Sample records for lovozero

  1. Crystal structure of modular sodium-rich and low-iron eudialyte from Lovozero alkaline massif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenberg, K. A.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K., E-mail:; Aksenov, S. M. [Federal Scientific Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics”, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)


    The structure of the sodium-rich representative of the eudialyte group found by A.P. Khomyakov at the Lovozero massif (Kola Peninsula) is studied by X-ray diffraction. The trigonal cell parameters are: a = 14.2032(1) and c = 60.612(1) Å, V = 10589.13 Å3, space group R3m. The structure is refined to the final R = 5.0% in the anisotropic approximation of atomic displacement parameters using 3742|F| > 3σ(F). The idealized formula (Z = 3) is Na{sub 37}Ca{sub 10}Mn{sub 2}FeZr{sub 6}Si{sub 50}(Ti, Nb){sub 2}O{sub 144}(OH){sub 5}Cl{sub 3} · H{sub 2}O. Like other 24-layer minerals of the eudialyte group, this mineral has a modular structure. Its structure contains two modules, namely, “alluaivite” (with an admixture of “eudialyte”) and “kentbrooksite,” called according to the main structural fragments of alluaivite, eudialyte, and kentbrooksite. The mineral found at the Lovozero alkaline massif shows some chemical and symmetry-structural distinctions from the close-in-composition labyrinthite modular mineral from the Khibiny massif. The difference between the minerals stems from different geochemical conditions of mineral formation in the two regions.

  2. Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics (United States)

    Kogarko, L. N.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G. P.


    The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits, the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) in loparite, eudialyte an in some other pegmatitic minerals. The results are in aggreement with the whole rock Sr and Nd isotope which suggests the formation of these superlarge rare metal deposits in a magmatic closed system. The initial Hf, Sr, Nd isotope ratios are similar to the isotopic signatures of OIB indicating depleted mantle as a source. This leads to the suggestion that the origin of these gigantic alkaline intrusions is connected to a deep seated mantle source—possibly to a lower mantle plume. The required combination of a depleted mantle and high rare metal enrichment in the source can be explained by the input of incompatible elements by metasomatising melts/fluids into the zones of alkaline magma generation shortly before the partial melting event (to avoid ingrowth of radiogenic isotopes). The minerals belovite and pyrochlore from the pegmatites are abnormally high in 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This may be explained by closed system isotope evolution as a result of a significant increase in Rb/Sr during the evolution of the peralkaline magma.

  3. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.


    The crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, ideally Na2ZnTiNb2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 (H2O)4, a lamprophyllite-group mineral of the seidozerite supergroup from the type locality, Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia have been revised. The crystal structure was refined with a new origin in space group C⎯1, a = 10.769(2), b = 14.276(3), c = 12.101(2) Å, α = 105.45(3), β = 95.17(3), γ = 90.04(3)°, V = 1785.3(3.2) Å3, R1 = 9.23%. The electron-microprobe analysis gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking along c* and HRTEM images show an intergrowth of crystalline zvyaginite with two distinct phases, both of which are partially amorphous. The crystal structure of zvyaginite is an array of TS (Titanium Silicate) blocks connected via hydrogen bonds between H2O groups. The TS block consists of HOH sheets (H = heteropolyhedral, O = octahedral) parallel to (001). In the O sheet, the [6]MO(1,4,5) sites are occupied mainly by Ti, Zn and Na and the [6]MO(2,3) sites are occupied by Na at less than 50%. In the H sheet, the [6]MH(1,2) sites are occupied mainly by Nb and the [8]AP(1) and [8]AP(2) sites are occupied mainly by Na and ��. The MH and AP polyhedra and Si2O7 groups constitute the H sheet. The ideal structural formula is Na��Nb2NaZn��Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Zvyaginite is a Zn-bearing and Na-poor analogue of epistolite, ideally (Na��)Nb2Na3Ti(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2(H2O)4. Epistolite and zvyaginite are related by the following substitution in the O sheet of the TS-block: (Na+2)epi ↔ Zn2+ zvy + ��zvy. The doubling of the t1 and t2 translations of zvyaginite relative to those of epistolite is due to the order of Zn and Na along a (t1) and b (t2) in the O sheet of zvyaginite.

  4. Possible mechanism of horizontal overpressure generation of the Khibiny, Lovozero, and Kovdor ore clusters on the Kola Peninsula (United States)

    Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Sim, L. A.; Kozyrev, A. A.


    The paper discusses questions related to the generation of increasing crustal horizontal compressive stresses compared to the idea of the standard gravitational state at the elastic stage or even from the prevalence of horizontal compression over vertical stress equal to the lithostatic pressure. We consider a variant of superfluous horizontal compression related to internal lithospheric processes occurrin in the crust of orogens, shields, and plates. The vertical ascending movements caused by these motions at the sole of the crust or the lithosphere pertain to these and the concomitant exogenic processes giving rise to denudation and, in particular, to erosion of the surfaces of forming rises. The residual stresses of the gravitational stressed state at the upper crust of the Kola Peninsula have been estimated for the first time. These calculations are based on the volume of sediments that have been deposited in Arctic seas beginning from the Mesozoic. The data speak to the possible level of residual horizontal compressive stresses up to 90 MPa in near-surface crustal units. This estimate is consistent with the results of in situ measurements that have been carried out at the Mining Institute of the Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), for over 40 years. It is possible to forecast the horizontal stress gradient based on depth using our concept on the genesis of horizontal overpressure, and this forecasting is important for studying the formation of endogenic deposits.

  5. PREPUBLICATION: From structure topology to chemical composition. XXIII. Revision of the crystal structure and chemical formula of zvyaginite, a seidozerite-supergroup mineral from the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula, Russia

    KAUST Repository

    Sokolova, E.; Genovese, Alessandro; Falqui, Andrea; Hawthorne, F. C.; Cá mara, F.


    gave the following empirical formula [calculated on 22 (O + F)]:(Na0.75Ca0.09K0.04��1.12)Σ2 (Na1.12Zn0.88Mn0.17Fe2+0.04��0.79)Σ3(Nb1.68Ti1.25Al0.07)Σ3 (Si4.03O14)O2 [(OH)1.11F0.89]Σ2(H2O)4, Z = 4. Electron-diffraction patterns have prominent streaking

  6. Kola reindeer herder measured by Finns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illukka, E.; Rahola, T.


    Experts from the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and from the Department of Radiochemistry of the University of Helsinki travelled in August 1994 to Lovozero in the Kola peninsula, Russia, to study the local radioactivity contents. The purpose of the study, which formed a part of the science and technology cooperation programme between Finland and Russia, was to compare activity levels in Kola and in Finnish Lapland, in the food chain between lichen, reindeer and people. By means of samples taken from nature, the study group also determined the composition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests and from the Chernobyl accident. Using a whole-body counting system, the experts measured 33 people from Lovozero. Samples were collected, for instance, of reindeer meat, lichen and the bottom sediment of Lovozero lake. On the basis of preliminary findings, it seems that the levels of radiocesium do ALARA 1/1995. (orig.)

  7. Noctilucent cloud particle size determination based on multi-wavelength all-sky analysis (United States)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Galkin, Alexey A.; Pilgaev, Sergey V.; Roldugin, Alexey V.


    The article deals with the analysis of color distribution in noctilucent clouds (NLC) in the sky based on multi-wavelength (RGB) CCD-photometry provided with the all-sky camera in Lovozero in the north of Russia (68.0°N, 35.1°E) during the bright expanded NLC performance in the night of August 12, 2016. Small changes in the NLC color across the sky are interpreted as the atmospheric absorption and extinction effects combined with the difference in the Mie scattering functions of NLC particles for the three color channels of the camera. The method described in this paper is used to find the effective monodisperse radius of particles about 55 nm. The result of these simple and cost-effective measurements is in good agreement with previous estimations of comparable accuracy. Non-spherical particles, Gaussian and lognormal distribution of the particle size are also considered.

  8. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Shutov, V.N.; Ya Bruk, G.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Pogorely, Ju.A.; Burkova, T.F.


    Activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137 Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137 Cs and 90 Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137 Cs intake in this group were about 10 μSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 μSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137 Cs intake of about 0.5 μSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137 Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90 Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied

  9. Sporadic E S Layers at High Latitudes During a Magnetic Storm of March 17, 2015 According to the Vertical and Oblique Ionospheric Sounding Data (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Maltseva, O. A.; Anishin, M. M.; Rogov, D. D.


    We consider the behavior of the parameters of the ionospheric E s layers according to the vertical sounding at the Sodankylä observatory and oblique sounding at the Lovozero (Murmansk region)—Gor'kovskaya station (Leningrad region) path during a superstorm of March 17, 2015. Temporal and spatial behavior of these parameters is compared. It was found that the storm significantly distorted the normal course of variations of the sporadic E s layer characteristics. Specific behavior of the layers during a storm at points separated by about 300 km was detected. With the help of ray tracing calculations using the IRI model, oblique sounding ionograms were constructed for the radio path analyzed. Primary attention is given to the maximum usable frequency of the F 2 layer—MUF- F 2. Additionally, for the disturbed conditions where there is only a high-power E s layer on the experimental ionograms, the values of MUF- E s and the ratio K =MUF- E s/ f o E s for various cutoff frequencies f o E s of the E s layer and its altitudes {h}_{E_s} are calculated within the framework of the well-known approximations. Calculations for the case of weak disturbance and semitransparent E s layers are carried out with the IRI model adapted to the current diagnostics parameters. It was found that the calculated and experimental values of MUF- F 2 are close to each other or coincide, while this cannot be said about MUF- E s. The calculated and experimental values of MUF- E s can be matched in the model of mirror reflection from a flat layer for intense layers and the model of the E layer for thick E s layers of low intensity.

  10. Tinnunculite, C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O: Occurrences on the Kola Peninsula and Redefinition and Validation as a Mineral Species (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Lykova, I. S.; Zubkova, N. V.; Shcherbakova, E. P.; Britvin, S. N.; Chervonnyi, A. D.


    Based on a study of samples found in the Khibiny (Mt. Rasvumchorr: the holotype) and Lovozero (Mts Alluaiv and Vavnbed) alkaline complexes on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, tinnunculite was approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification as a valid mineral species (IMA no. 2015-02la) and, taking into account a revisory examination of the original material from burnt dumps of coal mines in the southern Urals, it was redefined as crystalline uric acid dihydrate (UAD), C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O. Tinnunculite is poultry manure mineralized in biogeochemical systems, which could be defined as "guano microdeposits." The mineral occurs as prismatic or tabular crystals up to 0.01 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size and clusters of them, as well as crystalline or microglobular crusts. Tinnunculite is transparent or translucent, colorless, white, yellowish, reddish or pale lilac. Crystals show vitreous luster. The mineral is soft and brittle, with a distinct (010) cleavage. D calc = 1.68 g/cm3 (holotype). Tinnunculite is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.503(3), β = 1.712(3), γ = 1.74(1), 2 V obs = 40(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of the holotype sample (electron microprobe data, content of H is calculated by UAD stoichiometry) is as follows, wt %: 37.5 O, 28.4 C, 27.0 N, 3.8 Hcalc, total 96.7. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (C + N+ O) = 14 apfu is: C4.99H8N4.07O4.94. Tinnunculite is monoclinic, space group (by analogy with synthetic UAD) P21/ c. The unit cell parameters of the holotype sample (single crystal XRD data) are a = 7.37(4), b = 6.326(16), c = 17.59(4) Å, β = 90(1)°, V = 820(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the XRD pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are 8.82-84[002], 5.97-15[011], 5.63-24[102̅, 102], 4.22-22[112], 3.24-27[114̅,114], 3.18-100[210], 3.12-44[211̅, 211], 2.576-14[024].

  11. Application network for monitoring of green house gas emission from lithosphere in Khibina territories (United States)

    Asavin, Alex; Nivin, Valentin; Litvinov, Artur; Chesalova, Elena; Baskov, Sergey


    The aim of project is to estimate the contribution of lithospheric flue gas emission of gases CH4, CO2, H2 in the general composition of atmospheric pollution of Arctic zone. The main task is organization of the ecological monitoring in the area of exploitation of large apatite and rare earth ore deposit from Khibine massive on the base of modern WSN (wireless sensor network) technologies. Application network consist from sensors of gas H2, CH4, CO2, complex autonomous equipment for measurement temperature, pressure, humidity and network of telecommunications (used ZigBee protocol). Our project offer technical decisions for experimentally-methodical monitoring network on the base of WSN and the high-sensitive sensors of hydrogen and methane, software and electronic equipment with a transmitter network. This work is the first project in Russia. The advantages of this technology is autonomous work (to several months and more), high-frequency programmable measurement of gas sensor, low cost (on one node of network), possibility to connect to one node of supervision a several types of sensors. And as a result is complex monitoring of environment. It has long been known that the pollution in Arctic Khibine and Lovosero region contains unusually high levels of hydrocarbon gases (HCG) [Petersilie,1964]. The presence of these gases has a number of practical implications and it is therefore important to understand their source and distribution. Among alkaline intrusive complexes with high (for magmatic rocks) concentrations of hydrocarbon and hydrogen- hydrocarbon gases occluded as fluid inclusions in minerals. The Khibina and Lovozero massives are well known, as region of spontaneous emissions of these gases from lithosphere [Khitarov et al., 1979; Ikorskii et al., 1992; Beeskow 2007; Nivin 2005, 2009]. The presence of the HCG, however, raises a number of questions and possibilities. It is unclear how homogeneously the HCG are distributed through the complex? What is the