions. We find that the results compare favorably with measured current-voltage, plasma density, and ``cited state densities in the ``GEC`` Reference Cell. Our atomic He model includes five levels (some are summed composites), 15 electronic transitions, radiation trapping, and metastable-metastable collisions.

  16. A low noise discrete velocity method for the Boltzmann equation with quantized rotational and vibrational energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Peter; Varghese, Philip; Goldstein, David

    2018-01-01

    A discrete velocity method is developed for gas mixtures of diatomic molecules with both rotational and vibrational energy states. A full quantized model is described, and rotation-translation and vibration-translation energy exchanges are simulated using a Larsen-Borgnakke exchange model. Elastic and inelastic molecular interactions are modeled during every simulated collision to help produce smooth internal energy distributions. The method is verified by comparing simulations of homogeneous relaxation by our discrete velocity method to numerical solutions of the Jeans and Landau-Teller equations, and to direct simulation Monte Carlo. We compute the structure of a 1D shock using this method, and determine how the rotational energy distribution varies with spatial location in the shock and with position in velocity space.

  17. Low-order modelling of shallow water equations for sensitivity analysis using proper orthogonal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokagoa, Jean-Marie; Soulaïmani, Azzeddine

    2012-06-01

    This article presents a reduced-order model (ROM) of the shallow water equations (SWEs) for use in sensitivity analyses and Monte-Carlo type applications. Since, in the real world, some of the physical parameters and initial conditions embedded in free-surface flow problems are difficult to calibrate accurately in practice, the results from numerical hydraulic models are almost always corrupted with uncertainties. The main objective of this work is to derive a ROM that ensures appreciable accuracy and a considerable acceleration in the calculations so that it can be used as a surrogate model for stochastic and sensitivity analyses in real free-surface flow problems. The ROM is derived using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method coupled with Galerkin projections of the SWEs, which are discretised through a finite-volume method. The main difficulty of deriving an efficient ROM is the treatment of the nonlinearities involved in SWEs. Suitable approximations that provide rapid online computations of the nonlinear terms are proposed. The proposed ROM is applied to the simulation of hypothetical flood flows in the Bordeaux breakwater, a portion of the 'Rivière des Prairies' located near Laval (a suburb of Montreal, Quebec). A series of sensitivity analyses are performed by varying the Manning roughness coefficient and the inflow discharge. The results are satisfactorily compared to those obtained by the full-order finite volume model.

  18. The πHe3H3 coupling constant estimation using the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.; Nichitiu, F.

    1976-01-01

    A semi-phenomenological analysis of the π +- He 3 elastic scattering at 98, 120, 135 and 156 Mev is presented. An information of the πHe 3 H 3 coupling constant using the Chew-Low plot for the P 33 partial wave is obtained. (author)

  19. Improvement of nonlinear diffusion equation using relaxed geometric mean filter for low PSNR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    A new method to improve the performance of low PSNR image denoising is presented. The proposed scheme estimates edge gradient from an image that is regularised with a relaxed geometric mean filter. The proposed method consists of two stages; the first stage consists of a second order nonlinear an...

  20. Ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction of a spin-weighted spheroidal wave equation in low frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wen-Lin; Tian Gui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Spin-weighted spheroidal wave functions play an important role in the study of the linear stability of rotating Kerr black holes and are studied by the perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Their analytic ground eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained by means of a series in low frequency. The ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction for small complex frequencies are numerically determined.

  1. Spatial analysis of galactic cosmic ray particles in low earth orbit/near equator orbit using SPENVIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, W; Zulkeple, S K

    2014-01-01

    The space environment has grown intensively harmful to spacecraft and astronauts. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are one of the radiation sources that composed of high energetic particles originated from space and capable of damaging electronic systems through single event upset (SEU) process. In this paper, we analyzed GCR fluxes at different altitudes by using Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) software and the results are compared to determine their intensities with respect to distance in the Earth's orbit. The altitudes are set at low earth orbit (400 km and 685 km), medium earth orbit (19,100 km and 20,200 km) and high earth orbit (35,793 km and 1,000,000 km). Then, within Low Earth Orbit (LEO) near the equator (NEqO), we used altitude of 685 km to compare GCRs with the intensities of solar particles and trapped particles in the radiation belt to determine the significance of GCRs in the orbit itself.

  2. Low-frequency logarithmic discretization of the reservoir spectrum for improving the efficiency of hierarchical equations of motion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, LvZhou; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Wang, Yao; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing

    2017-08-21

    An efficient low-frequency logarithmic discretization (LFLD) scheme for the decomposition of fermionic reservoir spectrum is proposed for the investigation of quantum impurity systems. The scheme combines the Padé spectrum decomposition (PSD) and a logarithmic discretization of the residual part in which the parameters are determined based on an extension of the recently developed minimum-dissipaton ansatz [J. J. Ding et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 204110 (2016)]. A hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach is then employed to validate the proposed scheme by examining the static and dynamic system properties in both the Kondo and noninteracting regimes. The LFLD scheme requires a much smaller number of exponential functions than the conventional PSD scheme to reproduce the reservoir correlation function and thus facilitates the efficient implementation of the HEOM approach in extremely low temperature regimes.

  3. Peculiarities of solutions to the Chew Low equation in the no crossing approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    We show that the canonical presciption for finding a solution to the static Chew-Low theory of the pion-nucleon interaction breaks down for physically acceptable values of the coupling constant and form factor, if crossing symmetry is dropped. The difficulty is associated with the appearance of a pole (whose behavior is similar to a 'ghost state' pole) in the scattering amplitude in repulsive channels. We show that solutions without this pole can be obtained by including CDD poles in the denominator function, giving rise to a zero in the amplitude or the positive real axis. (orig.) [de

  4. Formulation of Low Peclet Number Based Grid Expansion Factor for the Solution of the Convection Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Convection-diffusion problems, due to its fundamental nature, are found in various science and engineering applications. In this research, the importance of the relationship between grid structure and flow parameters in such problems is emphasized. In particular, we propose a systematic technique in the selection of the grid expansion factor based on its logarithmic relationship with low Peclet number. Such linear mathematical connection between the two non-dimensional parameters serves as a guideline for more structured decision-making and improves the heuristic process in the determination of the computational domain grid for the numerical solution of convection-diffusion equations especially in the prediction of the concentration of the scalar. Results confirm the effectiveness of the new approach.

  5. The NIOSH lifting equation and low-back pain, Part 1: Association with low-back pain in the backworks prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Boda, Sruthi; Hegmann, Kurt T; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M; Bhoyar, Parag; Thiese, Matthew S; Merryweather, Andrew; Deckow-Schaefer, Gwen; Bloswick, Donald; Malloy, Elizabeth J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between the revised NIOSH lifting equation (RNLE) and risk of low-back pain (LBP). The RNLE is commonly used to quantify job physical stressors to the low back from lifting and/or lowering of loads. There is no prospective study on the relationship between RNLE and LBP that includes accounting for relevant covariates. A cohort of 258 incident-eligible workers from 30 diverse facilities was followed for up to 4.5 years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies, and current LBP were obtained at baseline. The cohort was followed monthly to ascertain development of LBP and quarterly to determine changes in job physical exposure. The relationship between LBP and peak lifting index (PLI) and peak composite lifting index (PCLI) were tested in multivariate models using proportional hazards regression. Point and lifetime prevalences of LBP at baseline were 7.1% and 75.1%, respectively. During follow-up, there were 123 incident LBP cases. Factors predicting development of LBP included job physical exposure (PLI and PCLI), history of LBP, psychosocial factors, and housework. In adjusted models, risk (hazard ratio [HR]) increased per-unit increase in PLI and PCLI (p = .05 and .02; maximum HR = 4.3 and 4.2, respectively). PLI suggested a continuous increase in risk with an increase in PLI, whereas the PCLI showed elevated, but somewhat reduced, risk at higher exposures. Job physical stressors are associated with increased risk of LBP. Data suggest that the PLI and PCLI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to job physical stressors.

  6. Coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model for photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, Tanja; Vauhkonen, Marko; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arridge, Simon R; Kaipio, Jari P

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a coupled radiative transfer equation and diffusion approximation model is extended for light propagation in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions. The light propagation is modelled with the radiative transfer equation in sub-domains in which the assumptions of the diffusion approximation are not valid. The diffusion approximation is used elsewhere in the domain. The two equations are coupled through their boundary conditions and they are solved simultaneously using the finite element method. The streamline diffusion modification is used to avoid the ray-effect problem in the finite element solution of the radiative transfer equation. The proposed method is tested with simulations. The results of the coupled model are compared with the finite element solutions of the radiative transfer equation and the diffusion approximation and with results of Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the coupled model can be used to describe photon migration in turbid medium with low-scattering and non-scattering regions more accurately than the conventional diffusion model

  7. Hybrid radiosity-SP{sub 3} equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xueli, E-mail: xlchen@xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: jimleung@mail.xidian.edu.cn; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin, E-mail: xlchen@xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: jimleung@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-01-14

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP{sub 3} equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP{sub 3}) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions.

  8. Self-Consistent System of Equations for a Kinetic Description of the Low-Pressure Discharges Accounting for the Nonlocal and Collisionless Electron Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Polomarov, Oleg

    2003-01-01

    In low-pressure discharges, when the electron mean free path is larger or comparable with the discharge length, the electron dynamics is essentially non-local. Moreover, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) deviates considerably from a Maxwellian. Therefore, an accurate kinetic description of the low-pressure discharges requires knowledge of the non-local conductivity operator and calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The previous treatments made use of simplifying assumptions: a uniform density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of nonlocal, non-uniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is derived. It consists of the nonlocal conductivity operator and the averaged kinetic equation for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The importance of accounting for the non-uniform plasma density profile on both the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated

  9. Regional regression equations for the estimation of selected monthly low-flow duration and frequency statistics at ungaged sites on streams in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; McHugh, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Regional regression equations were developed for estimating monthly flow-duration and monthly low-flow frequency statistics for ungaged streams in Coastal Plain and non-coastal regions of New Jersey for baseline and current land- and water-use conditions. The equations were developed to estimate 87 different streamflow statistics, which include the monthly 99-, 90-, 85-, 75-, 50-, and 25-percentile flow-durations of the minimum 1-day daily flow; the August–September 99-, 90-, and 75-percentile minimum 1-day daily flow; and the monthly 7-day, 10-year (M7D10Y) low-flow frequency. These 87 streamflow statistics were computed for 41 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) with 20 or more years of record and 167 low-flow partial-record stations in New Jersey with 10 or more streamflow measurements. The regression analyses used to develop equations to estimate selected streamflow statistics were performed by testing the relation between flow-duration statistics and low-flow frequency statistics for 32 basin characteristics (physical characteristics, land use, surficial geology, and climate) at the 41 streamgages and 167 low-flow partial-record stations. The regression analyses determined drainage area, soil permeability, average April precipitation, average June precipitation, and percent storage (water bodies and wetlands) were the significant explanatory variables for estimating the selected flow-duration and low-flow frequency statistics. Streamflow estimates were computed for two land- and water-use conditions in New Jersey—land- and water-use during the baseline period of record (defined as the years a streamgage had little to no change in development and water use) and current land- and water-use conditions (1989–2008)—for each selected station using data collected through water year 2008. The baseline period of record is representative of a period when the basin was unaffected by change in development. The current period is

  10. Computing Low-Rank Approximation of a Dense Matrix on Multicore CPUs with a GPU and Its Application to Solving a Hierarchically Semiseparable Linear System of Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichitaro Yamazaki

    2015-01-01

    of their low-rank properties. To compute a low-rank approximation of a dense matrix, in this paper, we study the performance of QR factorization with column pivoting or with restricted pivoting on multicore CPUs with a GPU. We first propose several techniques to reduce the postprocessing time, which is required for restricted pivoting, on a modern CPU. We then examine the potential of using a GPU to accelerate the factorization process with both column and restricted pivoting. Our performance results on two eight-core Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs with one NVIDIA Kepler GPU demonstrate that using the GPU, the factorization time can be reduced by a factor of more than two. In addition, to study the performance of our implementations in practice, we integrate them into a recently developed software StruMF which algebraically exploits such low-rank structures for solving a general sparse linear system of equations. Our performance results for solving Poisson's equations demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly reduce the preconditioner construction time of StruMF on the CPUs, and the construction time can be further reduced by 10%–50% using the GPU.

  11. A hybrid stochastic hierarchy equations of motion approach to treat the low temperature dynamics of non-Markovian open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Jeremy M.; Cao, Jianshu

    2013-10-01

    The hierarchical equations of motion technique has found widespread success as a tool to generate the numerically exact dynamics of non-Markovian open quantum systems. However, its application to low temperature environments remains a serious challenge due to the need for a deep hierarchy that arises from the Matsubara expansion of the bath correlation function. Here we present a hybrid stochastic hierarchical equation of motion (sHEOM) approach that alleviates this bottleneck and leads to a numerical cost that is nearly independent of temperature. Additionally, the sHEOM method generally converges with fewer hierarchy tiers allowing for the treatment of larger systems. Benchmark calculations are presented on the dynamics of two level systems at both high and low temperatures to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach. Then the hybrid method is used to generate the exact dynamics of systems that are nearly impossible to treat by the standard hierarchy. First, exact energy transfer rates are calculated across a broad range of temperatures revealing the deviations from the Förster rates. This is followed by computations of the entanglement dynamics in a system of two qubits at low temperature spanning the weak to strong system-bath coupling regimes.

  12. Electronic structure and transport in the low-temperature thermoelectric CsBi4Te6: Semiclassical transport equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Lars; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Madsen, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The band structure of the low-temperature thermoelectric material, CsBi4Te6, is calculated and analyzed using the semiclassic transport equations. It is shown that to obtain a quantitative agreement with measured transport properties, a band gap of 0.08 eV must be enforced. A gap in reasonable...... agreement with experiment was obtained using the generalized gradient functional of Engel and Vosko [E. Engel and S. H. Vosko, Phys. Rev. B 47, 13164 (1993)]. We found that the experimental p-type sample has a carrier concentration close to optimal. Furthermore, the conduction bands have a form equally well...

  13. Solution of the Eliashberg equations for a very strong electron-phonon coupling with a low-energy cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weger, M.; Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Peter, M.; Santi, G.

    1995-01-01

    We solve the Eliashberg equations for the case of an explicit vector k dependence of the interactions, and of the resulting self-energies Σ 1 ( vector k,ω), Σ 2 ( vector k,ω). We consider a strong energy-dependence of the electron-electron scattering-rate τ ee -1 , which is associated with a strong energy-dependence of the electron-phonon matrix element g(k,k'). We characterize this energy-dependence by a cutoff ξ 1 , which is of the order of the phonon frequency ω ph . We find that we can account for a large number of unexpected features of the superconductivity of the cuprates by the BCS electron-phonon theory, if we consider very large values of the McMillan coupling constant λ ph , and small values of the cutoff ξ 1 . Specifically, the Coulomb interaction is found not to depress T c ; the isotope effect is strongly reduced when ξ 1 ph . We find solutions in which the gap function Δ( vector k,ω) has extended s-wave symmetry but is very anisotropic. We suggest that the underlying cause of the strong energy-dependence is a very small electronic screening parameter at the Fermi surface; the electron-phonon matrix element g is abnormally large, and this accounts for the high transition temperatures of the cuprates. An order of magnitude estimate suggests that the electron-phonon mechanism can account for transition temperatures up to about 200 K. We thus propose a very-strong-coupling theory, in which the renormalization functions, in particular the energy-renormalization X, depend very strongly on the superconducting gap Δ, and thus display a very strong temperature-dependence between T c and T=0. An experimental manifestation of the very strong coupling with a small cutoff is a zero bias anomaly sometimes observed in tunneling experiments. (orig.)

  14. Integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco

  15. Low RMRratio as a Surrogate Marker for Energy Deficiency, the Choice of Predictive Equation Vital for Correctly Identifying Male and Female Ballet Dancers at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Sarah; Sjödin, Anders; Fahrenholtz, Ida; Bonnesen, Karen; Melin, Anna Katarina

    2018-06-22

    Ballet dancers are reported to have an increased risk for energy deficiency with or without disordered eating behavior. A low ratio between measured ( m ) and predicted ( p ) resting metabolic rate (RMR ratio  energy deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of suppressed RMR using different methods to calculate p RMR and to explore associations with additional markers of energy deficiency. Female (n = 20) and male (n = 20) professional ballet dancers, 19-35 years of age, were enrolled. m RMR was assessed by respiratory calorimetry (ventilated open hood). p RMR was determined using the Cunningham and Harris-Benedict equations, and different tissue compartments derived from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment. The protocol further included assessment of body composition and bone mineral density, blood pressure, disordered eating (Eating Disorder Inventory-3), and for females, the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire. The prevalence of suppressed RMR was generally high but also clearly dependent on the method used to calculate p RMR, ranging from 25% to 80% in males and 35% to 100% in females. Five percent had low bone mineral density, whereas 10% had disordered eating and 25% had hypotension. Forty percent of females had elevated Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score and 50% were underweight. Suppressed RMR was associated with elevated Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score in females and with higher training volume in males. In conclusion, professional ballet dancers are at risk for energy deficiency. The number of identified dancers at risk varies greatly depending on the method used to predict RMR when using RMR ratio as a marker for energy deficiency.

  16. Computed statistics at streamgages, and methods for estimating low-flow frequency statistics and development of regional regression equations for estimating low-flow frequency statistics at ungaged locations in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Rodney E.

    2013-01-01

    The weather and precipitation patterns in Missouri vary considerably from year to year. In 2008, the statewide average rainfall was 57.34 inches and in 2012, the statewide average rainfall was 30.64 inches. This variability in precipitation and resulting streamflow in Missouri underlies the necessity for water managers and users to have reliable streamflow statistics and a means to compute select statistics at ungaged locations for a better understanding of water availability. Knowledge of surface-water availability is dependent on the streamflow data that have been collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey for more than 100 years at approximately 350 streamgages throughout Missouri. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, computed streamflow statistics at streamgages through the 2010 water year, defined periods of drought and defined methods to estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged locations, and developed regional regression equations to compute selected streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. Streamflow statistics and flow durations were computed for 532 streamgages in Missouri and in neighboring States of Missouri. For streamgages with more than 10 years of record, Kendall’s tau was computed to evaluate for trends in streamflow data. If trends were detected, the variable length method was used to define the period of no trend. Water years were removed from the dataset from the beginning of the record for a streamgage until no trend was detected. Low-flow frequency statistics were then computed for the entire period of record and for the period of no trend if 10 or more years of record were available for each analysis. Three methods are presented for computing selected streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. The first method uses power curve equations developed for 28 selected streams in Missouri and neighboring States that have multiple streamgages on the same streams. Statistical

  17. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, FG

    2013-01-01

    Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff

  18. Analysis of motion of inverted pendulum with vibrating suspension axis at low-frequency excitation as an illustration of a new approach for solving equations without explicit small parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    . Vibration intensity is assumed to be relatively low. A new modification of the method of direct separation of motions (MDSM) is proposed to study the corresponding equation which in the considered case does not contain a small parameter explicitly. The aim is to obtain solutions of this equation...... in the stability domain. It is revealed that in the considered range of parameters not only the effective stiffness of the system changes due to the external loading, but also its effective mass. Applicability of the proposed approach for solving non-linear equations without small parameter is demonstrated...

  19. Differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained.

  20. Thermodynamic modelling and parametric study of a low temperature vapour compression-absorption system based on modified Gouy-Stodola equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Sachdeva, Gulshan; Kachhwaha, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Present paper thermodynamically analyses a VCAS (vapour compression-absorption system) with carbon dioxide (compression section) and ammonia-water (absorption section) as refrigerants and determines the optimal condensing temperature of cascade condenser using modified Gouy-Stodola equation. The optimum cascade condenser temperature is found to be −13 °C for 175 kW refrigeration capacity at an evaporator temperature of −45 °C and condenser temperature of 35 °C. The optimum cascade condenser temperature maximises the overall COP, rational efficiency and minimises the total irreversibility rate of the VCAS system. The value of optimum condensing temperature and its corresponding maximum COP, and minimum irreversibility rate are discussed for a wide range of operating conditions. Further, a comparative study of TSVCS (two stage vapour compression system) used for low temperature refrigeration applications with VCAS shows that at design point, primary energy consumption is reduced by 60.6% and electrical COP is improved by 153.6% in VCAS as compared to conventional TSVCS. But the total irreversibility rate of VCAS is 38.4% higher than the TSVCS due to the use of low grade energy in vapour absorption system and hence the rational efficiency of VCAS is 14% low. - Highlights: • Optimum cascade condenser temperature with modified Gouy-Stodola law is analysed. • It maximises COP, rational efficiency and minimises total irreversibility. • 60.6% of primary energy is saved by cascaded absorption system. • Electrical COP is improved by 153.6% with cascaded absorption system

  1. An analysis of supersonic flows with low-Reynolds number compressible two-equation turbulence models using LU finite volume implicit numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1994-01-01

    A generalized flow solver using an implicit Lower-upper (LU) diagonal decomposition based numerical technique has been coupled with three low-Reynolds number kappa-epsilon models for analysis of problems with engineering applications. The feasibility of using the LU technique to obtain efficient solutions to supersonic problems using the kappa-epsilon model has been demonstrated. The flow solver is then used to explore limitations and convergence characteristics of several popular two equation turbulence models. Several changes to the LU solver have been made to improve the efficiency of turbulent flow predictions. In general, the low-Reynolds number kappa-epsilon models are easier to implement than the models with wall-functions, but require much finer near-wall grid to accurately resolve the physics. The three kappa-epsilon models use different approaches to characterize the near wall regions of the flow. Therefore, the limitations imposed by the near wall characteristics have been carefully resolved. The convergence characteristics of a particular model using a given numerical technique are also an important, but most often overlooked, aspect of turbulence model predictions. It is found that some convergence characteristics could be sacrificed for more accurate near-wall prediction. However, even this gain in accuracy is not sufficient to model the effects of an external pressure gradient imposed by a shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction. Additional work on turbulence models, especially for compressibility, is required since the solutions obtained with base line turbulence are in only reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the viscous interaction problems.

  2. Bernoulli's Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    regarding nature of forces hold equally for liquids, even though the ... particle. Figure A. A fluid particle is a very small imaginary blob of fluid, here shown sche- matically in .... picture gives important information about the flow field. ... Bernoulli's equation is derived assuming ideal flow, .... weight acting in the flow direction S is.

  3. Relativistic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.

    1986-01-01

    Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs

  4. Modeling Floor Effects in Standardized Vocabulary Test Scores in a Sample of Low SES Hispanic Preschool Children under the Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leina Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners often use standardized vocabulary tests such as the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4; Dunn and Dunn, 2007 and its companion, the Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 (EVT-2; Williams, 2007, to assess English vocabulary skills as an indicator of children's school readiness. Despite their psychometric excellence in the norm sample, issues arise when standardized vocabulary tests are used to asses children from culturally, linguistically and ethnically diverse backgrounds (e.g., Spanish-speaking English language learners or delayed in some manner. One of the biggest challenges is establishing the appropriateness of these measures with non-English or non-standard English speaking children as often they score one to two standard deviations below expected levels (e.g., Lonigan et al., 2013. This study re-examines the issues in analyzing the PPVT-4 and EVT-2 scores in a sample of 4-to-5-year-old low SES Hispanic preschool children who were part of a larger randomized clinical trial on the effects of a supplemental English shared-reading vocabulary curriculum (Pollard-Durodola et al., 2016. It was found that data exhibited strong floor effects and the presence of floor effects made it difficult to differentiate the invention group and the control group on their vocabulary growth in the intervention. A simulation study is then presented under the multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM framework and results revealed that in regular multilevel data analysis, ignoring floor effects in the outcome variables led to biased results in parameter estimates, standard error estimates, and significance tests. Our findings suggest caution in analyzing and interpreting scores of ethnically and culturally diverse children on standardized vocabulary tests (e.g., floor effects. It is recommended appropriate analytical methods that take into account floor effects in outcome variables should be considered.

  5. Vulnerability of a low-income community in South Africa to air pollution: Exploring the use of structural equations modelling to identify appropriate interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available diseases that affect their immune system. Structural equations modelling was used to capture the possible web of relationships between the household traits and a combined respiratory health outcome variable. Specifically, the two traits considered...

  6. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  7. Energy master equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1995-01-01

    energies chosen randomly according to a Gaussian. The random-walk model is here derived from Newton's laws by making a number of simplifying assumptions. In the second part of the paper an approximate low-temperature description of energy fluctuations in the random-walk model—the energy master equation...... (EME)—is arrived at. The EME is one dimensional and involves only energy; it is derived by arguing that percolation dominates the relaxational properties of the random-walk model at low temperatures. The approximate EME description of the random-walk model is expected to be valid at low temperatures...... of the random-walk model. The EME allows a calculation of the energy probability distribution at realistic laboratory time scales for an arbitrarily varying temperature as function of time. The EME is probably the only realistic equation available today with this property that is also explicitly consistent...

  8. Low-dimensional representations of exact coherent states of the Navier-Stokes equations from the resolvent model of wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ati S; Moarref, Rashad; McKeon, Beverley J; Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D; Willis, Ashley P

    2016-02-01

    We report that many exact invariant solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for both pipe and channel flows are well represented by just a few modes of the model of McKeon and Sharma [J. Fluid Mech. 658, 336 (2010)]. This model provides modes that act as a basis to decompose the velocity field, ordered by their amplitude of response to forcing arising from the interaction between scales. The model was originally derived from the Navier-Stokes equations to represent turbulent flows and has been used to explain coherent structure and to predict turbulent statistics. This establishes a surprising new link between the two distinct approaches to understanding turbulence.

  9. Differential Equations Compatible with KZ Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, G.; Markov, Y.; Tarasov, V.; Varchenko, A.

    2000-01-01

    We define a system of 'dynamical' differential equations compatible with the KZ differential equations. The KZ differential equations are associated to a complex simple Lie algebra g. These are equations on a function of n complex variables z i taking values in the tensor product of n finite dimensional g-modules. The KZ equations depend on the 'dual' variable in the Cartan subalgebra of g. The dynamical differential equations are differential equations with respect to the dual variable. We prove that the standard hypergeometric solutions of the KZ equations also satisfy the dynamical equations. As an application we give a new determinant formula for the coordinates of a basis of hypergeometric solutions

  10. Domain decomposition method using a hybrid parallelism and a low-order acceleration for solving the Sn transport equation on unstructured geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odry, Nans

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic calculation schemes are devised to numerically solve the neutron transport equation in nuclear reactors. Dealing with core-sized problems is very challenging for computers, so much that the dedicated core calculations have no choice but to allow simplifying assumptions (assembly- then core scale steps..). The PhD work aims at overcoming some of these approximations: thanks to important changes in computer architecture and capacities (HPC), nowadays one can solve 3D core-sized problems, using both high mesh refinement and the transport operator. It is an essential step forward in order to perform, in the future, reference calculations using deterministic schemes. This work focuses on a spatial domain decomposition method (DDM). Using massive parallelism, DDM allows much more ambitious computations in terms of both memory requirements and calculation time. Developments were performed inside the Sn core solver Minaret, from the new CEA neutronics platform APOLLO3. Only fast reactors (hexagonal periodicity) are considered, even if all kinds of geometries can be dealt with, using Minaret. The work has been divided in four steps: 1) The spatial domain decomposition with no overlap is inserted into the standard algorithmic structure of Minaret. The fundamental idea involves splitting a core-sized problem into smaller, independent, spatial sub-problems. angular flux is exchanged between adjacent sub-domains. In doing so, all combined sub-problems converge to the global solution at the outcome of an iterative process. Various strategies were explored regarding both data management and algorithm design. Results (k eff and flux) are systematically compared to the reference in a numerical verification step. 2) Introducing more parallelism is an unprecedented opportunity to heighten performances of deterministic schemes. Domain decomposition is particularly suited to this. A two-layer hybrid parallelism strategy, suited to HPC, is chosen. It benefits from the

  11. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  12. Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis.

  13. Equating error in observed-score equating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of

  14. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D.

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M ☉ neutron star, 5.6 M ☉ black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M 2 = 0.9) system with the K 0 = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M ☉ of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M ☉ forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y e of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L ν ∼ 10 54 erg s –1 ), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution

  15. BLACK HOLE-NEUTRON STAR MERGERS WITH A HOT NUCLEAR EQUATION OF STATE: OUTFLOW AND NEUTRINO-COOLED DISK FOR A LOW-MASS, HIGH-SPIN CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Foucart, Francois; O' Connor, Evan [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D., E-mail: mbdeaton@wsu.edu, E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.

  16. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da, E-mail: deciobr@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: cdsilva@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Departamento DDD.O - Física de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  17. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  18. Comment on 'The equations for electronegative plasmas are not singular at the plasma centre at low pressures' by R N Franklin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, Martin; Manheimer, Wallace M; Fernsler, Richard F; Slinker, Steven P; Joyce, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Franklin's criticism (Franklin R N 2005 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 2790) of our previous paper (Lampe M et al 2004 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 13 15-26) is based on three arguments: (1) that the limit of weak attachment is equivalent to low pressure, where our model is inappropriate; (2) that our use of the T n → 0 limit is inappropriate; (3) that the negative ion density n n is never singular at the centre. We point out that the weak attachment limit also corresponds (at high pressure) to low fraction of attaching gas, give conditions for the T n → 0 limit and discuss its consequences, and reiterate that we never argued that n n (0) is infinite, but rather discussed a quite different type of singularity. This correspondence is now closed. (comment)

  19. Chemical Equation Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN)

  20. Crystalline plasticity constitutive equations for BCC steel at low temperature; Loi de comportement en plasticite cristalline pour acier a basse temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnet, G. [EDF RD, MMC, Avenue des Renardieres, Ecuelles, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France); Vincent, L. [CEA Saclay, DEN, SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    The prediction of the irradiation-induced evolution of the ductile-fragile transition curve of pressure vessel steels is a major research topic in the nuclear industry. Multi-scale approaches starting from ab initio scale up to macroscopic continuum mechanics are currently investigated through the European project PERFORM60. At the intermediate level of crystal plasticity, several effects need to be described accurately before considering the introduction of irradiation hardening mechanisms, such as the thermal activity of dislocations slip, the different mobilities between screw and edge dislocations at low temperature. These effects should be introduced in a crystal plasticity law used in finite-element simulations of polycrystalline aggregates. Accordingly, a new crystal plasticity law is proposed in this paper based on a critical analysis of previous numerical results obtained with a discrete dislocations dynamics code. (authors)

  1. Low RMRratio as a surrogate marker for energy deficiency, the choice of predictive equation vital for correctly identifying male and female ballet dancers at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staal, Sarah; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl

    2018-01-01

    Ballet dancers are reported to have an increased risk for energy deficiency with or without disordered eating (DE) behavior. A low ratio between measured (m) and predicted (p) resting metabolic rate (RMRratio... the prevalence of suppressed RMR using different methods to calculatepRMR and to explore associations with additional markers of energy deficiency. Female (n=20) and male (n=20) professional ballet dancers, 19-35 years of age were enrolled. mRMR was assessed by respiratory calorimetry (ventilated open hood). p......% hypotension. Forty percent of females had elevated LEAF-Q score, and 50% were underweight. Suppressed RMR was associated with elevated LEAF-Q score in females and with higher training volume in males. In conclusion, professional ballet dancers are at risk for energy deficiency. The number of identified...

  2. On the renormalization group equations of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    The renormalization group equations of quantum electrodynamics are discussed. The solution of the Gell-Mann-Low equation is presented in a convenient form. The interrelation between the Nishijima-Tomozawa equation and the Gell-Mann-Low equation is clarified. The reciprocal effective charge, so to speak, turns out to play an important role to discuss renormalization group equations. Arguments are given that the reciprocal effective charge vanishes as the renormalization momentum tends to infinity. (author)

  3. Handbook of integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Polyanin, Andrei D

    2008-01-01

    This handbook contains over 2,500 integral equations with solutions as well as analytical and numerical methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations. It explores Volterra, Fredholm, WienerHopf, Hammerstein, Uryson, and other equations that arise in mathematics, physics, engineering, the sciences, and economics. This second edition includes new chapters on mixed multidimensional equations and methods of integral equations for ODEs and PDEs, along with over 400 new equations with exact solutions. With many examples added for illustrative purposes, it presents new material on Volterra, Fredholm, singular, hypersingular, dual, and nonlinear integral equations, integral transforms, and special functions.

  4. Introduction to differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulations of problems in physics, economics, biology, and other sciences are usually embodied in differential equations. The analysis of the resulting equations then provides new insight into the original problems. This book describes the tools for performing that analysis. The first chapter treats single differential equations, emphasizing linear and nonlinear first order equations, linear second order equations, and a class of nonlinear second order equations arising from Newton's laws. The first order linear theory starts with a self-contained presentation of the exponen

  5. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  6. Benney's long wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Benney's equations of motion of incompressible nonviscous fluid with free surface in the approximation of long waves are analyzed. The connection between the Lie algebra of Hamilton plane vector fields and the Benney's momentum equations is shown

  7. Fractional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations

  8. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  9. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  10. Averaged RMHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    A new reduced set of resistive MHD equations is derived by averaging the full MHD equations on specified flux coordinates, which is consistent with 3D equilibria. It is confirmed that the total energy is conserved and the linearized equations for ideal modes are self-adjoint. (author)

  11. Solving the relativistic inverse scattering problem on the basis of n/d equations and application of the resulting solution to analysis of pion-nucleon interaction at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The pion-nucleon dynamics is one of the most fundamental problems in nuclear and particle physics. It is now widely believed that QCD is fundamental theory of strong interactions. On this basis all hadron-hadron interactions are completely determined by the underlying quark-gluon dynamics. However, due to the formidable mathematical problems raised by the non-perturbative character of QCD at low and intermediate energies, we are still far from a quantitative understanding hadron-hadron interactions from this point of view. Recently the relativistic approaches to constructing effective interaction operators between strongly interacting composite particles has been proposed on the basis of analytic S-matrix theory and methods for solving the inverse quantum scattering problem. The kernel of Marchenko equation in theory of inverse scattering problem can be expressed in terms of the discontinuity of the partial wave amplitude on dynamic cut in the complex s=k 2 plane, k being the relative momentum of colliding particles. The discontinuities of partial-wave amplitudes are determined by model-independent quantities (renormalized vertex constants and amplitudes of sub-processes involving on-mass-shell particles off physical region) and can be calculated by methods of relativistic quantum field theory within various dynamical approaches. In particular, effective field theory can be used to calculate the discontinuities across dynamical cuts closest to physical region. In present work a new manifestly Poincare-invariant approach to solving the inverse scattering problem is developed with allowance for inelasticity effects. The equations of the N/D method are used as dynamical equations in this approach. With the help of N/D-equations it was earlier shown that solution of a scattering problem in case of nonzero angular momentum does not exist for arbitrary discontinuity of partial-wave amplitude. The method is elaborated allowing to determine contributions of

  12. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  13. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  14. On separable Pauli equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalij, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

  15. Functional equations with causal operators

    CERN Document Server

    Corduneanu, C

    2003-01-01

    Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.

  16. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  17. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  18. Differential equations for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

  19. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  20. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  1. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  2. Reactimeter dispersion equation

    OpenAIRE

    A.G. Yuferov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to derive and analyze a reactimeter metrological model in the form of the dispersion equation which connects reactimeter input/output signal dispersions with superimposed random noise at the inlet. It is proposed to standardize the reactimeter equation form, presenting the main reactimeter computing unit by a convolution equation. Hence, the reactimeter metrological characteristics are completely determined by this unit hardware function which represents a transient re...

  3. Differential equations I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Differential Equations I covers first- and second-order equations, series solutions, higher-order linear equations, and the Laplace transform.

  4. A new evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laenen, E.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new evolution equation for the gluon density relevant for the region of small x B . It generalizes the GLR equation and allows deeper penetration in dense parton systems than the GLR equation does. This generalization consists of taking shadowing effects more comprehensively into account by including multigluon correlations, and allowing for an arbitrary initial gluon distribution in a hadron. We solve the new equation for fixed α s . We find that the effects of multigluon correlations on the deep-inelastic structure function are small. (orig.)

  5. JWL Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-15

    The JWL equation of state (EOS) is frequently used for the products (and sometimes reactants) of a high explosive (HE). Here we review and systematically derive important properties. The JWL EOS is of the Mie-Grueneisen form with a constant Grueneisen coefficient and a constants specific heat. It is thermodynamically consistent to specify the temperature at a reference state. However, increasing the reference state temperature restricts the EOS domain in the (V, e)-plane of phase space. The restrictions are due to the conditions that P ≥ 0, T ≥ 0, and the isothermal bulk modulus is positive. Typically, this limits the low temperature regime in expansion. The domain restrictions can result in the P-T equilibrium EOS of a partly burned HE failing to have a solution in some cases. For application to HE, the heat of detonation is discussed. Example JWL parameters for an HE, both products and reactions, are used to illustrate the restrictions on the domain of the EOS.

  6. Equational type logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either

  7. Alternative equations of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Neto, N.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, trough a new formalism, that the quantum fluctuation effects of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations are analogs to the effects of a continuum medium in Maxwell's Electrodynamics. Following, a real example of the applications of these equations is studied. Qunatum fluctuations effects as perturbation sources in Minkowski and Friedmann Universes are examined. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Reduced Braginskii equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  9. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  10. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1994-01-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation

  11. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The currently proposed model compaction equation was derived from data sourced from the. Niger Delta and it relates porosity to depth for sandstones under hydrostatic pressure condition. The equation is useful in predicting porosity and compaction trend in hydrostatic sands of the. Niger Delta. GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF ...

  12. The Wouthuysen equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hazewinkel (Michiel)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractDedication: I dedicate this paper to Prof. P.C. Baayen, at the occasion of his retirement on 20 December 1994. The beautiful equation which forms the subject matter of this paper was invented by Wouthuysen after he retired. The four complex variable Wouthuysen equation arises from an

  13. The generalized Fermat equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, F.

    2006-01-01

    This article will be devoted to generalisations of Fermat’s equation xn + yn = zn. Very soon after the Wiles and Taylor proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem, it was wondered what would happen if the exponents in the three term equation would be chosen differently. Or if coefficients other than 1 would

  14. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  15. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  16. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  17. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  18. Supersymmetric quasipotential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    A supersymmetric extension of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze quasipotential approach is suggested. The supersymmetric Bethe- Salpeter equation is an initial equation. The transition from the four-time to the two-time Green function is made in the super- center-of-mass system. The two-time Green function has no inverse function in the whole spinor space. The resolvent operator if found using the Majorana character of the spinor wave function. The supersymmetric quasipotential equation is written. The consideration is carried out in the framework of the theory of chiral scalar superfields [ru

  19. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  20. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  1. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Richard K

    1982-01-01

    Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

  2. Uncertain differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of and latest findings in the area of differential equations with uncertain factors. It covers the analytic method and numerical method for solving uncertain differential equations, as well as their applications in the field of finance. Furthermore, the book provides a number of new potential research directions for uncertain differential equation. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers and students in the fields of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, automation, economics, and management science.

  3. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs.  Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e...

  4. Nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics.

  5. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  6. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  7. Problems in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, J L

    2013-01-01

    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  8. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    DuChateau, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Book focuses mainly on boundary-value and initial-boundary-value problems on spatially bounded and on unbounded domains; integral transforms; uniqueness and continuous dependence on data, first-order equations, and more. Numerous exercises included.

  9. Nonlinear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1988-01-01

    This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics

  10. Modern nonlinear equations

    CERN Document Server

    Saaty, Thomas L

    1981-01-01

    Covers major types of classical equations: operator, functional, difference, integro-differential, and more. Suitable for graduate students as well as scientists, technologists, and mathematicians. "A welcome contribution." - Math Reviews. 1964 edition.

  11. SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION COMPUTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P.

    1960-05-10

    A description is given for an electronic simulator for a system of simultaneous differential equations, including nonlinear equations. As a specific example, a homogeneous nuclear reactor system including a reactor fluid, heat exchanger, and a steam boiler may be simulated, with the nonlinearity resulting from a consideration of temperature effects taken into account. The simulator includes three operational amplifiers, a multiplier, appropriate potential sources, and interconnecting R-C networks.

  12. Structural Equations and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Ned

    2007-01-01

    Structural equations have become increasingly popular in recent years as tools for understanding causation. But standard structural equations approaches to causation face deep problems. The most philosophically interesting of these consists in their failure to incorporate a distinction between default states of an object or system, and deviations therefrom. Exploring this problem, and how to fix it, helps to illuminate the central role this distinction plays in our causal thinking.

  13. BCS @ 50: derivation of gap equations in different lattice geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurabh Basu

    2007-07-01

    We rigorously derive BCS gap equations for a square, triangular and a honeycomb lattice using a two-dimensional t-J model. The gap equations in all the three lattice geometries look usual, with band indices appearing and a minor modification in the separable pair potential for the (two band) honeycomb lattice. In each case, the gap equation is solved (self consistently with the number equation) at low densities assuming singlet pairing. (author)

  14. Equations of radiation hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of radiation in the transport of energy and momentum in a combined matter-radiation fluid. The transport equation for a moving radiating fluid is presented in both a fully Eulerian and a fully Lagrangian formulation, along with conservation equations describing the dynamics of the fluid. Special attention is paid to the problem of deriving equations that are mutually consistent in each frame, and between frames, to 0(v/c). A detailed analysis is made to show that in situations of broad interest, terms that are formally of 0(v/c) actually dominate the solution, demonstrating that it is esential (1) to pay scrupulous attention to the question of the frame dependence in formulating the equations; and (2) to solve the equations to 0(v/c) in quite general circumstances. These points are illustrated in the context of the nonequilibrium radiation diffusion limit, and a sketch of how the Lagrangian equations are to be solved will be presented

  15. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom.

  16. Covariant field equations in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhecke, Bram [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium); Ghent University, Faculty of Physics, Gent (Belgium); Proeyen, Antoine van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-12-15

    Covariance is a useful property for handling supergravity theories. In this paper, we prove a covariance property of supergravity field equations: under reasonable conditions, field equations of supergravity are covariant modulo other field equations. We prove that for any supergravity there exist such covariant equations of motion, other than the regular equations of motion, that are equivalent to the latter. The relations that we find between field equations and their covariant form can be used to obtain multiplets of field equations. In practice, the covariant field equations are easily found by simply covariantizing the ordinary field equations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Covariant field equations in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhecke, Bram; Proeyen, Antoine van

    2017-01-01

    Covariance is a useful property for handling supergravity theories. In this paper, we prove a covariance property of supergravity field equations: under reasonable conditions, field equations of supergravity are covariant modulo other field equations. We prove that for any supergravity there exist such covariant equations of motion, other than the regular equations of motion, that are equivalent to the latter. The relations that we find between field equations and their covariant form can be used to obtain multiplets of field equations. In practice, the covariant field equations are easily found by simply covariantizing the ordinary field equations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Differential Equation over Banach Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2018-01-01

    In the book, I considered differential equations of order $1$ over Banach $D$-algebra: differential equation solved with respect to the derivative; exact differential equation; linear homogeneous equation. In noncommutative Banach algebra, initial value problem for linear homogeneous equation has infinitely many solutions.

  19. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  20. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  1. Quadratic Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu

    2015-01-01

    This monograph treats the classical theory of quadratic Diophantine equations and guides the reader through the last two decades of computational techniques and progress in the area. These new techniques combined with the latest increases in computational power shed new light on important open problems. The authors motivate the study of quadratic Diophantine equations with excellent examples, open problems, and applications. Moreover, the exposition aptly demonstrates many applications of results and techniques from the study of Pell-type equations to other problems in number theory. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers. It challenges the reader to apply not only specific techniques and strategies, but also to employ methods and tools from other areas of mathematics, such as algebra and analysis.

  2. Stochastic porous media equations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.

  3. Boussinesq evolution equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Schaffer, H.; Madsen, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of using methods and ideas from time domain Boussinesq formulations in the corresponding frequency domain formulations. We term such frequency domain models "evolution equations". First, we demonstrate that the numerical efficiency of the deterministic...... Boussinesq evolution equations of Madsen and Sorensen [Madsen, P.A., Sorensen, O.R., 1993. Bound waves and triad interactions in shallow water. Ocean Eng. 20 359-388] can be improved by using Fast Fourier Transforms to evaluate the nonlinear terms. For a practical example of irregular waves propagating over...... a submerged bar, it is demonstrated that evolution equations utilising FFT can be solved around 100 times faster than the corresponding time domain model. Use of FFT provides an efficient bridge between the frequency domain and the time domain. We utilise this by adapting the surface roller model for wave...

  4. Equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A N

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical physics plays an important role in the study of many physical processes - hydrodynamics, elasticity, and electrodynamics, to name just a few. Because of the enormous range and variety of problems dealt with by mathematical physics, this thorough advanced-undergraduate or graduate-level text considers only those problems leading to partial differential equations. The authors - two well-known Russian mathematicians - have focused on typical physical processes and the principal types of equations deailing with them. Special attention is paid throughout to mathematical formulation, ri

  5. Iteration of adjoint equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Adjoint functions are the basis of variational methods and now widely used for perturbation theory and its extension to higher order theory as used, for example, in modelling fuel burnup and optimization. In such models, the adjoint equation is to be solved in a critical system with an adjoint source distribution that is not zero but has special properties related to ratios of interest in critical systems. Consequently the methods of solving equations by iteration and accumulation are reviewed to show how conventional methods may be utilized in these circumstances with adequate accuracy. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Systematic Equation Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

  7. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  8. Generalized estimating equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, James W

    2002-01-01

    Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th

  9. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  10. Students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana

    2018-03-01

    A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.

  11. Analysis of wave equation in electromagnetic field by Proca equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamungkas, Oky Rio; Soeparmi; Cari

    2017-01-01

    This research is aimed to analyze wave equation for the electric and magnetic field, vector and scalar potential, and continuity equation using Proca equation. Then, also analyze comparison of the solution on Maxwell and Proca equation for scalar potential and electric field, both as a function of distance and constant wave number. (paper)

  12. Comparison of Kernel Equating and Item Response Theory Equating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The kernel method of test equating is a unified approach to test equating with some advantages over traditional equating methods. Therefore, it is important to evaluate in a comprehensive way the usefulness and appropriateness of the Kernel equating (KE) method, as well as its advantages and disadvantages compared with several popular item…

  13. Test equating methods and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Kolen, Michael J

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

  14. Electron transfer dynamics: Zusman equation versus exact theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qiang; Chen Liping; Nan Guangjun; Xu Ruixue; Yan Yijing

    2009-01-01

    The Zusman equation has been widely used to study the effect of solvent dynamics on electron transfer reactions. However, application of this equation is limited by the classical treatment of the nuclear degrees of freedom. In this paper, we revisit the Zusman equation in the framework of the exact hierarchical equations of motion formalism, and show that a high temperature approximation of the hierarchical theory is equivalent to the Zusman equation in describing electron transfer dynamics. Thus the exact hierarchical formalism naturally extends the Zusman equation to include quantum nuclear dynamics at low temperatures. This new finding has also inspired us to rescale the original hierarchical equations and incorporate a filtering algorithm to efficiently propagate the hierarchical equations. Numerical exact results are also presented for the electron transfer reaction dynamics and rate constant calculations.

  15. On the Raychaudhuri equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Raychaudhuri equation is central to the understanding of gravitational attraction in ... of K Gödel on the ideas of shear and vorticity in cosmology (he defines the shear. (eq. (8) in [1]) .... which follows from the definition of the scale factor l.

  16. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  17. Calculus & ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, David

    1995-01-01

    Professor Pearson's book starts with an introduction to the area and an explanation of the most commonly used functions. It then moves on through differentiation, special functions, derivatives, integrals and onto full differential equations. As with other books in the series the emphasis is on using worked examples and tutorial-based problem solving to gain the confidence of students.

  18. The Freudenstein Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research, teaching and practice related to the analysis and design ... its variants, are present in a large number of ma- chines used in daily ... with advanced electronics, sensors, control systems and computing ... ted perfectly well with the rapidly developing comput- .... velopment of the Freudenstein equation using Figure 3.

  19. Differential Equation of Equilibrium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak. Laplace transformation was used to solve the governing ...

  20. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  1. Dunkl Hyperbolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Mejjaoli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and study the Dunkl symmetric systems. We prove the well-posedness results for the Cauchy problem for these systems. Eventually we describe the finite speed of it. Next the semi-linear Dunkl-wave equations are also studied.

  2. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  3. ANTHROPOMETRIC PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Anthropometry, Predictive Equations, Percentage Body Fat, Nigerian Women, Bioelectric Impedance ... such as Asians and Indians (Pranav et al., 2009), ... size (n) of at least 3o is adjudged as sufficient for the ..... of people, gender and age (Vogel eta/., 1984). .... Fish Sold at Ile-Ife Main Market, South West Nigeria.

  4. dimensional Fokas equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, one can associate the term with any solution of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) which (i) represents a wave of permanent form, (ii) is localized ... In the past several decades, many methods have been proposed for solving nonlinear PDEs, such as ... space–time fractional derivative form of eq. (1) and ...

  5. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  6. Guiding center drift equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1979-03-01

    The quations for particle guiding center drift orbits are given in a new magnetic coordinate system. This form of the equations not only separates the fast motion along the lines from the slow motion across, but also requires less information about the magnetic field than many other formulations of the problem

  7. dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in real-life situations, it is important to find their exact solutions. Further, in ... But only little work is done on the high-dimensional equations. .... Similarly, to determine the values of d and q, we balance the linear term of the lowest order in eq.

  8. Stochastic nonlinear beam equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2005), s. 119-149 ISSN 0178-8051 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stochastic beam equation * stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.896, year: 2005

  9. Balancing Chemical Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, L. G.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study of students' ability to balance equations. Answers to a test on this topic were analyzed to determine the level of understanding and processes used by the students. Presented is a method to teach this skill to high school chemistry students. (CW)

  10. Lectures on partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovsky, I G

    1992-01-01

    Graduate-level exposition by noted Russian mathematician offers rigorous, transparent, highly readable coverage of classification of equations, hyperbolic equations, elliptic equations and parabolic equations. Wealth of commentary and insight invaluable for deepening understanding of problems considered in text. Translated from the Russian by A. Shenitzer.

  11. Quantum equations from Brownian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Classical Schrodinger and Dirac equations have been derived from Brownian motions of a particle, it has been shown that the classical Schrodinger equation can be transformed to usual Schrodinger Quantum equation on applying Heisenberg uncertainty principle between position and momentum while Dirac Quantum equation follows it's classical counter part on applying Heisenberg uncertainly principle between energy and time without applying any analytical continuation. (author)

  12. Nonlinear quantum fluid equations for a finite temperature Fermi plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, Padma K

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear quantum electron fluid equations are derived, taking into account the moments of the Wigner equation and by using the Fermi-Dirac equilibrium distribution for electrons with an arbitrary temperature. A simplified formalism with the assumptions of incompressibility of the distribution function is used to close the moments in velocity space. The nonlinear quantum diffraction effects into the fluid equations are incorporated. In the high-temperature limit, we retain the nonlinear fluid equations for a dense hot plasma and in the low-temperature limit, we retain the correct fluid equations for a fully degenerate plasma

  13. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  14. On generalized fractional vibration equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.

  15. Methods for Equating Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    1983) compared conventional and IRT methods for equating the Test of English as a Foreign Language ( TOEFL ) after chaining. Three conventional and...three IRT equating methods were examined in this study; two sections of TOEFL were each (separately) equated. The IRT methods included the following: (a...group. A separate base form was established for each of the six equating methods. Instead of equating the base-form TOEFL to itself, the last (eighth

  16. equateIRT: An R Package for IRT Test Equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Battauz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The R package equateIRT implements item response theory (IRT methods for equating different forms composed of dichotomous items. In particular, the IRT models included are the three-parameter logistic model, the two-parameter logistic model, the one-parameter logistic model and the Rasch model. Forms can be equated when they present common items (direct equating or when they can be linked through a chain of forms that present common items in pairs (indirect or chain equating. When two forms can be equated through different paths, a single conversion can be obtained by averaging the equating coefficients. The package calculates direct and chain equating coefficients. The averaging of direct and chain coefficients that link the same two forms is performed through the bisector method. Furthermore, the package provides analytic standard errors of direct, chain and average equating coefficients.

  17. Lagrangian structures, integrability and chaos for 3D dynamical equations 45.20.Jj Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics; 02.30.Ik Integrable systems; 05.45.Ac Low-dimensional chaos;

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M D

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the general setting for constructing action principles for three-dimensional first-order autonomous equations. We present the results for some integrable and non-integrable cases of the Lotka-Volterra equation, and show Lagrangian descriptions which are valid for systems satisfying Shil'nikov criteria on the existence of strange attractors, though chaotic behaviour has not been verified up to now. The Euler-Lagrange equations we get for these systems usually present 'time reparametrization' invariance, though other kinds of invariance may be found according to the kernel of the associated symplectic 2-form. The formulation of a Hamiltonian structure (Poisson brackets and Hamiltonians) for these systems from the Lagrangian viewpoint leads to a method of finding new constants of the motion starting from known ones, which is applied to some systems found in the literature known to possess a constant of the motion, to find the other and thus showing their integrability. In particular, w...

  18. Lagrangian structures, integrability and chaos for 3D dynamical equations[45.20.Jj Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics; 02.30.Ik Integrable systems; 05.45.Ac Low-dimensional chaos;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Miguel D [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile (Chile); Hojman, Sergio A [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile (Chile)

    2003-01-10

    In this paper, we consider the general setting for constructing action principles for three-dimensional first-order autonomous equations. We present the results for some integrable and non-integrable cases of the Lotka-Volterra equation, and show Lagrangian descriptions which are valid for systems satisfying Shil'nikov criteria on the existence of strange attractors, though chaotic behaviour has not been verified up to now. The Euler-Lagrange equations we get for these systems usually present 'time reparametrization' invariance, though other kinds of invariance may be found according to the kernel of the associated symplectic 2-form. The formulation of a Hamiltonian structure (Poisson brackets and Hamiltonians) for these systems from the Lagrangian viewpoint leads to a method of finding new constants of the motion starting from known ones, which is applied to some systems found in the literature known to possess a constant of the motion, to find the other and thus showing their integrability. In particular, we show that the so-called ABC system is completely integrable if it possesses one constant of the motion.

  19. Lattice Wigner equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2018-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme to solve the Wigner equation, based on a lattice discretization of momentum space. The moments of the Wigner function are recovered exactly, up to the desired order given by the number of discrete momenta retained in the discretization, which also determines the accuracy of the method. The Wigner equation is equipped with an additional collision operator, designed in such a way as to ensure numerical stability without affecting the evolution of the relevant moments of the Wigner function. The lattice Wigner scheme is validated for the case of quantum harmonic and anharmonic potentials, showing good agreement with theoretical results. It is further applied to the study of the transport properties of one- and two-dimensional open quantum systems with potential barriers. Finally, the computational viability of the scheme for the case of three-dimensional open systems is also illustrated.

  20. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  1. Flavored quantum Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Lee, Christopher; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Tulin, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We derive from first principles, using nonequilibrium field theory, the quantum Boltzmann equations that describe the dynamics of flavor oscillations, collisions, and a time-dependent mass matrix in the early universe. Working to leading nontrivial order in ratios of relevant time scales, we study in detail a toy model for weak-scale baryogenesis: two scalar species that mix through a slowly varying time-dependent and CP-violating mass matrix, and interact with a thermal bath. This model clearly illustrates how the CP asymmetry arises through coherent flavor oscillations in a nontrivial background. We solve the Boltzmann equations numerically for the density matrices, investigating the impact of collisions in various regimes.

  2. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-01-01

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  3. Numerical Solution of Heun Equation Via Linear Stochastic Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rezazadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we intend to solve special kind of ordinary differential equations which is called Heun equations, by converting to a corresponding stochastic differential equation(S.D.E.. So, we construct a stochastic linear equation system from this equation which its solution is based on computing fundamental matrix of this system and then, this S.D.E. is solved by numerically methods. Moreover, its asymptotic stability and statistical concepts like expectation and variance of solutions are discussed. Finally, the attained solutions of these S.D.E.s compared with exact solution of corresponding differential equations.

  4. Equations of multiparticle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The description of the motion of charged-particle beams in an accelerator proceeds in steps of increasing complexity. The first step is to consider a single-particle picture in which the beam is represented as a collection on non-interacting test particles moving in a prescribed external electromagnetic field. Knowing the external field, it is then possible to calculate the beam motion to a high accuracy. The real beam consists of a large number of particles, typically 10 11 per beam bunch. It is sometimes inconvenient, or even impossible, to treat the real beam behavior using the single particle approach. One way to approach this problem is to supplement the single particle by another qualitatively different picture. The commonly used tools in accelerator physics for this purpose are the Vlasov and the Fokker-Planck equations. These equations assume smooth beam distributions and are therefore strictly valid in the limit of infinite number of micro-particles, each carrying an infinitesimal charge. The hope is that by studying the two extremes -- the single particle picture and the picture of smooth beam distributions -- we will be able to describe the behavior of our 10 11 -particle system. As mentioned, the most notable use of the smooth distribution picture is the study of collective beam instabilities. However, the purpose of this lecture is not to address this more advanced subject. Rather, it has the limited goal to familiarize the reader with the analytical tools, namely the Vlasov and the Fokker-Planck equations, as a preparation for dealing with the more advanced problems at later times. We will first derive these equations and then illustrate their applications by several examples which allow exact solutions

  5. Electroweak evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciafaloni, Paolo; Comelli, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Enlarging a previous analysis, where only fermions and transverse gauge bosons were taken into account, we write down infrared-collinear evolution equations for the Standard Model of electroweak interactions computing the full set of splitting functions. Due to the presence of double logs which are characteristic of electroweak interactions (Bloch-Nordsieck violation), new infrared singular splitting functions have to be introduced. We also include corrections related to the third generation Yukawa couplings

  6. Differential equations with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Martha L

    2004-01-01

    The Third Edition of the Differential Equations with Mathematica integrates new applications from a variety of fields,especially biology, physics, and engineering. The new handbook is also completely compatible with recent versions of Mathematica and is a perfect introduction for Mathematica beginners.* Focuses on the most often used features of Mathematica for the beginning Mathematica user* New applications from a variety of fields, including engineering, biology, and physics* All applications were completed using recent versions of Mathematica

  7. Damped nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, D.R.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    High frequency electrostatic plasma oscillations described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the presence of damping, collisional or Landau, are considered. At early times, Landau damping of an initial soliton profile results in a broader, but smaller amplitude soliton, while collisional damping reduces the soliton size everywhere; soliton speeds at early times are unchanged by either kind of damping. For collisional damping, soliton speeds are unchanged for all time

  8. Fun with Differential Equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    tion of ® with ¼=2. One can use the uniqueness of solutions of differential equations to prove the addition formulae for sin(t1 +t2), etc. But instead of continuing with this thought process, let us do something more interesting. Now we shall consider another system. Fix 0 < < 1. I am looking for three real-valued functions x(t), ...

  9. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H

    2010-01-01

    The universality of mathematics and Maxwell's equations is not shared by specific plasma models. Computations become more reliable, efficient and transparent if specific plasma models are used to obtain only the information that would otherwise be missing. Constraints of high universality, such as those from mathematics and Maxwell's equations, can be obscured or lost by integrated computations. Recognition of subtle constraints of high universality is important for (1) focusing the design of control systems for magnetic field errors in tokamaks from perturbations that have little effect on the plasma to those that do, (2) clarifying the limits of applicability to astrophysics of computations of magnetic reconnection in fields that have a double periodicity or have B-vector =0 on a surface, as in a Harris sheet. Both require a degree of symmetry not expected in natural systems. Mathematics and Maxwell's equations imply that neighboring magnetic field lines characteristically separate exponentially with distance along a line. This remarkably universal phenomenon has been largely ignored, though it defines a trigger for reconnection through a critical magnitude of exponentiation. These and other examples of the importance of making distinctions and understanding constraints of high universality are explained.

  10. Information Equation of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paul Gough

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Landauer’s principle is applied to information in the universe. Once stars began forming there was a constant information energy density as the increasing proportion of matter at high stellar temperatures exactly compensated for the expanding universe. The information equation of state was close to the dark energy value, w = -1, for a wide range of redshifts, 10 > z > 0.8, over one half of cosmic time. A reasonable universe information bit content of only 1087 bits is sufficient for information energy to account for all dark energy. A time varying equation of state with a direct link between dark energy and matter, and linked to star formation in particular, is clearly relevant to the cosmic coincidence problem. In answering the ‘Why now?’ question we wonder ‘What next?’ as we expect the information equation of state to tend towards w = 0 in the future.c

  11. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson

  12. Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker-Planck equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali

    2009-07-07

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker-Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori-Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems.

  13. FMTLxLyLz DIMENSIONAL EQUAT DIMENSIONAL EQUATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    plant made of 12mm thick steel plate was used in de steel plate ... water treatment plant. ... ameters affecting filtration processes were used to derive an equation usin ..... system. However, in deriving the equation onl terms are incorporated.

  14. Reduction operators of Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A; Popovych, Roman O

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special "no-go" case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf-Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation.

  15. Electron attachment coefficient in low E/N regions and a discussion of discharge-instability in KrF laser. ; Analysis by logarithm transformed Boltzmann equation. Tei E/N ryoiki no denshi fuchaku keisu to KrF laser reiki hoden no fuanteisei ni kansuru ichi kosatsu. ; Tai su henkan Boltzmann hoteishiki ni yoru kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, H.; Urabe, J.; Yukimura, K. (Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    In a discharge excitation rare gas halide excima laser, uniform generation and stable maintenance of the excited discharge determines the laser characteristics. In this report, an approximate solution was obtained on the Boltzmann equation (frequently used for the theoretical analysis of this laser) to examine the nature of the solution. By optimizing the conversion of the variables, calculation of an electron swarm parameter in the hitherto uncertain range of the low conversion electric field was made possible, giving a generation mechanism of the uncertainty of the excited dischareg. The results are summarized as below. (1) The Boltzmann equation gives a linear solution for a logarithmic value of an electron energy in the range of low conversion electric field. (2) Time-wise responce ability between the measured voltage, current characteristics of the excitation discharge was clarified and the attachment and ionization coefficients calculated by Boltzmann equation. (3) Dependency of the attachment coefficient on the partial pressure of fluorine and kripton was examined, and the attachment coefficient was found to increase with the increase of the partial pressure for the both cases. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Auxiliary equation method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirendaoreji,; Jiong, Sun

    2003-01-01

    By using the solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct several kinds of exact travelling wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations. By this method some physically important nonlinear equations are investigated and new exact travelling wave solutions are explicitly obtained with the aid of symbolic computation

  17. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  18. Gribov gap equation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pais, Pablo; Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the Gribov gap equation at finite temperature is analyzed. The solutions of the gap equation (which depend explicitly on the temperature) determine the structure of the gluon propagator within the semi-classical Gribov approach. The present analysis is consistent with the standard confinement scenario for low temperatures, while for high enough temperatures, deconfinement takes place and a free gluon propagator is obtained. An intermediate regime in between the confined and free phases can be read off from the resulting gluon propagator, which appears to be closely related to partial deconfinement. (orig.)

  19. Gribov gap equation at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Insitutes, Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper the Gribov gap equation at finite temperature is analyzed. The solutions of the gap equation (which depend explicitly on the temperature) determine the structure of the gluon propagator within the semi-classical Gribov approach. The present analysis is consistent with the standard confinement scenario for low temperatures, while for high enough temperatures, deconfinement takes place and a free gluon propagator is obtained. An intermediate regime in between the confined and free phases can be read off from the resulting gluon propagator, which appears to be closely related to partial deconfinement. (orig.)

  20. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  1. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  2. Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, William

    1995-01-01

    Building on introductory calculus courses, this text provides a sound foundation in the underlying principles of ordinary differential equations. Important concepts, including uniqueness and existence theorems, are worked through in detail and the student is encouraged to develop much of the routine material themselves, thus helping to ensure a solid understanding of the fundamentals required.The wide use of exercises, problems and self-assessment questions helps to promote a deeper understanding of the material and it is developed in such a way that it lays the groundwork for further

  3. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  4. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  5. dimensional Jaulent–Miodek equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (2+1)-dimensional Jaulent–Miodek equation; the first integral method; kinks; ... and effective method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations which can ... of the method employed and exact kink and soliton solutions are constructed ...

  6. Equationally Noetherian property of Ershov algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorzhetskiy, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    This article is about equationally Noetherian and weak equationally Noetherian property of Ershov algebras. Here we show two canonical forms of the system of equations over Ershov algebras and two criteria of equationally Noetherian and weak equationally Noetherian properties.

  7. The Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaller, B.

    1992-01-01

    This monograph treats most of the usual material to be found in texts on the Dirac equation such as the basic formalism of quantum mechanics, representations of Dirac matrices, covariant realization of the Dirac equation, interpretation of negative energies, Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, Klein's paradox, spherically symmetric interactions and a treatment of the relativistic hydrogen atom, etc., and also provides excellent additional treatments of a variety of other relevant topics. The monograph contains an extensive treatment of the Lorentz and Poincare groups and their representations. The author discusses in depth Lie algebaic and projective representations, covering groups, and Mackey's theory and Wigner's realization of induced representations. A careful classification of external fields with respect to their behavior under Poincare transformations is supplemented by a basic account of self-adjointness and spectral properties of Dirac operators. A state-of-the-art treatment of relativistic scattering theory based on a time-dependent approach originally due to Enss is presented. An excellent introduction to quantum electrodynamics in external fields is provided. Various appendices containing further details, notes on each chapter commenting on the history involved and referring to original research papers and further developments in the literature, and a bibliography covering all relevant monographs and over 500 articles on the subject, complete this text. This book should satisfy the needs of a wide audience, ranging from graduate students in theoretical physics and mathematics to researchers interested in mathematical physics

  8. Cryostatic stability equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoriak, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Although criteria for cryostatic stability of superconducting magnets cooled by pool boiling of liquid helium have been widely discussed the same cannot be said for magnets cooled by natural convection or forced flow boiling in channels. Boiling in narrow channels is shown to be qualitatively superior to pool boiling because the recovery heat flux equals the breakaway flux for narrow channels, whereas the two are markedly different in pool boiling. A second advantage of channel boiling is that it is well understood and calculable; pool peak nucleate boiling heat flux has been adequately measured only for boiling from the top of an immersed heated body. Peak boiling from the bottom is much less and (probably) depends strongly on the extent of the bottom surface. Equations are presented by which one can calculate the critical boiling heat flux for parallel wall vertical channels subject to either natural convection or forced flow boiling, with one or both walls heated. The one-heated-wall forced flow equation is discussed with regard to design of a spiral wound solenoid (pancake magnet) having a slippery insulating tape between the windings

  9. Solving Nonlinear Coupled Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L.; David, J.

    1986-01-01

    Harmonic balance method developed to obtain approximate steady-state solutions for nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. Method usable with transfer matrices commonly used to analyze shaft systems. Solution to nonlinear equation, with periodic forcing function represented as sum of series similar to Fourier series but with form of terms suggested by equation itself.

  10. Completely integrable operator evolutionary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present natural generalizations of classical completely integrable equations where the functions are replaced by arbitrary operators. Among these equations are the non-linear Schroedinger, the Korteweg-de Vries, and the modified KdV equations. The Lax representation and the Baecklund transformations are presented. (Auth.)

  11. On the F-equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, M.W.; Szymanowski, L.

    1982-03-01

    A generalization of the Truesdell F-equations is proposed and some solutions to them - generalized Fox F-functions - are found. It is also shown that a non-linear difference-differential equation, which does not belong to the Truesdell class, nevertheless may be transformed into the standard F-equation. (author)

  12. On the Saha Ionization Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We revisit the Saha Ionization Equation in order to highlightthe rich interdisciplinary content of the equation thatstraddles distinct areas of spectroscopy, thermodynamics andchemical reactions. In a self-contained discussion, relegatedto an appendix, we delve further into the hidden message ofthe equation in terms ...

  13. Spatial evolution equation of wind wave growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wei; (王; 伟); SUN; Fu; (孙; 孚); DAI; Dejun; (戴德君)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the dynamic essence of air-sea interactions, a feedback type of spatial evolution equation is suggested to match reasonably the growing process of wind waves. This simple equation involving the dominant factors of wind wave growth is able to explain the transfer of energy from high to low frequencies without introducing the concept of nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and the results agree well with observations. The rate of wave height growth derived in this dissertation is applicable to both laboratory and open sea, which solidifies the physical basis of using laboratory experiments to investigate the generation of wind waves. Thus the proposed spatial evolution equation provides a new approach for the research on dynamic mechanism of air-sea interactions and wind wave prediction.

  14. Reduced minimax filtering by means of differential-algebraic equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Mallet; S. Zhuk (Sergiy)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractA reduced minimax state estimation approach is proposed for high-dimensional models. It is based on the reduction of the ordinary differential equation with high state space dimension to the low-dimensional Differential-Algebraic Equation (DAE) and on the subsequent application of the

  15. Approximate variational solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.

    2001-01-01

    Approximate solutions of the Grad-Schlueter-Shafranov equation based on variational methods are developed. The power series solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations for equilibrium are compared with direct variational results for a low aspect ratio tokamak equilibrium. (author)

  16. Differential equations extended to superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Rosu, H.C. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A.P. 3-74, Tangamanga, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    We present a simple SUSY Ns = 2 superspace extension of the differential equations in which the sought solutions are considered to be real superfields but maintaining the common derivative operators and the coefficients of the differential equations unaltered. In this way, we get self consistent systems of coupled differential equations for the components of the superfield. This procedure is applied to the Riccati equation, for which we obtain in addition the system of coupled equations corresponding to the components of the general superfield solution. (Author)

  17. Reduction of infinite dimensional equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongding Li

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the general Legendre transformation to show the infinite dimensional integrable equations can be reduced to a finite dimensional integrable Hamiltonian system on an invariant set under the flow of the integrable equations. Then we obtain the periodic or quasi-periodic solution of the equation. This generalizes the results of Lax and Novikov regarding the periodic or quasi-periodic solution of the KdV equation to the general case of isospectral Hamiltonian integrable equation. And finally, we discuss the AKNS hierarchy as a special example.

  18. Differential equations extended to superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.; Rosu, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple SUSY Ns = 2 superspace extension of the differential equations in which the sought solutions are considered to be real superfields but maintaining the common derivative operators and the coefficients of the differential equations unaltered. In this way, we get self consistent systems of coupled differential equations for the components of the superfield. This procedure is applied to the Riccati equation, for which we obtain in addition the system of coupled equations corresponding to the components of the general superfield solution. (Author)

  19. On the helix equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taouil Hajer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the helices processes, i.e. the solutions H : ℝ × Ω → ℝd, (t, ω ↦ H(t, ω of the helix equation egin{eqnarray} H(0,o=0; quad H(s+t,o= H(s,Phi(t,o +H(t,oonumber end{eqnarray} H ( 0 ,ω = 0 ;   H ( s + t,ω = H ( s, Φ ( t,ω + H ( t,ω where Φ : ℝ × Ω → Ω, (t, ω ↦ Φ(t, ω is a dynamical system on a measurable space (Ω, ℱ. More precisely, we investigate dominated solutions and non differentiable solutions of the helix equation. For the last case, the Wiener helix plays a fundamental role. Moreover, some relations with the cocycle equation defined by Φ, are investigated. Ce papier est consacré aux hélices, c’est-à-dire les solutions H : ℝ × Ω → ℝd, (t, ω ↦ H(t, ω de l’équation fonctionnelle egin{eqnarray} H(0,o=0; quad H(s+t,o= H(s,Phi(t,o +H(t,o onumber end{eqnarray} H ( 0 ,ω = 0 ;   H ( s + t,ω = H ( s, Φ ( t,ω + H ( t,ω où Φ : ℝ × Ω → Ω, (t, ω ↦ Φ(t, ω est un système dynamique défini sur un espace mesurable (Ω, ℱ. Plus présisément, nous déterminons d’abord les hélices dominées puis nous caractérisons les hélices non différentiables. Dans ce dernier cas, l’hélice de Wiener joue un rôle important. Nous précisons aussi quelques relations des hélices avec les cocycles définis par Φ.

  20. p-Euler equations and p-Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2018-04-01

    We propose in this work new systems of equations which we call p-Euler equations and p-Navier-Stokes equations. p-Euler equations are derived as the Euler-Lagrange equations for the action represented by the Benamou-Brenier characterization of Wasserstein-p distances, with incompressibility constraint. p-Euler equations have similar structures with the usual Euler equations but the 'momentum' is the signed (p - 1)-th power of the velocity. In the 2D case, the p-Euler equations have streamfunction-vorticity formulation, where the vorticity is given by the p-Laplacian of the streamfunction. By adding diffusion presented by γ-Laplacian of the velocity, we obtain what we call p-Navier-Stokes equations. If γ = p, the a priori energy estimates for the velocity and momentum have dual symmetries. Using these energy estimates and a time-shift estimate, we show the global existence of weak solutions for the p-Navier-Stokes equations in Rd for γ = p and p ≥ d ≥ 2 through a compactness criterion.

  1. Generalized quantal equation of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.W.; Embaby, M.

    1986-07-01

    In the present paper, an attempt is made for establishing a generalized equation of motion for quantal objects, in which intrinsic self adjointness is naturally built in, independently of any prescribed representation. This is accomplished by adopting Hamilton's principle of least action, after incorporating, properly, the quantal features and employing the generalized calculus of variations, without being restricted to fixed end points representation. It turns out that our proposed equation of motion is an intrinsically self-adjoint Euler-Lagrange's differential equation that ensures extremization of the quantal action as required by Hamilton's principle. Time dependence is introduced and the corresponding equation of motion is derived, in which intrinsic self adjointness is also achieved. Reducibility of the proposed equation of motion to the conventional Schroedinger equation is examined. The corresponding continuity equation is established, and both of the probability density and the probability current density are identified. (author)

  2. Alternatives to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvin, S.M.; Brownstein, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Recent work by Biedenharn, Han, and van Dam (BHvD) has questioned the uniqueness of the Dirac equation. BHvD have obtained a two-component equation as an alternate to the Dirac equation. Although they later show their alternative to be unitarily equivalent to the Dirac equation, certain physical differences were claimed. BHvD attribute the existence of this alternate equation to the fact that their factorizing matrices were position-dependent. To investigate this, we factor the Klein-Gordon equation in spherical coordinates allowing the factorizing matrices to depend arbitrarily upon theta and phi. It is shown that despite this additional freedom, and without involving any relativistic covariance, the conventional four-component Dirac equation is the only possibility

  3. Wave Partial Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Szöllös, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    Práce se zabývá diferenciálními rovnicemi, jejich využitím při analýze     vedení, experimenty s vedením a možnou akcelerací výpočtu v GPU  s využitím prostředí nVidia CUDA. This work deals with diffrential equations, with the possibility     of using them for analysis of the line and the possibility     of accelerating the computations in GPU using nVidia CUDA. C

  4. Λ scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-06-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter Λ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting Λ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the Λ algorithm.

  5. Scaling of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models. Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics. The text is easily accessible and exam...

  6. Parabolized stability equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Thorwald

    1994-01-01

    The parabolized stability equations (PSE) are a new approach to analyze the streamwise evolution of single or interacting Fourier modes in weakly nonparallel flows such as boundary layers. The concept rests on the decomposition of every mode into a slowly varying amplitude function and a wave function with slowly varying wave number. The neglect of the small second derivatives of the slowly varying functions with respect to the streamwise variable leads to an initial boundary-value problem that can be solved by numerical marching procedures. The PSE approach is valid in convectively unstable flows. The equations for a single mode are closely related to those of the traditional eigenvalue problems for linear stability analysis. However, the PSE approach does not exploit the homogeneity of the problem and, therefore, can be utilized to analyze forced modes and the nonlinear growth and interaction of an initial disturbance field. In contrast to the traditional patching of local solutions, the PSE provide the spatial evolution of modes with proper account for their history. The PSE approach allows studies of secondary instabilities without the constraints of the Floquet analysis and reproduces the established experimental, theoretical, and computational benchmark results on transition up to the breakdown stage. The method matches or exceeds the demonstrated capabilities of current spatial Navier-Stokes solvers at a small fraction of their computational cost. Recent applications include studies on localized or distributed receptivity and prediction of transition in model environments for realistic engineering problems. This report describes the basis, intricacies, and some applications of the PSE methodology.

  7. The Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeau, Yves; Piasecki, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    The existence of atoms has been long predicted by philosophers and scientists. The development of thermodynamics and of the statistical interpretation of its concepts at the end of the nineteenth century and in the early years of the twentieth century made it possible to bridge the gap of scales between the macroscopic world and the world of atoms. Einstein and Smoluchowski showed in 1905 and 1906 that the Brownian motion of particles of measurable size is a manifestation of the motion of atoms in fluids. Their derivation was completely different from each other. Langevin showed in 1908 how to put in a coherent framework the subtle effect of the randomness of the atomic world, responsible for the fluctuating force driving the motion of the Brownian particle and the viscosity of the "macroscopic" flow taking place around the same Brownian particle. Whereas viscous forces were already well understood at this time, the "Langevin" force appears there for the first time: it represents the fluctuating part of the interaction between the Brownian particle and the surrounding fluid. We discuss the derivation by Einstein and Smoluchowski as well as a previous paper by Sutherland on the diffusion coefficient of large spheres. Next we present Langevin's short note and explain the fundamental splitting into a random force and a macroscopic viscous force. This brings us to discuss various points, like the kind of constraints on Langevin-like equations. We insist in particular on the one arising from the time-reversal symmetry of the equilibrium fluctuations. Moreover, we discuss another constraint, raised first by Lorentz, which implies that, if the Brownian particle is not very heavy, the viscous force cannot be taken as the standard Stokes drag on an object moving at uniform speed. Lastly, we examine the so-called Langevin-Heisenberg and/or Langevin-Schrödinger equation used in quantum mechanics.

  8. Role of Many-Body Effects in Describing Low-Lying Excited States of pi-Conjugated Chromophores: High-Level Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Studies of Fused Porphyrin Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Karol; Olson, Ryan M.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Tipparaju, Vinod; Apra, Edoardo

    2011-07-12

    The unusual photophysical properties of the pi-conjugated chrompohores makes them potential building blocks of various molecular devices. In particular, significant narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gaps can be observed as an effect of functionalization chromophores with polycyclic aromatic hydrocabrons (PAHs). In this paper we present equation-of-motion coupled cluster calculations for vertical excitation energies of several functionalized forms of porphyrins. The results of free-base porphyrin (FBP) clearly demonstrate significant differences between functionalization of FBP with one- (anthracene) and two-dimensional (coronene) structures. We also compare the EOMCC results with the experimentally available results for the anthracene fused zinc porphyrin. The impact of various-type correlation effects is illustrated on several benchmark models where the comparison with the experiment is possible. In particular, we demonstrate that for all excited states considered in this paper, all of them being dominated by single excitations, the inclusion of triply excited configurations is crucial for attaining qualitative agreement with the experiment. We also demonstrate the parallel performance of the most computationally intensive part of the completely renormalized EOMCCSD(T) approach (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) across 120,000 cores.

  9. The role of many-body effects in describing low-lying excited states of pi-conjugated chromophores: high-level equation-of-motion coupled-cluster studies of fused porphyrin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Karol [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Olson, Ryan M [Cray, Inc.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tipparaju, Vinod [ORNL; Apra, Edoardo [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The unusual photophysical properties of the {pi}-conjugated chromophores make them potential building blocks of various molecular devices. In particular, significant narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gaps can be observed as an effect of functionalization chromophores with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this paper we present equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) calculations for vertical excitation energies of several functionalized forms of porphyrins. The results for free-base porphyrin (FBP) clearly demonstrate significant differences between functionalization of FBP with one- (anthracene) and two-dimensional (coronene) structures. We also compare the EOMCC results with the experimentally available results for anthracene fused zinc-porphyrin. The impact of various types of correlation effects is illustrated on several benchmark models, where the comparison with the experiment is possible. In particular, we demonstrate that for all excited states considered in this paper, all of them being dominated by single excitations, the inclusion of triply excited configurations is crucial for attaining qualitative agreement with experiment. We also demonstrate the parallel performance of the most computationally intensive part of the completely renormalized EOMCCSD(T) approach (CR-EOMCCSD(T)) across 120000 cores.

  10. The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs

  11. Temperature waves and the Boltzmann kinetic equation for phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushev, D.; Borisov, M.; Vavrek, A.

    1988-01-01

    The ordinary parabolic equation for thermal conduction based on the Fourier empiric law as well as the generalized thermal conduction equation based on the Maxwell law have been derived from the Boltzmann equation for the phonons within the relaxation time approximation. The temperature waves of the so-called second sound in crystals at low temperatures are transformed into Fourier waves at low frequencies with respect to the characteristic frequency of the U-processes. These waves are transformed into temperature waves similar to the second sound waves in He II at frequences higher than the U-processes characteristic. 1 fig., 19 refs

  12. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This modern take on partial differential equations does not require knowledge beyond vector calculus and linear algebra. The author focuses on the most important classical partial differential equations, including conservation equations and their characteristics, the wave equation, the heat equation, function spaces, and Fourier series, drawing on tools from analysis only as they arise.Within each section the author creates a narrative that answers the five questions: (1) What is the scientific problem we are trying to understand? (2) How do we model that with PDE? (3) What techniques can we use to analyze the PDE? (4) How do those techniques apply to this equation? (5) What information or insight did we obtain by developing and analyzing the PDE? The text stresses the interplay between modeling and mathematical analysis, providing a thorough source of problems and an inspiration for the development of methods.

  13. Analytic solutions of hydrodynamics equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggeshall, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Many similarity solutions have been found for the equations of one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics. These special combinations of variables allow the partial differential equations to be reduced to ordinary differential equations, which must then be solved to determine the physical solutions. Usually, these reduced ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. In some cases it is possible to solve these reduced equations analytically to obtain explicit solutions. In this work a collection of analytic solutions of the 1-D hydrodynamics equations is presented. These can be used for a variety of purposes, including (i) numerical benchmark problems, (ii) as a basis for analytic models, and (iii) to provide insight into more complicated solutions

  14. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  15. Differential equations methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a variety of techniques for solving ordinary differential equations analytically and features a wealth of examples. Focusing on the modeling of real-world phenomena, it begins with a basic introduction to differential equations, followed by linear and nonlinear first order equations and a detailed treatment of the second order linear equations. After presenting solution methods for the Laplace transform and power series, it lastly presents systems of equations and offers an introduction to the stability theory. To help readers practice the theory covered, two types of exercises are provided: those that illustrate the general theory, and others designed to expand on the text material. Detailed solutions to all the exercises are included. The book is excellently suited for use as a textbook for an undergraduate class (of all disciplines) in ordinary differential equations. .

  16. Integral equations and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M

    2007-01-01

    For many years, the subject of functional equations has held a prominent place in the attention of mathematicians. In more recent years this attention has been directed to a particular kind of functional equation, an integral equation, wherein the unknown function occurs under the integral sign. The study of this kind of equation is sometimes referred to as the inversion of a definite integral. While scientists and engineers can already choose from a number of books on integral equations, this new book encompasses recent developments including some preliminary backgrounds of formulations of integral equations governing the physical situation of the problems. It also contains elegant analytical and numerical methods, and an important topic of the variational principles. Primarily intended for senior undergraduate students and first year postgraduate students of engineering and science courses, students of mathematical and physical sciences will also find many sections of direct relevance. The book contains eig...

  17. Stochastic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lototsky, Sergey V

    2017-01-01

    Taking readers with a basic knowledge of probability and real analysis to the frontiers of a very active research discipline, this textbook provides all the necessary background from functional analysis and the theory of PDEs. It covers the main types of equations (elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic) and discusses different types of random forcing. The objective is to give the reader the necessary tools to understand the proofs of existing theorems about SPDEs (from other sources) and perhaps even to formulate and prove a few new ones. Most of the material could be covered in about 40 hours of lectures, as long as not too much time is spent on the general discussion of stochastic analysis in infinite dimensions. As the subject of SPDEs is currently making the transition from the research level to that of a graduate or even undergraduate course, the book attempts to present enough exercise material to fill potential exams and homework assignments. Exercises appear throughout and are usually directly connected ...

  18. Gauge-invariant flow equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a closed gauge-invariant functional flow equation for Yang-Mills theories and quantum gravity that only involves one macroscopic gauge field or metric. It is based on a projection on physical and gauge fluctuations. Deriving this equation from a functional integral we employ the freedom in the precise choice of the macroscopic field and the effective average action in order to realize a closed and simple form of the flow equation.

  19. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  20. Supersymmetric two-particle equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissakyan, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the scalar superfield model, a particular case of which is the well-known Wess-Zumino model, the supersymmetric Schwinger equations are found. On their basis with the use of the second Legendre transformation the two-particle supersymmetric Edwards and Bethe-Salpeter equations are derived. A connection of the kernels and inhomogeneous terms of these equations with generating functional of the second Legendre transformation is found

  1. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rabenstein, Albert L

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

  2. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  3. Electronic representation of wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veigend, Petr; Kunovský, Jiří, E-mail: kunovsky@fit.vutbr.cz; Kocina, Filip; Nečasová, Gabriela; Valenta, Václav [University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Božetěchova 2, 612 66 Brno (Czech Republic); Šátek, Václav [IT4Innovations, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); University of Technology, Faculty of Information Technology, Božetěchova 2, 612 66 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-08

    The Taylor series method for solving differential equations represents a non-traditional way of a numerical solution. Even though this method is not much preferred in the literature, experimental calculations done at the Department of Intelligent Systems of the Faculty of Information Technology of TU Brno have verified that the accuracy and stability of the Taylor series method exceeds the currently used algorithms for numerically solving differential equations. This paper deals with solution of Telegraph equation using modelling of a series small pieces of the wire. Corresponding differential equations are solved by the Modern Taylor Series Method.

  4. Generalized Lorentz-Force equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaleev, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Guided by Nambu (n+1)-dimensional phase space formalism we build a new system of dynamic equations. These equations describe a dynamic state of the corporeal system composed of n subsystems. The dynamic equations are formulated in terms of dynamic variables of the subsystems as well as in terms of dynamic variables of the corporeal system. These two sets of variables are related respectively as roots and coefficients of the n-degree polynomial equation. In the special n=2 case, this formalism reproduces relativistic dynamics for the charged spinning particles

  5. The forced nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, D.J.; Hansen, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the behaviour of a radio frequency wave in the ionosphere near the reflexion point where nonlinear processes are important. A simple model of this phenomenon leads to the forced nonlinear Schroedinger equation in terms of a nonlinear boundary value problem. A WKB analysis of the time evolution equations for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in the inverse scattering transform formalism gives a crude order of magnitude estimation of the qualitative behaviour of the solutions. This estimation is compared with the numerical solutions. (D.Gy.)

  6. Correct Linearization of Einstein's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Regularly Einstein's equations can be reduced to a wave form (linearly dependent from the second derivatives of the space metric in the absence of gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. As shown here, the origin of the problem is that one uses the general covariant theory of measurement. Here the wave form of Einstein's equations is obtained in the terms of Zelmanov's chronometric invariants (physically observable projections on the observer's time line and spatial section. The obtained equations depend on solely the second derivatives even if gravitation, the space rotation and Christoffel's symbols. The correct linearization proves: the Einstein equations are completely compatible with weak waves of the metric.

  7. The Dirac equation for accountants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ord, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of relativistic quantum mechanics, derivations of the Dirac equation usually take the form of plausibility arguments based on experience with the Schroedinger equation. The primary reason for this is that we do not know what wavefunctions physically represent, so derivations have to rely on formal arguments. There is however a context in which the Dirac equation in one dimension is directly related to a classical generating function. In that context, the derivation of the Dirac equation is an exercise in counting. We provide this derivation here and discuss its relationship to quantum mechanics

  8. Equation for the superfluid gap obtained by coarse graining the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations throughout the BCS-BEC crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonucci, S.; Strinati, G. C.

    2014-02-01

    We derive a nonlinear differential equation for the gap parameter of a superfluid Fermi system by performing a suitable coarse graining of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations throughout the BCS-BEC crossover, with the aim of replacing the time-consuming solution of the original BdG equations by the simpler solution of this novel equation. We perform a favorable numerical test on the validity of this new equation over most of the temperature-coupling phase diagram, by an explicit comparison with the full solution of the original BdG equations for an isolated vortex. We also show that the new equation reduces both to the Ginzburg-Landau equation for Cooper pairs in weak coupling close to the critical temperature and to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for composite bosons in strong coupling at low temperature.

  9. Difference equations theory, applications and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Mickens, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    THE DIFFERENCE CALCULUS GENESIS OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS DEFINITIONS DERIVATION OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS THEOREM OPERATORS ∆ AND E ELEMENTARY DIFFERENCE OPERATORS FACTORIAL POLYNOMIALS OPERATOR ∆−1 AND THE SUM CALCULUS FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS INTRODUCTION GENERAL LINEAR EQUATION CONTINUED FRACTIONS A GENERAL FIRST-ORDER EQUATION: GEOMETRICAL METHODS A GENERAL FIRST-ORDER EQUATION: EXPANSION TECHNIQUES LINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONSINTRODUCTION LINEARLY INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS FOR HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONSINHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS SECOND-ORDER EQUATIONS STURM-LIOUVILLE DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS LINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS INTRODUCTION HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENCE EQUATION HAVING SPECIFIED SOLUTIONS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINEAR DIFFERENCE AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS INHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS: METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS INHOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS: OPERATOR METHODS z-TRANSFORM METHOD SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS LINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENCE EQUATI...

  10. Differential equations a dynamical systems approach ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, John H

    1991-01-01

    This is a corrected third printing of the first part of the text Differential Equations: A Dynamical Systems Approach written by John Hubbard and Beverly West. The authors' main emphasis in this book is on ordinary differential equations. The book is most appropriate for upper level undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, engineering, and applied mathematics, as well as the life sciences, physics and economics. Traditional courses on differential equations focus on techniques leading to solutions. Yet most differential equations do not admit solutions which can be written in elementary terms. The authors have taken the view that a differential equations defines functions; the object of the theory is to understand the behavior of these functions. The tools the authors use include qualitative and numerical methods besides the traditional analytic methods. The companion software, MacMath, is designed to bring these notions to life.

  11. Solutions to Arithmetic Convolution Equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glöckner, H.; Lucht, L.G.; Porubský, Štefan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 6 (2007), s. 1619-1629 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/04/0381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : arithmetic functions * Dirichlet convolution * polynomial equations * analytic equations * topological algebras * holomorphic functional calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.520, year: 2007

  12. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  13. Differential equations a concise course

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, H S

    2011-01-01

    Concise introduction for undergraduates includes, among other topics, a survey of first order equations, discussions of complex-valued solutions, linear differential operators, inverse operators and variation of parameters method, the Laplace transform, Picard's existence theorem, and an exploration of various interpretations of systems of equations. Numerous clearly stated theorems and proofs, examples, and problems followed by solutions.

  14. Differential equations and finite groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Ulmer, Felix

    2000-01-01

    The classical solution of the Riemann-Hilbert problem attaches to a given representation of the fundamental group a regular singular linear differential equation. We present a method to compute this differential equation in the case of a representation with finite image. The approach uses Galois

  15. Saturation and linear transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutak, K.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  16. Lie symmetries in differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.

    1979-01-01

    A study of ordinary and Partial Differential equations using the symmetries of Lie groups is made. Following such a study, an application to the Helmholtz, Line-Gordon, Korleweg-de Vries, Burguer, Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and wave equations is carried out [pt

  17. Introduction to nonlinear dispersive equations

    CERN Document Server

    Linares, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces the well-posedness theory for initial-value problems of nonlinear, dispersive partial differential equations, with special focus on two key models, the Korteweg–de Vries equation and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. A concise and self-contained treatment of background material (the Fourier transform, interpolation theory, Sobolev spaces, and the linear Schrödinger equation) prepares the reader to understand the main topics covered: the initial-value problem for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the generalized Korteweg–de Vries equation, properties of their solutions, and a survey of general classes of nonlinear dispersive equations of physical and mathematical significance. Each chapter ends with an expert account of recent developments and open problems, as well as exercises. The final chapter gives a detailed exposition of local well-posedness for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, taking the reader to the forefront of recent research. The second edition of Introdu...

  18. Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help…

  19. Solving equations by topological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Górniewicz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we survey most important results from topological fixed point theory which can be directly applied to differential equations. Some new formulations are presented. We believe that our article will be useful for analysts applying topological fixed point theory in nonlinear analysis and in differential equations.

  20. Generalized Fermat equations: A miscellany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, M.A.; Chen, I.; Dahmen, S.R.; Yazdani, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the generalized Fermat equation xp + yq = zr, where p, q and r are integers, and x, y and z are nonzero coprime integers. We begin by surveying the exponent triples (p, q, r), including a number of infinite families, for which the equation has been solved to date, detailing

  1. Equation with the many fathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    1984-01-01

    In this essay I discuss the origin and early development of the first relativistic wave equation, known as the Klein-Gordon equation. In 1926 several physicists, among them Klein, Fock, Schrödinger, and de Broglie, announced this equation as a candidate for a relativistic generalization of the us...... as electrodynamics. Although this ambitious attempt attracted some interest in 1926, its impact on the mainstream of development in quantum mechanics was virtually nil....... of the usual Schrödinger equation. In most of the early versions the Klein-Gordon equation was connected with the general theory of relativity. Klein and some other physicists attempted to express quantum mechanics within a five-dimensional unified theory, embracing general relativity as well...

  2. The relativistic electron wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac, P.A.M.

    1977-08-01

    The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)

  3. Higher order field equations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolhoek, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper wave propagation was studied according to a sixth-order partial differential equation involving a complex mass M. The corresponding Yang-Feldman integral equations (indicated as SM-YF-equations), were formulated using modified Green's functions Gsub(R)sup(M)(x) and Gsub(A)sup(M)(x), which then incorporate the partial differential equation together with certain boundary conditions. In this paper certain limit properties of these modified Green's functions are derived: (a) It is shown that for mod(M)→infinity the Green's functions Gsub(R)sup(M)(x) and Gsub(A)sup(M)(x) approach the Green's functions Δsub(R)(x) and Δsub(A)(x) of the corresponding KG-equation (Klein-Gordon equation). (b) It is further shown that the asymptotic behaviour of Gsub(R)sup(M)(x) and Gsub(A)sup(M)(x) is the same as of Δsub(R)(x) and Δsub(A)(x)-and also the same as for Dsub(R)(x) and Dsub(A)(x) for t→+-infinity;, where Dsub(R) and Dsub(A) are the Green's functions for the KG-equation with mass zero. It is essential to take limits in the sense of distribution theory in both cases (a) and (b). The property (b) indicates that the wave propagation properties of the SM-YF-equations, the KG-equation with finite mass and the KG-equation with mass zero are closely related in an asymptotic sense. (Auth.)

  4. Development of a low Reynolds number turbulence stress and heat flux equation model. A new type wall boundary condition for dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy aided by DNS data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, M.

    1998-04-01

    To predict thermal-hydraulic phenomena in actual plant under various conditions accurately, adequate simulation of laminar-turbulent flow transition is of importance. A low Reynolds number turbulence model is commonly used for a numerical simulation of the laminar-turbulent transition. The existing low Reynolds number turbulence models generally demands very thin mesh width between a wall and a first computational node from the wall, to keep accuracy and stability of numerical analyses. There is a criterion for the distance between the wall and the first computational node in which non-dimensional distance y + must be less than 0.5. Due to this criterion the suitable distance depends on Reynolds number. A liquid metal sodium is used for a coolant in first reactors therefore, Reynolds number is usually one or two order higher than that of the usual plants in which air and water are used for the work fluid. This makes the load of thermal-hydraulic numerical simulation of the liquid sodium relatively heavier. From above context, a new method is proposed for providing wall boundary condition of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ε. The present method enables the wall-first node distance 10 times larger compared to the existing models. A function of the ε wall boundary condition has been constructed aided by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data base. The method was validated through calculations of a turbulent Couette flow and a fully developed pipe flow and its laminar-turbulent transition. Thus the present method and modeling are capable of predicting the laminar-turbulent transition with less mesh numbers i.e. lighter computational loads. (J.P.N.)

  5. Equating TIMSS Mathematics Subtests with Nonlinear Equating Methods Using NEAT Design: Circle-Arc Equating Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Burhanettin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to equate Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) mathematics subtest scores obtained from TIMSS 2011 to scores obtained from TIMSS 2007 form with different nonlinear observed score equating methods under Non-Equivalent Anchor Test (NEAT) design where common items are used to link two or more test…

  6. Neoclassical MHD equations for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.

    1986-03-01

    The moment equation approach to neoclassical-type processes is used to derive the flows, currents and resistive MHD-like equations for studying equilibria and instabilities in axisymmetric tokamak plasmas operating in the banana-plateau collisionality regime (ν* approx. 1). The resultant ''neoclassical MHD'' equations differ from the usual reduced equations of resistive MHD primarily by the addition of the important viscous relaxation effects within a magnetic flux surface. The primary effects of the parallel (poloidal) viscous relaxation are: (1) Rapid (approx. ν/sub i/) damping of the poloidal ion flow so the residual flow is only toroidal; (2) addition of the bootstrap current contribution to Ohm's laws; and (3) an enhanced (by B 2 /B/sub theta/ 2 ) polarization drift type term and consequent enhancement of the perpendicular dielectric constant due to parallel flow inertia, which causes the equations to depend only on the poloidal magnetic field B/sub theta/. Gyroviscosity (or diamagnetic vfiscosity) effects are included to properly treat the diamagnetic flow effects. The nonlinear form of the neoclassical MHD equations is derived and shown to satisfy an energy conservation equation with dissipation arising from Joule and poloidal viscous heating, and transport due to classical and neoclassical diffusion

  7. Chaotic attractors in tumor growth and decay: a differential equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Michael; Yim, Wen-sau

    2015-01-01

    Tumorigenesis can be modeled as a system of chaotic nonlinear differential equations. A simulation of the system is realized by converting the differential equations to difference equations. The results of the simulation show that an increase in glucose in the presence of low oxygen levels decreases tumor growth.

  8. Approximate solutions to Mathieu's equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Vogt, Nicolas; Golubev, Dmitry S.; Cole, Jared H.

    2018-06-01

    Mathieu's equation has many applications throughout theoretical physics. It is especially important to the theory of Josephson junctions, where it is equivalent to Schrödinger's equation. Mathieu's equation can be easily solved numerically, however there exists no closed-form analytic solution. Here we collect various approximations which appear throughout the physics and mathematics literature and examine their accuracy and regimes of applicability. Particular attention is paid to quantities relevant to the physics of Josephson junctions, but the arguments and notation are kept general so as to be of use to the broader physics community.

  9. Soliton equations and Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, L A

    2002-01-01

    The theory of soliton equations and integrable systems has developed rapidly during the last 30 years with numerous applications in mechanics and physics. For a long time, books in this field have not been written but the flood of papers was overwhelming: many hundreds, maybe thousands of them. All this output followed one single work by Gardner, Green, Kruskal, and Mizura on the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV), which had seemed to be merely an unassuming equation of mathematical physics describing waves in shallow water. Besides its obvious practical use, this theory is attractive also becau

  10. Galois theory of difference equations

    CERN Document Server

    Put, Marius

    1997-01-01

    This book lays the algebraic foundations of a Galois theory of linear difference equations and shows its relationship to the analytic problem of finding meromorphic functions asymptotic to formal solutions of difference equations. Classically, this latter question was attacked by Birkhoff and Tritzinsky and the present work corrects and greatly generalizes their contributions. In addition results are presented concerning the inverse problem in Galois theory, effective computation of Galois groups, algebraic properties of sequences, phenomena in positive characteristics, and q-difference equations. The book is aimed at advanced graduate researchers and researchers.

  11. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  12. Bridging the Knowledge Gaps between Richards' Equation and Budyko Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The empirical Budyko equation represents the partitioning of mean annual precipitation into evaporation and runoff. Richards' equation, based on Darcy's law, represents the movement of water in unsaturated soils. The linkage between Richards' equation and Budyko equation is presented by invoking the empirical Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) model for computing surface runoff at the event-scale. The basis of the SCS-CN method is the proportionality relationship, i.e., the ratio of continuing abstraction to its potential is equal to the ratio of surface runoff to its potential value. The proportionality relationship can be derived from the Richards' equation for computing infiltration excess and saturation excess models at the catchment scale. Meanwhile, the generalized proportionality relationship is demonstrated as the common basis of SCS-CN method, monthly "abcd" model, and Budyko equation. Therefore, the linkage between Darcy's law and the emergent pattern of mean annual water balance at the catchment scale is presented through the proportionality relationship.

  13. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  14. Nonlinear integrodifferential equations as discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamizhmani, K. M.; Satsuma, J.; Grammaticos, B.; Ramani, A.

    1999-06-01

    We analyse a class of integrodifferential equations of the `intermediate long wave' (ILW) type. We show that these equations can be formally interpreted as discrete, differential-difference systems. This allows us to link equations of this type with previous results of ours involving differential-delay equations and, on the basis of this, propose new integrable equations of ILW type. Finally, we extend this approach to pure difference equations and propose ILW forms for the discrete lattice KdV equation.

  15. Direct 'delay' reductions of the Toda equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    A new direct method of obtaining reductions of the Toda equation is described. We find a canonical and complete class of all possible reductions under certain assumptions. The resulting equations are ordinary differential-difference equations, sometimes referred to as delay-differential equations. The representative equation of this class is hypothesized to be a new version of one of the classical Painleve equations. The Lax pair associated with this equation is obtained, also by reduction. (fast track communication)

  16. Integral equation for Coulomb problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.

    1986-01-01

    For short range potentials an inhomogeneous (homogeneous) Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation of the Fredholm type yields the wave function of scattering (bound) state. For the Coulomb potential, this statement is no more valid. It has been felt difficult to express the Coulomb wave function in a form of an integral equation with the Coulomb potential as the perturbation. In the present paper, the author shows that an inhomogeneous integral equation of a Volterra type with the Coulomb potential as the perturbation can be constructed both for the scattering and the bound states. The equation yielding the binding energy is given in an integral form. The present treatment is easily extended to the coupled Coulomb problems

  17. Geophysical interpretation using integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Eskola, L

    1992-01-01

    Along with the general development of numerical methods in pure and applied to apply integral equations to geophysical modelling has sciences, the ability improved considerably within the last thirty years or so. This is due to the successful derivation of integral equations that are applicable to the modelling of complex structures, and efficient numerical algorithms for their solution. A significant stimulus for this development has been the advent of fast digital computers. The purpose of this book is to give an idea of the principles by which boundary-value problems describing geophysical models can be converted into integral equations. The end results are the integral formulas and integral equations that form the theoretical framework for practical applications. The details of mathematical analysis have been kept to a minimum. Numerical algorithms are discussed only in connection with some illustrative examples involving well-documented numerical modelling results. The reader is assu­ med to have a back...

  18. Singularity: Raychaudhuri equation once again

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology; Raychaudhuri equation; Universe; quantum gravity; loop quan- tum gravity ... than the observation verifying the prediction of theory. This gave .... which was now expanding, would have had a singular beginning in a hot Big Bang.

  19. Kinetic equations in dirty superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic equations for superconductors in the dirty limit are derived using a method developed for superfluid systems, which allows a systematic expansion in small parameters; exact charge conservation is obeyed. (orig.)

  20. Kinks and the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    In a model quantum theory of interacting mesons, the motion of certain conserved particle-like structures is discussed. It is shown how collective coordinates may be introduced to describe them, leading, in lowest approximation, to a Dirac equation. (author)

  1. Solving Differential Equations in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although R is still predominantly applied for statistical analysis and graphical representation, it is rapidly becoming more suitable for mathematical computing. One of the fields where considerable progress has been made recently is the solution of differential equations. Here w...

  2. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained

  3. On the equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannussis, A.; Streclas, A.; Sourlas, D.; Vlachos, K.

    1977-01-01

    Using the theorem of the derivative of a function of operators with respect to any parameter, we can find the equation of motion of a system in classical mechanics, in canonical as well as in non-canonical mechanics

  4. Quantum-statistical kinetic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Considering a homogeneous normal quantum fluid consisting of identical interacting fermions or bosons, the authors derive an exact quantum-statistical generalized kinetic equation with a collision operator given as explicit cluster series where exchange effects are included through renormalized Liouville operators. This new result is obtained by applying a recently developed superoperator formalism (Liouville operators, cluster expansions, symmetrized projectors, P q -rule, etc.) to nonequilibrium systems described by a density operator ρ(t) which obeys the von Neumann equation. By means of this formalism a factorization theorem is proven (being essential for obtaining closed equations), and partial resummations (leading to renormalized quantities) are performed. As an illustrative application, the quantum-statistical versions (including exchange effects due to Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics) of the homogeneous Boltzmann (binary collisions) and Choh-Uhlenbeck (triple collisions) equations are derived

  5. Lorentz Covariance of Langevin Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, T.; Denicol, G.S.; Kodama, T.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic covariance of a Langevin type equation is discussed. The requirement of Lorentz invariance generates an entanglement between the force and noise terms so that the noise itself should not be a covariant quantity. (author)

  6. Equational theories of tropical sernirings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Esik, Zoltan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    2003-01-01

    examples of such structures are the (max,+) semiring and the tropical semiring. It is shown that none of the exotic semirings commonly considered in the literature has a finite basis for its equations, and that similar results hold for the commutative idempotent weak semirings that underlie them. For each......This paper studies the equational theories of various exotic semirings presented in the literature. Exotic semirings are semirings whose underlying carrier set is some subset of the set of real numbers equipped with binary operations of minimum or maximum as sum, and addition as product. Two prime...... of these commutative idempotent weak semirings, the paper offers characterizations of the equations that hold in them, decidability results for their equational theories, explicit descriptions of the free algebras in the varieties they generate, and relative axiomatization results. Udgivelsesdato: APR 11...

  7. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation

  8. Feynman integrals and difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Schneider, C.

    2007-09-01

    We report on the calculation of multi-loop Feynman integrals for single-scale problems by means of difference equations in Mellin space. The solution to these difference equations in terms of harmonic sums can be constructed algorithmically over difference fields, the so-called ΠΣ * -fields. We test the implementation of the Mathematica package Sigma on examples from recent higher order perturbative calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics. (orig.)

  9. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  10. Feynman integrals and difference equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2007-09-15

    We report on the calculation of multi-loop Feynman integrals for single-scale problems by means of difference equations in Mellin space. The solution to these difference equations in terms of harmonic sums can be constructed algorithmically over difference fields, the so-called {pi}{sigma}{sup *}-fields. We test the implementation of the Mathematica package Sigma on examples from recent higher order perturbative calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics. (orig.)

  11. Roy-Steiner equations for πN scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Elvira, J. Ruiz; Ditsche, C.; Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2015-10-01

    In this talk, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to precisely determine the low-energy πN scattering amplitude by means of Roy-Steiner equations. After giving a brief overview of this system of dispersive equations and their application to πN scattering, we proceed to solve for the lower partial waves of the s-channel (πN → πN) and the t-channel l( {π π to bar NN} right) sub-problems.

  12. Linearised collective Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, M.; Heumann, D.; Scheid, W.

    1990-11-01

    The linearisation of the Schroedinger equation for nuclear quadrupole surface vibrations yields a new spin degree of freedom, which is called collective spin and has a value of 3/2. With the introduction of collective spin dependent potentials, this linearised Schroedinger equation is then used for the description of low energy spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities of some even-odd Xe, Ir and Au nuclei which have a spin 3/2 in their groundstate. (orig.)

  13. Numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sod, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    The numerical solution of Boltzmann's equation is considered for a gas model consisting of rigid spheres by means of Hilbert's expansion. If only the first two terms of the expansion are retained, Boltzmann's equation reduces to the Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation. Successive terms in the Hilbert expansion are obtained by solving the same integral equation with a different source term. The Boltzmann-Hilbert integral equation is solved by a new very fast numerical method. The success of the method rests upon the simultaneous use of four judiciously chosen expansions; Hilbert's expansion for the distribution function, another expansion of the distribution function in terms of Hermite polynomials, the expansion of the kernel in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hilbert operator, and an expansion involved in solving a system of linear equations through a singular value decomposition. The numerical method is applied to the study of the shock structure in one space dimension. Numerical results are presented for Mach numbers of 1.1 and 1.6. 94 refs, 7 tables, 1 fig

  14. Computational partial differential equations using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jichun

    2008-01-01

    Brief Overview of Partial Differential Equations The parabolic equations The wave equations The elliptic equations Differential equations in broader areasA quick review of numerical methods for PDEsFinite Difference Methods for Parabolic Equations Introduction Theoretical issues: stability, consistence, and convergence 1-D parabolic equations2-D and 3-D parabolic equationsNumerical examples with MATLAB codesFinite Difference Methods for Hyperbolic Equations IntroductionSome basic difference schemes Dissipation and dispersion errors Extensions to conservation lawsThe second-order hyperbolic PDE

  15. Linear determining equations for differential constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptsov, O V

    1998-01-01

    A construction of differential constraints compatible with partial differential equations is considered. Certain linear determining equations with parameters are used to find such differential constraints. They generalize the classical determining equations used in the search for admissible Lie operators. As applications of this approach equations of an ideal incompressible fluid and non-linear heat equations are discussed

  16. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1998-01-01

    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  17. Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)

  18. Abstract methods in partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Detailed, self-contained treatment examines modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially abstract evolution equations. Suitable for graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. 1969 edition.

  19. Linear integral equations and soliton systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quispel, G.R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of classical integrable dynamical systems in one temporal and one spatial dimension. The direct linearizations are given of several nonlinear partial differential equations, for example the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and the equation of motion for the isotropic Heisenberg spin chain; the author also discusses several relations between these equations. The Baecklund transformations of these partial differential equations are treated on the basis of a singular transformation of the measure (or equivalently of the plane-wave factor) occurring in the corresponding linear integral equations, and the Baecklund transformations are used to derive the direct linearization of a chain of so-called modified partial differential equations. Finally it is shown that the singular linear integral equations lead in a natural way to the direct linearizations of various nonlinear difference-difference equations. (Auth.)

  20. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  1. Exact solitary waves of the Fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2005-01-01

    New method is presented to search exact solutions of nonlinear differential equations. This approach is used to look for exact solutions of the Fisher equation. New exact solitary waves of the Fisher equation are given

  2. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A

    2009-01-01

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations

  3. How to obtain the covariant form of Maxwell's equations from the continuity equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Mexico D. F. 01210 (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The covariant Maxwell equations are derived from the continuity equation for the electric charge. This result provides an axiomatic approach to Maxwell's equations in which charge conservation is emphasized as the fundamental axiom underlying these equations.

  4. Extraction of dynamical equations from chaotic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, G.; Sprott, J.C.

    1991-02-01

    A method is described for extracting from a chaotic time series a system of equations whose solution reproduces the general features of the original data even when these are contaminated with noise. The equations facilitate calculation of fractal dimension, Lyapunov exponents and short-term predictions. The method is applied to data derived from numerical solutions of the Logistic equation, the Henon equations, the Lorenz equations and the Roessler equations. 10 refs., 5 figs

  5. First-order partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Hyun-Ku; Amundson, Neal R

    2001-01-01

    This first volume of a highly regarded two-volume text is fully usable on its own. After going over some of the preliminaries, the authors discuss mathematical models that yield first-order partial differential equations; motivations, classifications, and some methods of solution; linear and semilinear equations; chromatographic equations with finite rate expressions; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous quasilinear equations; formation and propagation of shocks; conservation equations, weak solutions, and shock layers; nonlinear equations; and variational problems. Exercises appear at the end of mo

  6. Differential equations, mechanics, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Palais, Richard S

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a conceptual introduction to the theory of ordinary differential equations, concentrating on the initial value problem for equations of evolution and with applications to the calculus of variations and classical mechanics, along with a discussion of chaos theory and ecological models. It has a unified and visual introduction to the theory of numerical methods and a novel approach to the analysis of errors and stability of various numerical solution algorithms based on carefully chosen model problems. While the book would be suitable as a textbook for an undergraduate or elementary graduate course in ordinary differential equations, the authors have designed the text also to be useful for motivated students wishing to learn the material on their own or desiring to supplement an ODE textbook being used in a course they are taking with a text offering a more conceptual approach to the subject.

  7. Generalized equations of gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanyukovich, K.P.; Borisova, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Equations for gravitational fields are obtained on the basis of a generalized Lagrangian Z=f(R) (R is the scalar curvature). Such an approach permits to take into account the evolution of a gravitation ''constant''. An expression for the force Fsub(i) versus the field variability is obtained. Conservation laws are formulated differing from the standard ones by the fact that in the right part of new equations the value Fsub(i) is present that goes to zero at an ultimate passage to the standard Einstein theory. An equation of state is derived for cosmological metrics for a particular case, f=bRsup(1+α) (b=const, α=const)

  8. Numerical optimization using flow equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punk, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    We develop a method for multidimensional optimization using flow equations. This method is based on homotopy continuation in combination with a maximum entropy approach. Extrema of the optimizing functional correspond to fixed points of the flow equation. While ideas based on Bayesian inference such as the maximum entropy method always depend on a prior probability, the additional step in our approach is to perform a continuous update of the prior during the homotopy flow. The prior probability thus enters the flow equation only as an initial condition. We demonstrate the applicability of this optimization method for two paradigmatic problems in theoretical condensed matter physics: numerical analytic continuation from imaginary to real frequencies and finding (variational) ground states of frustrated (quantum) Ising models with random or long-range antiferromagnetic interactions.

  9. Quantum Gross-Pitaevskii Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutho Haegeman, Damian Draxler, Vid Stojevic, J. Ignacio Cirac, Tobias J. Osborne, Frank Verstraete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a non-commutative generalization of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for one-dimensional quantum gasses and quantum liquids. This generalization is obtained by applying the time-dependent variational principle to the variational manifold of continuous matrix product states. This allows for a full quantum description of many body system ---including entanglement and correlations--- and thus extends significantly beyond the usual mean-field description of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is known to fail for (quasi one-dimensional systems. By linearizing around a stationary solution, we furthermore derive an associated generalization of the Bogoliubov -- de Gennes equations. This framework is applied to compute the steady state response amplitude to a periodic perturbation of the potential.

  10. Introductory course on differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gorain, Ganesh C

    2014-01-01

    Introductory Course on DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS provides an excellent exposition of the fundamentals of ordinary and partial differential equations and is ideally suited for a first course of undergraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. The aim of this book is to present the elementary theories of differential equations in the forms suitable for use of those students whose main interest in the subject are based on simple mathematical ideas. KEY FEATURES: Discusses the subject in a systematic manner without sacrificing mathematical rigour. A variety of exercises drill the students in problem solving in view of the mathematical theories explained in the book. Worked out examples illustrated according to the theories developed in the book with possible alternatives. Exhaustive collection of problems and the simplicity of presentation differentiate this book from several others. Material contained will help teachers as well as aspiring students of different competitive examinations.

  11. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  12. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  13. Evolution equations for Killing fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, B.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of finding necessary and sufficient conditions on the Cauchy data for Einstein equations which insure the existence of Killing fields in a neighborhood of an initial hypersurface has been considered recently by Berezdivin, Coll, and Moncrief. Nevertheless, it can be shown that the evolution equations obtained in all these cases are of nonstrictly hyperbolic type, and, thus, the Cauchy data must belong to a special class of functions. We prove here that, for the vacuum and Einstein--Maxwell space--times and in a coordinate independent way, one can always choose, as evolution equations for the Killing fields, a strictly hyperbolic system: The above theorems can be thus extended to all Cauchy data for which the Einstein evolution problem has been proved to be well set

  14. Quasisymmetry equations for conventional stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    1994-11-01

    General quasisymmetry condition, which demands the independence of B 2 on one of the angular Boozer coordinates, is reduced to two equations containing only geometrical characteristics and helical field of a stellarator. The analysis is performed for conventional stellarators with a planar circular axis using standard stellarator expansion. As a basis, the invariant quasisymmetry condition is used. The quasisymmetry equations for stellarators are obtained from this condition also in an invariant form. Simplified analogs of these equations are given for the case when averaged magnetic surfaces are circular shifted torii. It is shown that quasisymmetry condition can be satisfied, in principle, in a conventional stellarator by a proper choice of two satellite harmonics of the helical field in addition to the main harmonic. Besides, there appears a restriction on the shift of magnetic surfaces. Thus, in general, the problem is closely related with that of self-consistent description of a configuration. (author)

  15. The generalized good cut equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, T M; Newman, E T

    2010-01-01

    The properties of null geodesic congruences (NGCs) in Lorentzian manifolds are a topic of considerable importance. More specifically NGCs with the special property of being shear-free or asymptotically shear-free (as either infinity or a horizon is approached) have received a great deal of recent attention for a variety of reasons. Such congruences are most easily studied via solutions to what has been referred to as the 'good cut equation' or the 'generalization good cut equation'. It is the purpose of this paper to study these equations and show their relationship to each other. In particular we show how they all have a four-complex-dimensional manifold (known as H-space, or in a special case as complex Minkowski space) as a solution space.

  16. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  17. Coupled Higgs field equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 79; Issue 1. Coupled Higgs field equation and ... School of Mathematics and Computer Applications, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004, India; Department of Mathematics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Distt. Solan 173 234, India ...

  18. Coupled Higgs field equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the rational functions are obtained. Keywords. ... differential equations as is evident by the number of research papers, books and a new symbolic software .... Now using (2.11), (2.14) in (2.8) with C1 = 0 and integrating once we get. P. 2 = − β.

  19. The nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Kinetic equations with pairing correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Gorkov equations are derived for a general non-equilibrium system. The Gorkov factorization is generalized by the cumulant expansion of the 2-particle correlation and by a generalized Wick theorem in the case of a perturbation expansion. A stationary solution for the Green functions in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism is presented taking into account pairing correlations. Especially the effects of collisional broadening on the spectral functions and Green functions is discussed. Kinetic equations are derived in the quasi-particle approximation and in the case of particles with width. Explicit expressions for the self-energies are given. (orig.)

  1. Partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Colton, David

    2004-01-01

    Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

  2. Geometric approach to soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, R.

    1979-09-01

    A class of nonlinear equations that can be solved in terms of nxn scattering problem is investigated. A systematic geometric method of exploiting conservation laws and related equations, the so-called prolongation structure, is worked out. The nxn problem is reduced to nsub(n-1)x(n-1) problems and finally to 2x2 problems, which have been comprehensively investigated recently by the author. A general method of deriving the infinite numbers of polynomial conservation laws for an nxn problem is presented. The cases of 3x3 and 2x2 problems are discussed explicitly. (Auth.)

  3. Sensitivity for the Smoluchowski equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, I F

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the question of sensitivity of the solutions μ λ t of the Smoluchowski equation on R + * with respect to the parameters λ in the interaction kernel K λ . It is proved that μ λ t is a C 1 function of (t, λ) with values in a good space of measures under the hypotheses K λ (x, y) ≤ ψ(x) ψ(y), for some sub-linear function ψ, and ∫ψ 4+ε (x) μ 0 (dx) < ∞, and that the derivative is the unique solution of a related equation.

  4. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  5. The nuclear equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state in determining the fate of the collapsing cores of massive stars is examined in light of both recent theoretical advances in this subject and recent experimental measurements with relativistic heavy ions. The difficulties existing in attempts to bring the softer nuclear matter apparently required by the theory of Type II supernovae into consonance with the heavy ion data are discussed. Relativistic mean field theory is introduced as a candidate for derivation of the equation of state, and a simple form for the saturation compressibility is obtained. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Solution of the Baxter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method of construction of a family of solutions of the Baxter equation arising in the Generalized Leading Logarithmic Approximation (GLLA) of the QCD pomeron. The details are given for the exchange of N = 2 reggeons but everything can be generalized in a straightforward way to arbitrary N. A specific choice of solutions is shown to reproduce the correct energy levels for half integral conformal weights. It is shown that the Baxter's equation must be supplemented by an additional condition on the solution. (author)

  7. Fundamentals of equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, Shalom; Hora, Heinrich

    2002-01-01

    The equation of state was originally developed for ideal gases, and proved central to the development of early molecular and atomic physics. Increasingly sophisticated equations of state have been developed to take into account molecular interactions, quantization, relativistic effects, etc. Extreme conditions of matter are encountered both in nature and in the laboratory, for example in the centres of stars, in relativistic collisions of heavy nuclei, in inertial confinement fusion (where a temperature of 10 9 K and a pressure exceeding a billion atmospheres can be achieved). A sound knowledg

  8. Nielsen number and differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Jan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In reply to a problem of Jean Leray (application of the Nielsen theory to differential equations, two main approaches are presented. The first is via Poincaré's translation operator, while the second one is based on the Hammerstein-type solution operator. The applicability of various Nielsen theories is discussed with respect to several sorts of differential equations and inclusions. Links with the Sharkovskii-like theorems (a finite number of periodic solutions imply infinitely many subharmonics are indicated, jointly with some further consequences like the nontrivial -structure of solutions of initial value problems. Some illustrating examples are supplied and open problems are formulated.

  9. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  10. Sequent Calculus and Equational Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guenot

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proof assistants and programming languages based on type theories usually come in two flavours: one is based on the standard natural deduction presentation of type theory and involves eliminators, while the other provides a syntax in equational style. We show here that the equational approach corresponds to the use of a focused presentation of a type theory expressed as a sequent calculus. A typed functional language is presented, based on a sequent calculus, that we relate to the syntax and internal language of Agda. In particular, we discuss the use of patterns and case splittings, as well as rules implementing inductive reasoning and dependent products and sums.

  11. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  12. Turbulent kinetic energy equation and free mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, T.; Torda, T. P.; Bradshaw, P.

    1973-01-01

    Calculation of free shear flows was carried out to investigate the usefulness of several concepts which were previously successfully applied to wall flows. The method belongs to the class of differential approaches. The turbulence is taken into account by the introduction of one additional partial differential equation, the transport equation for the turbulent shear stress. The structure of turbulence is modeled after Bradshaw et al. This model was used successfully in boundary layers and its applicability to other flows is demonstrated. The work reported differs substantially from that of an earlier attempt to use this approach for calculation of free flows. The most important difference is that the region around the center line is treated by invoking the interaction hypothesis (concerning the structure of turbulence in the regions separated by the velocity extrema). The compressibility effects on shear layer spreading at low and moderate Mach numbers were investigated. In the absence of detailed experiments in free flows, the evidence from boundary layers that at low Mach numbers the structure of turbulence is unaffected by the compressibility was relied on. The present model was tested over a range of self-preserving and developing flows including pressure gradients using identical empirical input. The dependence of the structure of turbulence on the spreading rate of the shear layer was established.

  13. Generalized fluid equations for parallel transport in collisional to weakly collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawaideh, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    A new set of two-fluid equations which are valid from collisional to weakly collisional limits are derived. Starting from gyrokinetic equations in flux coordinates with no zeroth order drifts, a set of moment equations describing plasma transport along the field lines of a space and time dependent magnetic field are derived. No restriction on the anisotropy of the ion distribution function is imposed. In the highly collisional limit, these equations reduce to those of Braginskii while in the weakly collisional limit, they are similar to the double adiabatic or Chew, Goldberger, and Low (CGL) equations. The new transport equations are used to study the effects of collisionality, magnetic field structure, and plasma anisotropy on plasma parallel transport. Numerical examples comparing these equations with conventional transport equations show that the conventional equations may contain large errors near the sound speed (M approx. = 1). It is also found that plasma anisotropy, which is not included in the conventional equations, is a critical parameter in determining plasma transport in varying magnetic field. The new transport equations are also used to study axial confinement in multiple mirror devices from the strongly to weakly collisional regime. A new ion conduction model was worked out to extend the regime of validity of the transport equations to the low density multiple mirror regime

  14. Dynamic data analysis modeling data with differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, James

    2017-01-01

    This text focuses on the use of smoothing methods for developing and estimating differential equations following recent developments in functional data analysis and building on techniques described in Ramsay and Silverman (2005) Functional Data Analysis. The central concept of a dynamical system as a buffer that translates sudden changes in input into smooth controlled output responses has led to applications of previously analyzed data, opening up entirely new opportunities for dynamical systems. The technical level has been kept low so that those with little or no exposure to differential equations as modeling objects can be brought into this data analysis landscape. There are already many texts on the mathematical properties of ordinary differential equations, or dynamic models, and there is a large literature distributed over many fields on models for real world processes consisting of differential equations. However, a researcher interested in fitting such a model to data, or a statistician interested in...

  15. Equating accelerometer estimates among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Bornstein, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    from one set of cutpoints into another. Bland Altman plots illustrate the agreement between actual MVPA and predicted MVPA values. RESULTS: Across the total sample, mean MVPA ranged from 29.7MVPAmind(-1) (Puyau) to 126.1MVPAmind(-1) (Freedson 3 METs). Across conversion equations, median absolute...

  16. Variational linear algebraic equations method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseiwitsch, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    A modification of the linear algebraic equations method is described which ensures a variational bound on the phaseshifts for potentials having a definite sign at all points. The method is illustrated by the elastic scattering of s-wave electrons by the static field of atomic hydrogen. (author)

  17. Integrodifferential equation approach. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehm, W.; Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H.; South Africa Univ., Pretoria. Dept. of Physics); Fabre de la Ripelle, M.; South Africa Univ., Pretoria. Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01

    A single integrodifferential equation in two variables, valid for A nucleons interacting by pure Wigner forces, which has previously only been solved in the extreme and uncoupled adiabatic approximations is now solved exactly for three- and four-nucleon systems. The results are in good agreement with the values obtained for the binding energies by means of an empirical interpolation formula. This validates all our previous conclusions, in particular that the omission of higher (than two) order correlations in our four-body equation only produces a rather small underbinding. The integrodifferential equation approach (IDEA) is here also extended to spin-dependent forces of the Malfliet-Tjon type, resulting in two coupled integrodifferential equations in two variables. The exact solution and the interpolated adiabatic approximation are again in good agreement. The inclusion of the hypercentral part of the two-body interaction in the definition of the Faddeev-type components again leads to substantial improvement for fully local potentials, acting in all partial waves. (orig.)

  18. A generalized advection dispersion equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper examines a possible effect of uncertainties, variability or heterogeneity of any dynamic system when being included in its evolution rule; the notion is illustrated with the advection dispersion equation, which describes the groundwater pollution model. An uncertain derivative is defined; some properties of.

  19. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove

  20. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  1. On the Saha Ionization Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the equation in terms of rate theory. ... that the said theory is said to be the harbinger of modern astro- ... Parichay (An Introduction to the Universe). Tagore ..... where |e| is the magnitude of the electron's charge and E is the electric field intensity ...

  2. Saha equation in Rindler space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanchari De

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... scenario, the flat local geometry is called the Rindler space. For an illustration, let us consider two reference ... the local acceleration of the frame. To investigate Saha equation in a uniformly acceler- ... the best of our knowledge, the study of Saha equa- tion in Rindler space has not been reported earlier.

  3. Slave equations for spin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catterall, S.M.; Drummond, I.T.; Horgan, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    We apply an accelerated Langevin algorithm to the simulation of continuous spin models on the lattice. In conjunction with the evolution equation for the spins we use slave equations to compute estimators for the connected correlation functions of the model. In situations for which the symmetry of the model is sufficiently strongly broken by an external field these estimators work well and yield a signal-to-noise ratio for the Green function at large time separations more favourable than that resulting from the standard method. With the restoration of symmetry, however, the slave equation estimators exhibit an intrinsic instability associated with the growth of a power law tail in the probability distributions for the measured quantities. Once this tail has grown sufficiently strong it results in a divergence of the variance of the estimator which then ceases to be useful for measurement purposes. The instability of the slave equation method in circumstances of weak symmetry breaking precludes its use in determining the mass gap in non-linear sigma models. (orig.)

  4. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  5. Quasi-gas dynamic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Elizarova, Tatiana G

    2009-01-01

    This book presents two interconnected mathematical models generalizing the Navier-Stokes system. The models, called the quasi-gas-dynamic and quasi-hydrodynamic equations, are then used as the basis of numerical methods solving gas- and fluid-dynamic problems.

  6. Stability of Functional Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemm, Jeffrey M

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the structure and stability properties of solutions of functional differential equations. Numerous examples of applications (such as feedback systrems with aftereffect, two-reflector antennae, nuclear reactors, mathematical models in immunology, viscoelastic bodies, aeroautoelastic phenomena and so on) are considered in detail. The development is illustrated by numerous figures and tables.

  7. Quantum adiabatic Markovian master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albash, Tameem; Zanardi, Paolo; Boixo, Sergio; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    We develop from first principles Markovian master equations suited for studying the time evolution of a system evolving adiabatically while coupled weakly to a thermal bath. We derive two sets of equations in the adiabatic limit, one using the rotating wave (secular) approximation that results in a master equation in Lindblad form, the other without the rotating wave approximation but not in Lindblad form. The two equations make markedly different predictions depending on whether or not the Lamb shift is included. Our analysis keeps track of the various time and energy scales associated with the various approximations we make, and thus allows for a systematic inclusion of higher order corrections, in particular beyond the adiabatic limit. We use our formalism to study the evolution of an Ising spin chain in a transverse field and coupled to a thermal bosonic bath, for which we identify four distinct evolution phases. While we do not expect this to be a generic feature, in one of these phases dissipation acts to increase the fidelity of the system state relative to the adiabatic ground state. (paper)

  8. Weak solutions of magma equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, E.V.

    1999-01-01

    Periodic solutions in terms of Jacobian cosine elliptic functions have been obtained for a set of values of two physical parameters for the magma equation which do not reduce to solitary-wave solutions. It was also obtained solitary-wave solutions for another set of these parameters as an infinite period limit of periodic solutions in terms of Weierstrass and Jacobian elliptic functions

  9. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  10. Solutions of Einstein's field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1978-12-01

    In this paper the author investigates the Einstein's field equations of the non-vacuum case and generalizes the solution of Robertson-Walker by the three dimensional Einstein spaces. In Section 2 the author shortly generalizes the dynamic space-time of G. Lemetre and A. Friedmann by a simple transformation.

  11. Equations for formally real meadows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.; Ponse, A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the signatures Σm = (0,1,−,+,⋅,−1)  of meadows and (Σm,s)  of signed meadows. We give two complete axiomatizations of the equational theories of the real numbers with respect to these signatures. In the first case, we extend the axiomatization of zero-totalized fields by a single axiom

  12. Wave equation of hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwito.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom using Bohr, Schroedinger and Dirac theories is reviewed. The result is compared with that obtained from infinite component wave equations theory which developed recently. The conclusion can be stated that the latter theory is better to describe the composit system than the former. (author)

  13. Transport equation and shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multi-group method is derived from a one dimensional transport equation for the slowing down and spatial transport of energetic positive ions in a plasma. This method is used to calculate the behaviour of energetic charged particles in non homogeneous and non stationary plasma, and the effect of energy deposition of the particles on the heating of the plasma. In that purpose, an equation for the density of fast ions is obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation, and a closure condition for the second moment of this equation is deduced from phenomenological considerations. This method leads to a numerical method, simple and very efficient, which doesn't require much computer storage. Two types of numerical results are obtained. First, results on the slowing down of 3.5 MeV alpha particles in a 50 keV plasma plublished by Corman and al and Moses are compared with the results obtained with both our method and a Monte Carlo type method. Good agreement was obtained, even for energy deposition on the ions of the plasma. Secondly, we have calculated propagation of alpha particles heating a cold plasma. These results are in very good agreement with those given by an accurate Monte Carlo method, for both the thermal velocity, and the energy deposition in the plasma

  14. Structural equations in language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, M.J.

    In categorial systems with a fixed structural component, the learning problem comes down to finding the solution for a set of typeassignment equations. A hard-wired structural component is problematic if one want to address issues of structural variation. Our starting point is a type-logical

  15. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  16. Painleve test and discrete Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euler, N.; Steeb, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Painleve test for various discrete Boltzmann equations is performed. The connection with integrability is discussed. Furthermore the Lie symmetry vector fields are derived and group-theoretical reduction of the discrete Boltzmann equations to ordinary differentiable equations is performed. Lie Backlund transformations are gained by performing the Painleve analysis for the ordinary differential equations. 16 refs

  17. Development of kinetics equations from the Boltzmann equation; Etablissement des equations de la cinetique a partir de l'equation de Boltzmann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plas, R.

    1962-07-01

    The author reports a study on kinetics equations for a reactor. He uses the conventional form of these equations but by using a dynamic multiplication factor. Thus, constants related to delayed neutrons are not modified by efficiency factors. The author first describes the theoretic kinetic operation of a reactor and develops the associated equations. He reports the development of equations for multiplication factors.

  18. Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, Claude M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.

  19. Invariant imbedding equations for linear scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apresyan, L.

    1988-01-01

    A general form of the invariant imbedding equations is investigated for the linear problem of scattering by a bounded scattering volume. The conditions for the derivability of such equations are described. It is noted that the possibility of the explicit representation of these equations for a sphere and for a layer involves the separation of variables in the unperturbed wave equation

  20. The AGL equation from the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to a unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for a unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit

  1. Thermoviscous Model Equations in Nonlinear Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne

    Four nonlinear acoustical wave equations that apply to both perfect gasses and arbitrary fluids with a quadratic equation of state are studied. Shock and rarefaction wave solutions to the equations are studied. In order to assess the accuracy of the wave equations, their solutions are compared...... to solutions of the basic equations from which the wave equations are derived. A straightforward weakly nonlinear equation is the most accurate for shock modeling. A higher order wave equation is the most accurate for modeling of smooth disturbances. Investigations of the linear stability properties...... of solutions to the wave equations, reveal that the solutions may become unstable. Such instabilities are not found in the basic equations. Interacting shocks and standing shocks are investigated....

  2. A calderón-preconditioned single source combined field integral equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdés, Felipe

    2011-06-01

    A new regularized single source equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects is presented. The proposed equation is a linear combination of a Calderón-preconditioned single source electric field integral equation and a single source magnetic field integral equation. The equation is immune to low-frequency and dense-mesh breakdown, and free from spurious resonances. Unlike dual source formulations, this equation involves operator products that cannot be discretized using standard procedures for discretizing standalone electric, magnetic, and combined field operators. Instead, the single source equation proposed here is discretized using a recently developed technique that achieves a well-conditioned mapping from div- to curl-conforming function spaces, thereby fully respecting the space mapping properties of the operators involved, and guaranteeing accuracy and stability. Numerical results show that the proposed equation and discretization technique give rise to rapidly convergent solutions. They also validate the equation\\'s resonant free character. © 2006 IEEE.

  3. Manhattan equation for the operational amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mishonov, Todor M.; Danchev, Victor I.; Petkov, Emil G.; Gourev, Vassil N.; Dimitrova, Iglika M.; Varonov, Albert M.

    2018-01-01

    A differential equation relating the voltage at the output of an operational amplifier $U_0$ and the difference between the input voltages ($U_{+}$ and $U_{-}$) has been derived. The crossover frequency $f_0$ is a parameter in this operational amplifier master equation. The formulas derived as a consequence of this equation find applications in thousands of specifications for electronic devices but as far as we know, the equation has never been published. Actually, the master equation of oper...

  4. Reduced kinetic equations: An influence functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wio, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses a scheme for obtaining reduced descriptions of multivariate kinetic equations based on the 'influence functional' method of Feynmann. It is applied to the case of Fokker-Planck equations showing the form that results for the reduced equation. The possibility of Markovian or non-Markovian reduced description is discussed. As a particular example, the reduction of the Kramers equation to the Smoluchwski equation in the limit of high friction is also discussed

  5. Dynamical equations for the optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamical equations for the optical potential are obtained starting from a wide class of N-particle equations. This is done with arbitrary multiparticle interactions to allow adaptation to few-body models of nuclear reactions and including all effects of nucleon identity. Earlier forms of the optical potential equations are obtained as special cases. Particular emphasis is placed upon obtaining dynamical equations for the optical potential from the equations of Kouri, Levin, and Tobocman including all effects of particle identity

  6. Group foliation of finite difference equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert; Valiquette, Francis

    2018-06-01

    Using the theory of equivariant moving frames, a group foliation method for invariant finite difference equations is developed. This method is analogous to the group foliation of differential equations and uses the symmetry group of the equation to decompose the solution process into two steps, called resolving and reconstruction. Our constructions are performed algorithmically and symbolically by making use of discrete recurrence relations among joint invariants. Applications to invariant finite difference equations that approximate differential equations are given.

  7. An inverse problem in a parabolic equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Li

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an inverse problem in a parabolic equation is studied. An unknown function in the equation is related to two integral equations in terms of heat kernel. One of the integral equations is well-posed while another is ill-posed. A regularization approach for constructing an approximate solution to the ill-posed integral equation is proposed. Theoretical analysis and numerical experiment are provided to support the method.

  8. Systems of Inhomogeneous Linear Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many problems in physics and especially computational physics involve systems of linear equations which arise e.g. from linearization of a general nonlinear problem or from discretization of differential equations. If the dimension of the system is not too large standard methods like Gaussian elimination or QR decomposition are sufficient. Systems with a tridiagonal matrix are important for cubic spline interpolation and numerical second derivatives. They can be solved very efficiently with a specialized Gaussian elimination method. Practical applications often involve very large dimensions and require iterative methods. Convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods is slow and can be improved by relaxation or over-relaxation. An alternative for large systems is the method of conjugate gradients.

  9. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Frutos Alfaro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  10. Combinatorics of Generalized Bethe Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Karol K.; Sklyanin, Evgeny K.

    2013-10-01

    A generalization of the Bethe ansatz equations is studied, where a scalar two-particle S-matrix has several zeroes and poles in the complex plane, as opposed to the ordinary single pole/zero case. For the repulsive case (no complex roots), the main result is the enumeration of all distinct solutions to the Bethe equations in terms of the Fuss-Catalan numbers. Two new combinatorial interpretations of the Fuss-Catalan and related numbers are obtained. On the one hand, they count regular orbits of the permutation group in certain factor modules over {{Z}^M}, and on the other hand, they count integer points in certain M-dimensional polytopes.

  11. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  12. Numerical Solution of Parabolic Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole

    These lecture notes are designed for a one-semester course on finite-difference methods for parabolic equations. These equations which traditionally are used for describing diffusion and heat-conduction problems in Geology, Physics, and Chemistry have recently found applications in Finance Theory...... ? and how do boundary value approximations affect the overall order of the method. Knowledge of a reliable order and error estimate enables us to determine (near-)optimal step sizes to meet a prescribed error tolerance, and possibly to extrapolate to get (higher order and) better accuracy at a minimal...... expense. Problems in two space dimensions are effectively handled using the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) technique. We present a systematic way of incorporating inhomogeneous terms and derivative boundary conditions in ADI methods as well as mixed derivative terms....

  13. Chiral equations and fiber bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, T.; Becerril, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using the hypothesis g = g (lambda i ), the chiral equations (rhog, z g -1 ), z -bar + (rhog, z -barg -1 ), z = 0 are reduced to a Killing equation of a p-dimensional space V p , being lambda i lambda i (z, z-bar) 'geodesic' parameters of V p . Supposing that g belongs to a Lie group G, one writes the corresponding Lie algebra elements (F) in terms of the Killing vectors of V p and the generators of the subalgebra of F of dimension d = dimension of the Killing space. The elements of the subalgebras belong to equivalence classes which in the respective group form a principal fiber bundle. This is used to integrate the matrix g in terms of the complex variables z and z-bar ( Author)

  14. The equations icons of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bais, Sander

    2005-01-01

    For thousands of years mankind has tried to understand nature. Exploring the world on all scales with instruments of ever more ingenuity, we have been able to unravel some of the great mysteries that surround us. While collecting an overwhelming multitude of observational facts, we discovered fundamental laws that govern the structure and evolution of physical reality. We know that nature speaks to us in the language of mathematics. In this language most of our basic understanding of the physical world can be expressed in an unambiguous and concise way. The most artificial language turns out to be the most natural of all. The laws of nature correspond to equations. These equations are the icons of knowledge that mark crucial turning points in our thinking about the world we happen to live in. They form the symbolic representation of most of what we know, and as such constitute an important and robust part of our culture.

  15. Implementing Parquet equations using HPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellar, Samuel; Wagle, Bibek; Yang, Shuxiang; Tam, Ka-Ming; Kaiser, Hartmut; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    A new C++ runtime system (HPX) enables simulations of complex systems to run more efficiently on parallel and heterogeneous systems. This increased efficiency allows for solutions to larger simulations of the parquet approximation for a system with impurities. The relevancy of the parquet equations depends upon the ability to solve systems which require long runs and large amounts of memory. These limitations, in addition to numerical complications arising from stability of the solutions, necessitate running on large distributed systems. As the computational resources trend towards the exascale and the limitations arising from computational resources vanish efficiency of large scale simulations becomes a focus. HPX facilitates efficient simulations through intelligent overlapping of computation and communication. Simulations such as the parquet equations which require the transfer of large amounts of data should benefit from HPX implementations. Supported by the the NSF EPSCoR Cooperative Agreement No. EPS-1003897 with additional support from the Louisiana Board of Regents.

  16. Consequences of Violated Equating Assumptions under the Equivalent Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyren, Per-Erik; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    The equal ability distribution assumption associated with the equivalent groups equating design was investigated in the context of a selection test for admission to higher education. The purpose was to assess the consequences for the test-takers in terms of receiving improperly high or low scores compared to their peers, and to find strong…

  17. A Sesame Equation of State for Dense Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We generated a new Sesame equation of state table for Ce. It is a single effective phase table for the high density phases α, α ', ϵ and liquid. Also, the EOS is meant to be used with a ramp to represent the initial low density γ phase.

  18. Cut cancellation in the planar integral equation for the Reggeon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.; Veneziano, G.

    1975-01-01

    Planar unitarity for the Reggeon, analyticity and the multi-Regge assumption with cluster production lead to integral equations of the Chew-Goldberger-Low type with separable self-consistent kernel. Contrary to common prejudice, the authors show the existence of solutions exhibiting moving poles and exact, non-perturbative cancellation of the cut. Previously studied consistency conditions are rederived. (Auth.)

  19. Handbook of structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Rick H

    2012-01-01

    The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, inclu

  20. The uranium equation in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonny, J.; Fulton, M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: comparison of world nuclear generating capacity forecasts; world uranium requirements; comparison of uranium production capability forecasts; supply and demand situation in 1990 and 1995; a perspective on the uranium equation (economic factors; development lead times as a factor affecting market stability; the influence of uncertainty; the uranium market in perspective; the uranium market in 1995). (U.K.)

  1. Differential equations in airplane mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleman, M T

    1922-01-01

    In the following report, we will first draw some conclusions of purely theoretical interest, from the general equations of motion. At the end, we will consider the motion of an airplane, with the engine dead and with the assumption that the angle of attack remains constant. Thus we arrive at a simple result, which can be rendered practically utilizable for determining the trajectory of an airplane descending at a constant steering angle.

  2. Integration of Chandrasekhar's integral equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    We solve Chandrasekhar's integration equation for radiative transfer in the plane-parallel atmosphere by iterative integration. The primary thrust in radiative transfer has been to solve the forward problem, i.e., to evaluate the radiance, given the optical thickness and the scattering phase function. In the area of satellite remote sensing, our problem is the inverse problem: to retrieve the surface reflectance and the optical thickness of the atmosphere from the radiance measured by satellites. In order to retrieve the optical thickness and the surface reflectance from the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA), we should express the radiance at TOA 'explicitly' in the optical thickness and the surface reflectance. Chandrasekhar formalized radiative transfer in the plane-parallel atmosphere in a simultaneous integral equation, and he obtained the second approximation. Since then no higher approximation has been reported. In this paper, we obtain the third approximation of the scattering function. We integrate functions derived from the second approximation in the integral interval from 1 to ∞ of the inverse of the cos of zenith angles. We can obtain the indefinite integral rather easily in the form of a series expansion. However, the integrals at the upper limit, ∞, are not yet known to us. We can assess the converged values of those series expansions at ∞ through calculus. For integration, we choose coupling pairs to avoid unnecessary terms in the outcome of integral and discover that the simultaneous integral equation can be deduced to the mere integral equation. Through algebraic calculation, we obtain the third approximation as a polynomial of the third degree in the atmospheric optical thickness

  3. Equation of State Project Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-11

    A general overview of the Equation of State (EOS) Project will be presented. The goal is to provide the audience with an introduction of what our more advanced methods entail (DFT, QMD, etc.. ) and how these models are being utilized to better constrain the thermodynamic models. These models substantially reduce our regions of interpolation between the various thermodynamic limits. I will also present a variety example of recent EOS work.

  4. Simple equation method for nonlinear partial differential equations and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher A. Nofal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on the exact solution of the some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs such as, Kodomtsev–Petviashvili (KP equation, the (2 + 1-dimensional breaking soliton equation and the modified generalized Vakhnenko equation by using the simple equation method. In the simple equation method the trial condition is the Bernoulli equation or the Riccati equation. It has been shown that the method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering problems.

  5. Effective Schroedinger equations on submanifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsmuth, Jakob

    2010-02-11

    In this thesis the time dependent Schroedinger equation is considered on a Riemannian manifold A with a potential that localizes a certain class of states close to a fixed submanifold C, the constraint manifold. When the potential is scaled in the directions normal to C by a small parameter epsilon, the solutions concentrate in an epsilon-neighborhood of the submanifold. An effective Schroedinger equation on the submanifold C is derived and it is shown that its solutions, suitably lifted to A, approximate the solutions of the original equation on A up to errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3} vertical stroke t vertical stroke at time t. Furthermore, it is proved that, under reasonable conditions, the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians below a certain energy coincide upto errors of order {epsilon}{sup 3}. These results holds in the situation where tangential and normal energies are of the same order, and where exchange between normal and tangential energies occurs. In earlier results tangential energies were assumed to be small compared to normal energies, and rather restrictive assumptions were needed, to ensure that the separation of energies is maintained during the time evolution. The most important consequence of this thesis is that now constraining potentials that change their shape along the submanifold can be treated, which is the typical situation in applications like molecular dynamics and quantum waveguides.

  6. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  7. Wave equations in higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Shi-Hai

    2011-01-01

    Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...

  8. Geometric Implications of Maxwell's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Felix T.

    2015-03-01

    Maxwell's synthesis of the varied results of the accumulated knowledge of electricity and magnetism, based largely on the searching insights of Faraday, still provide new issues to explore. A case in point is a well recognized anomaly in the Maxwell equations: The laws of electricity and magnetism require two 3-vector and two scalar equations, but only six dependent variables are available to be their solutions, the 3-vectors E and B. This leaves an apparent redundancy of two degrees of freedom (J. Rosen, AJP 48, 1071 (1980); Jiang, Wu, Povinelli, J. Comp. Phys. 125, 104 (1996)). The observed self-consistency of the eight equations suggests that they contain additional information. This can be sought as a previously unnoticed constraint connecting the space and time variables, r and t. This constraint can be identified. It distorts the otherwise Euclidean 3-space of r with the extremely slight, time dependent curvature k (t) =Rcurv-2 (t) of the 3-space of a hypersphere whose radius has the time dependence dRcurv / dt = +/- c nonrelativistically, or dRcurvLor / dt = +/- ic relativistically. The time dependence is exactly that of the Hubble expansion. Implications of this identification will be explored.

  9. Dirac's equation and the nature of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2012-01-01

    This paper re-examines the key aspects of Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron in order advance our understanding of the nature of quantum field theory. Dirac's derivation, the paper argues, follows the key principles behind Heisenberg's discovery of quantum mechanics, which, the paper also argues, transformed the nature of both theoretical and experimental physics vis-à-vis classical physics and relativity. However, the limit theory (a crucial consideration for both Dirac and Heisenberg) in the case of Dirac's theory was quantum mechanics, specifically, Schrödinger's equation, while in the case of quantum mechanics, in Heisenberg's version, the limit theory was classical mechanics. Dirac had to find a new equation, Dirac's equation, along with a new type of quantum variables, while Heisenberg, to find new theory, was able to use the equations of classical physics, applied to different, quantum-mechanical variables. In this respect, Dirac's task was more similar to that of Schrödinger in his work on his version of quantum mechanics. Dirac's equation reflects a more complex character of quantum electrodynamics or quantum field theory in general and of the corresponding (high-energy) experimental quantum physics vis-à-vis that of quantum mechanics and the (low-energy) experimental quantum physics. The final section examines this greater complexity and its implications for fundamental physics.

  10. Constitutive Equation with Varying Parameters for Superplastic Flow Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhiping; Ren, Mingwen; Jia, Hongjie; Zhao, Po; Ma, Pinkui

    2014-03-01

    In this study, constitutive equations for superplastic materials with an extra large elongation were investigated through mechanical analysis. From the view of phenomenology, firstly, some traditional empirical constitutive relations were standardized by restricting some strain paths and parameter conditions, and the coefficients in these relations were strictly given new mechanical definitions. Subsequently, a new, general constitutive equation with varying parameters was theoretically deduced based on the general mechanical equation of state. The superplastic tension test data of Zn-5%Al alloy at 340 °C under strain rates, velocities, and loads were employed for building a new constitutive equation and examining its validity. Analysis results indicated that the constitutive equation with varying parameters could characterize superplastic flow behavior in practical superplastic forming with high prediction accuracy and without any restriction of strain path or deformation condition, showing good industrial or scientific interest. On the contrary, those empirical equations have low prediction capabilities due to constant parameters and poor applicability because of the limit of special strain path or parameter conditions based on strict phenomenology.

  11. Five-dimensional Monopole Equation with Hedge-Hog Ansatz and Abel's Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Hironobu

    2008-01-01

    We review the generalized monopole in the five-dimensional Euclidean space. A numerical solution with the Hedge-Hog ansatz is studied. The Bogomol'nyi equation becomes a second order autonomous non-linear differential equation. The equation can be translated into the Abel's differential equation of the second kind and is an algebraic differential equation.

  12. Equation of state of warm condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W., III; Young, D.A.; Rogers, F.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent advances in computational condensed matter theory have yielded accurate calculations of properties of materials. These calculations have, for the most part, focused on the low temperature (T=0) limit. An accurate determination of the equation of state (EOS) at finite temperature also requires knowledge of the behavior of the electron and ion thermal pressure as a function of T. Current approaches often interpolate between calculated T=0 results and approximations valid in the high T limit. Plasma physics-based approaches are accurate in the high temperature limit, but lose accuracy below T{approximately}T{sub Fermi}. We seek to ``connect up`` these two regimes by using ab initio finite temperature methods (including linear-response[1] based phonon calculations) to derive an equation of state of condensed matter for T{<=}T{sub Fermi}. We will present theoretical results for the principal Hugoniot of shocked materials, including carbon and aluminum, up to pressures P>100 GPa and temperatures T>10{sup 4}K, and compare our results with available experimental data.

  13. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, Ronald B

    1996-01-01

    This book was written to help mathematics students and those in the physical sciences learn modern mathematical techniques for setting up and analyzing problems. The mathematics used is rigorous, but not overwhelming, while the authors carefully model physical situations, emphasizing feedback among a beginning model, physical experiments, mathematical predictions, and the subsequent refinement and reevaluation of the physical model itself. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of various physical problems and equations that play a central role in applications. The following chapters take up the t

  14. Handbook of differential equations stationary partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chipot, Michel

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is volume III in a series devoted to stationary partial differential quations. Similarly as volumes I and II, it is a collection of self contained state-of-the-art surveys written by well known experts in the field. The topics covered by this handbook include singular and higher order equations, problems near critically, problems with anisotropic nonlinearities, dam problem, T-convergence and Schauder-type estimates. These surveys will be useful for both beginners and experts and speed up the progress of corresponding (rapidly developing and fascinating) areas of mathematics. Ke

  15. A consistent hierarchy of generalized kinetic equation approximations to the master equation applied to surface catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory J; Mitran, Sorin; Lin, Guang

    2015-06-21

    We develop a hierarchy of approximations to the master equation for systems that exhibit translational invariance and finite-range spatial correlation. Each approximation within the hierarchy is a set of ordinary differential equations that considers spatial correlations of varying lattice distance; the assumption is that the full system will have finite spatial correlations and thus the behavior of the models within the hierarchy will approach that of the full system. We provide evidence of this convergence in the context of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples. Lower levels within the hierarchy that consider shorter spatial correlations are shown to be up to three orders of magnitude faster than traditional kinetic Monte Carlo methods (KMC) for one-dimensional systems, while predicting similar system dynamics and steady states as KMC methods. We then test the hierarchy on a two-dimensional model for the oxidation of CO on RuO2(110), showing that low-order truncations of the hierarchy efficiently capture the essential system dynamics. By considering sequences of models in the hierarchy that account for longer spatial correlations, successive model predictions may be used to establish empirical approximation of error estimates. The hierarchy may be thought of as a class of generalized phenomenological kinetic models since each element of the hierarchy approximates the master equation and the lowest level in the hierarchy is identical to a simple existing phenomenological kinetic models.

  16. Partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Farlow, Stanley J

    1993-01-01

    Most physical phenomena, whether in the domain of fluid dynamics, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, optics, or heat flow, can be described in general by partial differential equations. Indeed, such equations are crucial to mathematical physics. Although simplifications can be made that reduce these equations to ordinary differential equations, nevertheless the complete description of physical systems resides in the general area of partial differential equations.This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing th

  17. Semilinear Schrödinger equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cazenave, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation has received a great deal of attention from mathematicians, in particular because of its applications to nonlinear optics. It is also a good model dispersive equation, since it is often technically simpler than other dispersive equations, such as the wave or Korteweg-de Vries equation. Particularly useful tools in studying the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are energy and Strichartz's estimates. This book presents various mathematical aspects of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It examines both problems of local nature (local existence of solutions, unique

  18. Functional Fourier transforms and the loop equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, M.A.; Vaisburd, I.D.; Migdal, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Migdal-Makeenko momentum-space loop equation is investigated. This equation is derived from the ordinary loop equation by taking the Fourier transform of the Wilson functional. A perturbation theory is constructed for the new equation and it is proved that the action of the loop operator is determined by vertex functions which coincide with those of the previous equation. It is shown how the ghost loop arises in direct iterations of the momentum-space equation with respect to the coupling constant. A simple example is used to illustrate the mechanism of appearance of an integration in the interior loops in transition to observables

  19. International Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrohe, Elmar; Seiler, Jörg; Walker, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This volume covers the latest research on elliptic and parabolic equations and originates from the international Workshop on Elliptic and Parabolic Equations, held September 10-12, 2013 at the Leibniz Universität Hannover. It represents a collection of refereed research papers and survey articles written by eminent scientist on advances in different fields of elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations, including singular Riemannian manifolds, spectral analysis on manifolds, nonlinear dispersive equations, Brownian motion and kernel estimates, Euler equations, porous medium type equations, pseudodifferential calculus, free boundary problems, and bifurcation analysis.

  20. Dirac equation in Kerr space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, B R; Kumar, Arvind [Bombay Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-06-01

    The weak-field low-velocity approximation of Dirac equation in Kerr space-time is investigated. The interaction terms admit of an interpretation in terms of a 'dipole-dipole' interaction in addition to coupling of spin with the angular momentum of the rotating source. The gravitational gyro-factor for spin is identified. The charged case (Kerr-Newman) is studied using minimal prescription for electromagnetic coupling in the locally intertial frame and to the leading order the standard electromagnetic gyro-factor is retrieved. A first order perturbation calculation of the shift of the Schwarzchild energy level yields the main interesting result of this work: the anomalous Zeeman splitting of the energy level of a Dirac particle in Kerr metric.

  1. A generalization of the simplest equation method and its application to (3+1)-dimensional KP equation and generalized Fisher equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Zhang, Yufeng; Han, Zhong; Rui, Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the simplest equation method is used to construct exact traveling solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional KP equation and generalized Fisher equation. We summarize the main steps of the simplest equation method. The Bernoulli and Riccati equation are used as simplest equations. This method is straightforward and concise, and it can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations

  2. Algorithm for research of mathematical physics equations symmetries. Symmetries of the free Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm id proposed for research the symmetries of mathematical physics equation. The application of this algorithm to the Schroedinger equation permitted to establish, that in addition to the known symmetry the Schroedinger equation possesses also the relativistic symmetry

  3. On the Inclusion of Difference Equation Problems and Z Transform Methods in Sophomore Differential Equation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.

  4. Reduction of lattice equations to the Painlevé equations: PIV and PV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazono, Nobutaka

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we construct a new relation between Adler-Bobenko-Suris equations and Painlevé equations. Moreover, using this connection we construct the difference-differential Lax representations of the fourth and fifth Painlevé equations.

  5. New Equating Methods and Their Relationships with Levine Observed Score Linear Equating under the Kernel Equating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Holland, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new curvilinear equating for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design under the assumption of the classical test theory model, that we name curvilinear Levine observed score equating. In fact, by applying both the kernel equating framework and the mean preserving linear transformation of…

  6. Thermodynamically constrained correction to ab initio equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Martin; Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    We show how equations of state generated by density functional theory methods can be augmented to match experimental data without distorting the correct behavior in the high- and low-density limits. The technique is thermodynamically consistent and relies on knowledge of the density and bulk modulus at a reference state and an estimation of the critical density of the liquid phase. We apply the method to four materials representing different classes of solids: carbon, molybdenum, lithium, and lithium fluoride. It is demonstrated that the corrected equations of state for both the liquid and solid phases show a significantly reduced dependence of the exchange-correlation functional used.

  7. Variational principle for nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, Alain J.

    2000-01-01

    A new variational principle for the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov--Maxwell equations is presented. This Eulerian variational principle uses constrained variations for the gyrocenter Vlasov distribution in eight-dimensional extended phase space and turns out to be simpler than the Lagrangian variational principle recently presented by H. Sugama [Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. A local energy conservation law is then derived explicitly by the Noether method. In future work, this new variational principle will be used to derive self-consistent, nonlinear, low-frequency Vlasov--Maxwell bounce-gyrokinetic equations, in which the fast gyromotion and bounce-motion time scales have been eliminated

  8. Ising models and soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perk, J.H.H.; Au-Yang, H.

    1985-01-01

    Several new results for the critical point of correlation functions of the Hirota equation are derived within the two-dimensional Ising model. The recent success of the conformal-invariance approach in the determination of a critical two-spin correration function is analyzed. The two-spin correlation function is predicted to be rotationally invariant and to decay with a power law in this approach. In the approach suggested here systematic corrections due to the underlying lattice breaking the rotational invariance are obtained

  9. Linearized gyro-kinetic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Tsang, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    An ordering of the linearized Fokker-Planck equation is performed in which gyroradius corrections are retained to lowest order and the radial dependence appropriate for sheared magnetic fields is treated without resorting to a WKB technique. This description is shown to be necessary to obtain the proper radial dependence when the product of the poloidal wavenumber and the gyroradius is large (k rho much greater than 1). A like particle collision operator valid for arbitrary k rho also has been derived. In addition, neoclassical, drift, finite β (plasma pressure/magnetic pressure), and unperturbed toroidal electric field modifications are treated

  10. Generalized Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi

    2014-10-01

    Existing estimation methods for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are not applicable to discrete data. The generalized ODE (GODE) model is therefore proposed and investigated for the first time. We develop the likelihood-based parameter estimation and inference methods for GODE models. We propose robust computing algorithms and rigorously investigate the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator by considering both measurement errors and numerical errors in solving ODEs. The simulation study and application of our methods to an influenza viral dynamics study suggest that the proposed methods have a superior performance in terms of accuracy over the existing ODE model estimation approach and the extended smoothing-based (ESB) method.

  11. BMN correlators by loop equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynard, Bertrand; Kristjansen, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    In the BMN approach to N=4 SYM a large class of correlators of interest are expressible in terms of expectation values of traces of words in a zero-dimensional gaussian complex matrix model. We develop a loop-equation based, analytic strategy for evaluating such expectation values to any order in the genus expansion. We reproduce the expectation values which were needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus one correction to the anomalous dimension of BMN-operators and which were earlier obtained by combinatorial means. Furthermore, we present the expectation values needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus two correction. (author)

  12. Differential Equations and Computational Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-18

    given in (6),(7) in Taylor series of e. Equating coefficients of same power of e in both side of equity , we obtain a sequence of linear boundary value...fields, 3). structural instability and block stability of divergence-free vector fields on 2D compact manifolds with nonzero genus , and 4). structural...circle bands. Definition 3.1 Let N be a compact manifold without boundary and with genus k > 0. A closed domain fi C N is called a pseudo-manifold

  13. Introduction to partial differential equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zachmanoglou, E C

    1988-01-01

    This text explores the essentials of partial differential equations as applied to engineering and the physical sciences. Discusses ordinary differential equations, integral curves and surfaces of vector fields, the Cauchy-Kovalevsky theory, more. Problems and answers.

  14. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  15. Random walk and the heat equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, Gregory F

    2010-01-01

    The heat equation can be derived by averaging over a very large number of particles. Traditionally, the resulting PDE is studied as a deterministic equation, an approach that has brought many significant results and a deep understanding of the equation and its solutions. By studying the heat equation by considering the individual random particles, however, one gains further intuition into the problem. While this is now standard for many researchers, this approach is generally not presented at the undergraduate level. In this book, Lawler introduces the heat equation and the closely related notion of harmonic functions from a probabilistic perspective. The theme of the first two chapters of the book is the relationship between random walks and the heat equation. The first chapter discusses the discrete case, random walk and the heat equation on the integer lattice; and the second chapter discusses the continuous case, Brownian motion and the usual heat equation. Relationships are shown between the two. For exa...

  16. Oscillations of first order difference equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Similarly, if yn < 0 for n ! N, then we may show that ... From Theorem 2 it follows that every solution of the equation oscillates. In particular, .... [2] Hartman P, Difference equations: Disconjugacy, principal solutions, Green's functions, complete ...

  17. OSCILLATION OF NONLINEAR DELAY DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the oscillatory properties of a class of nonlinear difference equations with several delays. Sufficient criteria in the form of infinite sum for the equations to be oscillatory are obtained.

  18. OSCILLATION CRITERIA FOR FORCED SUPERLINEAR DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using Riccati transformation techniques,some oscillation criteria for the forced second-order superlinear difference equations are established.These criteria are dis- crete analogues of the criteria for differential equations proposed by Yan.

  19. EXACT TRAVELLING WAVE SOLUTIONS TO BBM EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Abundant new travelling wave solutions to the BBM (Benjamin-Bona-Mahoni) equation are obtained by the generalized Jacobian elliptic function method. This method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations.

  20. Time-delay equation governing electron motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.

    1976-01-01

    A previously proposed differential-difference equation governing the motion of the classical radiating electron is considered further. A set of three assumptions is offered, under which the proposed equation yields asymptotically stable acceleration

  1. dimensional Nizhnik–Novikov–Veselov equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-22

    Mar 22, 2017 ... order differential equations with modified Riemann–Liouville derivatives into integer-order differential equations, ... tered in a variety of scientific and engineering fields ... devoted to the advanced calculus can be easily applied.

  2. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition, i.e., the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation. We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions, and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics. The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1), the Oliver water wave equation, and the k(n, n) equation are given. The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed, and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed

  3. Extreme compression behaviour of equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, J.; Dulari, P.; Singh, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    The extreme compression (P→∞) behaviour of various equations of state with K' ∞ >0 yields (P/K) ∞ =1/K' ∞ , an algebraic identity found by Stacey. Here P is the pressure, K the bulk modulus, K ' =dK/dP, and K' ∞ , the value of K ' at P→∞. We use this result to demonstrate further that there exists an algebraic identity also between the higher pressure derivatives of bulk modulus which is satisfied at extreme compression by different types of equations of state such as the Birch-Murnaghan equation, Poirier-Tarantola logarithmic equation, generalized Rydberg equation, Keane's equation and the Stacey reciprocal K-primed equation. The identity has been used to find a relationship between λ ∞ , the third-order Grueneisen parameter at P→∞, and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus with the help of the free-volume formulation without assuming any specific form of equation of state.

  4. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolev, S L

    1964-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics emphasizes the study of second-order partial differential equations of mathematical physics, which is deemed as the foundation of investigations into waves, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and other physical problems. The book discusses in detail a wide spectrum of topics related to partial differential equations, such as the theories of sets and of Lebesgue integration, integral equations, Green's function, and the proof of the Fourier method. Theoretical physicists, experimental physicists, mathematicians engaged in pure and applied math

  5. Baecklund transformations for integrable lattice equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, James

    2008-01-01

    We give new Baecklund transformations (BTs) for some known integrable (in the sense of being multidimensionally consistent) quadrilateral lattice equations. As opposed to the natural auto-BT inherent in every such equation, these BTs are of two other kinds. Specifically, it is found that some equations admit additional auto-BTs (with Baecklund parameter), whilst some pairs of apparently distinct equations admit a BT which connects them

  6. New solutions of Heun's general equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanyan, Artur; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2003-01-01

    We show that in four particular cases the derivative of the solution of Heun's general equation can be expressed in terms of a solution to another Heun's equation. Starting from this property, we use the Gauss hypergeometric functions to construct series solutions to Heun's equation for the mentioned cases. Each of the hypergeometric functions involved has correct singular behaviour at only one of the singular points of the equation; the sum, however, has correct behaviour. (letter to the editor)

  7. Notes on the infinity Laplace equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lindqvist, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This BCAM SpringerBriefs is a treaty of the Infinity-Laplace Equation, which has inherited many features from the ordinary Laplace Equation, and is based on lectures by the author. The Infinity.Laplace Equation has delightful counterparts to the Dirichlet integral, the mean value property, the Brownian motion, Harnack's inequality, and so on. This "fully non-linear" equation has applications to image processing and to mass transfer problems, and it provides optimal Lipschitz extensions of boundary values.

  8. ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gonzalo Reyes Garcia

    2004-01-01

    ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY Equations in partial derivatives appeared in the 18th century as essential tools for the analytic study of physical models and, later, they proved to be fundamental for the progress of mathematics. For example, fundamental results of modern differential geometry are based on deep theorems on differential equations. Reciprocally, it is possible to study differential equations through geometrical means just like it was done by o...

  9. Hybrid quantum-classical master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2014-01-01

    We discuss hybrid master equations of composite systems, which are hybrids of classical and quantum subsystems. A fairly general form of hybrid master equations is suggested. Its consistency is derived from the consistency of Lindblad quantum master equations. We emphasize that quantum measurement is a natural example of exact hybrid systems. We derive a heuristic hybrid master equation of time-continuous position measurement (monitoring). (paper)

  10. On a complex differential Riccati equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnytskaya, Kira V; Kravchenko, Vladislav V

    2008-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear partial differential equation for complex-valued functions which is related to the two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation and enjoys many properties similar to those of the ordinary differential Riccati equation such as the famous Euler theorems, the Picard theorem and others. Besides these generalizations of the classical 'one-dimensional' results, we discuss new features of the considered equation including an analogue of the Cauchy integral theorem

  11. About the solvability of matrix polynomial equations

    OpenAIRE

    Netzer, Tim; Thom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study self-adjoint matrix polynomial equations in a single variable and prove existence of self-adjoint solutions under some assumptions on the leading form. Our main result is that any self-adjoint matrix polynomial equation of odd degree with non-degenerate leading form can be solved in self-adjoint matrices. We also study equations of even degree and equations in many variables.

  12. On polynomial solutions of the Heun equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurappa, N; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2004-01-01

    By making use of a recently developed method to solve linear differential equations of arbitrary order, we find a wide class of polynomial solutions to the Heun equation. We construct the series solution to the Heun equation before identifying the polynomial solutions. The Heun equation extended by the addition of a term, -σ/x, is also amenable for polynomial solutions. (letter to the editor)

  13. New solutions of the confluent Heun equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Exton

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available New compact triple series solutions of the confluent Heun equation (CHE are obtained by the appropriate applications of the Laplace transform and its inverse to a suitably constructed system of soluble differential equations. The computer-algebra package MAPLE V is used to tackle an auxiliary system of non-linear algebraic equations. This study is partly motivated by the relationship between the CHE and certain Schrödininger equations.

  14. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  15. Solutions manual to accompany Ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

  16. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARABULUT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

  17. Non-markovian boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremp, D.; Bonitz, M.; Kraeft, W.D.; Schlanges, M.

    1997-01-01

    A quantum kinetic equation for strongly interacting particles (generalized binary collision approximation, ladder or T-matrix approximation) is derived in the framework of the density operator technique. In contrast to conventional kinetic theory, which is valid on large time scales as compared to the collision (correlation) time only, our approach retains the full time dependencies, especially also on short time scales. This means retardation and memory effects resulting from the dynamics of binary correlations and initial correlations are included. Furthermore, the resulting kinetic equation conserves total energy (the sum of kinetic and potential energy). The second aspect of generalization is the inclusion of many-body effects, such as self-energy, i.e., renormalization of single-particle energies and damping. To this end we introduce an improved closure relation to the Bogolyubov endash Born endash Green endash Kirkwood endash Yvon hierarchy. Furthermore, in order to express the collision integrals in terms of familiar scattering quantities (Mo/ller operator, T-matrix), we generalize the methods of quantum scattering theory by the inclusion of medium effects. To illustrate the effects of memory and damping, the results of numerical simulations are presented. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  18. Wave-equation Q tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2016-10-12

    Strong subsurface attenuation leads to distortion of amplitudes and phases of seismic waves propagating inside the earth. The amplitude and the dispersion losses from attenuation are often compensated for during prestack depth migration. However, most attenuation compensation or Qcompensation migration algorithms require an estimate of the background Q model. We have developed a wave-equation gradient optimization method that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ∈, where ∈ is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid-frequency shifts of the early arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests determined that an improved accuracy of the Q model by wave-equation Q tomography leads to a noticeable improvement in migration image quality. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  19. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  20. Sobolev gradients and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, J W

    2010-01-01

    A Sobolev gradient of a real-valued functional on a Hilbert space is a gradient of that functional taken relative to an underlying Sobolev norm. This book shows how descent methods using such gradients allow a unified treatment of a wide variety of problems in differential equations. For discrete versions of partial differential equations, corresponding Sobolev gradients are seen to be vastly more efficient than ordinary gradients. In fact, descent methods with these gradients generally scale linearly with the number of grid points, in sharp contrast with the use of ordinary gradients. Aside from the first edition of this work, this is the only known account of Sobolev gradients in book form. Most of the applications in this book have emerged since the first edition was published some twelve years ago. What remains of the first edition has been extensively revised. There are a number of plots of results from calculations and a sample MatLab code is included for a simple problem. Those working through a fair p...

  1. Wave-equation Q tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    Strong subsurface attenuation leads to distortion of amplitudes and phases of seismic waves propagating inside the earth. The amplitude and the dispersion losses from attenuation are often compensated for during prestack depth migration. However, most attenuation compensation or Qcompensation migration algorithms require an estimate of the background Q model. We have developed a wave-equation gradient optimization method that inverts for the subsurface Q distribution by minimizing a skeletonized misfit function ∈, where ∈ is the sum of the squared differences between the observed and the predicted peak/centroid-frequency shifts of the early arrivals. The gradient is computed by migrating the observed traces weighted by the frequency shift residuals. The background Q model is perturbed until the predicted and the observed traces have the same peak frequencies or the same centroid frequencies. Numerical tests determined that an improved accuracy of the Q model by wave-equation Q tomography leads to a noticeable improvement in migration image quality. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  2. The Laplace transformation of adjoint transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A clarification is given of the difference between the equation adjoint to the Laplace-transformed time-dependent transport equation and the Laplace-transformed time-dependent adjoint transport equation. Proper procedures are derived to obtain the Laplace transform of the instantaneous detector response. (author)

  3. Equations of state for light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, G.A.; Granziera, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The equations of state for light water were developed, based on the tables of Keenan and Keyes. Equations are presented, describing the specific volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of saturated steam, superheated vapor and subcooled liquid as a function of pressure and temperature. For each property, several equations are shown, with different precisions and different degress of complexity. (Author) [pt

  4. Cole's ansatz and extensions of Burgers' equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.

    1976-01-01

    A sequence of nonlinear partial differential equations is constructed. It contains all equation whose solutions can be obtained from applying the Cole-Hopf transformation to linear partial differential equations. An exemple is usub(t) = (u 3 )sub(x) + 3/2(u 2 )sub(xx) + usub(xxx). (orig.) [de

  5. Completely integrable operator evolution equations. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The author continues the investigation of operator classical completely integrable systems. The main attention is devoted to the stationary operator non-linear Schroedinger equation. It is shown that this equation can be used for separation of variables for a large class of completely integrable equations. (Auth.)

  6. Derivation of the neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mika, J.R.; Banasiak, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the diffusion equation as an asymptotic limit of the neutron transport equation for large scattering cross sections. We show that the classical asymptotic expansion procedure does not lead to the diffusion equation and present two modified approaches to overcome this difficulty. The effect of the initial layer is also discussed. (authors). 9 refs

  7. Skew differential fields, differential and difference equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, M

    2004-01-01

    The central question is: Let a differential or difference equation over a field K be isomorphic to all its Galois twists w.r.t. the group Gal(K/k). Does the equation descend to k? For a number of categories of equations an answer is given.

  8. Some Functional Equations Originating from Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We will introduce new functional equations (3) and (4) which are strongly related to well-known formulae (1) and (2) of number theory, and investigate the solutions of the equations. Moreover, we will also study some stability problems of those equations.

  9. A reliable treatment for nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khani, F.; Hamedi-Nezhad, S.; Molabahrami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Exp-function method is used to find a unified solution of nonlinear wave equation. Nonlinear Schroedinger equations with cubic and power law nonlinearity are selected to illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the method. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear equation

  10. New solitons connected to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1984-01-01

    Imposing isospectral invariance for the one dimensional Dirac operator leads to systems of nonlinear partial differential equations. By constructing reflectionless potentials of the Dirac equation we obtain a new type of solitons for a system of modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. (Author)

  11. Compositeness condition in the renormalization group equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, Masako; Kugo, Taichiro; Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Sasakura, Naoki; Watabiki, Yoshiyuki; Suehiro, Kazuhiko

    1990-01-01

    The problems in imposing compositeness conditions as boundary conditions in renormalization group equations are discussed. It is pointed out that one has to use the renormalization group equation directly in cutoff theory. In some cases, however, it can be approximated by the renormalization group equation in continuum theory if the mass dependent renormalization scheme is adopted. (orig.)

  12. Transformation properties of the integrable evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopelchenko, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    Group-theoretical properties of partial differential equations integrable by the inverse scattering transform method are discussed. It is shown that nonlinear transformations typical to integrable equations (symmetry groups, Baecklund-transformations) and these equations themselves are contained in a certain universal nonlinear transformation group. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of the Schrodinger and Salpeter equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, S.; Olsson, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    A unified approach to the solution of the Schrodinger and spinless Salpeter equations is presented. Fits to heavy quark bound state energies using various potential models are employed to determine whether the Salpeter equation provides a better description of heavy quark systems than the Schrodinger equation

  14. Lie symmetries for systems of evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The Lie symmetries for a class of systems of evolution equations are studied. The evolution equations are defined in a bimetric space with two Riemannian metrics corresponding to the space of the independent and dependent variables of the differential equations. The exact relation of the Lie symmetries with the collineations of the bimetric space is determined.

  15. Loop equations in the theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Voronov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Loop-space variables (matrices of parallel transport) for the theory of gravitation are described. Loop equations, which are equivalent to the Einstein equations, are derived in the classical case. Loop equations are derived for gravity with cosmological constant as well. An analogy with the loop-space approach in Yang-Mills theory is discussed [ru

  16. Symmetry properties of fractional diffusion equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, R K; Kasatkin, A A; Lukashchuk, S Yu [Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Karl Marx strausse 12, Ufa (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gazizov@mail.rb.ru, E-mail: alexei_kasatkin@mail.ru, E-mail: lsu@mail.rb.ru

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, nonlinear anomalous diffusion equations with time fractional derivatives (Riemann-Liouville and Caputo) of the order of 0-2 are considered. Lie point symmetries of these equations are investigated and compared. Examples of using the obtained symmetries for constructing exact solutions of the equations under consideration are presented.

  17. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  18. Solving Absolute Value Equations Algebraically and Geometrically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The way in which students can improve their comprehension by understanding the geometrical meaning of algebraic equations or solving algebraic equation geometrically is described. Students can experiment with the conditions of the absolute value equation presented, for an interesting way to form an overall understanding of the concept.

  19. Antishadowing effects in the unitarized BFKL equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Jianhong; Shen Zhenqi; Yang Jifeng; Zhu Wei

    2007-01-01

    A unitarized BFKL equation incorporating shadowing and antishadowing corrections of the gluon recombination is proposed. This equation reduces to the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation near the saturation limit. We find that the antishadowing effects have a sizable influence on the gluon distribution function in the preasymptotic regime

  20. Antishadowing effects in the unitarized BFKL equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan Jianhong [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Shen Zhenqi [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang Jifeng [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhu Wei [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)]. E-mail: weizhu@mail.ecnu.edu.cn

    2007-01-01

    A unitarized BFKL equation incorporating shadowing and antishadowing corrections of the gluon recombination is proposed. This equation reduces to the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation near the saturation limit. We find that the antishadowing effects have a sizable influence on the gluon distribution function in the preasymptotic regime.

  1. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  2. The Modified Enskog Equation for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1973-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that a modified form of the Enskog equation, applied to mixtures of hard spheres, should be considered as the correct extension of the usual Enskog equation to the case of mixtures. The main argument was that the modified Enskog equation leads to linear transport

  3. Jacobi equations as Lagrange equations of the deformed Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casciaro, B.

    1995-03-01

    We study higher-order variational derivatives of a generic Lagrangian L 0 = L 0 (t,q,q). We introduce two new Lagrangians, L 1 and L 2 , associated to the first and second-order deformations of the original Lagrangian L 0 . In terms of these Lagrangians, we are able to establish simple relations between the variational derivatives of different orders of a Lagrangian. As a consequence of these relations the Euler-Lagrange and the Jacobi equations are obtained from a single variational principle based on L 1 . We can furthermore introduce an associated Hamiltonian H 1 = H 1 (t,q,q radical,η,η radical) with η equivalent to δq. If L 0 is independent of time then H 1 is a conserved quantity. (author). 15 refs

  4. Geometry of Kaluza-Klein theory. II. Field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    In the preceding paper a geometric formulation of Kaluza-Klein theory was presented with the basic assumption that the space-time is locally and isometrically embedded in the high-dimensional space which emerged at the big bang. In the present note the Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci equations which are the integrability equations for the embedding are interpreted as the dynamical equations for a low-energy observer. The second quadratic form which results from the embedding is interpreted as a fundamental spin-two massless field. The dynamics for an observer with high-energy probes is described as usual by the Einstein-Hilbert action defined in the high-dimensional space and dimensionally reduced by integration over the internal space. The behavior of fermion masses under different gravitational field strengths is implemented by use of the mass operator defined with the second-order Casimir operator of the embedding symmetry group

  5. Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form

  6. Ideal, steady-state, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baransky, Y.A.

    1987-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to gain additional understanding of the effect of rotation on the equilibrium of a plasma. The axisymmetric equilibria of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with flow have been studied numerically and analytically. A general discussion is provided of previous work on plasmas with flow and comparisons are made to the static model. A variational principle has been derived for the two dimensional problem with comments as to appropriate boundary conditions. An inverse aspect ratio expansion has been used for a study of the toroidal flow equation for both low- and high-β. The inverse aspect ratio expansion has also been used for a study of equations with both poloidal and toroidal flow. An overview is provided of the adaptive finite-difference code which was developed to solve the full equations. (FI)

  7. Two-state approximation of the Fadeev-Hahn equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brener, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The equations have been chosen which allow both to solve the scattering problems and to calculate the parameters of bound states of three particles with Coulomb interaction when the system energy is below the decay to three separate particles. The method of constructing of equations which are most suitable for concrete problems is considered. Different numerical schemes to calculate the low energy scattering cross sections with two-particle clusterization in 'in' and 'out' collision's channels have been developed. The bounds of applied approaches were determined and the peculiarities connected with differently defined reaction amplitudes under these approaches have been considered. The interpretation of obtained results at different definitions of reaction amplitudes was demonstrated, and the elastic, inelastic cross sections and muon transfer rates in hydrogen isotope mesic atom collisions have been calculated using Fadeev-Hahn equations. (author)

  8. The Interplay of School Readiness and Teacher Readiness for Educational Technology Integration: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petko, Dominik; Prasse, Doreen; Cantieni, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that technological change in schools depends on multiple interrelated factors. Structural equation models explaining the interplay of factors often suffer from high complexity and low coherence. To reduce complexity, a more robust structural equation model was built with data from a survey of 349 Swiss primary school…

  9. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, Vladislav G. [Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Dept. of Quantum Field Theroy; Gitman, Dmitry [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics

    2013-07-01

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  10. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bagrov, Vladislav G

    2014-01-01

    Dirac equations are of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly.In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  11. An integral transform of the Salpeter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1980-03-01

    We find a new form of relativistic wave equation for two spin-1/2 particles, which arises by an integral transformation (in the position space) of the wave function in the Salpeter equation. The non-locality involved in this transformation is extended practically over the Compton wavelength of the lighter of two particles. In the case of equal masses the new equation assumes the form of the Breit equation with an effective integral interaction. In the one-body limit it reduces to the Dirac equation also with an effective integral interaction. (author)

  12. Sparse dynamics for partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Hayden; Caflisch, Russel; Hauck, Cory D; Osher, Stanley

    2013-04-23

    We investigate the approximate dynamics of several differential equations when the solutions are restricted to a sparse subset of a given basis. The restriction is enforced at every time step by simply applying soft thresholding to the coefficients of the basis approximation. By reducing or compressing the information needed to represent the solution at every step, only the essential dynamics are represented. In many cases, there are natural bases derived from the differential equations, which promote sparsity. We find that our method successfully reduces the dynamics of convection equations, diffusion equations, weak shocks, and vorticity equations with high-frequency source terms.

  13. Numerical methods for differential equations and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ixaru, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book is addressed to persons who, without being professionals in applied mathematics, are often faced with the problem of numerically solving differential equations. In each of the first three chapters a definite class of methods is discussed for the solution of the initial value problem for ordinary differential equations: multistep methods; one-step methods; and piecewise perturbation methods. The fourth chapter is mainly focussed on the boundary value problems for linear second-order equations, with a section devoted to the Schroedinger equation. In the fifth chapter the eigenvalue problem for the radial Schroedinger equation is solved in several ways, with computer programs included. (Auth.)

  14. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, Vladislav G.; Gitman, Dmitry; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow; Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk

    2013-01-01

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  15. Numerical solutions of diffusive logistic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrouzi, G.A.; Khademloo, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate numerically positive solutions of a superlinear Elliptic equation on bounded domains. The study of Diffusive logistic equation continues to be an active field of research. The subject has important applications to population migration as well as many other branches of science and engineering. In this paper the 'finite difference scheme' will be developed and compared for solving the one- and three-dimensional Diffusive logistic equation. The basis of the analysis of the finite difference equations considered here is the modified equivalent partial differential equation approach, developed from many authors these years

  16. Complex centers of polynomial differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali M. Alwash

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present some results on the existence and nonexistence of centers for polynomial first order ordinary differential equations with complex coefficients. In particular, we show that binomial differential equations without linear terms do not have complex centers. Classes of polynomial differential equations, with more than two terms, are presented that do not have complex centers. We also study the relation between complex centers and the Pugh problem. An algorithm is described to solve the Pugh problem for equations without complex centers. The method of proof involves phase plane analysis of the polar equations and a local study of periodic solutions.

  17. An Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Zhou2@honeywell.com; Liu, Jun [Honeywell Integrated Technology China Co. Ltd., 430 Li Bing Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); Penoncello, Steven G. [Center for Applied Thermodynamic Studies, College of Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Lemmon, Eric W. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    An equation of state for cyclohexane has been developed using the Helmholtz energy as the fundamental property with independent variables of density and temperature. Multi-property fitting technology was used to fit the equation of state to data for pρT, heat capacities, sound speeds, virial coefficients, vapor pressures, and saturated densities. The equation of state was developed to conform to the Maxwell criteria for two-phase vapor-liquid equilibrium states, and is valid from the triple-point temperature to 700 K, with pressures up to 250 MPa and densities up to 10.3 mol dm{sup −3}. In general, the uncertainties (k = 2, indicating a level of confidence of 95%) in density for the equation of state are 0.1% (liquid and vapor) up to 500 K, and 0.2% above 500 K, with higher uncertainties within the critical region. Between 283 and 473 K with pressures lower than 30 MPa, the uncertainty is as low as 0.03% in density in the liquid phase. The uncertainties in the speed of sound are 0.2% between 283 and 323 K in the liquid, and 1% elsewhere. Other uncertainties are 0.05% in vapor pressure and 2% in heat capacities. The behavior of the equation of state is reasonable within the region of validity and at higher and lower temperatures and pressures. A detailed analysis has been performed in this article.

  18. Exact solutions of a nonpolynomially nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwani, R.; Tan, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear generalisation of Schrodinger's equation had previously been obtained using information-theoretic arguments. The nonlinearities in that equation were of a nonpolynomial form, equivalent to the occurrence of higher-derivative nonlinear terms at all orders. Here we construct some exact solutions to that equation in 1+1 dimensions. On the half-line, the solutions resemble (exponentially damped) Bloch waves even though no external periodic potential is included. The solutions are nonperturbative as they do not reduce to solutions of the linear theory in the limit that the nonlinearity parameter vanishes. An intriguing feature of the solutions is their infinite degeneracy: for a given energy, there exists a very large arbitrariness in the normalisable wavefunctions. We also consider solutions to a q-deformed version of the nonlinear equation and discuss a natural discretisation implied by the nonpolynomiality. Finally, we contrast the properties of our solutions with other solutions of nonlinear Schrodinger equations in the literature and suggest some possible applications of our results in the domains of low-energy and high-energy physics

  19. Truncatable bootstrap equations in algebraic form and critical surface exponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino andIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 (Italy)

    2016-10-10

    We describe examples of drastic truncations of conformal bootstrap equations encoding much more information than that obtained by a direct numerical approach. A three-term truncation of the four point function of a free scalar in any space dimensions provides algebraic identities among conformal block derivatives which generate the exact spectrum of the infinitely many primary operators contributing to it. In boundary conformal field theories, we point out that the appearance of free parameters in the solutions of bootstrap equations is not an artifact of truncations, rather it reflects a physical property of permeable conformal interfaces which are described by the same equations. Surface transitions correspond to isolated points in the parameter space. We are able to locate them in the case of 3d Ising model, thanks to a useful algebraic form of 3d boundary bootstrap equations. It turns out that the low-lying spectra of the surface operators in the ordinary and the special transitions of 3d Ising model form two different solutions of the same polynomial equation. Their interplay yields an estimate of the surface renormalization group exponents, y{sub h}=0.72558(18) for the ordinary universality class and y{sub h}=1.646(2) for the special universality class, which compare well with the most recent Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of other surface exponents as well as OPE coefficients are also obtained.

  20. Computer programs for nonlinear algebraic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Takumi

    1977-10-01

    We have provided principal computer subroutines for obtaining numerical solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations through a review of the various methods. Benchmark tests were performed on these subroutines to grasp the characteristics of them compared to the existing subroutines. As computer programs based on the secant method, subroutines of the Muller's method using the Chambers' algorithm were newly developed, in addition to the equipment of subroutines of the Muller's method itself. The programs based on the Muller-Chambers' method are useful especially for low-order polynomials with complex coefficients except for the case of finding the triple roots, three close roots etc. In addition, we have equipped subroutines based on the Madsen's algorithm, a variant of the Newton's method. The subroutines have revealed themselves very useful as standard programs because all the roots are found accurately for every case though they take longer computing time than other subroutines for low-order polynomials. It is shown also that an existing subroutine of the Bairstow's method gives the fastest algorithm for polynomials with complex coefficients, except for the case of finding the triple roots etc. We have provided also subroutines to estimate error bounds for all the roots produced with the various algorithms. (auth.)