Sample records for louse anoplura pediculidae

  1. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) (United States)

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.


    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  2. A checklist of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) associated with Mexican wild mammals, including geographical records and a host-parasite list. (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo


    A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.

  3. Prevalence of Pthirus pubis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) among sex workers in urban Jos, Nigeria. (United States)

    Imandeh, N G


    Between May and October 1992, 374 sex workers comprising of 372 prostitutes and 2 homosexuals were examined for Pthirus pubis infestation. While none of the homosexuals was found to be infested, 52.69% of the prostitutes were infested with the highest and lowest infestation in the 40-49 year old group and 20-29 year old group respectively. The educational level was found to determine the extent of disease awareness among the sex workers. Questions are raised about the role of Pthirus pubis is AIDS transmission among sex workers.

  4. Louse flies on birds of Baja California


    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo


    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  5. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse. (United States)

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R


    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular evidence for polyphyletic origin of the primary symbionts of sucking lice (Phthiraptera, Anoplura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hypša, Václav; Křížek, J.


    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2007), s. 242-251 ISSN 0095-3628 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Anoplura * endosymbionts * coevolution * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.558, year: 2007

  7. Sequencing of a new target genome: the Pediculus humanus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) genome project. (United States)

    Pittendrigh, B R; Clark, J M; Johnston, J S; Lee, S H; Romero-Severson, J; Dasch, G A


    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (L.), and the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, belong to the hemimetabolous order Phthiraptera. The body louse is the primary vector that transmits the bacterial agents of louse-borne relapsing fever, trench fever, and epidemic typhus. The genomes of the bacterial causative agents of several of these aforementioned diseases have been sequenced. Thus, determining the body louse genome will enhance studies of host-vector-pathogen interactions. Although not important as a major disease vector, head lice are of major social concern. Resistance to traditional pesticides used to control head and body lice have developed. It is imperative that new molecular targets be discovered for the development of novel compounds to control these insects. No complete genome sequence exists for a hemimetabolous insect species primarily because hemimetabolous insects often have large (2000 Mb) to very large (up to 16,300 Mb) genomes. Fortuitously, we determined that the human body louse has one of the smallest genome sizes known in insects, suggesting it may be a suitable choice as a minimal hemimetabolous genome in which many genes have been eliminated during its adaptation to human parasitism. Because many louse species infest birds and mammals, the body louse genome-sequencing project will facilitate studies of their comparative genomics. A 6-8X coverage of the body louse genome, plus sequenced expressed sequence tags, should provide the entomological, evolutionary biology, medical, and public health communities with useful genetic information.

  8. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology. (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Rogers, Luke A; Bateman, Andrew W; Connors, Brendan M; Frazer, L Neil; Godwin, Sean C; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Peacock, Stephanie J; Rees, Erin E; Revie, Crawford W; Schlägel, Ulrike E


    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host-parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae). (United States)

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis


    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; Wen-geDong


    The similarity and classification of sucking louse communities on 24 species of small mammals were studied in Yunnan Province, China, through a hierarchical cluster analysis. All the louse species on the body surface of a certain species of small mammals are regarded as a louse community unit. The results reveal that the community structure of sucking lice on small mammals is simple with low species diversity. Most small mammals usually have certain louse species on their body surface; there exists a high degree of host specificity. Most louse communities on the same genus of small mammals show a high similarity and are classified into the same group based on hierarchical cluster analysis. When the hosts have a close affinity in taxonomy, the louse communities on their body surface would tend to be similar with the same or similar dominant louse species (as observed in genus Rattus, Niviventer, Apodemus and Eothenomys). The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. The results suggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  11. Lousy mums: patterns of vertical transmission of an amphibious louse. (United States)

    Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J


    In this study, we document patterns of vertical transmission of the amphibious louse Antarctophthirus microchir (Echinophthiriidae) in pups of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, from Patagonia. Vertical transmission is fundamental for the long-term stability of A. microchir populations because only pups stay long enough (1 month) on land for the louse to reproduce. A total of 72 pups ≤7 days old from a single rookery were captured and examined for lice. Infection parameters and population structure of A. microchir did not differ among pups collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the reproductive season, suggesting that patterns of early vertical transmission are not affected by the increase of rookery size during this period. Over 60% of 1-day-old pups were infected with A. microchir, and recruitment increased in pups up to 3 days old and then leveled off. In 1-day-old pups, significantly more adults than nymphs were found, but the pattern was reversed in older pups. The number of first-stage nymphs was significantly smaller than that of second- and third-stage nymphs, as it was the number of males vs. females, particularly in 1-day-old pups. Three non-exclusive hypotheses could account for these patterns, i.e., recruitment merely reflects the population structure of A. microchir is cows; the relative ability of lice to pass from cows onto pups increases in advanced instars; and/or natural selection favors transmission of adults, especially females, because they accrue greater fitness. The importance of latter hypothesis should not be underestimated in a species with a tight reproductive schedule.

  12. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.

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    Lars A Hamre

    Full Text Available Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838 causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt. Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

  13. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo. (United States)

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur


    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  14. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. (United States)

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz


    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of Novel Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Mutations in Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). (United States)

    Firooziyan, Samira; Sadaghianifar, Ali; Taghilou, Behrooz; Galavani, Hossein; Ghaffari, Eslam; Gholizadeh, Saber


    In recent years, the increase of head louse infestation in Iran (7.4%) and especially in West-Azerbaijan Province (248%) has raised the hypothesis of insecticide resistance development. There are different mechanisms of resistance to various groups of insecticides, and knockdown resistance (kdr) is a prominent mechanism of resistance to pyrethroids, an insecticide group which is used conventionally for pediculosis control. For detection of kdr-type well-known amino acid substitutions (M815I-T917I-L920F) and additional sodium channel mutations potentially associated with kdr resistance in head and body lice, louse populations were collected from West-Azerbaijan and Zanjan Provinces of Iran. Six novel mutations were found to be located in the IIS1-2 extracellular loop (H813P) and IIS5 (I927F, L928A, R929V, L930M, and L932M) of the α-subunit. Genotyping results showed that all specimens (100%) have at least one of these or the well-known mutations. Therefore, the presence of kdr-related and novel mutations in the sodium channel is likely to be the reason for the frequent use of pyrethroid insecticides due to treatment failure against lice. Further studies are now required to evaluate the prevalence of the kdr-like mutant allele for monitoring of insecticide resistance and the management of head and body lice in other provinces of the country. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Physiological responses of fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus, to infection with the freshwater fish louse, Dolops carvalhoi. Abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, F.J.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Fernandes, N.N.


    The freshwater fish louse Dolops carvalhoi, is an ectoparasite of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, that causes severe damage to its hosts. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of pacu to the stress of D. carvalhoi infection. After acclimation at the laboratory

  17. Can neem oil help eliminate lice? Randomised controlled trial with and without louse combing

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    Christine M. Brown


    Full Text Available Background: Neem oil and wet combing with conditioner are both claimed to facilitate elimination of head louse infestation. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether a 1% neem oil lotion showed activity itself and/or enhanced the effectiveness of combing in treating infestation. Methods: We treated 47 participants with 1% neem-based lotion on four occasions 3-4 days apart in a randomised, community based trial, analysed by intention to treat. The participants were randomly divided between two groups: One group used a grooming comb (placebo and the other a head louse detection and removal comb (wet combing with conditioner method to systematically comb the hair. Cure was defined as no lice on both Day 10 and Day 14. Results: The cure rates of 6/24 (25.0% for the placebo comb group and 8/23 (34.8% for the louse comb group were not significantly different. Conclusion: These results indicate that this formulation of neem oil was ineffective in the treatment of head louse infestations, even when accompanied by combing. Both combing methods were also ineffective, despite being implemented throughout by trained professionals.

  18. A Novel Animal Model of Borrelia recurrentis Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever Borreliosis Using Immunodeficient Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, C.; Lundqvist, J.; Rooijen, van N.; Bergstrom, S.


    Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) borreliosis is caused by Borrelia recurrentis, and it is a deadly although treatable disease that is endemic in the Horn of Africa but has epidemic potential. Research on LBRF has been severely hampered because successful infection with B. recurrentis has been

  19. Louse-borne relapsing fever among East African refugees in Europe. (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Mediannikov, Oleg; Corbellino, Mario; Raoult, Didier


    Louse-borne relapsing fever a neglected and forgotten disease by western physicians has recently re-emerged among East African migrants seeking asylum in Europe. We review here the cases observed so far together with a critical reappraisal of several issues regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Myrsidea povedai (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), a new species of chewing louse from Phainoptila melanoxantha (Passeriformes: Bombycillidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Kounek, F.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.


    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2011), s. 593-595 ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chewing louse * Phthiraptera * Black- and -yellow Silky-flycatcher * Costa Rica * Myrsidea * Phainoptila melanoxantha Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011

  1. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations.

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    Wenjun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of human lice have shown that the current taxonomic classification of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis and body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus does not reflect their phylogenetic organization. Three phylotypes of head lice A, B and C exist but body lice have been observed only in phylotype A. Head and body lice have different behaviours and only the latter have been involved in outbreaks of infectious diseases including epidemic typhus, trench fever and louse borne recurrent fever. Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By introducing a new genotyping technique, sequencing variable intergenic spacers which were selected from louse genomic sequence, we were able to evaluate the genotypic distribution of 207 human lice. Sequence variation of two intergenic spacers, S2 and S5, discriminated the 207 lice into 148 genotypes and sequence variation of another two intergenic spacers, PM1 and PM2, discriminated 174 lice into 77 genotypes. Concatenation of the four intergenic spacers discriminated a panel of 97 lice into 96 genotypes. These intergenic spacer sequence types were relatively specific geographically, and enabled us to identify two clusters in France, one cluster in Central Africa (where a large body louse outbreak has been observed and one cluster in Russia. Interestingly, head and body lice were not genetically differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hypothesis for the emergence of body lice, and suggest that humans with both low hygiene and head louse infestations provide an opportunity for head louse variants, able to ingest a larger blood meal (a required characteristic of body lice, to colonize clothing. If this hypothesis is ultimately supported, it would help to explain why poor human hygiene often coincides with outbreaks of body lice. Additionally, if head lice act as a reservoir for body lice, and that any social degradation in

  2. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation. (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Kay, Katrina; Burgess, Nazma A; Brunton, Elizabeth R


    This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil- based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product. We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment. The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.

  3. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium. (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe


    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera infestations of the Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis and the Red-footed Falcon

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    Piross Imre Sándor


    Full Text Available Little is known about the louse species harboured by Red-footed and Amur Falcons despite the fact that various life-history traits of these hosts make them good model species to study host-parasite interactions. We collected lice samples from fully grown Amur (n=20 and Red-footed Falcons (n=59, and from nestlings of Red-footed Falcons (n=179 in four countries: Hungary, India, Italy and South Africa. We identified 3 louse species on both host species, namely Degeeriella rufa, Colpocephalum subzerafae and Laembothrion tinnunculi. The latter species has never been found on these hosts. Comparing population parameters of lice between hosts we found significantly higher prevalence levels of D. rufa and C. subzerafae on Amur Falcons. Adult Red-footed Falcons had higher D. rufa prevalence compared to C. subzerafae. For the first time we also show inter-annual shift in prevalence and intensity levels of these species on Red-footed Falcons; in 2012 on adult hosts C. subzerafae had higher intensity levels than D. rufa, however in 2014 D. rufa had significantly higher intensity compared to C. subzerafae. In case of nestlings both louse species had significantly higher preva lence levels than in 2014. The exact causes of such inter-annual shifts are yet to be understood.

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolt Atlantic salmon

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    Anja Bråthen Kristoffersen


    Full Text Available The Norwegian government recently implemented a new management system to regulate salmon farming in Norway, aiming to promote environmentally sustainable growth in the aquaculture industry. The Norwegian coast has been divided into 13 production zones and the volume of salmonid production in the zones will be regulated based on salmon lice effects on wild salmonids. Here we present a model for assessing salmon louse-induced mortality of seaward-migrating post-smolts of Atlantic salmon. The model quantifies expected salmon lice infestations and louse-induced mortality of migrating post-smolt salmon from 401 salmon rivers draining into Norwegian coastal waters. It is assumed that migrating post-smolts follow the shortest path from river outlets to the high seas, at constant progression rates. During this migration, fish are infested by salmon lice of farm origin according to an empirical infestation model. Furthermore, louse-induced mortality is estimated from the estimated louse infestations. Rivers draining into production zones on the West Coast of Norway were at the highest risk of adverse lice effects. In comparison, rivers draining into northerly production zones, along with the southernmost production zone, were at lower risk. After adjusting for standing stock biomass, estimates of louse-egg output varied by factors of up to 8 between production zones. Correlation between biomass adjusted output of louse infestation and densities of farmed salmon in the production zones suggests that a large-scale density-dependent host-parasite effect is a major driver of louse infestation rates and parasite-induced mortality. The estimates are sensitive to many of the processes in the chain of events in the model. Nevertheless, we argue that the model is suited to assess spatial and temporal risks associated with farm-origin salmon lice. Keywords: Density dependent, Sea lice, Transmission, Farmed salmon, Migration pathway, Migration time

  6. Host specificity and genealogy of the louse Polyplax serrata on field mice, Apodemus species: a case of parasite duplication or colonisation? (United States)

    Stefka, Jan; Hypsa, Václav


    The genealogy, population structure and population dynamics of the sucking louse Polyplax serrata were analysed across four host species of the genus Apodemus. An analysis of 126 sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I using phylogenetic approaches and haplotype networking revealed a clear structure of European samples, forming three distinct and genetically distant clades with different host specificities. Although a clear connection was detected between the host and parasite genealogies/phylogenies, a uniform pattern of co-speciation was not found. For example, a dramatic shift in the degree of host specificity was demonstrated for two related louse lineages living in sympatry and sharing one of their host species. While one of the louse lineages frequently parasitised two different host taxa (Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis), the other louse lineage was strictly specific to A. flavicollis. The estimate of divergence time between the two louse lineages indicates that they may have arisen due to parasite duplication on A. flavicollis.

  7. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis using RAD sequencing.

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    Stephen N Carmichael

    Full Text Available The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  8. Louse-borne relapsing fever in Finland in two asylum seekers from Somalia. (United States)

    Hytönen, Jukka; Khawaja, Tamim; Grönroos, Juha O; Jalava, Anna; Meri, Seppo; Oksi, Jarmo


    We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in young Somali asylum seekers having recently arrived to Finland. They had sought medical attention for a febrile illness. Blood smears were examined for suspected malaria, but instead, spirochete shaped bacteria were observed. The bacteria were confirmed as Borrelia recurrentis by PCR and sequencing. The patients survived, but their treatment was complicated by Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. We conclude that LBRF must be considered as a diagnostic option in febrile refugees also in the northernmost parts of Europe. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. First Detection of the Kdr Mutation T929I in Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in Schoolchildren of the Metropolitan Area of Nuevo Leon and Yucatan, Mexico. (United States)

    Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Villanueva-Segura, Karina; Trujillo-Rodriguez, Gerardo; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E


    The head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer) is a hematophagous ectoparasite that inhabits the human scalp. Infestations by this insect are commonly known as pediculosis, which is more common in younger groups. These infestations are asymptomatic; however, skin irritation from scratching occasionally may cause secondary bacterial infections. In recent years, the prevalence of pediculosis has increased in children; this increase has been attributed to louse resistance to the insecticides used as a control measure for infestation. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence and frequency of the knockdown resistance mutation (kdr) T929I in 468 head lice collected from 32 elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Nuevo Leon (24) and Yucatan (8), Mexico. This is the first report of a knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism in head lice from Mexico. The T929I mutation was present in all of the sampled schools, with variability observed in its allelic and genotypic frequencies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  11. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

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    Nazma A Burgess


    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  12. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

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    Biliński Szczepan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  13. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). (United States)

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun


    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  14. Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Position of Two New Species in Rhabdoviridae Infecting the Parasitic Copepod, Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (United States)

    Økland, Arnfinn Lodden; Nylund, Are; Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Blindheim, Steffen; Watanabe, Kuninori; Grotmol, Sindre; Arnesen, Carl-Erik; Plarre, Heidrun


    Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11 600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses. PMID:25402203

  15. Genomic characterization and phylogenetic position of two new species in Rhabdoviridae infecting the parasitic copepod, salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

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    Arnfinn Lodden Økland

    Full Text Available Several new viruses have emerged during farming of salmonids in the North Atlantic causing large losses to the industry. Still the blood feeding copepod parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, remains the major challenge for the industry. Histological examinations of this parasite have revealed the presence of several virus-like particles including some with morphologies similar to rhabdoviruses. This study is the first description of the genome and target tissues of two new species of rhabdoviruses associated with pathology in the salmon louse. Salmon lice were collected at different Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farming sites on the west coast of Norway and prepared for histology, transmission electron microscopy and Illumina sequencing of the complete RNA extracted from these lice. The nearly complete genomes, around 11,600 nucleotides encoding the five typical rhabdovirus genes N, P, M, G and L, of two new species were obtained. The genome sequences, the putative protein sequences, and predicted transcription strategies for the two viruses are presented. Phylogenetic analyses of the putative N and L proteins indicated closest similarity to the Sigmavirus/Dimarhabdoviruses cluster, however, the genomes of both new viruses are significantly diverged with no close affinity to any of the existing rhabdovirus genera. In situ hybridization, targeting the N protein genes, showed that the viruses were present in the same glandular tissues as the observed rhabdovirus-like particles. Both viruses were present in all developmental stages of the salmon louse, and associated with necrosis of glandular tissues in adult lice. As the two viruses were present in eggs and free-living planktonic stages of the salmon louse vertical, transmission of the viruses are suggested. The tissues of the lice host, Atlantic salmon, with the exception of skin at the attachment site for the salmon louse chalimi stages, were negative for these two viruses.

  16. Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria

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    Oluwaseun Oguntomole


    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Full-length articles about VBPs were reviewed and relevant information about the vectors, their hosts, geographic distribution, seasonality, and association(s with human or veterinary diseases was extracted. Specific laboratory tools used for detection and identification of VBPs in Nigeria were also identified. A total of 62 original publications were examined. Substantial information about the prevalence and impacts of ticks and fleas on pet and service dogs (18 articles, and livestock animals (23 articles were available; however, information about their association with and potential for causing human illnesses was largely absent despite the zoonotic nature of many of these peri-domestic veterinary diseases. Recent publications that employed molecular methods of detection demonstrated the occurrence of several classic (Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia africae, Bartonella sp. and emerging human pathogens (R. aeschlimannii, Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and fleas. However, information about other pathogens often found in association with ticks (R. conorii and fleas (R. typhi, R. felis across the African continent was lacking. Records of louse-borne epidemic typhus in Nigeria date to 1947; however, its current status is not known. This review provides an essential baseline summary of the current knowledge in Nigeria of non-mosquito VBPs, and should stimulate improvements in the surveillance of the veterinary and

  17. A 200K SNP chip reveals a novel Pacific salmon louse genotype linked to differential efficacy of emamectin benzoate. (United States)

    Messmer, Amber M; Leong, Jong S; Rondeau, Eric B; Mueller, Anita; Despins, Cody A; Minkley, David R; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Boyce, Brad; Morrison, Diane; Fast, Mark D; Norman, Joseph D; Danzmann, Roy G; Koop, Ben F


    Antiparasitic drugs such as emamectin benzoate (EMB) are relied upon to reduce the parasite load, particularly of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, on farmed salmon. The decline in EMB treatment efficacy for this purpose is an important issue for salmon producers around the world, and particularly for those in the Atlantic Ocean where widespread EMB tolerance in sea lice is recognized as a significant problem. Salmon farms in the Northeast Pacific Ocean have not historically experienced the same issues with treatment efficacy, possibly due to the relatively large population of endemic salmonid hosts that serve to both redistribute surviving lice and dilute populations potentially under selection by introducing naïve lice to farms. Frequent migration of lice among farmed and wild hosts should limit the effect of farm-specific selection pressures on changes to the overall allele frequencies of sea lice in the Pacific Ocean. A previous study using microsatellites examined L. salmonis oncorhynchi from 10 Pacific locations from wild and farmed hosts and found no population structure. Recently however, a farm population of sea lice was detected where EMB bioassay exposure tolerance was abnormally elevated. In response, we have developed a Pacific louse draft genome that complements the previously-released Atlantic louse sequence. These genomes were combined with whole-genome re-sequencing data to design a highly sensitive 201,279 marker SNP array applicable for both subspecies (90,827 validated Pacific loci; 153,569 validated Atlantic loci). Notably, kmer spectrum analysis of the re-sequenced samples indicated that Pacific lice exhibit a large within-individual heterozygosity rate (average of 1 in every 72 bases) that is markedly higher than that of Atlantic individuals (1 in every 173 bases). The SNP chip was used to produce a high-density map for Atlantic sea louse linkage group 5 that was previously shown to be associated with EMB tolerance in Atlantic lice

  18. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation [Corrigendum

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    Burgess IF


    Full Text Available Burgess IF, Kay K, Burgess NA, Brunton ER. Med Devices (Auckl. 2011;4:35-42 In March 2011 we published a report of a clinical study investigating the efficacy of a shampoo for the treatment of head louse infestation.1 The report states that the shampoo used contained, as an active component, 1% soya oil. However, it has now come to light that this product may have a considerably different formulation, and possibly contained no soya oil at all. Read the original article

  19. The Peacock versus the louse (pediculus humanus corporis): one soldier's contribution to combating trench fever in the First World War. (United States)

    Peacock, A; Pearson, W


    Trench fever became a major worry for the Allied High Command during the First World War because of its debilitating effects on troop performance. The causes of the fever were not previously known, but entomological research identified the body louse (pediculus humanus corporis) as the carrier, and the Royal Army Medical Corps developed effective methods of control through disinfestation. These were markedly influenced by the researches of a young entomologist, Alexander David Peacock, which were conducted under campaign conditions. Peacock subsequently occupied a Chair of Zoology at St. Andrews University for 30 years.

  20. The micromorphology of the blesbuck louse Damalinia (Damalinia crenelata as observed under the scanning electron microscope

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    M.L. Turner


    Full Text Available The blesbuck is an important game animal on many game farms and reserves in South Africa. Damalinia crenelata, a biting louse, host-specific to the blesbuck, feed upon epidermal debris of this antelope, leading to severe skin irritation and dermatitis. Symptomatic scratching by the host aggravates these conditions. High infestations may lead to decreased population numbers. Live lice were collected from a blesbuck in the Rietvlei Nature Reserve and prepared for selectron microscopic investigation. Micrographs were recorded. The SEM investigation revealed several micromorphological features not previously described in D. crenelata. Besides the obvious anatomical differences in the reproductive organs of the male and female, several other differences were noted. The antennal flagellae showed morphological differences as well as certain features on the ventral surfaces of the head. Dorsally the forehead was markedly emarginated and showed an acute invagination (clypeo labral suture in the pulvinal area. The ventral surface of the head clearly demonstrated the structures of the preantennal regions such as ventral carina, pulvinus, labrum, mandibles and clypeus. The epipharynx appeared as an underlying extension of the labrum. The rims of the clypeus were more raised and thickened in the female than in that of the male. The mandibles were not notched and were noted to be angular in shape. The three segments of each of the antennae of the male were thicker and more robust than than those of the female. This could suggest sexual dimorphism in this species. The sensilla basoconica comprised 10 pegs. Pit organs were seen within the pore organs. The prothorax and mesothorax were clearly distinguished. The abdominal segments showed six pairs of spiracles. The male andfemale terminalia were confirmed to be strongly sexually dimorphic. The three pairs oflegs each terminated in a single, long and slender, claw.

  1. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Haas, de E.M.; Maas, H.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.


    Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in

  2. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients]. (United States)

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E


    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015. (United States)

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker


    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.

  4. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

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    Jonassen Inge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated

  5. Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever with Meningeal Involvement in an Immigrant from Somalia to Italy, October 2015. (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Antonelli, Alberto; Bartolini, Laura; Pecile, Patrizia; Trotta, Michele; Rogasi, Pier Giorgio; Santini, Maria Grazia; Dilaghi, Beatrice; Grifoni, Stefano; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro


    Borrelia recurrentis, transmitted by Pediculus humanus humanus, is the etiological agent of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF). Currently the main focus of endemicity of LBRF is localized in East African countries. From July 2015 to October 2015, 36 cases of LBRF have been diagnosed in Europe in immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Here we report a case of LBRF with meningitis diagnosed in Florence, Italy, in an immigrant arrived from Somalia. In October 2015, a 19-year-old Somali male presented to the emergency department of the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy, with a 3-day history of high fever. The patient had disembarked in Sicily 10 days before admission after a long migration trip from his country of origin. On clinical examination, neck stiffness was found. Main laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, increased procalcitonin, and increased polymorphonucleates in the cerebrospinal fluid. Suspecting a possible meningitis, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone, pending results of laboratory testing for malaria, and developed severe hypotension that was treated with fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone. Hemoscopic testing revealed the presence of spirochetes and no malaria parasites. The patient rapidly improved with doxycycline for 7 days and ceftriaxone for 11 days, then was lost to follow-up. Total DNA from blood was extracted, and amplification and sequencing with universal 16S rDNA primers D88 and E94 revealed a 100% identity with B. recurrentis A1. LBRF is a rare but emerging infectious disease among vulnerable displaced immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Since immigrants from endemic areas can carry the vector with them, the infection should be suspected even in subjects with compatible clinical features living in the same place where new arrival immigrants are hosted. Healthcare providers should be aware of this condition to implement adequate diagnostic, therapeutic, and public health measures.

  6. Aquaporin family genes exhibit developmentally-regulated and host-dependent transcription patterns in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. (United States)

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian


    Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that function as pore channels for the transport of water and other small solutes across the cell membrane. Considering the important roles of these proteins in several biological processes, including host-parasite interactions, there has been increased research on aquaporin proteins recently. The present study expands on the knowledge of aquaporin family genes in parasitic copepods, examining diversity and expression during the ontogeny of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Furthermore, aquaporin expression was evaluated during the early infestation of Atlantic (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed eight full length and two partial open reading frames belonging to the aquaporin protein family. Clustering analyses with identified Caligidae sequences revealed three major clades of aquaglyceroporins (Cr-Glp), classical aquaporin channels (Cr-Bib and Cr-PripL), and unorthodox aquaporins (Cr-Aqp12-like). In silico analysis revealed differential expression of aquaporin genes between developmental stages and between sexes. Male-biased expression of Cr-Glp1_v1 and female-biased expression of Cr-Bib were further confirmed in adults by RT-qPCR. Additionally, gene expressions were measured for seven aquaporins during the early infestation stage. The majority of aquaporin genes showed significant differential transcription expressions between sea lice parasitizing different hosts, with Atlantic salmon sea lice exhibiting overall reduced expression as compared to Coho salmon. The observed differences in the regulation of aquaporin genes may reveal osmoregulatory adaptations associated with nutrient ingestion and metabolite waste export, exposing complex host-parasite relationships in C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicothoë astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. (United States)

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F


    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicothoë astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5μm in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (copepod host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from estrildid finches (Aves: Passeriformes: Estrildidae) and louse-flies (Insecta: Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from birds in Senegal, with descriptions of three new species of the genus Brueelia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Najer, T.; Čapek, Miroslav; Koubek, Petr; Procházka, Petr


    Roč. 2714, - (2010), s. 59-68 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chewing lice * louse-flies * Passeriformes * Senegal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  9. Identification and functional expression of a glutamate- and avermectin-gated chloride channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a southern Hemisphere sea louse affecting farmed fish.

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    Isabel Cornejo


    Full Text Available Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC(50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (n(H = 2 for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new

  10. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

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    Sebastian Boltaña


    Full Text Available The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  11. Ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti (Anoplura, Echinophthiriidae by scanning electron microscopy

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    Dolores del Carmen Castro


    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti Werneck, 1955, mainly the external chorionic features of the egg, is described through electronic microscopy techniques. This species was first cited in Argentina, infesting Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1873. The morphological adaptations of adults and nymphs are described in both species of Proechinophthirus parasitic on Otariidae: P. fluctus (Ferris, 1916 and P. zumpti.

  12. Comparison of phenothrin mousse, phenothrin lotion, and wet-combing for treatment of head louse infestation in the UK: a pragmatic randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial [v1; ref status: indexed,

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    Ian F. Burgess


    Full Text Available In this investigation of effectiveness of an alternative pediculicide dosage form, we recruited 228 children and 50 adult participants from Bedfordshire, UK, to a randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing two insecticide products with mechanical removal of lice as a control group.  Participants using insecticide were treated with either the investigative 0.5% phenothrin mousse, for 30 minutes, or 0.2% phenothrin lotion, for 2 hours as the reference product.  Both treatments were applied only once, followed by shampoo washing.  Those treated by wet-combing with conditioner were combed 4 times over 12 days.  Parents/carers carried out the treatments to mimic normal consumer use.  The outcome measure was the absence of lice, 14 days after treatment for the insecticides, and up to 14 days after completion of combing.  Intention to treat analysis of the outcomes for 275 participants showed success for phenothrin mousse in 21/105 (20.0%, in 23/107 (21.5% for phenothrin lotion, and in 12/63 (19.1% for wet-combing.  People receiving mousse were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81 times more likely to still have lice after treatment compared with those treated with lotion. The group of participants who received the wet combing treatment were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.61 to 2.11 times more likely to still have lice after the treatment.  None of the treatments was significantly (p < 0.05 more effective than any other. This study was carried out in an area where moderate resistance to phenothrin was demonstrated after the study by using a bioassay.  Analysis of post treatment assessments found that failure of insecticides to kill louse eggs had influenced the outcome.

  13. Gene expression analyses of immune responses in Atlantic salmon during early stages of infection by salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis revealed bi-phasic responses coinciding with the copepod-chalimus transition

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    Afanasyev Sergey


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, an ectoparasitic copepod with a complex life cycle causes significant losses in salmon aquaculture. Pesticide treatments against the parasite raise environmental concerns and their efficacy is gradually decreasing. Improvement of fish resistance to lice, through biological control methods, needs better understanding of the protective mechanisms. We used a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR to examine the time-course of immune gene expression changes in salmon skin, spleen, and head kidney during the first 15 days after challenge, which encompassed the copepod and chalimus stages of lice development. Results Large scale and highly complex transcriptome responses were found already one day after infection (dpi. Many genes showed bi-phasic expression profiles with abrupt changes between 5 and 10 dpi (the copepod-chalimus transitions; the greatest fluctuations (up- and down-regulation were seen in a large group of secretory splenic proteases with unknown roles. Rapid sensing was witnessed with induction of genes involved in innate immunity including lectins and enzymes of eicosanoid metabolism in skin and acute phase proteins in spleen. Transient (1-5 dpi increase of T-cell receptor alpha, CD4-1, and possible regulators of lymphocyte differentiation suggested recruitment of T-cells of unidentified lineage to the skin. After 5 dpi the magnitude of transcriptomic responses decreased markedly in skin. Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in all studied organs suggested establishment of a chronic inflammatory status. Up-regulation of putative lymphocyte G0/G1 switch proteins in spleen at 5 dpi, immunoglobulins at 15 dpi; and increase of IgM and IgT transcripts in skin indicated an onset of adaptive humoral immune responses, whereas MHCI appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions Atlantic salmon develops rapid local and systemic reactions to L. salmonis, which, however


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2014 ... Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University P.M.B 3011 Kano, Nigeria ... Birds were randomly picked and viewed under day light with the aid of hand lens and dissecting forceps to facilitate ... another when birds are kept in close contact (Price et al., 2003). They are ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  15. Desenvolvimento e educação. O planeamento estratégico integrado como fator de transformação societal de um território. O caso do município da Lousã (Portugal

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    António Manuel Rochette Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Resumo Num momento em que o papel das autarquias é cada vez mais relevante no domínio do planeamento estratégico territorial, tem-se como pano de fundo o trabalho que está a ser desenvolvido a este nível num dos municípios da região de Coimbra. Neste contexto, procura-se compreender a importância da componente educativa na estratégia definida no Plano Estratégico da Lousã, e como esta potenciou o desenvolvimento de um Projeto Educativo Local, assente nos princípios da democracia participativa e da cidadania ativa. Reconhecendo que as baixas qualificações da população residente são ainda um entrave ao desenvolvimento pessoal dos cidadãos e ao desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas mais intensivas em conhecimento e criatividade, perspetiva-se, no âmbito do Projeto Educativo Local, o desenvolvimento de políticas e projetos tendo como objetivos: promover o sucesso educativo; elevar os níveis de qualificação; potenciar a educação não formal e informal; aumentar a empregabilidade e promover uma cidadania ativa e qualificada. Com este artigo pretende-se, assim, discutir o processo de planeamento estratégico que está a ser desenvolvido num município de pequena dimensão (Lousã – Portugal, e como este pode ser catalisador de transformações em vários domínios. Em específico foi salientada a importância da componente Educação e como esta está a ser trabalhada a partir de um projeto específico – o Projeto Educativo Local. Apresentando uma abordagem inovadora, os resultados deste projeto deverão contribuir para a mobilização da sociedade com o objetivo de formar cidadãos mais conscientes e críticos da sua realidade local e global.

  16. El legado de Louis Pasteur The legacy of Lous Pasteur

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    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz


    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se destacan cualidades de Louis Pasteur como la precocidad de su aptitud artística, la capacidad de concentración y reflexión y la perseverancia en sus empeños para lograr lo deseado; luego se hace una síntesis de su vida a través de sus logros científicos: sentar las bases de la estereoquímica, demostrar que las fermentaciones se deben a la acción de organismos vivos, probar que no existe la generación espontánea, aclarar la etiología de varias enfermedades humanas y animales y proponer soluciones para ellas, incluyendo la producción de vacunas, que culminó con el éxito de la vacunación antirrábica. Pasteur había nacido en una época en que predominaba la insalubridad y se corría grave riesgo de fallecer de enfermedades infectocontagiosas; a su muerte había contribuido inmensamente a mejorar esa situación.

    Several qualities of Louis Pasteur are emphasized in this paper, namely: his artistic gift, his capacity for concentration and reflection and his perseverance in working to achieve his goals; a sinthesis of his life is presented through his scientific achievements: to establish the bases of stereochemistry, to prove that fermentations are due to the action of living organisms and that no spontaneous generation exists, to elucidate the etiology of several human and animal diseases and to propose solutions for them including the production of vaccines that culminated with the success of rabies vaccination. Pasteur had been born at a time of great unhealthiness and high risk of death due to infectious diseases; through his life-Iong research he considerably improved such situation.

  17. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). (United States)

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I


    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. Una nueva especie del género Hoplopleura Enderlein, 1904 (Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae parásita de Andinomys edax (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    González, A.


    Full Text Available The authors described a new species Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. based on specimens collected on Andinomys edax Thomas, l902, from Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy province, Argentina. Descriptions involve the holotype female; three nymphal instar, external architecture of eggs and sites of oviposition, providing differences with its close relative Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, l916 and Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, l921. Comments on distribution of these species on their hosts are presented and they are included in the “erratica” group.Describimos en esta contribución a Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n., a partir de la hembra, sus tres estadios ninfales y las características coriónicas externas del huevo de la referida especie parásita de Andinomys edax Thomas, 1902 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, capturado en Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy, Argentina. Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. es afín a Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, 1916 y de Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, 1921, integrando junto a estas especies el grupo “erratica”.

  19. Characterisation of microsatellite loci in two species of lice, Polyplax serrata (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) and/nMyrsidea nesomimi (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinů, Jana; Roubová, V.; Nováková, M.; Smith, V. S.; Hypša, Václav; Štefka, Jan


    Roč. 62, FEB 13 2015 (2015), 016 ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP506/12/P529 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ectoparasite * population genetics * coevolution * Polypax * Myrsidea * evolution * Europe * Galapagos Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  20. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand. (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura


    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to head lice and showed 0% of cure rate after the first and the second treatments. Our data showed that three herbal shampoos of native plants in Thailand in this study are suitable to be used as pediculicides for Thai children since it is safe for children and there is no side-effect after application.

  1. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil. (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei


    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  2. New Thai herbal shampoos as pediculicides for killing head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera

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    Sirawut Sittichok


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Thai herbal shampoos [Cartoxylum formosum (C. formosum + eucalyptus essential oil (EO, C. formosum + citrus EO, Solanum trilobatum + eucalyptus EO, Solanum trilobatum + citrus EO, Moringa oleifera + eucalyptus EO and Moringa oleifera + citrus EO] for killing all stages of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera. Methods: A filter paper contact method was applied with three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mL/cm2 of each Thai herbal shampoo as well as permethrin pediculicide (positive control and drinking water (negative control against eggs, nymphs and adults of Pediculus humanus capitis. Mortality rates of the eggs were recorded after 7 days of incubation while those of nymphs and adults were recorded after 5 minutes of contact. Results: All herbal shampoos at the high concentration were highly effective against nymphs and adults, but not effective against the eggs. C. formosum + eucalyptus EO and C. formosum + citrus EO shampoos at all concentrations exhibited the highest efficacy against nymphs and adults with 100% mortality rate at 5 min and LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.005 mL/cm2, respectively. All formulation of Solanum trilobatum and Moringa oleifera shampoos added with eucalyptus EO showed mortality rates against nymphs at 92.0%-100.0% and 76.0%-100.0% and against adults at 84.0%-100.0% and 20.0%-32.0%, respectively. Permethrin pediculicide was not effective against the eggs, but showed 68.0%-92.0% and 28.0%-60.0% mortality rates against nymphs and adults. Conclusions: These results indicate that C. formosum + eucalyptus EO shampoo can be used as an effective nymphicide and adulticide against Pediculus humanus capitis.

  3. Transcriptomic insights on the ABC transporter gene family in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi. (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Sturm, Armin; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian


    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance. llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis. From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information. The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.

  4. Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae

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    Freeman Mark A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 (Copepoda, Caligidae, on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to Nucleospora (Enterocytozoonidae, but the original report did not assign it to a genus or species. Further studies examined the development of the microsporidian in L. salmonis using electron microscopy and re-evaluated the molecular findings using new sequence data available for the group. Here we report a full description for the microsporidian and assign it to a new genus and species. Results The microsporidian infects subcuticular cells that lie on the innermost region of the epidermal tissue layer beneath the cuticle and along the internal haemocoelic divisions. The mature spores are sub-spherical with a single nucleus and an isofilar polar filament with 5-8 turns in a double coil. The entire development is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm and is polysporous. During early merogony, a diplokaryotic nuclear arrangement exists which is absent throughout the rest of the developmental cycle. Large merogonial plasmodia form which divide to form single uninucleate sporonts. Sporogonial plasmodia were not observed; instead, binucleate sporonts divide to form two sporoblasts. Prior to final division, there is a precocious development of the polar filament extrusion apparatus which is associated with large electron lucent inclusions (ELIs. Analyses of DNA sequences reveal that the microsporidian is robustly supported in a clade with other members of the Enterocytozoonidae and confirms a close phylogenetic relationship with Nucleospora. Conclusion The ultrastructural findings of the precocious development of the polar filament and the presence of ELIs are consistent with those of the Enterocytozoonidae. However, the confirmed presence of an early diplokaryotic stage and a merogonial plasmodium that divides to yield uninucleate sporonts instead of transforming into a sporogonial syncitium, are features not currently associated with the family. Yet, analyses of DNA sequence data clearly place the microsporidian within the Enterocytozoonidae. Therefore, due to the novelty of the copepod host, the ultrastructural findings and the robust nature of the phylogenetic analyses, a new genus should be created within the Enterocytozoonide; Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen. n. sp. is proposed.

  5. Observations on the occurrence of the fish louse Argu/us japonicus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining the available literature on the feeding of these two species (Talbot 1955; ... for the presence of fish lice, Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura) directly after .... Schoonbee (1969) carrying out a study of the feeding habits of the fish in Lake ...

  6. Confirmation of the identity of the type host of the louse Halipeurus fallacis (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae). (United States)

    Palma, Ricardo L


    Alexander (1954: 489) recorded a petrel (Aves: Procellariiformes) captured alive on board a ship in the Indian Ocean by Mr W.W.A. Phillips who, after removing some lice, liberated it the following morning. Alexander (1954) identified that petrel as the species "Pterodroma aterrima Bonaparte", now placed in the genus Pseudobulweria. The lice were kept in the collection of the then British Museum (Natural History), now the Natural History Museum, London, England. Jouanin (1955) published a new species of petrel from the Indian Ocean as Bulweria fallax. Jouanin (1957: 19) discussed the identity of the petrel identified by Alexander (1954) as Pterodroma aterrima, stating that the descriptive data given by Alexander (1954) did not clearly fit either P. aterrima or B. fallax. However, considering the geographical coordinates where the bird was captured, Jouanin (1957) believed it was more likely Bulweria fallax.

  7. Legionella becoming a mutualist: adaptive processes shaping the genome of symbiont in the louse Polyplax serrata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, J.; Nováková, Eva; Husník, F.; Hypša, Václav


    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2017), s. 2946-2957 ISSN 1759-6653 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : symbiosis * horizontal gene transfer * genome evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.979, year: 2016

  8. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer). (United States)

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura


    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (Pshampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 valuesshampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  9. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). (United States)

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin


    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  10. Cathepsin Gene Family Reveals Transcriptome Patterns Related to the Infective Stages of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

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    Waleska Maldonado-Aguayo

    Full Text Available Cathepsins are proteases involved in the ability of parasites to overcome and/or modulate host defenses so as to complete their own lifecycle. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability of cathepsins are still poorly understood. One excellent model for identifying and exploring the molecular functions of cathepsins is the marine ectoparasitic copepod Caligus rogercresseyi that currently affects the Chilean salmon industry. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, 56 cathepsin-like sequences were found distributed in five cysteine protease groups (B, F, L, Z, and S as well as in an aspartic protease group (D. Ontogenic transcriptome analysis evidenced that L cathepsins were the most abundant during the lifecycle, while cathepsins B and K were mostly expressed in the larval stages and adult females, thus suggesting participation in the molting processes and embryonic development, respectively. Interestingly, a variety of cathepsins from groups Z, L, D, B, K, and S were upregulated in the infective stage of copepodid, corroborating the complexity of the processes involved in the parasitic success of this copepod. Putative functional roles of cathepsins were conjectured based on the differential expressions found and on roles previously described in other phylogenetically related species. Moreover, 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were identified in transcripts annotated for cysteine and aspartic proteases located into untranslated regions, or the coding region. This study reports for the first time the presence of cathepsin-like genes and differential expressions throughout a copepod lifecycle. The identification of cathepsins together with functional validations represents a valuable strategy for pinpointing target molecules that could be used in the development of new delousing drugs or vaccines against C. rogercresseyi.

  11. A note on the presence of the Elephant Louse Haematomyzus elephantis piaget (Mallophaga: Rhynchophthirina in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.O Braack


    Full Text Available First described in 1869, this rather unusual insect has been found to be a common ectoparasite on the Indian elephant (Elephas maximus, and has been collected in low numbers from the African elephant (Loxodonta africana in nearly all of sub-saharan Africa (Ledger 1979, The arthropod parasites of vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara (Ethiopian Region Vol. IV.

  12. Arsenophonus and Sodalis Symbionts in Louse Flies: an Analogy to the Wigglesworthia and Sodalis System in Tsetse Flies. (United States)

    Nováková, Eva; Husník, Filip; Šochová, Eva; Hypša, Václav


    Symbiosis between insects and bacteria result in a variety of arrangements, genomic modifications, and metabolic interconnections. Here, we present genomic, phylogenetic, and morphological characteristics of a symbiotic system associated with Melophagus ovinus, a member of the blood-feeding family Hippoboscidae. The system comprises four unrelated bacteria representing different stages in symbiosis evolution, from typical obligate mutualists inhabiting bacteriomes to freely associated commensals and parasites. Interestingly, the whole system provides a remarkable analogy to the association between Glossina and its symbiotic bacteria. In both, the symbiotic systems are composed of an obligate symbiont and two facultative intracellular associates, Sodalis and Wolbachia. In addition, extracellular Bartonella resides in the gut of Melophagus. However, the phylogenetic origins of the two obligate mutualist symbionts differ. In Glossina, the mutualistic Wigglesworthia appears to be a relatively isolated symbiotic lineage, whereas in Melophagus, the obligate symbiont originated within the widely distributed Arsenophonus cluster. Although phylogenetically distant, the two obligate symbionts display several remarkably similar traits (e.g., transmission via the host's "milk glands" or similar pattern of genome reduction). To obtain better insight into the biology and possible role of the M. ovinus obligate symbiont, "Candidatus Arsenophonus melophagi," we performed several comparisons of its gene content based on assignments of the Cluster of Orthologous Genes (COG). Using this criterion, we show that within a set of 44 primary and secondary symbionts, "Ca. Arsenophonus melophagi" is most similar to Wigglesworthia. On the other hand, these two bacteria also display interesting differences, such as absence of flagellar genes in Arsenophonus and their presence in Wigglesworthia. This finding implies that a flagellum is not essential for bacterial transmission via milk glands. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Arsenophonus and Sodalis Symbionts in Louse Flies: an Analogy to the Wigglesworthia and Sodalis System in Tsetse Flies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Eva; Husník, Filip; Sochová, E.; Hypša, Václav


    Roč. 81, č. 18 (2015), s. 6189-6199 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01878S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bat flies * phylogenetic analysis * Glossina morsitans Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.823, year: 2015

  14. Host generalists and specialists emerging side by side: an analysis of evolutionary patterns in the cosmopolitan chewing louse genus Menacanthus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinů, Jana; Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Gustafsson, D. L.; Štefka, Jan


    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2015), s. 63-73 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Host specificity * Specialist * Generalist * Population structure * Geographic distribution * Menacanthus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  15. Disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: coinfection of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Lhorente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1 coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2 coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. METHODOLOGY: In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI of P. salmonis (primary pathogen or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen. Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish. Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. MAIN FINDINGS: C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545. Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23 ± 0.07; h2LC = 0.17 ± 0.08; h2HC = 0.24 ± 0.07. A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99 ± 0.01 but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = -0.14 ± 0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32 ± 0.34. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation.

  16. Prevention of head louse infestation: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study of a novel concept product, 1% 1,2-octanediol spray versus placebo. (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; French, Rebecca; Burgess, Nazma A; Lee, Peter N


    To determine whether regular use of a spray containing 1,2-octanediol 1%, which has been shown to inhibit survival of head lice, is able to work as a preventive against establishment of new infestations. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over, community study in Cambridgeshire, UK. 63 male and female schoolchildren aged 4-16 years judged to have a high risk of recurrent infestation. Only the youngest member of a household attending school participated. Participants were treated to eliminate lice, randomised between 1% octanediol or placebo sprays for 6 weeks then crossed-over to the other spray for 6 weeks. Parents applied the sprays at least twice weekly or more frequently if the hair was washed. Investigators monitored weekly for infestation and replenished supplies of spray. The primary endpoint was the time taken until the first infestation event occurred. The secondary measure was safety of the product in regular use. Intention-to-treat analysis found a total of 32 confirmed infestations in 20 participants, with 9 of them infested while using both products. In these nine participants the time to first infestation showed a significant advantage to 1% octanediol (p=0.0129). Per-protocol analysis showed only trends because the population included was not large enough to demonstrate significance. There were no serious adverse events and only two adverse events possibly related to treatment, one was a case of transient erythema and another of a rash that resolved after 5 days. Routine use of 1% octanediol spray provided a significant level of protection from infestation. It was concluded that this product is effective if applied regularly and thoroughly. ISRCTN09524995. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. A common-garden experiment to quantify evolutionary processes in copepods: the case of emamectin benzoate resistance in the parasitic sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. (United States)

    Ljungfeldt, Lina Eva Robin; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Glover, Kevin Alan


    The development of pesticide resistance represents a global challenge to food production. Specifically for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry, parasitic sea lice and their developing resistance to delousing chemicals is challenging production. In this study, seventeen full sibling families, established from three strains of Lepeophtheirus salmonis displaying differing backgrounds in emamectin benzoate (EB) tolerance were produced and quantitatively compared under a common-garden experimental design. Lice surviving to the preadult stage were then exposed to EB and finally identified through the application of DNA parentage testing. With the exception of two families (19 and 29%), survival from the infectious copepod to preadult stage was very similar among families (40-50%). In contrast, very large differences in survival following EB exposure were observed among the families (7.9-74%). Family survival post EB exposure was consistent with the EB tolerance characteristics of the strains from which they were established and no negative effect on infection success were detected in association with increased EB tolerance. Two of the lice families that displayed reduced sensitivity to EB were established from a commercial farm that had previously used this chemical. This demonstrates that resistant alleles were present on this farm even though the farm had not reported treatment failure. To our knowledge, this represents the first study where families of any multi-cellular parasite have been established and compared in performance under communal rearing conditions in a common-garden experiment. The system performed in a predictable manner and permitted, for the first time, elucidation of quantitative traits among sea lice families. While this experiment concentrated on, and provided a unique insight into EB sensitivity among lice families, the experimental design represents a novel methodology to experimentally address both resistance development and other evolutionary questions in parasitic copepods.

  18. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997–2009 (United States)

    Skilbrei, O T; Finstad, B; Urdal, K; Bakke, G; Kroglund, F; Strand, R


    The impact of salmon lice on the survival of migrating Atlantic salmon smolts was studied by comparing the adult returns of sea-ranched smolts treated for sea lice using emamectin benzoate or substance EX with untreated control groups in the River Dale in western Norway. A total of 143 500 smolts were released in 35 release groups in freshwater from 1997 to 2009 and in the fjord system from 2007 to 2009. The adult recaptures declined gradually with release year and reached minimum levels in 2007. This development corresponded with poor marine growth and increased age at maturity of ranched salmon and in three monitored salmon populations and indicated unfavourable conditions in the Norwegian Sea. The recapture rate of treated smolts was significantly higher than the controls in three of the releases performed: the only release in 1997, one of three in 2002 and the only group released in sea water in 2007. The effect of treating the smolts against salmon lice was smaller than the variability in return rates between release groups, and much smaller that variability between release years, but its overall contribution was still significant (P < 0.05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice. PMID:23311746

  19. Disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): coinfection of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. (United States)

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J; Neira, Roberto


    Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23 ± 0.07; h2LC = 0.17 ± 0.08; h2HC = 0.24 ± 0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99 ± 0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = -0.14 ± 0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32 ± 0.34). C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation.

  20. Lepeophtheirus salmonis: characterization of prostaglandin E(2) in secretory products of the salmon louse by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Fast, M D; Ross, N W; Craft, C A; Locke, S J; MacKinnon, S L; Johnson, S C


    Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes serious disease outbreaks in both wild and farmed salmonids. As the relationship between L. salmonis and its hosts is not well understood, the current investigation was undertaken to investigate whether any immunomodulatory compounds could be identified from secretions of L. salmonis. By incubating live L. salmonis adults with the neurotransmitter dopamine in seawater, we were able to obtain secretions from the parasite. These were analyzed by RP-HPLC column, as well as LC-MS. L. salmonis secretions contained a compound with the same retention time and mass of PGE(2). The identity of this compound as PGE(2) was confirmed by MS-in source dissociation. The concentrations of PGE(2) in L. salmonis secretions ranged from 0.2 to 12.3 ng/individual and varied with incubation temperature and time kept off the host. Prostaglandin E(2) is a potent vasodilator and thought to aid in parasite evasion from host immune responses. This is the first reported evidence of prostaglandin production in parasitic copepod secretions and its implications for the host-parasite relationship are discussed.

  1. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus. (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  2. Ectoparasitos de roedores da região urbana de Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos em Rattus Norvegicus norvegicus Ectoparasites in rodents of the urban region of Belo Horizonte, MG: III. Fleas, anoplura and acari indices in Rattus norvegicus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Marcos Linardi


    Full Text Available Indices pulicidianos, anoplurianos e acarianos, globais e específicos foram determinados para os ectoparasitos de Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capturados em zona urbana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de junho de 1980 a setembro de 1982. Tendo-se em vista os valores limites ou críticos atribuídos aos índices pulicidianos, sobretudo ao índice "cheopis" e propostos por diversos autores como medida complementar de vigilância epidemiológica para peste bubônica, a comunidade de Belo Horizonte poderia ter estado exposta a esta infecção, uma vez que os índices globais anuais de 0,3 a 2,4 e a pulga prevalente foi Xenopsylla cheopis (99,2%, com os maiores índices coincidindo com o final da estação seca-fria. Em duas ocasiões, a comunidade poderia ter permanecido altamente exposta à infecção, já que os índices-limites tolerados foram suplantados: 8,8 (outubro 1980 e 6,2 (setembro 1982. Sugere-se que medidas profiláticas como anti-ratização e desinsetização sejam eficazmente aplicadas ao final da estação seca-fria, ou anteriormente à chegada das chuvas, sendo sucedidas pela desratização. Informações sobre índices anoplurianos e acarianos são importantes para que se possa, no exclusivas de roedoresThe total and specific indices of fleas, lice and mites were determined for ectoparasites on Rattus norvegicus norvegicus capture in urban areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas state, Brazil, from June 1980 to September 1982. In view of the limiting or critical values attributed to flea indices above all the [quot ]cheopis[quot ] index, proposed by several authors as a complementary measure for bubonic plague surveillance, the community of Belo Horizonte would have been exposed to this infection. The annual total indices ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 and the prevalent flea was Xenopsylla cheopis (99.2%, with the highest indices coinciding with the late dry-cool season. On two occasions, in this period, the community would have remained highly exposed to infection, since the index-limits were superseded: 8.8 (October 1980 and 6.2 (September 1982. It is suggested that preventive measures, such as protection against rat insecticide treatment may be efficiently applied in the late dry-cool season, or previous to the rainy season, before the elimination of rats. Reports on indices of lice and mites are important as they may establish index-limits for certain infections exclusive to rodents.

  3. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Richard A. Fagerlund; Donald W. Duszynski; Paul J. Polechla


    All available records are compiled for three orders of ectoparasites of mammals in New Mexico: fleas (Siphonaptera), sucking lice (Anoplura), and chewing lice (Mallophaga). We have drawn from records at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology, the Vector Control Program of the New Mexico Environment Department, the Environmental Health...

  4. Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system – Effects of pipe material and sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik


    Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (......Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (...

  5. White piedra and pediculosis capitis in the same patient. (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Camargo, Rosângela Maria Pires de


    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by the genus Trichosporon. It is characterized by nodules on the hair shaft. Pediculosis capitis is caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis of the suborder Anoplura. Whereas pediculosis is a common infestation, clinical reports of white piedra are rare. Molecular biology procedures identified T. inkin as the agent of white piedra in this case report. The authors present associations between the two diseases in the same patient in order to highlight their clinical differences.

  6. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management. (United States)

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R


    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

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    Mustafa KOYUN


    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  8. African Zoology - Vol 36, No 2 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection of hottentot Pachymetopon blochii by the fish louse Anilocra ... The holothuroid family Rhopalodinidae – its composition, distribution, phylogeny and ... Book Review: Ontogeny, functional ecology, and evolution of bats · EMAIL FULL ...

  9. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-


    Uutest plaatidest Chingy "Jackpot", Don Johnson Big Band "Breaking Daylight", Mars Volta "De-loused In The Comatorium", Ella Fitzgerald "Sings Sweet Songs For Swingers", Queen "Live At Wembley 86", Iron Maiden "Dance Of Death"

  10. Seasonal changes in the population of Menacanthus cornutus (Phthiraptera: Amblycera)


    Kumar, Adesh; Kumar, Rakesh


    The chicken body louse, Menacanthus cornutus (Menoponidae s.l.) completes its whole life cycle on the body of Gallus gallus domesticus. The louse exploits the microclimate developed by host skin temperature and feather cover. The weekly visual examination has demonstrated the pronounced response on the population fluctuation of M. cornutus to the seasonal changes in the environment despite all favourable condition on the body of homothermic host. The experiments commences from April 2008. The...

  11. Distribution of chewing lice upon the polygynous peacock Pavo cristatus. (United States)

    Stewart, I R; Clark, F; Petrie, M


    An opportunistic survey of louse distribution upon the peacock Pavo cristatus was undertaken following a cull of 23 birds from an English zoo. After complete skin and feather dissolution, 2 species of lice were retrieved, Goniodes pavonis and Amyrsidea minuta. The distribution of both louse species could be described by a negative binomial model. The significance of this is discussed in relation to transmission dynamics of lice in the atypical avian mating system found in the peacock, which involves no male parental care.

  12. Heartworm of swans and geese (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.


    Heartworm in swans and geese is caused by a filarial nematode or a roundworm of the superfamily Filarioidea which is transmitted to the bird by a biting louse. The nematode and the louse both are parasites. Sarconema eurycerca is the only one of several species of microfilaria or the first stage juvenile of the parasite found in the circulating blood of waterfowl that is known to be pathogenic or cause clinical disease.

  13. Using observed load distributions with a simple model to analyse the epidemiology of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on sea trout (Salmo trutta). (United States)

    Murray, Alexander G


    Sea lice are ectoparasites of salmonids that have been associated with the recent decline in sea trout numbers in north-west Europe. Observed patterns of louse load distribution between sea trout in the seas surrounding the UK, Ireland and Norway and a simple model have been used to analyse the epidemiology of lice. Loads are aggregated and deviate strongly from the Poisson distribution, although less than is observed with many other parasites. The louse numbers on fish from offshore sites are slightly less variable than for fish from coastal sites with comparable mean loads. Analysis of louse development stages and sexes shows that selection between hosts by sea lice plays a limited role. If host selection is absent, then associated poor condition would be caused by, not the cause of, high louse burdens; however the absence of such selection is not proved. Scenarios with infection that is patchy in space and time best generate the aggregated load patterns observed; these patches accord with observed swarms of copepodids. Prevalence patterns may indicate the movement of trout between environments. Control of copepodids in infection 'hot spots', either directly or through control of louse egg production in their catchment, may reduce louse loads on wild sea trout and, in particular, extreme and damaging loads.

  14. Epidemic typhus. (United States)

    Bechah, Yassina; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Raoult, Didier


    Epidemic typhus is transmitted to human beings by the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease is still considered a major threat by public-health authorities, despite the efficacy of antibiotics, because poor sanitary conditions are conducive to louse proliferation. Until recently, Rickettsia prowazekii, the causal agent, was thought to be confined to human beings and their body lice. Since 1975, R prowazekii infection in human beings has been related to contact with the flying squirrel Glaucomys volans in the USA. Moreover, Brill-Zinsser disease, a relapsed form of epidemic typhus that appears as sporadic cases many years after the initial infection, is unrelated to louse infestation. Stress or a waning immune system are likely to reactivate this earlier persistent infection, which could be the source of new epidemics when conditions facilitate louse infestation. Finally, R prowazekii is a potential category B bioterrorism agent, because it is stable in dried louse faeces and can be transmitted through aerosols. An increased understanding of the pathogenesis of epidemic typhus may be useful for protection against this bacterial threat.

  15. Pediculosis capitis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Madke


    Full Text Available Head louse infestation, or pediculosis capitis, caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis, is a common health concern in pediatric age group. An itching of the scalp is the chief symptom, whereas presence of viable nits confirms the diagnosis of head louse infestation. Secondary bacterial infection with impetignization with cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy can complicate the clinical scenario with physician misdiagnosing pediculosis to a primary bacterial infection. Screening and treatment of all close contacts is necessary for an adequate management of pediculosis. Medical management of head louse infestation requires proper application of topical pediculicidal agents′, chiefly permethrin lotion and wet combing with a fine toothcomb. Severe cases with high parasitic load justify the use of either oral cotrimoxazole or Ivermectin. Other described technique involves a single application of hot air for 30 minutes. Radical but culturally unacceptable method would be shaving of scalp in resistant cases. Environmental fogging with insecticides is neither necessary nor recommended.

  16. Primates, Lice and Bacteria: Speciation and Genome Evolution in the Symbionts of Hominid Lice. (United States)

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; Nguyen, Nam-Phuong; Vachaspati, Pranjal; Quicksall, Zachary S; Warnow, Tandy; Mugisha, Lawrence; Johnson, Kevin P; Reed, David L


    Insects with restricted diets rely on symbiotic bacteria to provide essential metabolites missing in their diet. The blood-sucking lice are obligate, host-specific parasites of mammals and are themselves host to symbiotic bacteria. In human lice, these bacterial symbionts supply the lice with B-vitamins. Here, we sequenced the genomes of symbiotic and heritable bacterial of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and monkey lice and used phylogenomics to investigate their evolutionary relationships. We find that these symbionts have a phylogenetic history reflecting the louse phylogeny, a finding contrary to previous reports of symbiont replacement. Examination of the highly reduced symbiont genomes (0.53-0.57 Mb) reveals much of the genomes are dedicated to vitamin synthesis. This is unchanged in the smallest symbiont genome and one that appears to have been reorganized. Specifically, symbionts from human lice, chimpanzee lice, and gorilla lice carry a small plasmid that encodes synthesis of vitamin B5, a vitamin critical to the bacteria-louse symbiosis. This plasmid is absent in an old world monkey louse symbiont, where this pathway is on its primary chromosome. This suggests the unique genomic configuration brought about by the plasmid is not essential for symbiosis, but once obtained, it has persisted for up to 25 My. We also find evidence that human, chimpanzee, and gorilla louse endosymbionts have lost a pathway for synthesis of vitamin B1, whereas the monkey louse symbiont has retained this pathway. It is unclear whether these changes are adaptive, but they may point to evolutionary responses of louse symbionts to shifts in primate biology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S Ascunce

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus. This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, and the clothing (body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus. Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long

  18. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs. (United States)

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C; Shao, Renfu


    The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter-minichromosome recombination plays a major role in generating the

  19. Disease: H00928 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lous skin lesions and neurosensory deafness. Nonsense mutations in CD151, an essential protein for the proper assembly of the basemen...ntial for the correct assembly of human basement membranes in kidney and skin. ... JOURNAL ... Blood 104:2217-23 (2004) DOI:10.1182/blood-2004-04-1512 ...

  20. Survey of Permethrin and Malathion Resistance in Human Head Lice Populations from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Knorr, Mette; Rasmussen, Anne-Marie


    was selected, 2 ng of permethrin and 100 ng of malathion per head louse, respectively. Head lice were collected from heads of infested children in Denmark at 33 primary schools, one kindergarten, and seven boarding schools. The lice were collected by combing of dry hair, with a fine-toothed antilouse comb...

  1. rodentia: sciuridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it is apparently not an efficient vector of plague. Sucking lice. The sucking louse, Neohoematopinw heliosciuri has been found on the African tree squinels. Heliosciurus rufobrachium. Funisciurus anerythrus and Paraxerus boehmi em;"i by Rahm (19~2). and. Ledger (1976) additionally records these lice from. Paraxerus ...

  2. The eggshell morphology of Rallicola unguiculatus Piaget, 1880 (Ischnocera: Phthiraptera). (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab


    The egg chorion of the greater coucal louse, Rallicola unguiculatus bears hexagonal ridges. The hat shaped opercular disc also shows hexagonal marks. Twenty to twenty-three button shaped micropyles occur along the opercular rim. The stigma remained obscured under the cementing material.

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Eperythrozoon, Rikettsiae, Theileria, and Babesia species are transmitted by louse and ticks Ngole et al. (2001), Bell-Sakyi et al. (2004). The development of parasites .... legislation and penalties for defaulters. These will minimize exposure of pigs to parasites. Porks should be thoroughly prepared to get rid of the parasite.

  4. Physiological effects of simultaneous, abrupt seawater entry and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation of wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, A.; Grierson, C.E.; MacKenzie, M.A.; Russon, I.; Middlemiss, C.; Bjorn, P.A.; Finstad, B.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Todd, C.D.; Hazon, N.


    For wild, sea-run brown trout (Salmo trutta) smolts, the physiological consequences of abrupt transfer to seawater and simultaneous challenge with copepodid larvae of the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kr�yer, 1837), were investigated in the laboratory. Analysis of osmoregulatory, metabolic,

  5. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  6. Ectoparasite diversity in the eastern rock sengis ( Elephantulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasite diversity in the eastern rock sengis ( Elephantulus myurus ): the effect of seasonality and host sex. ... The ectoparasite assemblage comprised 11 groups of tick species, a single mite family, one louse and two flea species, with ticks and mites being the most numerous ectoparasites recovered. The prevalence ...

  7. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from buntings, cardinals and tanagers (Passeriformes: Emberizidae, Cardinalidae, Thraupidae) from Costa Rica, with descriptions of two new species of the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.


    Roč. 1631, - (2007), s. 57-68 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Myrsidea * new host -louse associations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007

  8. Chewing lice of genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from Turdidae (Passeriformes) of Costa Rica, with descriptions of seven new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kounek, F.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.


    Roč. 3620, č. 3620 (2013), s. 201-222 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amblycera * Myrsidea * new species * new host -louse associations * population dynamics * Turdidae * Catharus * Myadestes * Turdus * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013

  9. Pop / Koit Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Koit


    Heliplaatidest: The Mars Volta "De-Loused In The Comatorium", Yasume "Where We Are From The Birds Sing A Pretty Song", Filmimuusika "Masked and Anonymous", Sack und Blumm "Kind Kind", The Cinematic Orchestra "Man With A Movie Camera", Super Furry Animals "Phantom Power2

  10. Elemental analysis of Scottish populations of the ectoparasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinn, A.P.; Bron, J.E.; Gray, D.J.; Sommerville, C.


    Conventional nebulisation ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), was used to determine the concentration of a broad range of elements in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Lice samples were collected from Atlantic salmon in seven localities (4 fish farms and 3 wild salmon

  11. Survey of the occurrence of 2,5-Di-tert-butylhydroquinone in food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    intended for the consumers identified in the initial survey under the Danish EPA’s LOUS-review (Environmental Project no. 1477). Based on literature search, contact to producers, importers and branches, the use of DTBHQ in these product categories evaluated to be scarce, with only one cosmetic product...

  12. Review of infectious diseases in refugees and asylum seekers—current status and going forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiset, Andreas Halgreen; Wejse, Christian


    (up to 11%), and hepatitis B (up to 12%). The same population had low prevalence of malaria (7%) and hepatitis C (up to 5%). There have been recent case reports from European countries of cutaneous diphtheria, louse-born relapsing fever, and shigella in the asylum-seeking and refugee population...

  13. Vertical transmission of feather lice between adult blackbirds Turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective. (United States)

    Brooke, M de L


    There is limited information about the natural history of the transmission of feather lice (Phthiraptera) from parent birds to their young. This article therefore examines the transmission of 4 species of feather lice from parent blackbirds to their nestlings in an English population, and addresses questions formulated from the perspective of the lice. The lice that disperse onto the several young in the nest were mostly found on the larger chicks, those with higher survival prospects. The lice dispersing to chicks were overwhelmingly nymphs, which cannot be sexed morphologically, and so the prediction that the adult lice dispersing would be disproportionately female, potential founders of a new population, was only supported for the most numerous species, Brueelia merulensis. There was no evidence that louse dispersal to chicks was density dependent and more likely when the parents were more heavily infested. Finally, I predicted that lice might aggregate on female blackbirds, which undertake more brooding, to increase their chance of transmission to nestlings. For 1 louse species, B. merulensis, prevalence, but not louse intensity, was higher on female than male blackbirds. For 2 other louse species, Philopterus turdi and Menacanthus eurysternus, no differences between male and female blackbirds were detected.

  14. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  15. Origin of clothing lice indicates early clothing use by anatomically modern humans in Africa. (United States)

    Toups, Melissa A; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L


    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene.

  16. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.


    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  17. Why infest the loved ones--inherent human behaviour indicates former mutualism with head lice. (United States)

    Rózsa, Lajos; Apari, Péter


    Head lice transmit to new hosts when people lean their heads together. Humans frequently touch their heads to express friendship or love, while this behaviour is absent in apes. We hypothesize that this behaviour was adaptive because it enabled people to acquire head lice infestations as early as possible to provoke an immune response effective against both head lice and body lice throughout the subsequent periods of their life. This cross-immunity could provide some defence against the body-louse-borne lethal diseases like epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever and the classical plague. Thus the human 'touching heads' behaviour probably acts as an inherent and unconscious 'vaccination' against body lice to reduce the threat exposed by the pathogens they may transmit. Recently, the eradication of body-louse-borne diseases rendered the transmission of head lice a maladaptive, though still widespread, behaviour in developed societies.

  18. Menopon gaillinae lice in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Najaf province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Fatlawi M. A. A


    Full Text Available Our study considered as the first work on ectoparasites of the Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and Marsh harear (Circus aeruginosus in Iraq. Overall, we examined 17 eagles for the period from 01\\Nov\\2016 until 25\\Feb\\2017, out of which 4were found infected (23.5%. All infected birds were female. Aquila was hunted from Najaf sea area. Under the wing and between feathers of Aquila grossly examined for detect any parasites. Lice of genus Menopon gaillinae isolated from 4 eagles, from under the wing area. Infected eagles suffering from skin redness. 38 parasites isolated from infected eagle, we prepared a slide from these louse for spp. classification. This study was on the first hand record of shaft louse (M. gallinae in Golden eagle and Marsh harear in Iraq

  19. Does RecA have a role in Borrelia recurrentis? (United States)

    Cutler, S J; Rinky, I J; Bonilla, E M


    Genomic sequencing of two relapsing fever spirochaetes showed truncation of recA in Borrelia recurrentis, but not in Borrelia duttonii. RecA has an important role among bacteria; we investigated whether this characteristic was representative of B. recurrentis, or an artefact following in vitro cultivation. We sequenced recA directly from samples of patient with louse-borne relapsing fever (B. recurrentis) or tick-borne relapsing fever (B. duttonii). We confirmed the premature stop codon in seven louse-borne relapsing fever samples, and its absence from three tick-borne relapsing fever samples. Furthermore, specific signature polymorphisms were found that could differentiate between these highly similar spirochaetes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Survey of the occurrence of 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether in food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    producers and importers. The substance is not allowed for use in plastic materials for food contact. One Danish company reported a possible use of HDDGE in coating of drinking tanks and pipelines. This is the only use of HDDGE confirmed in relation to food contact materials in Denmark. The project...... is following up on a previous survey under the Danish EPA’s LOUS-review (Environmental Project no. 1472)....

  1. Invertebrate vectors, parasites, and rickettsial agents in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, J.


    Full Text Available We conducted a 3-week field study of ectoparasites of humans and domestic animals throughout Guam. Thirteen species of ectoparasitic arthropods were collected. Ectoparasites of medical or veterinary significance included the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus, fleas Ctenocephalides felis and Xenopsylla cheopsis, and the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis. Polymerase chain reaction based screening for rickettsial and protozoan pathogens detected pathogens in eight arthropods. These included Anaplasma platys, Coxiella burnetii, Babesia canis vogeli, and Hepatozoon canis.

  2. Külaskäik Kimbelli kunstimuuseumisse = A Visit to the Kimbell Art Museum / Patricia Cummings Loud ; tõlk. Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loud, Patricia Cummings


    Kimbelli kunstimuuseumi arhitektuurikuraator Patricia C. Loud Lous I. Kahni projekteeritud Kimbelli kunstimuuseumist Fort Worthis Texases (ehitatud 1966-1972), muuseumi külastajatest. Maastikuarhitekt George Patton. 1998. a. tunnustas Ameerika Arhitektuuriinstituut Kimbelli muuseumihoonet Kahekümne Viie Aasta auhinnaga, nimetatud sama auhinna saanud teised neli L. I. Kahni projekteeritud hoonet. Ill. lõige, sisevaade, värv. välisvaade

  3. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  4. The prevalence of Pediculus capitis among School Children in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Neirami


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in ur­ban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also exam­ined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in win­ter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in ru­ral areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeco­nomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effec­tive management strategies should target this group in the province.

  5. Does RecA have a role in Borrelia recurrentis?


    Cutler, S.J.; Rinky, I.J.; Bonilla, E.M.


    Genomic sequencing of two relapsing fever spirochaetes showed truncation of recA in Borrelia recurrentis, but not in Borrelia duttonii. RecA has an important role among bacteria; we investigated whether this characteristic was representative of B. recurrentis, or an artefact following in vitro cultivation. We sequenced recA directly from samples of patient with louse-borne relapsing fever (B. recurrentis) or tick-borne relapsing fever (B. duttonii). We confirmed the premature stop codon in se...

  6. Restricted evaluation of Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae detection methods in Alaska gray wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Woldstad


    Full Text Available Trichodectes canis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae was first documented on Alaska (USA gray wolves (Canis lupus on the Kenai Peninsula in 1981. In subsequent years, numerous wolves exhibited visually apparent, moderate to severe infestations. Currently, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes visual inspection, histopathology, and potassium hydroxide (KOH hide digestion for T. canis detection. Our objective was to determine optimal sampling locations for T. canis detection. Wolf hides were subjected to lice enumeration using KOH hide digestion. Thirty nine of the 120 wolves examined had lice. Of these 39, total louse burdens ranged from 14 to an extrapolated 80,000. The hides of 12 infested animals were divided into 10 cm by 10 cm subsections and the lice enumerated on a subsection from each of four regions: neck; shoulder; groin; and rump. Combining the data from these 12 wolves, the highest mean proportions of the total louse burdens on individual wolves were found on the rump and differed significantly from the lowest mean proportion on the neck. However, examination of the four subsections failed to detect all infested wolves. Hides from 16 of the 39 infested animals were cut into left and right sides, and each side then cut into four, approximately equal sections: neck and shoulder; chest; abdomen; and rump. Half hides were totally digested from 11 wolves, and whole hides from 5. For these 21 half hides, the highest mean proportions of total louse burdens were found on the rump, and this section had the highest sensitivity for louse detection, regardless of burden. However, removal of this large section from a hide would likely be opposed by hunters and trappers.

  7. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from New World warblers (Passeriformes: Parulidae) from Costa Rica, with descriptions of four new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kounek, F.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.


    Roč. 3137, - (2011), s. 56-63 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : lice * new species * Costa Rica * new host-louse associations * Menoponidae * Myrsidea * Amblycera * Parulidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2011

  8. Delousing efficiency of farmed ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) against Lepeophtheirus salmonis infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) post-smolts. (United States)

    Leclercq, Eric; Davie, Andrew; Migaud, Hervé


    Cleaner-fish (wrasse, Labridae) are increasingly deployed within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) industry as a biological control against sea-lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer). Two tank-based trials were performed to test the effect of farmed ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta Ascanius) body mass and supplementary feeding on the delousing of Atlantic salmon post-smolts with an initial infection level of ∼12 lice salmon(-1) and a ∼5% wrasse:salmon ratio. Sea-louse levels below 0.5 lice salmon(-1) were obtained within 84 h, and preferential preying upon larger motile stages was found. The wrasse body mass and the availability of fresh, opened blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) did not significantly affect delousing efficiency. The functional predator response was linear, showing no minimum prey density threshold for sea-louse foraging and no satiation plateau, in spite of the high consumption rates measured. Sea-louse infection levels declined following a one-phase exponential decay model, with a standardised decline time constant of 0.8-1.3% h(-1) for each wrasse stocked per 100 salmon. Farmed ballan wrasse are confirmed as highly effective therapeutic and preventive biological controls against sea-lice. The study supports the current minimum hatchery size target (10 mm total length) and the use of supplementary feeding to sustain the wrasse stocks in operation. The functional predator response and the standardised decline time constant of sea-louse abundance are proposed as useful indicators of delousing efficiency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from Viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of Greenland. (United States)

    Sadler, J P


    During recent archaeological excavations in Viking Greenland, specimens of the human flea, Pulex irritans L., and the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L., were recovered from several farmsteads. Bovicola ovis (Schrank) and the sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus (L.), also were found in associated deposits. The specimens were dated from about AD 990 to AD 1350. These finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the Viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conundrums.


    Cowdry, E V


    In the absence of a satisfactory definition of Rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and Gram-negative. Rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: Amblyomma americana, Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Atomus sp., Casinaria infesta, Chrysopa oculata, Ctenocephalus canis, Dermacentor variabilis, Lepisma saccharina, Lucoppia curviseta, Margaropus annulatus, Margaropus annulatus australis, Ornithodoros turicata, Pulex irritans, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus evertsi, and Salticus scenicus. Since intracellular, Gram-negative Rickettsia have been recorded in the literature as existing in Cimex lectularius, Dermacentor venustus, Melophagus ovinus, and Pediculus humanus, the occasional occurrence of such bodies must be conceded in the following groups not closely related phylogenetically: Attidae, Trombidiidae, Argasidae, lxodidae, Cinura, Acanthiidae, Pediculidae, Hippoboscidae, Chrysopidae, Pulicidae, and Ichneumonidae. The species which harbor Rickettsia differ widely in diet and habitat. One such species is insectivorous throughout life, two are insectivorous in larval stages, becoming vegetarian in the adult condition, one is chiefly vegetarian but partakes of some animal products, and two are usually entirely vegetarian; while the remainder subsist wholly upon a diet of mammalian blood. Rickettsia are associated, in only a few cases, with diseases in mammals. The evidence at hand does not lead beyond the conclusion that the Rickettsia mentioned above are true Gram-negative microorganisms, easily distinguishable from mitochondria and all other cytoplasmic and nuclear granulations, rather completely adapted to an intracellular existence, exhibiting in some cases a remarkable degree of host specificity, and often inherited through the eggs.

  11. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin


    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  12. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

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    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  13. Management and Treatment of Human Lice

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    Abdoul Karim Sangaré


    Full Text Available Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance.

  14. Ectoparasites of Rodents Captured in Hamedan, Western Iran

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    Hamid Zendehfili


    Full Text Available Background: Rodents with a population greater than the entire population of other mammals on earth are the source of economic losses and health conflicts. One of the major health problems with the rodents is their role as reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the infestation of commensal rodents with ectoparasites in Hamedan City, Western Iran.Methods: The samples were collected by live traps during years 2012–2013. After transferring the samples to the Entomological Laboratory of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, their ectoparasites were collected andidentified.Results: A total of 171 slides were prepared from 105 captured commensal rodents: Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus comprising three orders namely Mesostigmata: Hypoaspis (Laelaspis astronomica, Dermanyssius sp, Pachylaelapidae (male. Metastigmata: Rhipicephalus sp and Anoplura: Polyplax spinulosa were recovered in Hamedan City. Seventy (66.6% rodents were found infested with at least one species of ectoparasites.Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that ectoparasites infestation in commensal rodents of Hamedan city is high and more attention by local health authorities is needed to prevent zoonotic diseases.

  15. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics (United States)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.


    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  16. Pediculosis pubis

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    Chang Patricia


    Full Text Available We report a male patient of 24 years old with itching at groin and pubis. Pubic hair test showed the presence of lices (fig.2-4.Pediculosis is an infestation of man and animals by insects Anoplura (Lice Vampire ectoparasites. It´s important poor hygiene, promiscuity, fomites, sexual transmission. Etiology: Pediculus humanus capitis, Human Pediculus corporis, Phthirus pubis or pubic lice. Clinically pediculosis can be classify in :head lice, body lice, pubic pediculosis. Phthirus pubis or crab lice is the agent of pediculus pubis, the sites affected are pubic region other sites as thighs, trunk, armpit, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard and scalp. Pruritus hematic crusts, excoriations, stains 0.5 cm -1 blue cerulean spots may be associated with other STD. The diagnosis is based in the clinical aspect and observes the parasite. Phthirus short pubis or pubic lice parasite, it´s size: 0.8-1.2 mm his first legs resemble those of a crab with sucking, slow walking 10 cm / min. Treatment is based on head lice or nits destruction benzyl benzoate 25% 8 to 12 hrs once, crotramiton 10% 1 / day x 8 days and ivermectin 200 micrograms / kg in a single dose.

  17. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted. (United States)

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bożena; Werszko, Joanna; Bień, Justyna; Goździk, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, Władysław


    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae.

  18. [European migrant crisis and reemergence of infections in Switzerland]. (United States)

    Jaton, Laure; Kritikos, Antonios; Bodenmann, Patrick; Greub, Gilbert; Merz, Laurent


    Current conflicts in some regions of the world give rise to massive immigration waves. Consequently, some infections that had nearly disappeared in Europe nowadays re-emerge. They are related to the epidemiology of the refugees' origin, but also to the epidemiology of the country crossed during migration. Hygiene conditions, often precarious during the journey, favor their transmission. Thus, cases of louse borne relapsing fever and diphtheria emerge in Europe and in Switzerland since 2074 whereas cutaneous Panton-Valen tine Staphylococcus aureus infection are more commonly observed nowadays.

  19. A Prevalence Study Of Pediculus Humanus Capitis Infestation Among Children In A Slum Area Of Pune.

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    Satyamoorthy T.S


    Full Text Available A cross â€" sectional study among 512 children in age group 0-15 years was carried out in an urban slum of Pune during Aug.84 to Feb. 85. The prevalence rate of Pediculus humanus capitis among the study population was found to be 35.15 percent. The prevalence was found to increase with age. Girls were affected more than boys. Living in nuclear families, schooling and possession of long hair were found to have significant association with the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The quality of personal hygiene per se did not alter the prevalence of head louse infestation.

  20. New records of chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera from Brazilian birds (Aves collected by Helmut Sick (1910-1991

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    Kamila M.D. Kuabara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We list the genera and species of chewing lice collected from birds by Helmut Sick, mainly from central Brazil, and particularly during the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, between 1943 and 1949. From the 123 samples studied, a wide variety of chewing louse genera and species were found, including 34 species as new records for Brazil, 37 species recorded from new Brazilian localities and 23 new host records. All material is deposited in the ectoparasite collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo.

  1. 100th anniversary of the death of Ricketts: Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871-1910). The namesake of the Rickettsiaceae family. (United States)

    Gross, Dominik; Schäfer, Gereon


    The US American pathologist and microbiologist Howard Taylor Ricketts died 100 years ago. He is renowned for discovering the causative organism and the transmission route of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and of tabardillo--an epidemic louse-borne typhus occurring especially in Mexico. He also found that both diseases were caused by related infectious agents (Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia prowazekii). The scientific community therefore named both a taxonomic family (Rickettsiaceae) and an order (Rickettsiales) after the scientist. Ricketts' work on immunity and serums became the basis for further advances in vaccine development. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of a grapefruit extract on head lice: a clinical trial. (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz


    Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars

  3. Laboratory and clinical trials of cocamide diethanolamine lotion against head lice

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    Ian F. Burgess


    Full Text Available Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA was effective to eliminate head louse infestation.Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies.Materials and Methods. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed by exposing lice or louse eggs to the product using a method that mimicked the intended use. Clinical Study 1: Children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation were treated by investigators using a single application of aqueous 10% cocamide DEA lotion applied for 60 min followed by shampooing or a single 1% permethrin creme rinse treatment applied to pre-washed hair for 10 min. Clinical Study 2: Compared two treatment regimens using 10% cocamide DEA lotion that was concentrated by hair drying. A single application left on for 8 h/overnight was compared with two applications 7 days apart of 2 h duration, followed by a shampoo wash.Results. The initial laboratory tests showed a pediculicidal effect for a 60 min application but limited ovicidal effect. A longer application time of 8 h or overnight was found capable of killing all eggs but this differed between batches of test material. Clinical Study 1: Both treatments performed badly with only 3/23 (13% successful treatments using cocamide DEA and 5/25 (23.8% using permethrin. Clinical Study 2: The single overnight application of cocamide DEA concentrated by hair drying gave 10/56 (17.9% successes compared with 19/56 (33.9% for the 2 h application regimen repeated after 1 week. Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.0523 between the

  4. Is It Genocide? The Military Implications (United States)


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  5. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering


    Moreira, Orlanda; Martins, José; Silva, Luís; Moura, Mónica


    Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef.) Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamental interest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for the successful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttings collected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submitted to different treatments, including a basal split...

  6. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) associated with vertebrates in Mexico. (United States)

    SÁnchez-Montes, Sokani; Colunga-Salas, Pablo; Álvarez-Castillo, LucÍa; GuzmÁn-Cornejo, Carmen; Montiel-Parra, Griselda


    The chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) of Mexico have been little studied and many publications include isolated records. This paper summarizes current knowledge of chewing lice recorded from Mexico resulting from an exhaustive search of the literature published from 1866 to 2017. We found 342 louse species associated with 206 bird and 28 mammal species. As a result, we provide a checklist of the chewing lice recorded from Mexico, including a host-parasite list and their geographical distribution within the country.

  7. Morphology of the leather defect light flecks and spots. (United States)

    Nafstad, O; Wisløff, H; Grønstøl, H


    The skin histology and the scanning electron microscope morphology of the hide defect light flecks and spots after tanning were studied in 11 steers infested with biting lice (Damalinia bovis). Nine steers from herds free of lice were used as controls. Skin biopsies from 6 of the animals in the lice infested group showed mild to moderate hyperkeratosis and moderate perivascular to diffuse dermatitis with infiltration of mainly mononuclear cells and some eosinophilic granulocytes. The steers were slaughtered at an age of 18 to 23 months. Light flecks and spots occurred on all examined hides from the infested group after tanning. No examined hides from the control group demonstrated similar damage. Both light microscopic examination of sections of tanned hide with light flecks and spots and scanning electron microscopy of the same defects showed superficial grain loss and craters with a irregular fibre base encircled by smooth and intact grain. The association between louse infestation at an early age and damage of hides following slaughter 6 to 15 months later, suggested that louse infestations lead to a prolonged or lifelong weakening in the dermis. This weakening may cause superficial grain loss during the tanning process.

  8. Human phthiriasis. Can dermoscopy really help dermatologists? Entodermoscopy: a new dermatological discipline on the edge of entomology. (United States)

    Scanni, G


    The diagnosis of human phtiriasis (often referred to as the "crab" or the "pubic louse") can be more difficult than other types of pediculosis (Pediculus corporis and Pediculus capitis) because this insect has a smaller body of 1.2 x 0.8 mm, may be lighter in color, not as mobile and therefore harder to see to the naked eye. Can dermoscopy aid to perform a better analysis of the skin? The clinical experience developed in two patients gives an affirmative answer, moreover adding useful information of insect and its eggs already known to entomologists but never used in dermatological diagnosis. The identification in vivo can distinguish Phthirus pubis from other skin signs while the conical shape of the operculum and the wide fixing sleeve of egg to hair, tells what species of louse is infesting, even if the insect is unavailable or nits are elsewhere from the pubic area. Entodermoscopy, provided that dermatologists have some knowledge of entomology, therefore promises advantages over standard microscopic examination.

  9. Morphology of the Leather Defect Light Flecks and Spots

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    Grønstøl H


    Full Text Available The skin histology and the scanning electron microscope morphology of the hide defect light flecks and spots after tanning were studied in 11 steers infested with biting lice (Damalinia bovis. Nine steers from herds free of lice were used as controls. Skin biopsies from 6 of the animals in the lice infested group showed mild to moderate hyperkeratosis and moderate perivascular to diffuse dermatitis with infiltration of mainly mononuclear cells and some eosinophilic granulocytes. The steers were slaughtered at an age of 18 to 23 months. Light flecks and spots occurred on all examined hides from the infested group after tanning. No examined hides from the control group demonstrated similar damage. Both light microscopic examination of sections of tanned hide with light flecks and spots and scanning electron microscopy of the same defects showed superficial grain loss and craters with a irregular fibre base encircled by smooth and intact grain. The association between louse infestation at an early age and damage of hides following slaughter 6 to 15 months later, suggested that louse infestations lead to a prolonged or lifelong weakening in the dermis. This weakening may cause superficial grain loss during the tanning process.

  10. A Personal View of How Paleomicrobiology Aids Our Understanding of the Role of Lice in Plague Pandemics. (United States)

    Raoult, Didier


    We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages). These controversies led us to evaluate other epidemiological models and to propose the body louse as the vector of this pandemic. This proposal was substantiated by experimental models, the recovery of Y. pestis from lice in the Congo, and the identification of epidemics involving both Y. pestis and Bartonella quintana (the agent of trench fever, transmitted by the body louse) in ancient corpses from mass graves. Paleomicrobiology has led to a re-evaluation of plague pandemics.

  11. Effiacy of citronella and eucalyptus oils against Musca domestica, Cimex lectularius and Pediculus humanus

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    Jehangir Khan


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential impacts of two indigenous plant oils: the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus for their insecticidal effect against Musca domestica (house fly, Cimex lectularius (bed bug and Pediculus humanus (louse. Methods: The oils of these two medicinal plants were applied separately at various concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mL/cup in cups lined with filter paper containing the target insects. Mortality was evaluated after fixed intervals (6, 12 and 24 h subsequent to the release of adult insects. Results: Results showed that both oils exhibited concentration and time dependent mortality against the tested insects. Data pertaining to present investigation clearly showed that percentage mortality owing to these botanicals against these medical pests was significantly high (98.33% at the rate of 3 mL for 24 h of exposure, followed by 2 and 1 mL concentrations with 12 and 6 h of exposure times. Conclusions: The results suggest that these plant oils possess good insecticidal properties against house fly, bed bug, and louse, and are safe to humans. Furthermore, the molecular (biochemical based study of these botanicals against diverse species of pests will be of much significance to control these pest insects.

  12. Arthropod burdens of impalas in the Skukuza region during two droughts in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak


    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks and lice were collected at monthly intervals from March 1980 to February 1981 from impalas of all ages and both sexes in Landscape Zone 4 (Thickets of the Sabie and Crocodile Rivers in the south-west of the Kruger National Park. Similar collections were made from adult animals in extremis in the same landscape zone during October and November of the drought of 1982 as well as from 15 to 22-month-old male impalas examined at monthly intervals from March to October of the drought of 1992. The louse burdens of the adult animals examined during the 1982 drought were significantly greater than those of adult animals examined during the same months of 1980, a year of normal rainfall. The tick burdens were also larger, but not significantly so. The tick and louse burdens of the young impalas examined during the drought of 1992 were significantly smaller than those of animals of the same age examined during 1980.

  13. [Physicians' knowledge in Israel on the biology and control of head lice]. (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Mumcuoglu, Michael; Danilevich, Maria; Gilead, Leon


    Health providers such as physicians, nurses and pharmacists should be knowledgeable about the biology of head lice and the ways to control them effectively, in order to reduce the proportion of children infested with head lice. To evaluate the knowledge of physicians in Israel on the biology and epidemiology of lice, as well as their experience with infested individuals and their preferences for diagnosis, prophylaxis and control. An anonymous questionnaire with 37 questions was used. The first 20 questions addressed the general knowledge of physicians on lice biology and control, while the remaining 17 questions were related to their personal experience with lice and louse treatment. Out of 273 physicians interviewed 66.8% had good knowledge of lice, while the remaining 33.2% had some knowledge on lice. The difference between the groups of physicians with medium and good knowledge on lice was borderline significant (P=0.0722), with the dermatologists borderline significantly less knowledgeable than the rest (P=0.0765). Significant differences were found between those physicians with 4-6 or 11-20 years of professional experience and the remaining groups (twice Pbiology and control was higher than male physicians (39.4% and 29.4%, respectively), the differences were borderline significant (P=0.09). Pediatricians and dermatologists examined significantly more children than family physicians and general practitioners (P control of head louse infestations.

  14. A screening of multiple classes of pharmaceutical compounds for effect on preadult salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis. (United States)

    Aaen, S M; Horsberg, T E


    The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, is the major obstacle facing a sustainable future for farmers of salmonids in the North Atlantic Ocean. Medicinal compounds have been the most utilized tool to prevent salmon lice infestation; however, the active compounds have become less effective or considered environmentally unfriendly in the past years. Novel medicinal compounds are thus highly desired. In two experiment series, 26 medicinal compounds were screened for their efficacy against salmon lice, in a 30-min exposure and 24-h exposure, respectively. Pyriprole, imidacloprid, cartap and spinetoram were effective at 50 mg L(-1) in the short-time exposure. In the 24-h exposure, pyriprole, propoxur, cartap, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, pyriproxyfen, nitenpyram, spinetoram, spiromesifen and diflubenzuron induced a high level of immobilization at 5 mg L(-1) . The EC50 values of the effective compounds were calculated in further titration studies for both exposure periods. Several physiological and biochemical pathways were discovered as possible targets for medicinal intervention against the salmon louse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A


    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  16. Effects of the vertically transmitted microsporidian Facilispora margolisi and the parasiticide emamectin benzoate on salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). (United States)

    Poley, Jordan D; Sutherland, Ben J G; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M


    Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. Vertical transmission of F. margolisi was demonstrated by using PCR and in situ hybridization to identify and localize microsporidia in female L. salmonis and their offspring. Spores and developmental structures of F. margolisi were identified in 77% of F 1 generation copepods derived from infected females while offspring from uninfected females all tested negative for the microsporidia. The transcriptomic response of the salmon louse to F. margolisi was profiled at both the copepodid larval stage and the pre-adult stage using microarray technology. Infected copepodids differentially expressed 577 transcripts related to stress, ATP generation and structural components of muscle and cuticle. The infection also impacted the response of the copepodid to the parasiticide emamectin benzoate (EMB) at a low dose of 1.0 ppb for 24 h. A set of 48 transcripts putatively involved in feeding and host immunomodulation were up to 8-fold underexpressed in the F. margolisi infected copepodids treated with EMB compared with controls or either stressor alone. Additionally, these infected lice treated with EMB also overexpressed 101 transcripts involved in stress resistance and signalling compared to the other groups. In contrast, infected pre-adult lice did not display a stress response, suggesting a decrease in microsporidian virulence associated with lice maturity. Furthermore, copepodid infectivity and moulting was not affected by the microsporidian infection. This study demonstrated that F. margolisi is transmitted vertically between salmon

  17. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes. (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G


    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P rate (90.5 vs. 80.9% in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), a lower (P conception interval was recorded in Group A compared to Group S (118 ± 16 vs. 177 ± 16 d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). In addition to the pour-on treatment against pediculosis, productive and reproductive performance were also improved. This represents a significant improvement in dairy buffalo herd

  18. Inventory of lice of mammals and farmyard chicken in North-eastern Algeria. (United States)

    Meguini, Mohamed Nadir; Righi, Souad; Zeroual, Fayçal; Saidani, Khelaf; Benakhla, Ahmed


    Lice are permanent ectoparasites, extremely specific to their hosts. Their great importance in veterinary medicine remain significant, they can cause their direct pathogenic actions like irritability, dermatitis, anemia, decreased weight gain, and milk production. The purpose of this work was to made the first time an inventory of mammalian lice in North-eastern Algeria. Our survey of lice infestation was conducted on several animal species from five provinces of North-eastern Algeria. A total of 57 cattle, 83 sheep, 77 goats, 111 wild boars, and 63 farmyard chickens were examined. The collection of lice was carried out much more in mammals and chickens during the winter period. Lice were collected either manually or using brushing and kept in flasks containing 70% ethanol. The identification of lice was achieved in the laboratory using a binocular loupe. Concerning cattle, 63% and 27% of those examined subjects from Souk-Ahras and Guelma study areas, respectively, were carriers of lice. Damalinia bovis was the louse most frequently found on cattle in these two regions. Three other species were identified in Souk-Ahras: Haematopinus eurysternus (25%), Linognathus vituli (10%), and Solenopotes capillatus (5%). Regarding sheep, 39% and 24% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were carrying lice. Damalinia ovis was the most frequently encountered lice on sheep in both regions. Linognathus ovillus also was identified in Souk-Ahras, representing 0.3% of the collected lice. Concerning goats, 53% and 30% of examined animals in Souk-Ahras and Guelma, were parasitized of lice. Two species of lice were found: Damalinia caprae and Linognathus africanus . For farmyard chickens, 69% and 100% of the farmyard chicken in Souk-Ahras and Mila were parasitized by lice, respectively. Menopon gallinae was the most frequently encountered louse in farmyard chicken in both regions. Eight other species were identified in Mila and four other species only in Souk-Ahras. Finally, 25

  19. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, E.


    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A....... coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water...... for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters....

  20. Historia del Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rodríguez Gama


    Se encontrarán los lectores con una gran cantidad y calidad de biografías sobre investigaciones, médicos y científicos que han enfrentado el reto de tratar de entender y tratar el lupus, desde los médicos clásicos como Hipócrates, Galeno y Celso, los protodermatólogos Daniel Turner, Jean Astruc, Antoine Lorry y Josef von Plenk; el primer dematológo Robert Willam y médicos de los siglos XVIII y XIX como Thomas Bateman, Jean Lous Alibert, Theódore Biett, Olive Rayer, Pierre Cazenave, Antoine Bazin, Ferdinand von Hebra, Moriz Kaposi, Ernest Besnier, Alfred Fournier, Louis Brocq, Jean Darier, el clasificador Jonathan Hutchinson, Paul Unna, William Osler, Emanuel Libman, George Baehr y así decenas de colosos de la ciencia médica, cuyas historias son descritas minuciosamente por el Dr. Iglesias...

  1. Use of scanning electron microscopy to confirm the identity of lice infesting communally grazed goat herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei


    Full Text Available Lice have been described on goats in commercial farming systems in South Africa but not from flocks on communal grazing. During a longitudinal survey on the causes of goat kid mortality, conducted in Jericho district, North West Province, lice were collected from communally grazed indigenous goats. These lice were prepared for and viewed by scanning electron microscopy, and micromorphological taxonomic details are described. Three species of lice were found in the study area and identified as Bovicola caprae, Bovicola limbatus and Linognathus africanus. Sucking and biting lice were found in ten of the 12 herds of goats examined. Lice were found on both mature goats and kids. Bovicola caprae and L. africanus were the most common biting and sucking lice respectively in all herds examined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed additional features which aided in the identification of the louse species. Photomicrographs were more accurate aids to identification than the line drawings in the literature and facilitated identification using dissecting microscope.

  2. Use of scanning electron microscopy to confirm the identity of lice infesting communally grazed goat herds. (United States)

    Sebei, P J; McCrindle, C M E; Green, E D; Turner, M L


    Lice have been described on goats in commercial farming systems in South Africa but not from flocks on communal grazing. During a longitudinal survey on the causes of goat kid mortality, conducted in Jericho district, North West Province, lice were collected from communally grazed indigenous goats. These lice were prepared for and viewed by scanning electron microscopy, and micro-morphological taxonomic details are described. Three species of lice were found in the study area and identified as Bovicola caprae, Bovicola limbatus and Linognathus africanus. Sucking and biting lice were found in ten of the 12 herds of goats examined. Lice were found on both mature goats and kids. Bovicola caprae and L. africanus were the most common biting and sucking lice respectively in all herds examined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed additional features which aided in the identification of the louse species. Photomicrographs were more accurate aids to identification than the line drawings in the literature and facilitated identification using dissecting microscope.

  3. Embryonic development of human lice: rearing conditions and susceptibility to spinosad

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    Gastón Mougabure Cueto


    Full Text Available The embryonic development of human lice was evaluated according to the changes in the morphology of the embryo observed through the transparent chorion. Based on ocular and appendage development, three stages of embryogenesis were established: early, medium, and late. Influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH on the laboratory rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis eggs was assessed. The optimal ranges for temperature and RH were 27-31°C and 45-75%. The susceptibility of human louse eggs to insecticide spinosad (a macrocyclic lactone was assessed by immersion method. The results showed similar susceptibility to spinosad in early, medium, and late stages of head lice eggs. In addition, this study showed similar susceptibility of head and body lice eggs to spinosad, an insecticide that has not been used as pediculicide in Argentina (lethal concentration 50: 0.01%.

  4. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

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    Durden, L.


    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  5. Associations between chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera and albatrosses and petrels (Aves, Procellariiformes collected in Brazil Associações entre malófagos (Insecta, Phthiraptera e albatrozes e petréis (Aves, Procellariiformes capturados no Brasil

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    Michel P. Valim


    Full Text Available Chewing lice were searched on 197 skins of 28 species of procellariiform birds collected in Brazil. A total of 38 species of lice were found on 112 skins belonging to 22 bird species. The lice were slide-mounted and identified. A list of lice species found and their host species is given and some host-louse associations are discussed under an evolutionary perspective.Malófagos foram procurados em 197 peles de 28 espécies de aves Procellariiformes capturadas no Brasil. Um total de 38 espécies de piolhos foram encontradas em 112 peles pertencentes a 22 espécies de aves. Os piolhos foram montados em lâminas e identificados. Uma lista com as espécies de piolhos encontradas e seus hospedeiros é dada, além de algumas associações entre os piolhos e as aves serem discutidas sob uma perspectiva evolutiva.

  6. [Refugees at Malmö Epidemic Hospital in 1945]. (United States)

    Cronberg, S


    In 1945, 423 refugees were admitted because of contagious disease at Malmö Epidemic Hospital. Of these refugees 159 men and 167 women arrived from the German concentration camps in Ravensbrück, Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, Neuengamme and others. Others arrived in a boat destined to be sunk when peace came and the crew changed mind, letting the boat board at Malmö harbour. Thus life was saved to more than 95% of its passengers. Of the refugees 31% came from Poland, 24% from Scandinavian countries, 12% from Benelux and 10% from France. Louse-borne typhus was the most frequent diagnosis that occurred in 35%. Other common disorders were diphtheria, scarlet fever, enteric fever and tuberculosis. Almost all prisoners from concentration camps were malnourished and had sustained severe cruelty. Most of them recovered rapidly when given food and vitamins.

  7. [Sense and nonsense of exposure prophylaxis in communal club installations for children and adolescents -- a contribution to the implementation of the German Defence Against Infection law from a point of view of preventive paediatrics]. (United States)

    Knuf, M; Kowalzik, F; Forssbohm, M; Kampmann, C; Habermehl, P


    The protection against infections in facilities of the community for infants and children, such as kindergarten, schools and training centres, results first of all from the vaccination practice and hygiene practices. Pertussis, varicella and tuberculosis are examples for this. In some cases the transient avoidance of contacts and the intensified integration of the parents could contribute to the prevention of an infection, e. g. strepptococcus A infections and head louses. The consequential realization of the recommendation of the STIKO (expert panel for vaccination guidelines; is one of the main pillars of protection by vaccination. Vaccine coverage may also be improved by including these paragraphs in the statutes of day nurseries. Before integration of children into such facilities it should be necessary to verify that there are no doubts about the health conditions. This could be confirmed by presenting the vaccination or check-up card.

  8. First insights in the variability of Borrelia recurrentis genomes.

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    Durdica Marosevic


    Full Text Available Borrelia recurrentis is the causative agent of louse-borne relapsing fever, endemic to the Horn of Africa. New attention was raised in Europe, with the highest number of cases (n = 45 reported among migrants in 2015 in Germany and sporadically from other European countries. So far only one genome was sequenced, hindering the development of specific molecular diagnostic and typing tools. Here we report on modified culture conditions for B. recurrentis and the intraspecies genome variability of six isolates isolated and cultured in different years in order to explore the possibility to identify new targets for typing and examine the molecular epidemiology of the pathogen.Two historical isolates from Ethiopia and four isolates from migrants from Somalia (n = 3 and Ethiopia (n = 1 obtained in 2015 were cultured in MPK-medium supplemented with 50% foetal calf serum. Whole DNA was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology and analysed using the CLC Genomics Workbench and SPAdes de novo assembler. Compared to the reference B. recurrentis A1 29-38 SNPs were identified in the genome distributed on the chromosome and plasmids. In addition to that, plasmids of differing length, compared to the available reference genome were identified.The observed low genetic variability of B. recurrentis isolates is possibly due to the adaptation to a very conserved vector-host (louse-human cycle, or influenced by the fastidious nature of the pathogen and their resistance to in vitro growth. Nevertheless, isolates obtained in 2015 were bearing the same chromosomal SNPs and could be distinguished from the historical isolates by means of whole genome sequencing, but not hitherto used typing methods. This is the first study examining the molecular epidemiology of B. recurrentis and provides the necessary background for the development of better diagnostic tools.

  9. Ecto- and endoparasites in remaining population of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758 in east Bohemia

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    Vladimír Bádr


    Full Text Available An investigation of ecto- and endoparasites of wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (L., 1758 was made during February and March 2004. Together five species of ectoparasites and seven species of endopara- sites was found in five specimens of host. Ectoparasites: acarids Leporacarus gibbus (Pagenstecher, 1862, Psoroptes cuniculi (Delafond, 1859, and Cheyletiella parasitivorax (Mégnin, 1878, flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale, 1878, and louse Haemodipsus ventricosus (Denny, 1842. Except of petechial haemorrhagies inside both earlobes of one rabbit neither hyperkeratosis nor scale with any degrees of hairlessness were detected. Higher incidence of flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi could be important for spreading of myxomatosis. In one rabbit abnormal damage of incisivi was found, which caused the highest documented incidence of acarids Cheyletiella parasitivorax (485 ex., fleas Spilopsyllus cuniculi (65 ex., and especially enormous amount of louse Haemodipsus ventricosus (1840 ex. This finding establish close relation between prevalence and counts of ectoparasites with health of host, because popu- lation of ectoparasites from different taxonomic groups are principally affected by effective hostęs cleanup. Handicapped hosts are not able to make clarify as effective as the healthy ones. Endoparasites: tapeworm Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 – larvae, nematods Passalurus ambiguus (Rudolphi, 1819 Rudolphi, 1845; Graphidium strigosum (Dujardin, 1845 Railliet and Henry, 1909, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis (Zeder, 1800 Loos, 1905 and protozoa Eimeria piriformis Kotlan & Pospesch, 1934; E. media Kessel, 1929, and E. perforans (Leuckart, 1879 Sluiter & Swellengrebel, 1912. All endoparasites were found in very low or middle intensity, which does not seem to be main cause of decreasing number of wild rabbits in monitored areas.

  10. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon. (United States)

    de Barros Lopes, Lívia; Guterres, Alexandro; Rozental, Tatiana; Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Fernandes, Jorlan; Figueredo, José Ferreira; Anschau, Inês; de Jesus, Sebastião; V Almeida, Ana Beatriz M; Cristina da Silva, Valéria; Gomes de Melo Via, Alba Valéria; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba Regina


    The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations.

  11. Evidence that head and body lice on homeless persons have the same genotype.

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    Aurélie Veracx

    Full Text Available Human head lice and body lice are morphologically and biologically similar but have distinct ecologies. They were shown to have almost the same basic genetic content (one gene is absent in head lice, but differentially express certain genes, presumably responsible for the vector competence. They are now believed to be ecotypes of the same species (Pediculus humanus and based on mitochondrial studies, body lice have been included with head lice in one of three clades of human head lice (Clade A. Here, we tested whether head and body lice collected from the same host belong to the same population by examining highly polymorphic intergenic spacers. This study was performed on lice collected from five homeless persons living in the same shelter in which Clade A lice are prevalent. Lice were individually genotyped at four spacer loci. The genetic identity and diversity of lice from head and body populations were compared for each homeless person. Population genetic structure was tested between lice from the two body regions and between the lice from different host individuals.We found two pairs of head and body lice on the same homeless person with identical multi locus genotypes. No difference in genetic diversity was found between head and body louse populations and no evidence of significant structure between the louse populations was found, even after controlling for a possible effect of the host individual. More surprisingly, no structure was obvious between lice of different homeless persons.We believe that the head and body lice collected from our five subjects belong to the same population and are shared between people living in the same shelter. These findings confirm that head and body lice are two ecotypes of the same species and show the importance of implementing measures to prevent lice transmission between homeless people in shelters.

  12. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp. (United States)

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard


    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  13. Exocrine glands of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae): Distribution, developmental appearance, and site of secretion. (United States)

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Hamre, Lars A; Harasimczuk, Ewa; Dalvin, Sussie; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre


    Exocrine glands of blood-feeding parasitic copepods are believed to be important in host immune response modulation and inhibition of host blood coagulation, but also in the production of substances for integument lubrication and antifouling. In this study, we aimed to characterize the distribution of different types of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) exocrine glands and their site of secretion. The developmental appearance of each gland type was mapped and genes specifically expressed by glands were identified. Three types of tegumental (teg 1-3) glands and one labial gland type were found. The first glands to appear during development were teg 1 and teg 2 glands. They have ducts extending both dorsally and ventrally suggested to be important in lubricating the integument. Teg 1 glands were found to express two astacin metallopeptidases and a gene with fibronectin II domains, while teg 2 glands express a heme peroxidase. The labial glands were first identified in planktonic copepodids, with reservoirs that allows for storage of glandular products. The last gland type to appear during development was named teg 3 and was not seen before the preadult I stage when the lice become more virulent. Teg 3 glands have ducts ending ventrally at the host-parasite contact area, and may secrete substances important for the salmon lice virulence. Salmon lice teg 3 and labial glands are thus likely to be especially important in the host-parasite interaction. Proteins secreted from the salmon louse glands to its salmonid host skin or blood represents a potential interface where the host immune system can meet and elicit effective responses to sea lice antigens. The present study thus represents a fundamental basis for further functional studies and identification of possible vaccine candidates. J. Morphol. 277:1616-1630, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hippobosca longipennis - a potential intermediate host of a species of Acanthocheilonema in dogs in northern India

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    Irwin Peter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippobosca longipennis (the 'dog louse fly' is a blood sucking ectoparasite found on wild carnivores such as cheetahs and lions and domesticated and feral dogs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, including China. Known as an intermediate host for Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and a transport host for Cheyletiella yasguri, it has also been suggested that H. longipennis may be a vector for other pathogens, including Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov., which was recently reported to infect up to 48% of dogs in northern India where this species of fly is known to commonly infest dogs. To test this hypothesis, hippoboscid flies feeding on dogs in Ladakh in northern India were collected and subjected to microscopic dissection. Results A total of 12 infective larvae were found in 10 out of 65 flies dissected; 9 from the head, 2 from the thorax and 1 from the abdomen. The larvae averaged 2, 900 (± 60 μm in length and 34 (± 5 μm in width and possessed morphological features characteristic of the family Onchocercidae. Genetic analysis and comparison of the 18S, ITS-2, 12S and cox-1 genes confirmed the identity of the larvae as the Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. reported in dogs in Ladakh. Conclusion This study provides evidence for a potential intermediate host-parasite relationship between H. longipennis and the canine Acanthocheilonema sp.? nov. in northern India.

  15. Birth defects and aplastic anemia: differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon toxicity associated with the Ah locus. [Mice

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    Nebert, D.W.; Levitt, R.C.; Jensen, N.M.; Lambert, G.H.; Felton, J.S.


    The balance between cytochrome(s) P/sub 1/-450 and other forms of P-450 in the liver, and probably many nonhepatic tissues as well, appears to be important in the toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity of numerous compounds. Thus, allelic differences in a single gene--the Ah locus-- can have profound effects on the susceptibility of mice to drug toxicity and cancer. There is evidence for the Ah lous in the human. Striking increases in the incidence of stillborns, reorptions,and malformations caused by 3-methylcholanthrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were observed in the aromatic hydrocarbon responsive C57BL/6N,C3H/HeN, and BALB/cAnN inbred strains, compared with the genetically nonresponsive AKR/N. These data suggest that an association exists between the Ah locus and teratogenesis. Although numerous teratogenic differences among inbred mouse strains have been previously reported, this study is unique in that the genetic differences in teratogenicity observed were predicted in advance, on the basis of known differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon metabolism regulated by the Ah locus.

  16. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice. (United States)

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H


    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system.

  17. Pediculosis capitis among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran. (United States)

    Tappeh, K Hazrati; Chavshin, Ar; Hajipirloo, H Mohammadzadeh; Khashaveh, S; Hanifian, H; Bozorgomid, A; Mohammadi, M; Gharabag, D Jabbari; Azizi, H


    Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psychological effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010. 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls) were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive. Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test. Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suitable warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys) are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups. There was no significant relation between parent's education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation. The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school children.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem.

  18. Impact of chronic, low-level ionising radiation exposure on terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingston, J.; Wood, M.D.; Copplestone, D.; Zinger, I. [Liverpool Univ., School of Biological Sciences, Merseyside (United Kingdom)


    There is a need to confirm that the environment is being adequately protected from the mixture of contaminants released into it. In the field of environmental radioactivity, tools have been developed to assess the impacts of ionising radiation on wildlife. The scientific data upon which these assessments are based is, however, lacking. New documentation has been produced by the UK Environment Agency to provide guidelines on structuring experiments (using environmentally relevant doses) and select suitable non-human species and endpoints for study. It is anticipated that this documentation will be used to direct future experiments in this field. This paper presents the results of the first of these experiments. Numbers of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the wood louse Porcellio scaber were segregated and constantly exposed to one of six radiation doses (background, 0.1, 0.4, 1.5, 4.0 and 8.0 mGyh{sup -1}) for a total of 16 and 14 weeks respectively. The endpoints of mortality, number of viable offspring and average weight of an individual were recorded and the results of this study will be discussed here. (author)

  19. Food selectivity of perch (Perca fluviatilis L. ) in acidified lakes on the west coast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B


    The objective of the present paper was to examine presumed changes in the food composition of perch in lakes subjected to recent acidification, which emanates from sulfuric acid in the precipitation. The material analyzed (825 preserved specimens from 49 different lakes) was collected by the Fishery Board. These lakes represent a great variability in terms of pH. The perch were divided into four size groups and the stomach contents of each specimen was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicate that fish, which make up the bulk of food for adult perch, are replaced by various invertebrates at a decreasing pH. With a moderate decrease the water hog-louse (Asellus aquaticus) appears of major importance, whereas its place is taken by Corixa bugs in the most acidified lakes. These latter invertebrates are normally absent in the food of adult perch. Also, plankton accounts for a substantial share of the stomach contents. The reasons for these changes are manifold, but two factors are primarily discussed in this paper, viz. the effect of the acidification on the prey populations and the elimination of certain species by selective predation in a normal lake.

  20. Wild Rodent Ectoparasites Collected from Northwestern Iran

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    Zabihollah Zarei


    Full Text Available Background: Rodents play an important role as reservoir of some pathogens, and the host of some ectoparasites as well. These ectoparasites can transmit rodents’ pathogens to human or animals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and infestation load of ectoparasites on rodents in Meshkin-Shahr District, northwestern Iran.Method: Rodents were captured using baited live traps in spring 2014 from Meshkin-Shahr District and were trans­ferred to the laboratory for identification to the species level. Their ectoparasites were collected, mounted and identi­fied.Results: Three rodent species including Meriones persicus (74%, Mus musculus (16.9% and Cricetulus migrato­rius (9% were identified. Among all rodents, 185 specimens (90.69% were infested with a total of 521 ectopara­sites. Overall, 10 arthropods species were collected, including fleas (97.6%, one mite (1.6% and one louse species (0.6% as follows: Xenopsylla nubica, X. astia, X. buxtoni, X. cheopis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, N. iranus, Cten­ocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus rettigismiti, Ornithonyssus sp and one species of genus Polyplax. The most prev­alent ectoparasites species was X. nubica (89%.Conclusion: Nearly all rodent species were infested with Xenopsylla species. Monitoring of ectoparasites on infested rodents is very important for awareness and early warning towards control of arthropod-borne diseases.

  1. Extraction of allyl isothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and its fumigant insecticidal activity on four stored-product pests of paddy. (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Guo-An; Zeng, Shuiyun; Lin, Kai-chun


    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from Armoracia rusticana Gaertn., May & Scherb. have been shown previously to have insecticidal activity. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a major component of ITCs with high volatility, was therefore extracted using different methods and tested as a fumigant against four major pest species of stored products, maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica (F.), Tribolium ferrugineum (F.) and book louse Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein). Whereas there was no significant difference between hydrodistillation and supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction in extraction rate for AITC from A. rusticana, both methods resulted in higher extraction efficiency than water extraction. AITC fumigation showed strong toxicity to the four species of stored-product pests. Adult mortality of 100% of all four pest species, recorded after 72 h exposure to AITC fumes at an atmospheric concentration of 3 microg mL(-1), showed no significant difference from that of insects exposed to phosphine at 5 microg mL(-1), the recommended dose for phosphine. The results suggest good insecticidal efficacy of AITC against the four stored-product pests, with non-gaseous residuals on stored products. AITC obtained from A. rusticana may be an alternative to phosphine and methyl bromide against the four pest species. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Bartonellosis. II. Other Bartonella responsible for human diseases]. (United States)

    Piémont, Y; Heller, R


    In addition to Bartonella henselae, five other Bartonella species were involved in human pathology. As for B. henselae, ectoparasites seem to be responsible for the transmission of most or all these bacterial species. B. bacilliformis is responsible for Carrion's disease that occurs in some valleys of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. This disease is transmitted by biting of infected sandflies. The bacterial reservoir is constituted by humans only. That disease occurs either as an acute form with severe infectious hemolytic anemia (or Oroya fever), or as benign cutaneous tumors, also called verruga peruana. Healthy blood carriers of the bacterium exist. Trench fever was described during the First World War. This non-lethal disease is constituted of recurrent febrile attacks associated particularly with osseous pains. The causative agent of the disease is B. quintana, transmitted by the body louse. Humans seem to be the reservoir of that bacterium. In some patients, B. quintana can be responsible for endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis and chronic or recurrent bacteremia. Other human infections due to Bartonella sp. have been described: B. vinsonii, isolated from blood of small rodents, and B. elizabethae, the reservoir of which is currently unknown, can be responsible for endocardites. B. clarridgeiae (isolated from blood of 5% of pet cats and 17% of stray cats) may be responsible for human cat scratch disease. All these bartonelloses are diagnosed by non-standard blood culture or by in vitro DNA amplification or by serological testing. Their treatment requires tetracyclines or chloramphenicol or macrolides.

  3. Characterisation of silent and active genes for a variable large protein of Borrelia recurrentis

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    Scragg Ian G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the characterisation of the variable large protein (vlp gene expressed by clinical isolate A1 of Borrelia recurrentis; the agent of the life-threatening disease louse-borne relapsing fever. Methods The major vlp protein of this isolate was characterised and a DNA probe created. Use of this together with standard molecular methods was used to determine the location of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene in both this and other isolates. Results This isolate was found to carry silent and expressed copies of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene on plasmids of 54 kbp and 24 kbp respectively, whereas a different isolate, A17, had only the silent vlp1B. recurrentis A17 on a 54 kbp plasmid. Silent and expressed vlp1 have identical mature protein coding regions but have different 5' regions, both containing different potential lipoprotein leader sequences. Only one form of vlp1 is transcribed in the A1 isolate of B. recurrentis, yet both 5' upstream sequences of this vlp1 gene possess features of bacterial promoters. Conclusion Taken together these results suggest that antigenic variation in B. recurrentis may result from recombination of variable large and small protein genes at the junction between lipoprotein leader sequence and mature protein coding region. However, this hypothetical model needs to be validated by further identification of expressed and silent variant protein genes in other B. recurrentis isolates.

  4. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation. (United States)

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C


    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts. (United States)

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A


    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB.

  6. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites. (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G


    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

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    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  8. A Study of Fish Lice (Argulus Sp. Infection in Freshwater Food Fish

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    Aalberg K.


    Full Text Available Argulus sp., commonly referred to as fish lice, are crustacean ectoparasites of fishes. The hematophagous parasites attach to and feed off the integument of their hosts. Outbreaks of epizootics have been reported worldwide, causing mass mortalities and having serious economic implications for fish farms and culture efforts. Argulus fish lice may also serve as vectors of infectious diseases and as intermediate hosts of other parasites. Two native European species, A. foliaceus and A. coregoni, as well as the invasive Japanese fish louse A. japonicus, have previously been recorded in Slovakia. This study investigated samples collected at fish farms and culture sites of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Pike-perch (Sander lucioperca L. and Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis M. in Eastern Slovakia, as well as samples collected from live fish imported to the Slovak Republic. A quantitative description of the of Argulus sp. was recorded from each locality. Samples from Common carp were identified as the invasive A. japonicus, and samples from Pike-perch and Brook trout were identified as A. foliaceus. Evidence of a mixed infection of Pike-perch with both A. foliaceus and A. japonicus was found in samples from Zemplínska Šírava, which was substantiated by electron microscopic examination. Morphometric characteristics were measured and averages and ranges produced for each species and sex.

  9. Pacific and Atlantic Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838) are allopatric subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subspecies novo. (United States)

    Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Torrissen, Ole; Glover, Kevin Alan


    The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a parasitic copepod that infects salmonids in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although considered as a single species, morphological and biological differences have been reported between lice from the two oceans. Likewise, studies based on nucleotide sequencing have demonstrated that sequence differences between Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis are highly significant, albeit smaller than the divergence observed between congeneric copepod species. We demonstrated reproductive compatibility between L. salmonis from the two oceans and successfully established F2 hybrid strains using separate maternal lines from both the Pacific and Atlantic. The infection success for the F2 hybrid strains were similar to results typically observed for non hybrid lice strains in the rearing facility used. Lepeophtheirus salmonis COI and 16S sequences divergence between individuals from the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans was high compared to what may be expected within a copepod species and phylogenetic analysis showed that they consistently formed monophyletic clades representing their origin from the Pacific or Atlantic oceans. Lepeophtheirus salmonis from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans are reproductively compatible at least until adults at the F2 hybrid stage, and should not be regarded as separate species based on reproductive segregation or sequence divergence levels. Reported biological and genetic differences in L. salmonis seen in conjunction with the reported genetic diversity commonly observed between and within species demonstrate that Atlantic and Pacific L. salmonis should be regarded as two subspecies: Lepeophtheirus salmonis salmonis and L. salmonis oncorhynchi subsp. nov.

  10. [Little known activity of the Czestochowa typhus Institute in 1943 and 1944]. (United States)

    Aramowicz, P; Fijałek, J; Lutrzykowski, A


    In 1921 Prof. Rudolf Weigl started manufacturing on an industrial scale a typhus vaccine. Until the beginning of World War Two he organised five companies called Weigl Institute. During the Soviet occupation the Lvov plant became the Lvov Sanitary and Bacteriological Institute and after the town was taken over by the German Army on 1st July 1941, Prof. Weigl became a head of research of the Military Typhus Institute. It consisted of four sections for manufacturing the vaccine. All the produce was mainly despatched to the Russian front and only very little reached the civilians. In November and December 1943 the plant was moved to Czestochowa into a main building in Wilsona str. and two four storey others in Jasnogórska str. Its head became a German doctor Mozer (witness test). It is difficult to state numbers the plant employed there being no data left but according to employees still alive there must have been about a hundred lab. staff and two hundred feeders. The plant was divided into "breeding", "preparatory" and "liofilisation" sections. "The breeding" was for feeders and breeding lice. Cages containing about 30,000 lice were fastened to voluntary feeders for each feeding. Next "loaders" covered a so-called key board with 20 insects and infectors introduced and pressurised solution containing live rickets into a louse intestine. After a six or seven day passage, lice ware dried and their intestines prepared to produce liofilizeate all the staff and their families were inoculated. ...


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    Achmad Saim


    Full Text Available A total of 1712 specimens (17 species of parasites were found on 25 specimens (six species small mammals in Tesso-Nilo areas, Riau Province, i.e.: two Amblyomma testudinarium on Maxomys surifer, eight Dermacentor spp. on Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, Sundomys muelleri, three Haemaphysalis sp on Tupaia glis, two Ixodes sp on Maxomys surifer, 81 Demodex sp on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, 42 Echinolaelaps echidninus on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, 1.430 Laelaps spp (two species on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, S. muelleri, 131  specimens (two species trombiculids on Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, S. muelleri, T. glis, one louse of Polyplax sp. on Maxomys surifer, four fleas (two Ceratophyllus sp on T. glis and Xenopsylla cheopis on Maxomys whiteheadi; two batflies of Nycteribiidae on Balionycteris maculata, two Hydatigera taeniaeformis in Maxomys rajah, two Hymenolepis sp on S. muelleri, and two Moniliformis sp in Maxomys rajah. It was found that  25 hosts were infected out of 26 collected hosts (96.15%, the pattern of endo and ectoparasites were 1-5 species ectoparasites or 1-2 species endoparasites in each host, while Shannon Wiener Index was 1.92 for ectoparasites and 1.58 for endoparasites. Other hosts, distribution and  potency in ecosystem of each species were discussed.  Keywords: Acarina, Insecta, Helminthes, Rodentia, Scandentia, Chiroptera, Parasites.

  12. Ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi modifies the lactate response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). (United States)

    Vargas-Chacoff, L; Muñoz, J L P; Hawes, C; Oyarzún, R; Pontigo, J P; Saravia, J; González, M P; Mardones, O; Labbé, B S; Morera, F J; Bertrán, C; Pino, J; Wadsworth, S; Yáñez, A


    Although Caligus rogercresseyi negatively impacts Chilean salmon farming, the metabolic effects of infection by this sea louse have never been completely characterized. Therefore, this study analyzed lactate responses in the plasma, as well as the liver/muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and gene expression, in Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus kisutch infested by C. rogercresseyi. The lactate responses of Atlantic and Coho salmon were modified by the ectoparasite. Both salmon species showed increasing in plasma levels, whereas enzymatic activity increased in the muscle but decreased in the liver. Gene expression was overexpressed in both Coho salmon tissues but only in the liver for Atlantic salmon. These results suggest that salmonids need more energy to adapt to infection, resulting in increased gene expression, plasma levels, and enzyme activity in the muscles. The responses differed between both salmon species and over the course of infection, suggesting potential species-specific responses to sea-lice infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D


    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  14. Rickettsioses in Europe. (United States)

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A


    Bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia (family rickettsiaceae, order rickettsiales) cause rickettsioses worldwide, and are transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites. In Europe, only Rickettsia spp. cause rickettsioses. With improvement of hygiene, the risk of louse-borne rickettsiosis (epidemic typhus) is low in Europe. Nevertheless, recrudescent form of Rickettsia prowazekii infection persists. There could be an epidemic typhus outbreak if a body lice epidemic occurs under unfavorable sanitary conditions. In Europe, endemic typhus or Rickettsia typhi infection, transmitted by rats and fleas, causes febrile illness. At the beginning of this century, flea-borne spotted fever cases caused by Rickettsia felis were diagnosed. Flea-borne rickettsiosis should be suspected after flea bites if fever, with or without rash, is developed. Tick-borne rickettsioses are the main source of rickettsia infections in Europe. Apart from Rickettsia conorii, the Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) agent, other Rickettsia spp. cause MSF-like: Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia aeschlimannii. In the 1990s, two 'new' rickettsioses were diagnosed: Lymphangitis Associated Rickettsiosis (LAR) caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Tick-Borne Lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-Borne-Necrosis-Erythema-Lymphadenopathy/Scalp Eschar Neck Lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA/DEBONEL/SENLAT), caused by Rickettsia slovaca, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja and Rickettsia raoultii. Lastly, European reports about mite-borne rickettsiosis are scarce. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

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    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  16. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

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    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen


    Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL−1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  17. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey. (United States)

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y


    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The influence of insecticide exposure and environmental stimuli on the movement behaviour and dispersal of a freshwater isopod. (United States)

    Augusiak, Jacqueline; Van den Brink, Paul J


    Behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes and can be very sensitive towards environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. As such, behavioural indicators of toxicity are well suited for assessing impacts of pesticides at sublethal concentrations found in the environment. Recent developments in video-tracking technologies offer the possibility of quantifying behavioural patterns, particularly locomotion, which in general has not been studied and understood very well for aquatic macroinvertebrates to date. In this study, we aim to determine the potential effects of exposure to two neurotoxic pesticides with different modes of action at different concentrations (chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid) on the locomotion behaviour of the water louse Asellus aquaticus. We compare the effects of the different exposure regimes on the behaviour of Asellus with the effects that the presence of food and shelter exhibit to estimate the ecological relevance of behavioural changes. We found that sublethal pesticide exposure reduced dispersal distances compared to controls, whereby exposure to chlorpyrifos affected not only animal activity but also step lengths while imidacloprid only slightly affected step lengths. The presence of natural cues such as food or shelter induced only minor changes in behaviour, which hardly translated to changes in dispersal potential. These findings illustrate that behaviour can serve as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity assessments. However, under natural conditions, depending on the exposure concentration, the actual impacts might be outweighed by environmental conditions that an organism is subjected to. It is, therefore, of importance that the assessment of toxicity on behaviour is done under relevant environmental conditions.

  19. γ radiation induced changes in the bioadhesion properties of Ca-alginate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste


    The need for controlled release of drugs and their administration in specific zone of the organism asks for developing of carriers of drugs who will do the job. The two greatest needs, controlled release, and attention on the site, organ, of the organism that's treated its bioadhesion is best done with polymer gels. From the many choices of polymer gels, ether synthetic or natural the Na-alginate gels are the best suited because of their easy of access and good controlled release as being nontoxic to the living organisms and showing promising bioadhesion capability. Because of that examining the possibility for modification of the bioadhesion properties with gamma radiation is of interest. In this work Ca-alginate gels are irradiated with different absorbed doses to see if there will be any changes of the bioadhesion properties. For this mechanical compressibility tests and bioadhesion pull test are conducted on the irradiated samples. The results show that under irradiation gels louse their structural integrity becoming softer but the bioadhesive properties increase. But this increase is very small of up to 20% and its of no interest in practical circumstances where the practice is interested in changes of at least 100% and up, so changing the doses and properties of the gels to increase the bioadhesive properties might be of further interest. (Author)

  20. Plastik nonwoven sebagai pengemas bahan makanan yang bersifat breathable

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    Penny Setyowati


    Full Text Available Abstract Nonwoven plastic is a new material for packaging that has some special quality among the other things such as flexible, higher strength, hydrophob, breathable and hygienes. The technology of nonwoven plastic is spunbond technolog which is a clean technology and produce a non fibre product. The raw material of nonwoven plastic is food grade polypropylene, so that the products are safe for food packaging. Recently just pioneered of nonwoven plastic application as innerliner of plastic sack that can replace “karung goni”as rice packaging and replace cotton sack as meal or flour packaging. Therefore grains that have not been prepared yet, respiration activity is very important to be breathable characteristic of nonwoven plastic is able to support air circulation very well and also to keep humidity balance in the packaging. At the flour packaging, beside hydrophob characteristic, however breathable characteristic is necessary too because flour has a tendency to absorb water and flour stability must be kept at 13.5 – 14% moisture content. The first experiment was taken by PT. Boma Internusa concerning with rice storage that use nonwoven plastic packaging as innerliner of plastic sack during 2 months, and analysis showed that the rice did not smell, louse unfolding was decrease 9fumigation cost was low, yellow grains and broken grains were decrease and did not occur any change of color. In the experiment of flour storage during 3 months gave an analysis that flour wsa still having good condition and fulfilled the standard trade

  1. Synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with ivermectin to kill body lice. (United States)

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Rolain, Jean Marc; Gaudart, Jean; Weber, Pascal; Raoult, Didier


    Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and spectral deconvolution were performed to evaluate bacterial transcriptional activity following antibiotic intake by the lice. In the first series, a lethal effect of antibiotics on lice was observed compared with the control group at 18 days (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)), with a significant difference between groups in the production of nits (P=0.019, Kruskal-Wallis test). A high lethal effect of ivermectin alone (50ng/mL) was observed compared with the control group (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)). Fluorescence of bacteriocytes in lice treated with 20μg/mL doxycycline was lower than in untreated lice (PKruskal-Wallis test). In the second series with antibiotic-ivermectin combinations, a synergistic lethal effect on treated lice (log-rank test, PKruskal-Wallis test). Additionally, survival of lice in the combination treatment groups compared with ivermectin alone was significant (log-rank test, P=0.0008). These data demonstrate that the synergistic effect of combinations of antibiotics and ivermectin could be used to achieve complete eradication of lice and to avoid selection of a resistant louse population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Haemoprotozoa: Making biological sense of molecular phylogenies

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    Peter O'Donoghue


    Full Text Available A range of protistan parasites occur in the blood of vertebrates and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Some 48 genera are recognized in bood primarily on the basis of parasite morphology and host specificity; including extracellular kinetoplastids (trypanosomatids and intracellular apicomplexa (haemogregarines, haemococcidia, haemosporidia and piroplasms. Gene sequences are available for a growing number of species and molecular phylogenies often link parasite and host or vector evolution. This review endeavours to reconcile molecular clades with biological characters. Four major trypanosomatid clades have been associated with site of development in the vector: salivarian or stercorarian for Trypanosoma, and supra- or peri-pylorian for Leishmania. Four haemogregarine clades have been associated with acarine vectors (Hepatozoon A and B, Karyolysus, Hemolivia and another two with leeches (Dactylosoma, Haemogregarina sensu stricto. Two haemococcidian clades (Lankesterella, Schellackia using leeches and mosquitoes (as paratenic hosts! were paraphyletic with monoxenous enteric coccidia. Two major haemosporidian clades have been associated with mosquito vectors (Plasmodium from mammals, Plasmodium from birds and lizards, two with midges (Hepatocystis from bats, Parahaemoproteus from birds and two with louse-flies and black-flies (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon from birds. Three major piroplasm clades were recognized: one associated with transovarian transmission in ticks (Babesia sensu stricto; one with pre-erythrocytic schizogony in vertebrates (Theileria/Cytauxzoon; and one with neither (Babesia sensu lato. Broad comparative studies with allied groups suggest that trypanosomatids and haemogregarines evolved first in aquatic and then terrestrial environments, as evidenced by extant lineages in invertebrates and their radiation in vertebrates. In contrast, haemosporidia and haemococcidia are thought to have evolved first in

  3. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.


    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  4. Holding tight on feathers - structural specializations and attachment properties of the avian ectoparasite Crataerina pallida (Diptera, Hippoboscidae). (United States)

    Petersen, Dennis S; Kreuter, Nils; Heepe, Lars; Büsse, Sebastian; Wellbrock, Arndt H J; Witte, Klaudia; Gorb, Stanislav N


    The louse fly Crataerina pallida is an obligate blood-sucking ecto-parasite of the common swift Apus apus Due to reduction of the wings, C. pallida is unable to fly, thus an effective and reliable attachment to their host's plumage is of outmost importance. Its attachment system shows several modifications in comparison to other calyptrate flies. The most prominent ones are the large tridentate claws and the dichotomously shaped setae located on the pulvilli. Based on data from morphological analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy and traction force experiments, performed on native (feathers) as well as artificial substrates (glass, epoxy-resin and silicone rubber), we showed that the entire attachment system is highly adapted to the fly's lifestyle as an ectoparasite. The claws in particular are the main contributor to strong attachment to the host. Resulting attachment forces on feathers make it impossible to detach C. pallida without damage of feathers or legs of the fly itself. Well-developed pulvilli are responsible for the attachment to smooth surfaces. Both dichotomously shaped setae and high setal density explain high safety factors observed on smooth substrates. For the first time, we demonstrated a material gradient within the setae with soft, resilin dominated apical tips and stiff, more sclerotized bases in Diptera. The empodium seems not to be directly involved in the attachment process, but it might operate as a cleaning device and may be essential to maintain the functionality of the entire attachment system. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Pediculosis capitis Among Primary School Children and Related Risk Factors in Urmia, the Main City of West Azarbaijan, Iran

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    K Hazrati Tappeh


    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is cosmopolitan health problem. In addition to its physical problems, its psycho­logical effects especially on pupils are more important. This study was conducted to determine the Pediculosis capitis among primary school pupils and also find out the role of probable related risk factors in Urmia city, Iran 2010.Methods: 35 primary schools of Urmia City according to the defined clusters randomly have been selected during 2010. 2040 pupils (866 boys and 1174 girls were included and examined individually and privately by experts. Presence of adult or immature lice or having nits less than 1 cm from the hair basis were defined as positive.Data about demographic features and factors which their effect should be determined were recorded in standard questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS software with proper statistical test.Results: Infestation was determined around 4%. Girls show significantly greater infestation. The availability of suit­able warm water for bathing and hair length (separately in girls and boys are significantly related to infestation load as well as infestation among different age groups.There was no significant relation between parent’s education and job and infestation as well as bathing repetition per week and the kind of energy source which they have. Also there is no significant correlation between educational grades and head lice infestation.Conclusion: The head louse pediculosis is a health problem and remains a health threatening for school chil­dren.Effective risk factors should be determined carefully and regionally. Proper training plays a great role in order to prevent and control the problem

  6. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons. (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C


    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne African relapsing fevers: latest developments

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    Aurélien eFotso Fotso


    Full Text Available In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured B. crocidurae, B. duttonii and B. hispanica circulate alongside at least six species which have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualised using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright-Giemsa or acridine orange stains.. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: Multispacer Sequence Typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorised pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against Borrelia crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper

  8. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans? (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja


    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible.

  9. Review of forensically important entomological specimens in the period of 1972 - 2002. (United States)

    Lee, H L; Krishnasamy, M; Abdullah, A G; Jeffery, J


    Forensic entomological specimens received by the Unit of Medical Entomology, IMR., from hospitals and the police in Malaysia in the last 3 decades (1972 - 2002) are reviewed. A total of 448 specimens were received. From these, 538 identifications were made with the following results: Eighteen species of cyclorrphaga flies were identified consisting of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) 215 cases (47.99%), Ch. rufifacies (Masquart) 132 (29.46%), Ch. villeneuvi Patton 10 (2.23%), Ch. nigripes Aubertin 7 (1.56%), Ch. bezziana Villeneuve 4 (0.89%), Ch. pinguis (Walker) 1 (0.22%), Chrysomya sp. 47 (10.49%), Sarcophaga sp. 28 (6.25%), Lucilia sp. 21 (4.69%), Hermetia sp. 15 (3.35%), He. illucens (Linnaeus) 1 (0.22%), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) 3 (0.67%), Hemipyrellia sp. 2 (0.45%), Ophyra spinigera 1 (0.22%), Ophyra sp. 6 (1.34%), Calliphora sp. 24 (5.36%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) 1 (0.22%) and Eristalis sp. 1 (0.22%). Other non - fly insect specimens are Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus) (Pubic louse) 2 (0.45%) and Coleoptera (Beetles) 1 (0.22%). Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in cadavers from different ecological habitats. Sy. nudiseta is an uncommon species, thus far found only on cadavers from indoors. Sy. nudiseta is reported for the second time in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 329 cases (73.44%) had a single fly infestation, 109 cases (24.33%) had double fly infestation and 10 cases (2.23%) had triple fly infestation. Five cases (1.12%) had eggs and 3 cases (0.67%) had larval stages that were not identifiable. No arthropods were retrieved from cadavers in 8 cases (1.79%). In conclusion, although large number of fly species were found on human cadavers, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.

  10. A fixed-dose approach to conducting emamectin benzoate tolerance assessments on field-collected sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis. (United States)

    Whyte, S K; Westcott, J D; Elmoslemany, A; Hammell, K L; Revie, C W


    In New Brunswick, Canada, the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, poses an on-going management challenge to the health and productivity of commercially cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. While the in-feed medication, emamectin benzoate (SLICE® ; Merck), has been highly effective for many years, evidence of increased tolerance has been observed in the field since late 2008. Although bioassays on motile stages are a common tool to monitor sea lice sensitivity to emamectin benzoate in field-collected sea lice, they require the collection of large numbers of sea lice due to inherent natural variability in the gender and stage response to chemotherapeutants. In addition, sensitive instruments such as EC(50) analysis may be unnecessarily complex to characterize susceptibility subsequent to a significant observed decline in efficacy. This study proposes an adaptation of the traditional, dose-response format bioassay to a fixed-dose method. Analysis of 657 bioassays on preadult and adult stages of sea lice over the period 2008-2011 indicated a population of sea lice in New Brunswick with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate. A seasonal and spatial effect was observed in the robustness of genders and stages of sea lice, which suggest that mixing different genders and stages of lice within a single bioassay may result in pertinent information being overlooked. Poor survival of adult female lice in bioassays, particularly during May/June, indicates it may be prudent to consider excluding this stage from bioassays conducted at certain times of the year. This work demonstrates that fixed-dose bioassays can be a valuable technique in detecting reduced sensitivity in sea lice populations with varying degrees of susceptibility to emamectin benzoate treatments. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Comparative analysis of Acinetobacters: three genomes for three lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vallenet

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is the source of numerous nosocomial infections in humans and therefore deserves close attention as multidrug or even pandrug resistant strains are increasingly being identified worldwide. Here we report the comparison of two newly sequenced genomes of A. baumannii. The human isolate A. baumannii AYE is multidrug resistant whereas strain SDF, which was isolated from body lice, is antibiotic susceptible. As reference for comparison in this analysis, the genome of the soil-living bacterium A. baylyi strain ADP1 was used. The most interesting dissimilarities we observed were that i whereas strain AYE and A. baylyi genomes harbored very few Insertion Sequence elements which could promote expression of downstream genes, strain SDF sequence contains several hundred of them that have played a crucial role in its genome reduction (gene disruptions and simple DNA loss; ii strain SDF has low catabolic capacities compared to strain AYE. Interestingly, the latter has even higher catabolic capacities than A. baylyi which has already been reported as a very nutritionally versatile organism. This metabolic performance could explain the persistence of A. baumannii nosocomial strains in environments where nutrients are scarce; iii several processes known to play a key role during host infection (biofilm formation, iron uptake, quorum sensing, virulence factors were either different or absent, the best example of which is iron uptake. Indeed, strain AYE and A. baylyi use siderophore-based systems to scavenge iron from the environment whereas strain SDF uses an alternate system similar to the Haem Acquisition System (HAS. Taken together, all these observations suggest that the genome contents of the 3 Acinetobacters compared are partly shaped by life in distinct ecological niches: human (and more largely hospital environment, louse, soil.

  12. Antioxidant capacity of Macaronesian traditional medicinal plants. (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Carrilho, Dina; Tyagi, Meenu; Barata, David; Serra, Ana Teresa; Duarte, Catarina Maria Martins; Duarte, Rui Oliveira; Feliciano, Rodrigo Pedro; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Chicau, Paula; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; dos Santos, Cláudia Nunes


    The use of many traditional medicinal plants is often hampered by the absence of a proper biochemical characterization, essential to identify the bioactive compounds present. The leaves from five species endemic to the Macaronesian islands with recognized ethnobotanical applications were analysed: Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm., Ocotea foetens (Ainton) Baill, Prunus azorica (Mouill.) Rivas-Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Días, J.C. Costa & C. Aguiar, Rumex maderensis Lowe and Plantago arborescens Poir. subsp. maderensis (Dcne.) A. Hans. et Kunk.. Since oxidative stress is a common feature of most diseases traditionally treated by these plants, it is important to assess their antioxidant capacity and determine the molecules responsible for this capacity. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of these plants against two of the most important reactive species in human body (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) was determined. To trace the antioxidant origin total phenol and flavonoid contents as well as the polyphenolic profile and the amount of trace elements were determined. There was a wide variation among the species analysed in what concerns their total leaf phenol and flavonoid contents. From the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) electrochemically detected peaks it was possible to attribute to flavonoids the antioxidant capacity detected in A. barbujana, O. foetens, R. maderensis and P. azorica extracts. These potential reactive flavonoids were identified for A. barbujana, R. maderensis and P. azorica. For R. maderensis a high content (7 mg g-1 dry weight) of L-ascorbic acid, an already described antioxidant phytomolecule, was found. A high content in selenomethionine (414.35 microg g-1 dry weight) was obtained for P. arborescens subsp. maderensis extract. This selenocompound is already described as a hydroxyl radical scavenger is reported in this work as also possessing peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. This work is a good illustration of

  13. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece. (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich


    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Analyses of SBO sequence of VVER1000 reactor using TRACE and MELCOR codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Guido; Kyncl, Milos; Miglierini, Bruno; Kopecek, Vit


    In response to the Fukushima accident, the European Commission ordered to perform stress tests to all European Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Due to shortage of time a number of conclusions in national stress tests reports were based on engineering judgment only. In the Czech Republic, as a follow up, a consortium of Research Organizations and Universities has decided to simulate selected stress tests scenarios, in particular station Black-Out (SBO) and Loss of Ultimate Sink (LoUS), with the aim to verify conclusions made in the national stress report and to analyse time response of respective source term releases. These activities are carried out in the frame of the project 'Prevention, preparedness and mitigation of consequences of Severe Accident (SA) at Czech NPPs in relation to lessons learned from stress tests after Fukushima' financed by the Ministry of Interior. The Research Centre Rez has been working on the preparation of a MELCOR model for VVER1000 NPP starting with a plant systems nodalization. The basic idea of this paper is to benchmark the MELCOR model with the validated TRACE model, first comparing the steady state and continuing in a long term SBO plus another event until the beginning of the severe accident. The presented work focuses mainly on the preliminary comparison of the thermo-hydraulics of the two models created in MELCOR and TRACE codes. After that, preliminary general results of the SA progression showing the hydrogen production and the relocation phenomena will be shortly discussed. This scenario is considered closed after some seconds to the break of the lower head. (author)

  15. High Ancient Genetic Diversity of Human Lice, Pediculus humanus, from Israel Reveals New Insights into the Origin of Clade B Lice. (United States)

    Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Fenollar, Florence; Alfi, Shir; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg


    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is subdivided into several significantly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups, each with particular geographical distributions. Historically, they are among the oldest human parasites, representing an excellent marker for tracking older events in human evolutionary history. In this study, ancient DNA analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), combined with conventional PCR, was applied to the remains of twenty-four ancient head lice and their eggs from the Roman period which were recovered from Israel. The lice and eggs were found in three combs, one of which was recovered from archaeological excavations in the Hatzeva area of the Judean desert, and two of which found in Moa, in the Arava region, close to the Dead Sea. Results show that the head lice remains dating approximately to 2,000 years old have a cytb haplogroup A, which is worldwide in distribution, and haplogroup B, which has thus far only been found in contemporary lice from America, Europe, Australia and, most recently, Africa. More specifically, this haplogroup B has a B36 haplotype, the most common among B haplogroups, and has been present in America for at least 4,000 years. The present findings confirm that clade B lice existed, at least in the Middle East, prior to contacts between Native Americans and Europeans. These results support a Middle Eastern origin for clade B followed by its introduction into the New World with the early peoples. Lastly, the presence of Acinetobacter baumannii DNA was demonstrated by qPCR and sequencing in four head lice remains belonging to clade A.

  16. Biological characterization, habits, naturals enemy and populational fluctuation of Aconophora elongatiformis Dietrich in Tecoma Stans (L.) Juss. Ex Hbk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzon F, Olga Patricia; Quintero C, Paola Fernanda


    The ornamental trees complete a very important environmental function for the quality of the inhabitants' life in the urban areas, when offering momentous benefits as the subduing of the climate, regulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere and the scenic beauty. Thanks to the interest of the District Administration, in Bogota, in the last four years, the urban plantation of trees acquired a preponderant paper that became apparent during the biggest plantation of trees program and maintenance of green areas that it has been carried out in the history of the capital; day by day they get more importance, and they are recognized by the citizenship like fundamental values of its environment. Previously to this program, the attention received were minimum or were remembered soon after the surprising devastating consequences of phyto sanitary problems: the grooved cochineal of the acacia, the louse plant of the cypress and the bedbug of the Urapan in whose cases the ignorance of basic aspects of the biology, natural control and the harmful populations' behavior, it has forced to generally apply measured of chemical type to try to reduce the high levels population. The importance that have, the green areas in the city, it favors a continuous pursuit that allows to deepen in the knowledge of the main risk factors, current problems and potentials of the species, types and consequences of the damages and the intra and inter relationships of the arthropofauna of the urban vegetation, their relationship with the plants, as well as the incidence of biotic and abiotic in the tree phonologic behavior and in the fluctuation of the populations of this individuals in order to coming closer to the understanding of the dynamics of the populations of arthropods harmful, in such a way that is possible to design kind handling strategies with the environment, having in consideration in integrated form the conditions under the attack of arthropods harmful

  17. Insect bite reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh


    Full Text Available Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some

  18. First fossil of an oestroid fly (Diptera: Calyptratae: Oestroidea) and the dating of oestroid divergences. (United States)

    Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Stireman, John O; Pape, Thomas; O'Hara, James E; Marinho, Marco A T; Rognes, Knut; Grimaldi, David A


    Calyptrate flies include about 22,000 extant species currently classified into Hippoboscoidea (tsetse, louse, and bat flies), the muscoid grade (house flies and relatives) and the Oestroidea (blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and relatives). Calyptrates are abundant in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems, often playing key roles as decomposers, parasites, parasitoids, vectors of pathogens, and pollinators. For oestroids, the most diverse group within calyptrates, definitive fossils have been lacking. The first unambiguous fossil of Oestroidea is described based on a specimen discovered in amber from the Dominican Republic. The specimen was identified through digital dissection by CT scans, which provided morphological data for a cladistic analysis of its phylogenetic position among extant oestroids. The few known calyptrate fossils were used as calibration points for a molecular phylogeny (16S, 28S, CAD) to estimate the timing of major diversification events among the Oestroidea. Results indicate that: (a) the fossil belongs to the family Mesembrinellidae, and it is identified and described as Mesembrinella caenozoica sp. nov.; (b) the mesembrinellids form a sister clade to the Australian endemic Ulurumyia macalpinei (Ulurumyiidae) (McAlpine's fly), which in turn is sister to all remaining oestroids; (c) the most recent common ancestor of extant Calyptratae lived just before the K-Pg boundary (ca. 70 mya); and (d) the radiation of oestroids began in the Eocene (ca. 50 mya), with the origin of the family Mesembrinellidae dated at ca. 40 mya. These results provide new insight into the timing and rate of oestroid diversification and highlight the rapid radiation of some of the most diverse and ecologically important families of flies. ZooBank accession

  19. RNA interference of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Sams, Sarah; Moural, Tim; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Palli, Subba R


    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) plays a central role in cytochrome P450 action. The genes coding for P450s are not yet fully identified in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Hence, we decided to clone cDNA and knockdown the expression of the gene coding for CPR which is suggested to be required for the function of all P450s to determine whether or not P450s are involved in resistance of bed bugs to insecticides. The full length Cimex lectularius CPR (ClCPR) cDNA was isolated from a deltamethrin resistant bed bug population (CIN-1) using a combined PCR strategy. Bioinformatics and in silico modeling were employed to identify three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, NADP), a FAD binding motif, and the catalytic residues. The critical amino acids involved in FMN, FAD, NADP binding and their putative functions were also analyzed. No signal peptide but a membrane anchor domain with 21 amino acids which facilitates the localization of ClCPR on the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in ClCPR protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ClCPR is closer to the CPR from the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis than to the CPRs from the other insect species studied. The ClCPR gene was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested but showed an increase in expression as immature stages develop into adults. We exploited the traumatic insemination mechanism of bed bugs to inject dsRNA and successfully knockdown the expression of the gene coding for ClCPR. Suppression of the ClCPR expression increased susceptibility to deltamethrin in resistant populations but not in the susceptible population of bed bugs. These data suggest that P450-mediated metabolic detoxification may serve as one of the resistance mechanisms in bed bugs.

  20. Identification and screening of potent antimicrobial peptides in arthropod genomes. (United States)

    Duwadi, Deepesh; Shrestha, Anishma; Yilma, Binyam; Kozlovski, Itamar; Sa-Eed, Munaya; Dahal, Nikesh; Jukosky, James


    Using tBLASTn and BLASTp searches, we queried recently sequenced arthropod genomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using a database of known arthropod cecropins, defensins, and attacins. We identified and synthesized 6 potential AMPs and screened them for antimicrobial activity. Using radial diffusion assays and microtiter antimicrobial assays, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial effects of these peptides against several human pathogens including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We also conducted hemolysis assays to examine the cytotoxicity of these peptides to mammalian cells. Four of the six peptides identified showed antimicrobial effects in these assays. We also created truncated versions of these four peptides to assay their antimicrobial activity. Two cecropins derived from the monarch butterfly genome (Danaus plexippus), DAN1 and DAN2, showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 2-16 μg/ml when screened against Gram-negative bacteria. HOLO1 and LOUDEF1, two defensin-like peptides derived from red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus), respectively, exhibited MICs in the range of 13-25 μg/ml against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, HOLO1 showed an MIC less than 5 μg/ml against the fungal species Candida albicans. These peptides exhibited no hemolytic activity at concentrations up to 200 μg/ml. The truncated peptides derived from DAN2 and HOLO1 showed very little antimicrobial activity. Our experiments show that the peptides DAN1, DAN2, HOLO1, and LOUDEF1 showed potent antimicrobial activity in vitro against common human pathogens, did not lyse mammalian red blood cells, and indicates their potential as templates for novel therapeutic agents against microbial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The preservation of green goat skin using liquid smoke from coconut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliestiyah Wiryodiningrat


    Full Text Available The objective of the research on the presentation of green goat skin using liquid smoke was to reduce the environmental contamination caused by usage of the environmentally-unfriendly chemical in skin preservation process. Liquid smoke is the outcome of coconut shell waste containing a lot of phenol and acid compound. It is an organic material that is environment-friendly and it can inhibit the bacteria growth. The research was conducted using 18 pieces of green goat skin. Eighteen pieces of green goat skin were divided into 2 treatments. The first stage treatment used liquid smoke as the preserving material with 0,1%, 0,5%, and 1,0 % in concentrations without crystal salt and anti-bacterial material. The second stage treatment used liquid smoke with 5%, 10% and 15% in concentrations and used crystal salt without anti-bacteria material. The skins then were stretched and dried in the sun. They were observed for 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month. The results of the skin preservation then were tested in organoleptic method, including the tests for the shedding of feather and the damage of skin owing to bacteria / louse. The skins also were tested in physical method (tensile strength & elongation at break. The result of search showed that the skins preservation for month using liquid smoke, 10% in concentration, was the most effective, Usage of liquid smoke as the substitute of anti-bacteria/fungicide would reduce a part of the environmental contamination owing to usage of the environment-unfriendly chemical in skin preservation process.

  2. In vitro efficacy of five essential oils against Pediculus humanus capitis. (United States)

    Candy, Kerdalidec; Nicolas, Patrick; Andriantsoanirina, Valérie; Izri, Arezki; Durand, Rémy


    Treatment of head lice has relied mainly on the use of topical insecticides. Today, conventional topical pediculicides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. There is increasing interest in the use of natural products such as essential oils for head louse control, and many of them are now incorporated into various over-the-counter products presented as pediculicides, often without proper evaluation. The aim of the present study was to assess the in vitro efficacy of five essential oils against adults of Pediculus humanus capitis using a contact filter paper toxicity bioassay. The chemical composition of the essential oils from wild bergamot, clove, lavender, tea tree, and Yunnan verbena was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All treatments and controls were replicated three times on separate occasions over a period of 11 months. In all, 1239 living lice were collected from the scalp of 51 subjects, aged from 1 to 69 years. Clove oil, diluted either in coco oil or sunflower oil, demonstrated the best adulticidal activity, reaching > 90% mortality within 2 h in lice submitted to a 30-min contact. Yunnan verbena oil diluted in coco oil showed also a significant efficacy. Other essential oils showed a lower efficacy. The oil's major component(s) differed according to the tested oils and appeared chemically diverse. In the case of clove oil, the eugenol appeared as the main component. This study confirmed the potential interest of some of the essential oils tested, but not all, as products to include possibly in a pediculicidal formulation.

  3. Description of Insecticide Effect in Vitro of the Commercial Diatom on Melophagus Ovinus From the Municipality of Oicatá (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herney Cuevas Morales


    Full Text Available Among the ectoparasites affecting sheep is the hematophagous diptera (“false tick” or “fly-louse of sheep”, found in temperate and cold zones in South America, which can cause dermatitis and damage of fleece, in addition to acting as a vector for different diseases. Therefore, they are controlled with commercial insecticides that are toxic to humans and animals, disrupting the ecosystem and generating toxic residues on the food; in addition, in some areas, these have become ineffective. In some sheep located in the municipality of Oicatá, a high prevalence of this parasite can be found with limited effectiveness in treatments with traditional insecticides. Hence, the aim of this study was to describe the in vitro efficacy of the commercial diatom in the control of the M. ovinus. 240 individuals of M. ovinus were collected from naturally parasitized animals, from which 120 were divided randomly into four groups of 10 parasites each, running each test three times (replicas. In all cases, the immersion technique was used for adults, to describe the efficacy of the diatom, observing the mortality percentage for each group. After 12 hours of exposure, mortality was higher in the groups exposed to concentrations of diatom (g of diatom: ml of water of 0.1:1, 0.2:1 and 0.3:1. Around the 24th hour, mortality increased to 90%, with diatom in concentrations of 0.1:1 and 0.3:1 and after 48 hours the higher mortality values were obtained with diatom 0.3:1 followed by diatom 0.2:1 and 0.1:1. With the results obtained, we can mention that the diatom has an insecticide effect that exceeds the minimum effective of 60 %.

  4. Arbovirological survey in Silica plateau area, Roznava District, Czechoslovakia. (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Cerný, V; Mittermayer, T; Kilík, J; Halouzka, J; Juricová, Z; Kuhn, I; Bárdos, V


    The serosurveys conducted in the Silica plateau area of the Slovak karst region revealed the presence of specific neutralizing antibody against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in 18% of local inhabitants (33 examined, mostly goats and sheep farmers), 54% of goats (26 examined), 18% of sheep (120 examined) and 13% of cattle (60 examined), against Lipovník (LIP) virus in 30% of inhabitants, 88% of goats, 55% of sheep and 45% of cattle, and against Bhanja (BHA) virus in 27% of inhabitants, 46% of goats, 29% of sheep and 23% of cattle. The results of hemagglutination-inhibition tests with TBE and BHA antigens were analogous. A detailed analysis of these serologic data points to a recent enhancement of the circulation of LIP and BHA viruses and to a very low TBE virus activity in this natural focus of arboviral infections. The immunological surveys of the 32 former "Roznava disease" patients, conducted 25 years after an extensive epidemic of a TBE virus infection that originated in Roznava in 1951, revealed the presence of neutralizing (and also hemagglutination-inhibiting) antibodies against TBE virus in as many as 78% of cases. Antibodies against LIP and BHA viruses were also detectable in the sera of 16% and 9%, respectively, of these individuals. Populations of the ectoparasites examined for the presence of arbovirus comprised 231 Ixodes ricinus, 806 Dermacentor marginatus and 204 Haemaphysalis punctata ticks and 117 specimens of the louse-flies Melophagus ovinus. Two strains of arbivirus that were antigenically related to Lipovník and Tribec viruses belonging to a group of Kemerovo viruses were isolated from male and female I. ricinus ticks collected from cattle.

  5. Preliminary investigations into the aetiology and treatment of cockle, a sheep pelt defect. (United States)

    Heath, A C; Cole, D J; Bishop, D M; Pfeffer, A; Cooper, S M; Risdon, P


    A defect of sheep pelts known as cockle, detectable after depilation, but usually first noted only in the pickled pelt or tanned stage of processing, was studied to establish causal factor(s) and effective treatments. In addition, data on the histology and seasonal prevalence of the disease were obtained. Samples collected soon after slaughter from pelts identified at the pickled pelt stage as having cockle, had a superficial dermatitis with infiltration of eosinophils. This may represent an immediate hypersensitivity reaction of the sheep to lice. Treatments of sheep with either insecticides, disinfectants or shearing showed that where biting lice (Bovicola ovis) were removed, cockle lesions had either disappeared or regressed on pickled pelts. In Trial 1 diazinon reduced cockle prevalence and severity substantially; cypermethrin had a less pronounced effect. In Trial 2 diazinon, cypermethrin, Hibitane and Savlon were equally effective in reducing biting louse numbers as shown by counts of lice at 35 and 63 days post-treatment. Reduction of cockle on pelts from sheep slaughtered at 39 days post-treatment was achieved best by both diazinon and shearing. Examination of other pelts at 67 days post-treatment showed diazinon and Hibitane to be equally effective in reducing cockle. Furthermore, shearing in the absence of insecticides reduced the severity and extent of lesions on cockled pelts. The diazinon excipient and zinc sulphate were consistently poor at removing lice and reducing cockle prevalence and severity. The results have important implications for the leather industry in that shearing and good dipping practice with appropriate chemicals at the right time can lead to improved pelt quality. However, an incentive scheme for farmers, and a means of identifying individual pelts to the farms or origin, are both necessary before a marked improvement is likely to occur.

  6. High level efficacy of lufenuron against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) linked to rapid impact on moulting processes. (United States)

    Poley, Jordan D; Braden, Laura M; Messmer, Amber M; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Whyte, Shona K; Macdonald, Alicia; Rodriguez, Jose; Gameiro, Marta; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Wadowska, Dorota W; Koop, Ben F; Hosking, Barry C; Fast, Mark D


    Drug resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a global issue for Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Multiple resistance has been described across most available compound classes with the exception of the benzoylureas. To target this gap in effective management of L. salmonis and other species of sea lice (e.g. Caligus spp.), Elanco Animal Health is developing an in-feed treatment containing lufenuron (a benzoylurea) to be administered prior to seawater transfer of salmon smolts and to provide long-term protection of salmon against sea lice infestations. Benzoylureas disrupt chitin synthesis, formation, and deposition during all moulting events. However, the mechanism(s) of action are not yet fully understood and most research completed to date has focused on insects. We exposed the first parasitic stage of L. salmonis to 700 ppb lufenuron for three hours and observed over 90% reduction in survival to the chalimus II life stage on the host, as compared to vehicle controls. This agrees with a follow up in vivo administration study on the host, which showed >95% reduction by the chalimus I stage. Transcriptomic responses of salmon lice exposed to lufenuron included genes related to moulting, epithelial differentiation, solute transport, and general developmental processes. Global metabolite profiles also suggest that membrane stability and fluidity is impacted in treated lice. These molecular signals are likely the underpinnings of an abnormal moulting process and cuticle formation observed ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy. Treated nauplii-staged lice exhibited multiple abnormalities in the integument, suggesting that the coordinated assembly of the epi- and procuticle is impaired. In all cases, treatment with lufenuron had rapid impacts on L. salmonis development. We describe multiple experiments to characterize the efficacy of lufenuron on eggs, larvae, and parasitic stages of L. salmonis, and provide the most comprehensive

  7. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania. (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen


    One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100

  8. Ectoparasitos de roedores da região urbana de Belo Horizonte, MG. I. Interação entre ectoparasitos e hospedeiros Ectoparasites of rodents of the urban region of Belo Horizonte MG I. Interaction between ectoparasites and hosts

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    Pedro Marcos Linardi


    and lice on the separate sexes of rodents are presented. 66.9% of the rats were infested by mites, almost twice more than infestations by fleas and louse jointly (39%. L. nuttalli was found in great numbers and presented the highest index of infestation: 55.1%. Single infestations are as commom as associated ones. P. spinulosa, contrary to L. nuttalli, rarely occurs in single infestation. Data on the distribution of the ectoparasites on the rodents are also reported. The infestation observed in Belo Horizonteis confronted with those obtained by other authors in different places.

  9. Spring viremia of carp (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.


    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  10. Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsen, Ole B.; Lunestad, Bjørn T.; Hannisdal, Rita; Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri; Tjensvoll, Tore; Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne


    The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be

  11. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990-2014. (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Zakhour, Christine M; Gadhoke, Preety; Gaeta, Jessie M


    In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014. Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0-37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0-10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0-16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV

  12. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression. (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen N; Bron, James E; Taggart, John B; Ireland, Jacqueline H; Bekaert, Michaël; Burgess, Stewart Tg; Skuce, Philip J; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Gharbi, Karim; Sturm, Armin


    Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but toxic for S lice

  13. Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Ole B. [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Lunestad, Bjørn T.; Hannisdal, Rita [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Tjensvoll, Tore [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, P.O. Box 2029 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne [Institute of Marine Research, P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway)


    The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be

  14. Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system--effects of pipe material and sedimentation. (United States)

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (tanks (6000 and 36,000 m(3)) as well as one clean water tank at a waterworks (700 m(3)) were inspected. Several types of invertebrates from the phyla: arthropoda, annelida (worms), plathyhelminthes (flatworms) and mollusca (snails) were found. Invertebrates were found at 94% of the sampling sites in the piped system with A. aquaticus present at 55% of the sampling sites. Populations of A. aquaticus were present in the two investigated elevated tanks but not in the clean water tank at a waterworks. Both adult and juvenile A. aquaticus (length of 2-10 mm) were found in tanks as well as in pipes. A. aquaticus was found only in samples collected from two of seven investigated distribution zones (zone 1 and 2), each supplied directly by one of the two investigated elevated tanks containing A. aquaticus. Microinvertebrates were distributed throughout all zones. The distribution pattern of A. aquaticus had not changed considerably over 20 years when compared to data from samples collected in 1988-89. Centrifugal pumps have separated the distribution zones during the whole period and may have functioned as physical barriers in the distribution systems, preventing large invertebrates such as A. aquaticus to pass alive. Another factor characterising zone 1 and 2 was the presence of cast iron pipes. The frequency of A. aquaticus was significantly higher in cast iron pipes than in plastic pipes. A. aquaticus caught from plastic pipes were mainly single living specimens or dead specimens, which may have been transported passively trough by the water flow, while cast iron pipes provided an environment suitable for relatively large populations of A. aquaticus. Sediment volume for each sample was measured and our study described for the first time a clear connection between sediment volume and living A. aquaticus

  15. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

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    Krasnov Aleksei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13. Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions

  16. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization. (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K


    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  17. Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission. (United States)

    Hammer, Jade Frederick; Jenkins, Cheryl; Bogema, Daniel; Emery, David


    The intracellular protozoal parasite Theileria orientalis has rapidly spread across South-eastern Australia, substantially impacting local cattle industries since 2006. Haemaphysalis longicornis appears to be a biological vector in the endemic regions. Mechanical transfer of blood by biting arthropods, in colostrum or iatrogenic transmission though husbandry procedures is another possible mode of transmission. This study assesses the risk of these mechanical modes of transmission. Blood was collected from a T. orientalis Ikeda positive Angus steer, and was inoculated into the jugular vein of 9 calves in 3 treatment groups, each with 3 animals. Calves in Group 1 received 10 ml of cryopreserved blood, while those in Groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml (fresh blood) and 0.1 ml (cryopreserved), respectively. An additional three animals remained as negative controls and the donor calf was also followed as a positive control. Blood was collected over 3 months, and analysed via qPCR for the presence of the parasite. Samples of the sucking louse Linognathus vituli were collected opportunistically from calves 5 months after inoculation and tested for T. orientalis. For the colostral transmission study, 30 samples of blood and colostrum were collected from cows at calving in an endemic herd. These samples along with blood from their calves were tested by qPCR for T. orientalis and for antibodies to the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP). Eight of the nine inoculated calves became positive for T. orientalis. The prepatent period of these infections was inversely correlated with inoculation dose. All negative control calves remained negative and the positive control calf remained positive. Samples of L. vituli tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda, while some samples of colostrum were also shown to be qPCR and anti-MPSP positive. All calves in the colostral study tested qPCR negative although one was antibody-positive. T. orientalis is capable of being mechanically transferred

  18. Effect of permethrin-impregnated underwear on body lice in sheltered homeless persons: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Benkouiten, Samir; Drali, Rezak; Badiaga, Sékéné; Veracx, Aurélie; Giorgi, Roch; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe


    The control of body lice in homeless persons remains a challenge. To determine whether the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated underwear provides effective long-term protection against body lice in homeless persons. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in February and December 2011 in 2 homeless shelters (Madrague Ville and Forbin) in Marseille, France. Of the 125 homeless persons screened for eligibility, 73 body lice-infested homeless persons, 18 years or older, were enrolled. Body lice-infested homeless persons were randomly assigned to receive 0.4% permethrin-impregnated underwear or an identical-appearing placebo for 45 days, in a 1:1 ratio, with a permuted block size of 10. Visits were scheduled at days 14 and 45. Data regarding the presence or absence of live body lice were collected. The primary and secondary end points were the proportions of homeless persons free of body lice on days 14 and 45, respectively. Mutations associated with permethrin resistance in the body lice were also identified. Significantly more homeless persons receiving permethrin-impregnated underwear than homeless persons receiving the placebo were free of body lice on day 14 in the intent-to-treat population (28% vs 9%; P = .04), with a between-group difference of 18.4 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4-35.4), and in the per-protocol population (34% vs 11%; P = .03), with a between-group difference of 23.7 percentage points (95% CI, 3.6-43.7). This difference was not sustained on day 45. At baseline, the prevalence of the permethrin-resistant haplotype was 51% in the permethrin group and 44% in the placebo group. On day 45, the permethrin-resistant haplotype was significantly more frequent in the permethrin group than in the placebo group (73% vs 45%, P < .001). Permethrin-impregnated underwear is more efficient than placebo at eliminating body louse infestations by day 14; however, this difference was not sustained on day 45. The use of permethrin

  19. Patients’ and physicians’ preferences for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatments in Spain and Portugal: a discrete choice experiment

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    Morillas C


    Full Text Available Carlos Morillas,1 Rosa Feliciano,2 Pablo Fernández Catalina,3 Carla Ponte,4 Marta Botella,5 João Rodrigues,6 Enric Esmatjes,7 Javier Lafita,8 Luis Lizán,9 Ignacio Llorente,10 Cristóbal Morales,11 Jorge Navarro-Pérez,12 Domingo Orozco-Beltran,13 Silvia Paz,9 Antonio Ramirez de Arellano,14 Cristina Cardoso,15 Maribel Tribaldos Causadias9 1Hospital Universitario Dr Peset, Valencia, Spain; 2USF São Domingos, Santarém, Portugal; 3Hospital Montecelo de Pontevedra, Galicia, Spain; 4USF Porta do Sol, Matosinhos, Portugal; 5Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, Madrid, Spain; 6USF Serra da Lousã, Lousã, Portugal; 7Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain; 8Hospital de Navarra, Navarra, Spain; 9Outcomes’10, Universidad Jaume I, Castellón, Spain; 10Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, Canarias, Spain; 11Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Macarena, Sevilla, Spain; 12INCLIVA, CIBERESP, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 13Sociedad Española de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Valencia, Spain; 14Novo Nordisk EU-HEOR Europe, Madrid, Spain; 15Novo Nordisk, Lisbon, Portugal Objective: To assess Spanish and Portuguese patients’ and physicians’ preferences regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM treatments and the monthly willingness to pay (WTP to gain benefits or avoid side effects.Methods: An observational, multicenter, exploratory study focused on routine clinical practice in Spain and Portugal. Physicians were recruited from multiple hospitals and outpatient clinics, while patients were recruited from eleven centers operating in the public health care system in different autonomous communities in Spain and Portugal. Preferences were measured via a discrete choice experiment by rating multiple T2DM medication attributes. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model.Results: Three-hundred and thirty (n=330 patients (49.7% female; mean age 62.4 [SD: 10.3] years, mean T2DM duration 13.9 [8.2] years, mean body

  20. Salud familiar en familias con adolescente gestante Saúde familiar em famílias com adolescentes gestantes Family health in families with pregnant adolescents

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    Martha cecilia Veloza Morales


    Full Text Available La investigación se basó en la teoría de organización sistémica de Marie Louse Friedemann; el objetivo fue describir el grado de salud familiar de familias con adolescente gestante. Estudio Descriptivo transversal comparativo, con abordaje cuantitativo donde se evaluó el grado de salud familiar a 100 familias atendidas en dos instituciones prestadoras de Salud (IPS en Bogotá, Colombia; se organizaron en dos grupos: la mitad de las familias con adolescentes gestantes que presentaron morbilidad en el tercer trimestre del embarazo y la otra mitad que no presentaron morbilidad; para la recolección de la información se utilizó el instrumento ISF GES 19 diseñado, implementado y probado por la doctora Pilar Amaya de Peña. Se obtuvo una visión global acerca de la salud familiar y se comparó el grado de salud familiar de acuerdo con las características halladas en cada uno de los grupos. Se concluye que las familias no sienten o no perciben el riesgo de sufrir o no una patología durante el embarazo, y por tanto, no afecta su grado de salud familiar el cual consideran saludable y satisfecho. Se invita a crear estrategias que conlleven a disminuir los riesgos de salud a que se expone la familia y la madre adolescente.Apesquisa foi baseada na teoria da organização sistémica de Marie Louse Friedemann; o objeto foi descrever o grau de saúde familiar das famílias com adolescentes gestantes. Estu-do descritivo transversal comparativo, com abordagem quan-titativa onde foi avaliado o grau de saúde familiar de 100 famí-lias atendidas em duas instituições fornecedoras de serviços de saúde (IPS em Bogotá, Colômbia. As 100 famílias foram organizadas em dois grupos: a metade das famílias com adolescentes gestantes que apresentaram morbidez no terceiro trimestre de gravidez e a outra metade conformada por aquelas famílias com adolescentes gestantes que não apresentaram morbidez; para a compilação da informação, utilizou-se o

  1. Utilidade do pente metálico com dentes microcanaliculados no diagnóstico da pediculose Metal microchanelled fine-toothed comb use in the diagnosis of pediculosis

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    Patricia Elena Neira


    diagnosis detected infestation in 30.7% of the cases, while the metal comb detected infestation in 51.5%. Females were the most affected. The forms of parasites detected through direct visual exam were: only lice (adults and/or nymphs 1.4%, only live nits 64.8% and live nits and lice, 33.8%; with the metal comb the percentages were 6.4%, 23.6% and 70%, respectively. The average time to find a louse was 57 seconds with the fine-toothed comb and 116.4 seconds through the direct visual exam. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis with the microchanelled fine-toothed comb is twice as fast and 3.6 times more efficient than through direct visual exam.The direct visual exam detects non-active, past infestations, and underestimates active ones.

  2. Population Dynamic, the Spatial Distribution Pattern and Management of Ash Tree, Fraxinus rotundifolia psyllid Psyllopsis discrepans Flor (Hem., Psyllidae in Kermanshah Province, Iran

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    arezoo jamshidi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to increasing air pollution, one of the ways to reduce pollution is to develop the green space, the urban parks, domestic gardens and streets marginal, including the ash trees, which play a vital role in supporting urban by its beauty and reducing air pollution. One of the convenient options to overshadow ash trees in their gardens. The jumping plant-louse, Psyllopsis discrepans is a sap-suckerpest which has highly host -specific and feed mainly on the young leaves and sprouts, is considered as important ash pests. Large populations of the pest cause the leaf curl gall and distort which result in leaf scar and less aesthetic appearance of ash canopy. The pest causes plant weakness by the toxic action of the saliva injected during their feeding process. The nymphal instar secreted honeydew which stimulates fungal growth on plant organs. There are a number of psyllid control methods which each of them has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this work was to verify the population fluctuation and assessing the spatial distribution of P. discrepans, in ash tree, Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill (Oleaceae and in order to develop the best psyllid control plan, it is important that to weigh out the most effective options to reduce the population of this pest, in Kermanshah, western region of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study the monitoring of P. discrepans population was carried out in urban areas of infested trees, using yellow adhesive traps with 50 m far from each other. Two sampling methods were took place the regular weekly from March 2014 to May 2015. nymphs tend to cling to the foliage when disturbed while the adults tend to jump and fly away. These differences in habit necessitated the use of two sampling techniques. The counts of eggs and nymphs were made by taking samples at each infested tree. The samples were placed individually in plastic bags and chilled in a refrigerator until they could be

  3. Clinical value of combined detection of cerebrospinal fluid-related indicators in diagnosis of intracranial infections%脑脊液相关指标联合检测在颅内感染诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温昌明; 王新凯; 张保朝


    OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical value of the change of cerebrospinal fluid‐related indicators in diag‐nosis of intracranial infections ,including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ,adenosine deaminase (ADA) ,immuno‐globulin (Ig) ,andβ2‐microglobulin (β‐MG) ,so as to determine the extent of brain tissue damage as well as the prognosis .METHODS A total of 22 patients with tuberculous meningitis ,34 patients with purulent meningitis , and 28 patients with viral meningitis were enrolled in the study ,then the contents of LDH ,ADA ,Ig ,andβ‐MG in the cerebrospinal fluids of the participants were determined ,meanwhile ,24 patients without infections were re‐cruited as controls .RESULTS There was significant difference in the level of LDH between the purulent meningitis group and the tuberculous meningitis group (P< 0 .05) ,there was significant difference between the purulent meningitis group and the viral meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,there was significant difference between the tubercu‐lous meningitis group and the viral meningitis (P<0 .05) ,and there was significant difference between the three groups and the control group (P<0 .05) .There was significant difference in the ADA level between the purulent meningitis group and the tuberculous meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,There was significant difference between the purulent meningitis group and the viral meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,there was significant difference between the tuberculosis meningitis group and the viral meningitis group (P< 0 .05) ,and there was statistically significant difference between the three groups and the control group (P<0 .05) .There was significant difference in the level of IgA ,IgG ,or IgM between the purulent meningitis group and the tuberculous meningitis group (P<0 .05) ,and there was significant difference between the three groups and the control group (P<0 .05) .CONCLUSION The de‐tection of LDH ,ADA ,Ig ,and β‐MG is conducive to the diagnosis of the three common

  4. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Light Interception and Light Extinction Coefficient in Different Wheat Cultivars

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    F Samadiyan


    amount of a third off chemical fertilizer of urea, 46 % Nitrogen was given to the plant and two third by the end of clawing the plot. In the period of growing in order to control brushes 2, 4, D herbicide and Fenitrothion insecticidal was used for countering the louse pest and other insects. In the laboratory, leaf area was measured using scanner and 4.Image 0.2 software program. To determine changes of growth indices, regression relations were used. Total dry matter, leaf area index, net assimilation rate, crop growth rate, light interception extinction were measured. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effects of N fertilizilation were significant on the maximum leaf area index, total dry matter and light interception percent were related to Pishtaz cultivar and 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer treatment significantly resulted Maximum light interception percent, net assimilation rate, with other treatments. Effects of cultivar were significant on maximum light absorption. The Maximum absorption of light, crop growth rate, total dry matter was related to Pishtaz. The interaction between nitrogen and the harvest index was significant at the five percent level. The evidence showed that higher light interception in plants, is associated with the higher performance of plant. The increase of light interception promote the biological and economic performance. Conclusions The results showed that application of 150 kg nitrogen per hectare, with the highest level of leaf area index and higher light absorption caused higher extinction coefficient of light in the canopy. Nitrogen fertilizer consumption increased light absorption by leaves, therefore the light extinction coefficient consuming more nitrogen in the plant community. The Maximum absorption of light, crop growth rate, total dry matter was related to pishtaz. Scale of light extinction coefficient for fertilizer treatment control, 50, 100, 150 kg ha-1, was 0.4675, 0.4794, 0.4858 and 0.495, respectively and for