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Sample records for lotus nelumbo nucifera

  1. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) using AFLP and SSR markers.

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    Hu, Jihong; Pan, Lei; Liu, Honggao; Wang, Shuzhen; Wu, Zhihua; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2012-04-01

    The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is an aquatic plant of economic and ornamental importance in China. In this study, we developed twenty novel sacred lotus SSR markers, and used AFLP and SSR markers to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among 58 accessions of N. nucifera including 15 seed lotus, 12 rhizome lotus, 24 flower lotus and 7 wild lotus. Our results showed that sacred lotus exhibited a low level of genetic diversity, which may attribute to asexual reproduction and long-term artificial selection. A dendrogram based on both AFLP and SSR clustering data showed that: (1) the seed lotus accessions and rhizome lotus accessions were distinctly clustered into different groups, which indicated the significant genetic differentiation between them. This may be attributed to the two modes of reproduction and lack of genetic exchange; (2) the accessions of Thailand wild lotus were separated from other wild lotus accessions. This implied that the Thailand lotus might be genetically differentiated from other wild lotuses. In addition, Mantel test conducted gave highly significant correlation between AFLP-SSR data and each of the AFLP and SSR ones, with the values of r = 0.941 and r = 0.879, respectively, indicating the higher efficiency of the combination of these techniques (AFLP and SSR) in estimation and validation of the genetic diversity among the accession of sacred lotus. This knowledge of the genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of N. nucifera is potentially useful to improve the current strategies in breeding and germplasm conservation to enhance the ornamental and economic value of sacred lotus.

  2. Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

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    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it’s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

  3. Biogenesis of C-glycosyl flavones and profiling of flavonoid glycosides in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera.

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    Shan-Shan Li

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in nine tissues of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn. Thirty-eight flavonoids were identified; eleven C-glycosides and five O-glycosides were discovered for the first time in N. nucifera. Most importantly, the C-glycosyl apigenin or luteolin detected in lotus plumules proved valuable for deep elucidation of flavonoid composition in lotus tissues and for further utilization as functional tea and medicine materials. Lotus leaves possessed the significantly highest amount of flavonoids (2.06E3±0.08 mg 100 g(-1 FW and separating and purifying the bioactive compound, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, from leaves showed great potential. In contrast, flavonoids in flower stalks, seed coats and kernels were extremely low. Simultaneously, the optimal picking time was confirmed by comparing the compound contents in five developmental phases. Finally, we proposed the putative flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in N. nucifera.

  4. Characterization of oligomeric procyanidins and identification of quercetin glucuronide from lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedpod.

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    Xiao, Jun-Song; Xie, Bi-Jun; Cao, Yan-Ping; Wu, Hua; Sun, Zhi-Da; Xiao, Di

    2012-03-21

    Procyanidins are a class of polyphenols in the plant kingdom. Lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seedpods, the inedible part of lotus and a byproduct during the production of lotus seeds, were found to be a new source rich in procyanidins. Detailed information about oligomeric procyanidins in lotus seedpods remains unknown. In this study, lotus seedpods were extracted using 60% aqueous methanol and characterized with phloroglucinolysis and liquid chromatography (mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization source). The results indicate that the oligomeric and polymeric fraction had a mean degree of polymerization of 3.2 and 15.4, respectively, and consisted of (+)-catechin (m/z 289), gallocatechin or epigallocatechin (m/z 305), quercetin glycoside (m/z 463), quercetin glucuronide (m/z 477), procyanidin dimers (m/z 577.1), proanthocyanidin dimer gallate (m/z 593.3), prodelphinidin dimers (m/z 609.1), procyanidin trimers (m/z 865.1), etc. Quercetin glucuronide was further purified using flash chromatography and identified as quercetin-3-O-β-glucuronide by determining its exact mass using ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ¹H and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance, ¹H-detected heteronuclear single-quantum coherence, and ¹H-detected heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation analyses.

  5. Photoprotective Effect of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Seed Tea against UVB Irradiation.

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    Kim, Su-Yeon; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2015-09-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seed is widely used as a traditional medicine in countries of Asia. Among many functions of the lotus seed, one interesting activity is its skin protection from the sunlight and scar. In this study, we focused on the skin protective property of lotus seed tea against ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Two groups of a hairless mouse model, water as control (water group) and lotus seed tea (LST group), were administrated a fluid drink water for six months. After 6 month of administration, UVB exposure was carried out to both groups for another 3 months. During and after the administration, the skin moisture content and the morphological and histopathological analyses through biopsy were carried out. Prior to UVB irradiation, no significant difference was discovered in the skin moisture content for the water group and LST group (Plotus seed tea enhanced protection against UVB exposure. As a result, the long-term intake of the lotus seed tea showed the effect of preventing loss of skin moisture, mitigating the formation of abnormal keratinocytes, and contributing to protein oxidation inhibition.

  6. Structure characterization of protein fractions from lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera) seed

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    Zeng, Hong-Yan; Cai, Lian-Hui; Cai, Xi-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ju; Li, Yu-Qin

    2011-08-01

    Protein fractionation of lotus seed was carried out and the structures of the protein fractions were studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) was used to investigate changes in molecular structures of the protein fractions. FTIR and UV-vis spectra showed the protein fractions had different protein molecular structures. FTIR spectra showed β-sheets and β-turns as the major secondary structures in the individual protein fractions, while the amounts of α-helix and random coil structures among the different fractions did not significantly change. The amounts of β-sheet structures of albumin and globulin were significantly higher than ones of prolamin and glutelin, implying albumin and globulin had high stabilities because of the high content in β-sheet structures. The observed similarity in the amounts of α-helix, random coil, β-sheet and β-turn structures shared by albumin and globulin indicated that their interior conformations were similar.

  7. Genetic Variation in Rhizome Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) Germplasms from China Assessed by RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Na; GUO Hong-bo; KE Wei-dong

    2009-01-01

    To estimate genetic variation in rhizome lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) gcrmplasms in China, a total of 94 rhizome lotus germplasms collected from 18 provinces in China were assessed. The RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) marker was employed. The selected 17 random primers detected 139 polymorphic alleles out of a total 207 (67.15%). Nei's gene diversity statistics and region differentiation parameters indicated that all germplasms had a relatively high level of genetic diversity with ne=1.3202, h=0.1937, I=0.2982 and the gene flow among all regions was Nm=5.5742. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered all 94 germplasms into two clusters: One contained eight commercial cultivars and major landraces, and the other included the wild and some special landraces from five regions, and the PCA analysis exhibited the similar result. Those germplasms from southwestern and eastern China had higher genetic diversity than those from the southern, northern and central China. Predominant proportion of genetic variation (95.61%) was found significant within rather than among (4.39%) regions, as revealed by AMOVA analysis. The data analysis also revealed that the genetic diversity of rhizome lotus germplasms among different regions is positively related to their geographic distances, though it is ambiguous to find the trend from the UPGMA dendrogram and the PCA analysis. A relatively high genetic diversity and gene flow resided in the root lotus germplasms; about 96% of the variation was found within region; accessions from southwest and eastern China have higher genetic diversity than those from the southern, northern and central China.

  8. Extract of lotus leaf ( Nelumbo nucifera ) and its active constituent catechin with insulin secretagogue activity.

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    Huang, Chun Fa; Chen, Ya Wen; Yang, Ching Yao; Lin, Hui Yi; Way, Tzong Der; Chiang, Wenchang; Liu, Shing Hwa

    2011-02-23

    The effect of lotus leaf ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) on diabetes is unclear. We hypothesized that lotus leaf can regulate insulin secretion and blood glucose levels. The in vitro and in vivo effects of lotus leaf methanolic extract (NNE) on insulin secretion and hyperglycemia were investigated. NNE increased insulin secretion from β cells (HIT-T15) and human islets. NNE enhanced the intracellular calcium levels in β cells. NNE could also enhance phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC), which could be reversed by a PKC inhibitor. The in vivo studies showed that NNE possesses the ability to regulate blood glucose levels in fasted normal mice and high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo effects of the active constituents of NNE, quercetin, and catechin, on glucose-induced insulin secretion and blood glucose regulation were evaluated. Quercetin did not affect insulin secretion, but catechin significantly and dose-dependently enhanced insulin secretion. Orally administered catechin significantly reversed the glucose intolerance in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic mice. These findings suggest that NNE and its active constituent catechin are useful in the control of hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus through their action as insulin secretagogues.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

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    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  10. Development of novel EST-SSRs from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) and their utilization for the genetic diversity analysis of N. nucifera.

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    Pan, Lei; Xia, Qiuju; Quan, Zhiwu; Liu, Honggao; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide a valuable resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite markers. This study identified SSRs within ESTs from Nelumbo nucifera (lotus or sacred lotus), developed markers from them, and assessed the potential of those markers for diversity analysis. Within 2207 ESTs from N. nucifera downloaded from GenBank, 1483 unigenes (303 contigs and 1180 singletons) were identified. After eliminating for redundancy, 125 SSR-containing ESTs were derived, and 71 unique SSRs were detected with an average density of one SSR per 13.04 kb. Dinucleotide repeats were the dominant motif in N. nucifera, whereas the sequences AG/TC/GA/CT, AAG/TTC/GAT/AGA, and AAAGCC were the most frequent of di-, tri-, and hexanucleotide motifs, respectively. The AG/TC (40.85%) and AAG (5.63%) motifs were predominant for the di- and trinucleotide repeats, respectively. Sixty-two SSR-containing ESTs were suitable for primer design. From these sequences, 23 EST-SSR markers were developed and were applied to 39 cultivated varieties of N. nucifera, 10 accessions of wild N. nucifera, and 1 accession of Nelumbo lutea (American lotus). Genetic diversity and genetic relationships were examined by constructing unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average dendrograms and principal coordinates analysis plots based on SSR polymorphisms. Results indicated genetic differentiation between cultivated and wild lotus and between seed lotus cultivars and rhizome lotus cultivars. These EST-SSR markers will be useful for further studies of the evolution and diversity of Nelumbo.

  11. Characterization of flower-bud transcriptome and development of genic SSR markers in Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn..

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    Weiwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. is the national flower of India, Vietnam, and one of the top ten traditional Chinese flowers. Although lotus is highly valued for its ornamental, economic and cultural uses, genomic information, particularly the expressed sequence based (genic markers is limited. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing provides large amounts of transcriptome data for promoting gene discovery and development of molecular markers.In this study, 68,593 unigenes were assembled from 1.34 million 454 GS-FLX sequence reads of a mixed flower-bud cDNA pool derived from three accessions of N. nucifera. A total of 5,226 SSR loci were identified, and 3,059 primer pairs were designed for marker development. Di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant type identified with a frequency of 65.2%, followed by tri- (31.7%, tetra- (2.1%, penta- (0.5% and hexa-nucleotide repeats (0.5%. A total of 575 primer pairs were synthesized, of which 514 (89.4% yielded PCR amplification products. In eight Nelumbo accessions, 109 markers were polymorphic. They were used to genotype a sample of 44 accessions representing diverse wild and cultivated genotypes of Nelumbo. The number of alleles per locus varied from 2 to 9 alleles and the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.6 to 0.9. We performed genetic diversity analysis using 109 polymorphic markers. A UPGMA dendrogram was constructed based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients revealing distinct clusters among the 44 accessions.Deep transcriptome sequencing of lotus flower buds developed 3,059 genic SSRs, making a significant addition to the existing SSR markers in lotus. Among them, 109 polymorphic markers were successfully validated in 44 accessions of Nelumbo. This comprehensive set of genic SSR markers developed in our study will facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, construction of linkage maps, gene mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding for lotus.

  12. Antioxidant activity and DNA fingerprint of four varieties of lotus stamens (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

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    Nithida Phonkot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA fingerprints of stamens of four varieties of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn were established and their antioxidant activity was studied. PCR amplification was used for identification of Lotus DNA by using OPS3, OPS11, OPS13 and OPE3 random decamer-primers. The result showed variety-specific markers of Pathum, Sattabongkot, Boontharik and Sattabuut varieties. The antioxidant activities of solutions in methanol and mixed-solvent of the four varieties were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH model. The antioxidant activities (IC50 of methanol solution of the four varieties were 68.306.30, 62.224.00, 31.603.40 and 40.901.50 g.mL-1, respectively, whereas those of the mixed-solvent solution were 2.210.06, 2.230.05, 1.290.02 and 1.830.07 mg.mL-1. The result showed that IC50 of both solutions of Sattabongkot were significantly low (p<0.05, at the confidence level of 95%, indicating a higher activity than the others.

  13. Factors influencing fecundity in experimental crosses of water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cultivars

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    Teng Nian-Jun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding programs for the water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera are hampered by an inability to account for variation in seed set associated with crosses between different cultivars. We studied seed set in two reciprocal crosses between lotus cultivars (‘Guili’ × ‘Aijiangnan’ and ‘Molingqiuse’ × ‘Qinhuaiyanzhi' to obtain insights into factors that govern fecundity in these experimental hybrids. Pollen viability, stigma receptivity and embryo development were compared for each hybrid and reciprocal cross. Results Pollen viability of the individual cultivars ranged from 4.1% to 20.2%, with the highest level (>11.9% for all cultivars observed from the earliest collected grains (05:00–06:00 a.m.. Stigmatic pollen germination peaked at 4 h after pollination and varied from 4.8 to 60.6 grains per stigma among the crosses. Production of normal embryos ranged from 7.6% to 58.8% at 1 d after pollination and from 0 to 25% by 11 d after pollination. Seed set in crosses (0.2–23.3% was generally lower than in open-pollinated plants (8.4–26.5%. Similar to the germination results, seed set was substantially reduced in both reciprocal crosses. Conclusions These results suggested that poor pollen fertility, low stigma receptivity, and embryo abortion were responsible for the failure of the crosses ‘Molingqiuse’ × ‘Qinhuaiyanzhi’, ‘Qinhuaiyanzhi’ × ‘Molingqiuse’, and ‘Aijiangnan’ × ‘Guili’.

  14. Metabolomic and proteomic profiles reveal the dynamics of primary metabolism during seed development of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera

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    Pingfang eYang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera belongs to Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asia countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market values, lotus seed also plays crucial roles in lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP which was corresponding to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal the metabolism adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acids metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  15. Metabolomic and Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Dynamics of Primary Metabolism during Seed Development of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).

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    Wang, Lei; Fu, Jinlei; Li, Ming; Fragner, Lena; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) belongs to the Nelumbonaceae family. Its seeds are widely consumed in Asian countries as snacks or even medicine. Besides the market value, lotus seed also plays a crucial role in the lotus life cycle. Consequently, it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the development of lotus seed. During its development, lotus seed undergoes cell division, expansion, reserve accumulation, desiccation, and maturation phases. We observed morphological and biochemical changes from 10 to 25 days after pollination (DAP) which corresponded to the reserve synthesis and accumulation phase. The volume of the seed expanded until 20 DAP with the color of the seed coat changing from yellow-green to dark green and gradually fading again. Starch and protein rapidly accumulated from 15 to 20 DAP. To further reveal metabolic adaptation, primary metabolites and proteins profiles were obtained using mass spectrometry based platforms. Metabolites and enzymes involved in sugar metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle and amino acid metabolism showed sequential dynamics enabling the clear separation of the different metabolic states during lotus seed development. The integration of the data revealed a highly significant metabolic switch at 15 DAP going through a transition of metabolically highly active tissue to the preparation of storage tissue. The results provide a reference data set for the evaluation of primary metabolism during lotus seed development.

  16. Antipyretic activity of seeds from Red and White type of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera in Albino Rat

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    P.K. Deepa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera (red and white types at dose rates of 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg was administered orally in rats in which pyrexia was induced with brewers yeast. The standard drug used was aspirin (100 mg/kg. The standard drug showed antipyretic effect from first hour of the study onwards. It was found that during the third hour of the study N. nucifera red and white types, 600 mg/kg showed significant decrease in body temperature. During the fourth hour of the study, all the treatment groups showed antipyretic effect. A similar decrease in body temperature was observed on fifth hour of the study also. Hence the present study revealed that the N. nucifera (red and white types at the rate of 400 and 600 mg/kg is effective in reducing body temperature in yeast induced pynexia in rats. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 213-214

  17. Analysis of Flavonoids in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Leaves and Their Antioxidant Activity Using Macroporous Resin Chromatography Coupled with LC-MS/MS and Antioxidant Biochemical Assays.

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    Zhu, Ming-Zhi; Wu, Wei; Jiao, Li-Li; Yang, Ping-Fang; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2015-06-08

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are rich in flavonoids. In an effort to thoroughly analyze their flavonoid components, macroporous resin chromatography coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously enrich and identify flavonoids from lotus leaves. Flavonoids extracted from lotus leaves were selectively enriched in the macroporous resin column, eluted subsequently as fraction II, and successively subjected to analysis with the HPLC-MS/MS and bioactivity assays. Altogether, fourteen flavonoids were identified, four of which were identified from lotus leaves for the first time, including quercetin 3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, diosmetin 7-O-hexose, and isorhamnetin 3-O-arabino- pyranosyl-(1→2)-glucopyranoside. Further bioactivity assays revealed that these flavonoids from lotus leaves possess strong antioxidant activity, and demonstrate very good potential to be explored as food supplements or even pharmaceutical products to improve human health.

  18. Analysis of Flavonoids in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Leaves and Their Antioxidant Activity Using Macroporous Resin Chromatography Coupled with LC-MS/MS and Antioxidant Biochemical Assays

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    Ming-Zhi Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaves, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, are rich in flavonoids. In an effort to thoroughly analyze their flavonoid components, macroporous resin chromatography coupled with HPLC-MS/MS was employed to simultaneously enrich and identify flavonoids from lotus leaves. Flavonoids extracted from lotus leaves were selectively enriched in the macroporous resin column, eluted subsequently as fraction II, and successively subjected to analysis with the HPLC-MS/MS and bioactivity assays. Altogether, fourteen flavonoids were identified, four of which were identified from lotus leaves for the first time, including quercetin 3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, diosmetin 7-O-hexose, and isorhamnetin 3-O-arabino- pyranosyl-(1→2-glucopyranoside. Further bioactivity assays revealed that these flavonoids from lotus leaves possess strong antioxidant activity, and demonstrate very good potential to be explored as food supplements or even pharmaceutical products to improve human health.

  19. Mode of Action Analyses of Neferine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera against Multidrug-Resistant Tumor Cells

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    Onat Kadioglu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the green seed embryos of Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been previously shown to have various anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of neferine in terms of P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibition via in vitro cytotoxicity assays, R123 uptake assays in drug-resistant cancer cells, in silico molecular docking analysis on human P-gp and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME, quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR and toxicity analyses. Lipinski rule of five were mainly considered for the ADME evaluation and the preset descriptors including number of hydrogen bond donor, acceptor, hERG IC50, logp, logD were considered for the QSAR analyses. Neferine revealed higher toxicity toward paclitaxel- and doxorubicin-resistant breast, lung or colon cancer cells, implying collateral sensitivity of these cells toward neferine. Increased R123 uptake was observed in a comparable manner to the control P-gp inhibitor, verapamil. Molecular docking analyses revealed that neferine still interacts with P-gp, even if R123 was pre-bound. Bioinformatical ADME and toxicity analyses revealed that neferine possesses the druggability parameters with no predicted toxicity. In conclusion, neferine may allocate the P-gp drug-binding pocket and prevent R123 binding in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where neferine increased R123 uptake.

  20. Quantitative Determination of Alkaloids in Lotus Flower (Flower Buds of Nelumbo nucifera and Their Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity

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    Toshio Morikawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative analytical method for five aporphine alkaloids, nuciferine (1, nornuciferine (2, N-methylasimilobine (3, asimilobine (4, and pronuciferine (5, and five benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, armepavine (6, norarmepavine (7, N-methylcoclaurine (8, coclaurine (9, and norjuziphine (10, identified as the constituents responsible for the melanogenesis inhibitory activity of the extracts of lotus flowers (the flower buds of Nelumbo nucifera, has been developed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimum conditions for separation and detection of these 10 alkaloids were achieved on a πNAP column, a reversed-phase column with naphthylethyl group-bonded silica packing material, with CH3CN–0.2% aqueous acetic acid as the mobile phase and using mass spectrometry equipped with a positive-mode electrospray ionization source. According to the protocol established, distributions of these 10 alkaloids in the petal, receptacle, and stamen parts, which were separated from the whole flower, were examined. As expected, excellent correlations were observed between the total alkaloid content and melanogenesis inhibitory activity. Among the active alkaloids, nornuciferine (2 was found to give a carbamate salt (2′′ via formation of an unstable carbamic acid (2′ by absorption of carbon dioxide from the air.

  1. The genome of the long-living Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Gaertn.)

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    Sacred lotus, a basal eudicot of agricultural, medicinal, cultural, and religious importance, is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity, and for its outstanding water repellency, the "lotus effect”. The genome sequence of the Sacred lotus variety 'China Antique' lacks the paleo-triplic...

  2. Unraveling the seed endosperm proteome of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) utilizing 1DE and 2DE separation in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry.

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    Moro, Carlo F; Fukao, Yoichiro; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Shioda, Seiji; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Yonekura, Masami

    2015-05-01

    Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) or lotus, is an aquatic plant native to India, and presently consumed as food mainly in China and Japan. Lotus is also widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Extracts from different parts of the lotus plant have been reported to show diverse biological activities-antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory. Despite this, little work has been done in isolating and identifying proteins responsible for these activities, or yet importantly to establish a lotus proteome. The aim of our group is to develop a proteome catalog of the lotus plant, starting with its seed, the nutrient rich food source. In this present study, the seed endosperm-most abundant in proteins, and main nutrient storage tissue-was targeted for protein extraction by testing five different extraction protocols, followed by their proteomic analyses using complementary 1DE and 2DE approaches in conjunction with MS/MS. The inventory of 66 nonredundant proteins obtained by 1DE-MS and the 30 obtained by 2DE-MS provides the first catalog of the lotus seed endosperm, where the most abundant protein functions were in categories of metabolic activities related to carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient storage.

  3. Optimization of microwave vacuum drying of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) seeds by response surface methodology.

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    Tian, Yuting; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Yafeng; Chen, Feng; Guo, Zhebin; Lin, Yufei; Zheng, Baodong

    2012-10-01

    Drying is the main process used to treat lotus seeds for storage. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize processing methods for microwave vacuum (MWV) drying of lotus seeds and to create a desirable product. A central composite design with three important factors: microwave output power (2.0-4.0 kW), vacuum degree (-0.070 to -0.090 MPa) and on/off ratio (68/52 s to 99/21 s) was used to study the response variables of drying time, shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio and whiteness index. The optimum conditions for MWV drying of lotus seeds were determined to obtain a minimal drying time, minimal shrinkage ratio, maximum rehydration ratio and maximum whiteness index. The optimum drying conditions were found to be: microwave output power 3.2 kW, vacuum degree -0.083 MPa and on/off ratio 94/26 s. Under these optimal conditions, drying time, shrinkage ratio, rehydration ratio and whiteness index were found to be 10 min, 37.66%, 157.1% and 68.83, respectively.

  4. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-Jyh Lin; Mei-Hsuan Wu; Yi-Hsuan Ma; Li-Yu Chung; Chung-Yi Chen; Chuan-Min Yen

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemeri...

  5. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (...

  6. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Naiyan; Zhang, Fengshou

    2012-05-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N+ into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  7. Structure and physicochemical properties of starches in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) rhizome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huaguang; Cheng, Libao; Yin, Jingjing; Yan, Shunjun; Liu, Kejun; Zhang, Fengmin; Xu, Bin; Li, Liangjun

    2013-01-01

    The type and content of starch are believed to be the most critical factors in determining the storage and processing quality of lotus rhizome species, and the intention of this study is to survey the structure and properties of starches isolated from rhizomes of two lotus cultivars using X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimetry, and rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). Starch in rhizome of cultivar Meirenhong exhibited C-type X-ray diffraction pattern, while starch in rhizome of cultivar Wawalian showed A-type pattern. 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP-MAS NMR) also confirmed the polymorphs. The relative crystallinity of two starches was quantitatively estimated from two methods and compared. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) results indicated that the external regions of the starch granules had a great level of ordered structure. Starch granules in Meirenhong showed oval-shaped granules, while starch granules in Wawalian were elongated and oval in shape with relatively large size. Gelatinization temperatures of starch in Meirenhong and Wawalian were 330.5 and 342.4 K, respectively, and the gelatinization temperature range of Meirenhong was significantly wider than that of Wawalian. Starch in rhizome of cultivar Meirenhong showed lower pasting temperature, lower hot and cool viscosities, lower setback, and higher peak viscosity and breakdown than those of Wawalian in RVA pasting profiles at 6% starch concentration. PMID:24804031

  8. Simultaneous qualitative assessment and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in various tissues of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quad mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sha; Fang, Linchuan; Xi, Huifen; Guan, Le; Fang, Jinbao; Liu, Yanling; Wu, Benhong; Li, Shaohua

    2012-04-29

    Flavonoid composition and concentration were investigated in 12 different tissues of 'Ti-1' lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) by high performance liquid chromatography equipped with photodiode array detection tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)). A total of 20 flavonoids belonging to six groups (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, isohamnetin, diosmetin derivatives) were separated and identified. Myricetin 3-O-galactoside, myricetin 3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucuronide and free aglycone diometin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone) were first reported in lotus. Flavonoid composition varied largely with tissue type, and diverse compounds (5-15) were found in leaf and flower stalks, flower pistils, seed coats and embryos. Flower tissues including flower petals, stamens, pistils, and, especially, reproductive tissue fruit coats had more flavonoid compounds (15-17) than leaves (12), while no flavonoids were detectable in seed kernels. The flavonoid content of seed embryos was high, 730.95 mg 100g(-1) DW (dry weight). As regards the other tissues, mature leaf pulp (771.79 mg 100 g(-1) FW (fresh weight)) and young leaves (650.67 mg 100 g(-1) FW) had higher total flavonoid amount than flower stamens (359.45 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and flower petals (342.97 mg 100g(-1) FW), while leaf stalks, flower stalks and seed coats had much less total flavonoid (less than 40 mg 100 g(-1) FW).

  9. Management and uses of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertsn. in Thai wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La-ongsri, W.; Trisonthi, C.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Management and use of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.-the lotus plant-was studied in 58 wetlands distributed throughout Thailand. Although traditionally harvested in extractive systems depending on natural wetlands, N. nucifera is now increasingly being managed. Two hundred eighty informants mentioned 20...... related to the abundance of wetlands and natural stand in those regions, and maybe also cultural differences...

  10. Alkaloid constituents from flower buds and leaves of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaeaceae) with melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Tanabe, Genzo; Oda, Yoshimi; Yokota, Nami; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Rika; Ohta, Tomoe; Ogawa, Keiko; Nishida, Shino; Miki, Hisako; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    Methanolic extracts from the flower buds and leaves of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaeaceae) were found to show inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. From the methanolic extracts, a new alkaloid, N-methylasimilobine N-oxide, was isolated together with eleven benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. The absolute stereostructure of the new alkaloid was determined from chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents isolated, nuciferine, N-methylasimilobine, (-)-lirinidine, and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-6a,7-dehydroaporphine showed potent inhibition of melanogenesis. Comparison of the inhibitory activities of synthetic related alkaloids facilitated characterization of the structure-activity relationships of aporphine- and benzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids. In addition, 3-30 μM nuciferine and N-methylasimilobine inhibited the expression of tyrosinase mRNA, 3-30 μM N-methylasimilobine inhibited the expression of TRP-1 mRNA, and 10-30 μM nuciferine inhibited the expression of TRP-2 mRNA.

  11. Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Paudel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae is a potential aquatic crop grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in various systems of medicine including folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and oriental medicine. Many chemical constituents have been isolated till the date. However, the bioactive constituents of lotus are mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Traditionally, the whole plant of lotus was used as astringent, emollient, and diuretic. It was used in the treatment of diarrhea, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The rhizome extract was used as antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of asteroidal triterpenoid. Leaves were used as an effective drug for hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia. Flowers were used to treat diarrhea, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia. In traditional medicine practice, seeds are used in the treatment of tissue inflammation, cancer and skin diseases, leprosy, and poison antidote. Embryo of lotus seeds is used in traditional Chinese medicine as Lian Zi Xin, which primarily helps to overcome nervous disorders, insomnia, and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and arrhythmia. Nutritional value of lotus is as important as pharmaceutical value. These days’ different parts of lotus have been consumed as functional foods. Thus, lotus can be regarded as a potential nutraceutical source.

  12. Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Nelumbo nucifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Keshav Raj; Panth, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) is a potential aquatic crop grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in various systems of medicine including folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and oriental medicine. Many chemical constituents have been isolated till the date. However, the bioactive constituents of lotus are mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Traditionally, the whole plant of lotus was used as astringent, emollient, and diuretic. It was used in the treatment of diarrhea, tissue inflammation, and homeostasis. The rhizome extract was used as antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of asteroidal triterpenoid. Leaves were used as an effective drug for hematemesis, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia. Flowers were used to treat diarrhea, cholera, fever, and hyperdipsia. In traditional medicine practice, seeds are used in the treatment of tissue inflammation, cancer and skin diseases, leprosy, and poison antidote. Embryo of lotus seeds is used in traditional Chinese medicine as Lian Zi Xin, which primarily helps to overcome nervous disorders, insomnia, and cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and arrhythmia). Nutritional value of lotus is as important as pharmaceutical value. These days' different parts of lotus have been consumed as functional foods. Thus, lotus can be regarded as a potential nutraceutical source.

  13. Antiplatelet activity of white and pink Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindha Durairaj

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nelumbonaceae a plant used in Ayurvedic medicine (common name: lotus, is a perennial, large and rhizomatous aquatic herb most prevalent in South India. Preliminary phytochemical screening of both white and pink Nelumbo nucifera flowers revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents (flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols etc,. Hence, an attempt has been made to screen the effect of Nelumbo nucifera flowers (both types on platelet aggregation. The antiplatelet activity of hydroethanolic extract of both types of flowers was studied using platelet-rich plasma in different concentrations (100-500µg/ml. Both white and pink Nelumbo nucifera flower extracts showed dose-dependent effective antiplatelet activity with maximum activity at 500µg/ml concentration; prevention of platelet aggregation was 50% of that achieved with standard aspirin. Furthermore, the antiplatelet activity of white flowers was relatively high (pNelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nelumbonaceae, planta utilizada na medicina Ayurvédica, é erva aquática rizomatosa grande, predominante no sul da Índia. A triagem fitoquímica preliminar das flores brancas e cor-de-rosa de Nelumbo nucifera revelou a presença de constituintes fitoquímicos (flavonoides, alcaloides, fenóis etc. Assim, tentou-se a triagem do efeito das flores de Nelumbo nucifera de ambos os tipos na agregação plaquetária. A atividade antiplaquetária dos extratos hidroetanólico de ambos os tipos de flores foi estudada, utilizando-se plasma rico em plaquetas em duas diferentes concentrações (100 - 500 µg/mL. Tanto os extratos das flores brancas quanto daquelas de cor-de-rosa mostraram atividade antiplaquetária dose-dependente, com o máximo na concentração de 500 µg/mL. A prevenção da agregação plaquetária foi 50% daquela alcançada com o padrão de ácido acetilsalicílico. Além disso, a atividade antiplaquetária das flores brancas foi, relativamente, alta (p<0,05; ANOVA

  14. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study.

  15. Study on Extraction Conditions of Pectin from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera ‘Hong Xiang Lotus') Seed Peel Waste%红湘莲莲皮粉果胶多糖的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 李嫦; 黄师荣

    2013-01-01

    用草酸铵溶液作为提取溶剂提取了红湘莲莲皮粉中的果胶多糖.通过单因素实验法考察了草酸铵浓度、提取温度、提取时间以及料液比等四个因素对果胶多糖得率的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,通过正交实验,得到的最佳工艺条件为:草酸铵浓度0.7%,提取温度100℃,提取时间2h,料液比1∶30(m/V).在该条件下,果胶多糖的得率为12.50%.所得果胶多糖经FTIR分析和酯化度测定为低酯化度果胶.%Pectin polysaccharide was extracted from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera 'Hong Xiang Lotus') seed peel waste by using ammonium oxalate aqueous solution as the extraction solvent. Effects of extraction conditions such as extracting temperature, ratio of solid to solvent, concentration of ammonium oxalate and extracting time on the extraction yield were studied by single factor analysis method. The orthogonal experiment design was used to optimize the extraction conditions. The optimal extraction conditions are as follows: extracting temperature 100 ℃, ratio of solid to solvent 1:30 (m/V), concentration of ammonium oxalate 0.7% and extracting time 2 h. Under these conditions, the extraction yield 12.5% is highest The obtained extract was identified as low methoxyl pectin by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTR) and determination of the degree of esterification (DE).

  16. Immature Seed Endosperm and Embryo Proteomics of the Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn. by One-Dimensional Gel-Based Tandem Mass Spectrometry and a Comparison with the Mature Endosperm Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo F. Moro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. seed proteome has been the focus of our studies, and we have recently established the first proteome dataset for its mature seed endosperm. The current study unravels the immature endosperm, as well as the embryo proteome, to provide a comprehensive dataset of the lotus seed proteins and a comparison between the mature and immature endosperm tissues across the seed’s development. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE linked with tandem mass spectrometry provided a protein inventory of the immature endosperm (122 non-redundant proteins and embryo (141 non-redundant proteins tissues. Comparing with the previous mature endosperm dataset (66 non-redundant proteins, a total of 206 non-redundant proteins were identified across all three tissues of the lotus seed. Results revealed some significant differences in proteome composition between the three lotus seed tissues, most notably between the mature endosperm and its immature developmental stage shifting the proteins from nutrient production to nutrient storage.

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Rhizome Formation in Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Cheng

    Full Text Available Lotus root is a popular wetland vegetable which produces edible rhizome. At the molecular level, the regulation of rhizome formation is very complex, which has not been sufficiently addressed in research. In this study, to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs in lotus root, four libraries (L1 library: stolon stage, L2 library: initial swelling stage, L3 library: middle swelling stage, L4: later swelling stage were constructed from the rhizome development stages. High-throughput tag-sequencing technique was used which is based on Solexa Genome Analyzer Platform. Approximately 5.0 million tags were sequenced, and 4542104, 4474755, 4777919, and 4750348 clean tags including 151282, 137476, 215872, and 166005 distinct tags were obtained after removal of low quality tags from each library respectively. More than 43% distinct tags were unambiguous tags mapping to the reference genes, and 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. From L1, L2, L3, and L4, total 20471, 18785, 23448, and 21778 genes were annotated, after mapping their functions in existing databases. Profiling of gene expression in L1/L2, L2/L3, and L3/L4 libraries were different among most of the selected 20 DEGs. Most of the DEGs in L1/L2 libraries were relevant to fiber development and stress response, while in L2/L3 and L3/L4 libraries, major of the DEGs were involved in metabolism of energy and storage. All up-regulated transcriptional factors in four libraries and 14 important rhizome formation-related genes in four libraries were also identified. In addition, the expression of 9 genes from identified DEGs was performed by qRT-PCR method. In a summary, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during the rhizome formation in lotus root.

  18. Cytotoxic, Antitumor and Immunomodulatory Effects of the Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lotus is an edible and medicinal plant, and the extracts from its different parts exhibit various bioactivities. In the present study, the hot water–soluble polysaccharides from lotus seeds (LSPS were evaluated for their cancer cell cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. LSPS showed significant inhibitory effects on the mouse gastric cancer MFC cells, human liver cancer HuH-7 cells and mouse hepatocarcinoma H22 cells. The animal studies showed that LSPS inhibited tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice with the highest inhibition rate of 45.36%, which is comparable to that induced by cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg treatment (50.79%. The concentrations of white blood cells were significantly reduced in cyclophosphamide-treated groups (p < 0.01, while LSPS showed much fewer side effects according to the hematology analysis. LSPS improved the immune response in H22 tumor-bearing mice by enhancing the spleen and thymus indexes, and increasing the levels of serum cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Moreover, LSPS also showed in vivo antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase activity, thus reducing the malondialdehyde level in the liver tissue. These results suggested that LSPS can be used as an antitumor and immunomodulatory agent.

  19. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  20. Avaliação das propriedades de intumescimento e permeabilidade de filmes isolados de polimetacrilato contendo polissacarídeo da raiz de Lótus (Nelumbo nucifera Evaluation of swelling and permeability properties of films isolated from polymethacrylate containing polysaccharide from Lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata Rosina

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Polissacarídeo extraído da raiz de Lótus (Nelumbo nucifera adicionado a polimetacrilato foi utilizado para a obtenção de filmes isolados, constituindo material candidato ao revestimento de formas farmacêuticas sólidas orais, sendo estas voltadas à liberação modificada de fármacos, potencialmente suscetíveis à degradação pela microflora presente exclusivamente na região distal do trato gastrintestinal. A adição do polissacarídeo ao polímero de base, dispersão aquosa Eudragit®RS 30D, ocorreu em diferentes proporções: 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30. Os filmes isolados foram caracterizados pela determinação do índice de intumescimento e pela transmissão de vapor de água. Os resultados registraram, para as diferentes associações testadas, características de transparência (opacidade e de flexibilidade alteradas e dependentes do aumento da concentração do polissacarídeo: 100:0>90:10>80:20>7030, o mesmo ocorrendo no tocante à permeabilidade ao vapor d'água. Todavia estas diferenças não foram significativas entre si, demonstrando manutenção das propriedades físico-químicas do polímero sintético contendo polissacarídeo, o que permite sugerir o material obtido como candidato potencial ao desenvolvimento de sistema para liberação colônica.Polysaccharides such as extracted from Lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera combined with polymethacrylates on isolated films for film coating was studied as potential vehicles for colonic drug delivery, susceptible to fermentation by micro flora. For the preparation we used the association of Eudragit®RS 30D and polysaccharides in different concentrations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 in aqueous-based solvents. In the present study, the films were characterized by swelling studies and water vapor transmission studies. These tests demonstrated that different associations do not present significant differences, showing that the physico-chemical properties of EudragitâRS 30D are not

  1. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.

  2. A Comprehensive Review on Chemical Profiling of Nelumbo Nucifera: Potential for Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Gautam, Lekh Nath S; Adhikari, Deepak; Karki, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera, also known as sacred lotus, has primarily been used as food throughout the Asian continent, and its medicinal values have been described in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the chemical profiling and pharmacological activities of N. nucifera. Herein, we critically reviewed and analysed the phytochemical and pharmacological reports of N. nucifera. Our search for the keyword 'Nelumbo nucifera pharmacology' in all databases reported in Web of Science yielded 373 results excluding reviews and abstracts in document types. Two hundred and forty-three spectrum natural compounds from different parts of N. nucifera belonging to diverse chemical groups, including alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids, proteins, minerals, and vitamins have been reported. In addition, distinct pharmacological activities, mainly against cancer, microbial infection, diabetes, inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity, have been associated with crude extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds. This review highlights potential use of neferine, liensinine, isoliensinine, and nuciferine in clinical trials. In depth, mechanism of the potential chemical entities from N. nucifera via structure activity relationship needs to be explored to guarantee the stability and safety for the clinical use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  4. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  5. Chemical constituents from Nelumbo nucifera leaves and their anti-obesity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jong Hoon; Kim, Eun Sil; Lee, Chul; Kim, Soonok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-06-15

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae), commonly called lotus, is widely distributed throughout Eastern Asia. It has been used for food and medicine for a long time. A phytochemical investigation of N. nucifera leaves led to the isolation of 13 megastigmanes (1-13), including a new megastigmane, nelumnucifoside A (1), and a new eudesmane sesquiterpene, nelumnucifoside B (14), eight alkaloids (15-22), and 11 flavonoids (23-33). Their chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS spectrometry. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of the compounds was determined by NOESY and CD spectrometry, respectively. Compounds 19 and 22 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase, whereas compounds 15 and 16 showed a strong inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, the leaves of N. nucifera have potential as an anti-obesity agent by inhibiting pancreatic lipase and adipocyte differentiation.

  6. Cloning,subcellular localization and expression analysis of NnFUL genes from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)%莲 NnFUL 基因克隆、亚细胞定位及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岳; 张微微; 田代科; 王金刚

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of FUL-like gene of A-class MADS-box family on floral organ develop-ment of Nelumbo nucifera,flower buds of N.nucifera ‘Da Sajin’were used as a test material and a cDNA of a FUL-like gene,being named NnFUL and 763 bp long,was successfully cloned by rT-PCr.The cDNA’s open reading frame (OrF)encodes 250 amino acids totally.The NnFUL protein is hydrophilic and its secondary struc-ture mainly consists of α-helical,irregularly curled and extended strands.The phylogenetic analysis showed that the NnFUL protein belongs to a class of FUL-like protein in AP1 ?SQUA subfamily and has a close genetic rela-tionship with FUL-like protein of Platanus ×acerifolia.The subcellular localization indicated that the gene NnFUL is located in the cell nucleus.The fluorescent quantitation real-time PCr analysis showed that NnFUL has the highest expression level in the floral organ,mainly concentrating in the sepals and petals,and also has some expression in the vegetative organs.Therefore,the gene NnFUL has a certain regulatory effect on development of both sepals and petals in lotus flowers.%为了研究 MADS-box A 类基因在莲花器官发育中的作用,以莲品种‘大洒锦’(Nelumbo nucifera ‘Da Sajin’)的花蕾为试验材料,利用 rT-PCr 方法克隆了莲 FUL-like 基因 cDNA 序列,命名为 NnFUL。NnFUL 的cDNA长度为763 bp,其开放阅读框(Open reading frame,OrF)共编码250个氨基酸。该蛋白属于亲水性蛋白,二级结构主要由α-螺旋、无规则卷曲和延伸链组成。系统进化分析表明:NnFUL 编码的蛋白与 AP1?SQUA 亚家族中的FUL-like 蛋白聚为一类,与二球悬铃木(Platanus ×acerifolia )的 FUL-like 蛋白具有较高的亲缘关系。亚细胞定位显示该基因位于细胞核中。荧光定量 real-time PCr 结果表明:NnFUL 在花器官中表达量最高,主要集中在花萼和花瓣中,同时在营养器官中也有表达;因此,NnFUL 在

  7. 对莲子胚芽变绿的探讨%Discussion on the Greening of the LotusNelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.) Seed Embryo Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天芳; 李长春; 肖丽

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the greening of the lotus embryo from four aspects:special chloroplasts have formed during the development of the lotus embryo;the development of the lotus embryo goes through a special pathway;the greening of the lotus embryo must be illuminated with light and the lotus embryo can sense the light signal while they are not well packaged.%主要探讨了莲子胚芽变绿的几个问题:莲胚芽在发育过程中形成特殊的叶绿体;莲胚芽叶绿体发育经历的是一条独特的发育途径;莲胚芽变绿需要经过光照;包被还不严实时期的莲胚芽能感受到环境光信号的作用。

  8. Development of biological functional material and product from Nelumbo nucifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Il Yun; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong

    2008-01-15

    The solvent extracts of Nelumbo nucifera G. were investigated for the activities of antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle and antimicrobial effects to apply as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. The electron donating ability of irradiated NN-L extract was above 85% at the concentration of 50ppm. The superoxide dismutase(SOD)-like activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 76% at 1,000ppm concentration. The xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 15% at 1,000ppm. The tyrosinase inhibitory effect of irradiated NN-L extract was about 18% at 1,000ppm. Anti-wrinkle effect, the elastase inhibition activity of irradiated NN-L extract was about 45% at 1,000ppm concentration. All these findings suggested that Nelumbo nucifera G. has a great potential as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

  9. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Provides Insight into the Transcript Profile of the Genes Involved in Aporphine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Zhu, Lingping; Li, Ling; Li, Juanjuan; Xu, Liming; Feng, Ji; Liu, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    The predominant alkaloids in lotus leaves are aporphine alkaloids. These are the most important active components and have many pharmacological properties, but little is known about their biosynthesis. We used digital gene expression (DGE) technology to identify differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between two lotus cultivars with different alkaloid contents at four leaf development stages. We also predicted potential genes involved in aporphine alkaloid biosynthesis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Approximately 335 billion nucleotides were generated; and 94% of which were aligned against the reference genome. Of 22 thousand expressed genes, 19,000 were differentially expressed between the two cultivars at the four stages. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity were enriched significantly in most pairwise comparisons. In Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, dozens of DEGs were assigned to the categories of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, and flavonoid biosynthesis. The genes encoding norcoclaurine synthase (NCS), norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase (6OMT), coclaurine N-methyltransferase (CNMT), N-methylcoclaurine 3′-hydroxylase (NMCH), and 3′-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4′-O-methyltransferase (4′OMT) in the common pathways of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis and the ones encoding corytuberine synthase (CTS) in aporphine alkaloid biosynthetic pathway, which have been characterized in other plants, were identified in lotus. These genes had positive effects on alkaloid content, albeit with phenotypic lag. The WGCNA of DEGs revealed that one network module was associated with the dynamic change of alkaloid content. Eleven genes encoding proteins with methyltransferase, oxidoreductase and CYP450 activities were identified. These were surmised to be genes involved in aporphine alkaloid biosynthesis. This

  10. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of inorganic constituents in Nelumbo nucifera seeds on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sivasankari S; Subramanian, Iyyam Pillai; Pillai, Subramanian Sorimuthu; Muthusamy, Kandaswamy

    2010-12-01

    The seeds of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus) have been used in the traditional system of medicine for various ailments including diabetes. The present study was aimed at analyzing the levels of biologically important trace elements in the lotus seeds by atomic absorption spectroscopy and evaluating the hypoglycemic properties of seed ash on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Diabetic rats treated with lotus seed ash at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight orally for 30 days exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity. The presence of trace elements in appreciable amounts in the seeds may play a direct or indirect role on insulin secretion or its action in a synergetic manner. The hypoglycemic activity of the ash was comparable with glyclazide. The role of trace elements in disorders related to diabetes is also discussed briefly.

  11. Pollen Viability, Pistil Receptivity, and Embryo Development in Hybridization of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed set is usually low and differs for different crosses of flower lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.. The reasons remain unknown, and this has a negative impact on lotus breeding. To determine the causes, we carried out two crosses of flower lotus, that is, “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua” and pollen viability, pistil receptivity, and embryo development were investigated. The pollen grains collected at 05:00-06:00 hrs had the highest viability, and the viabilities of “Jinsenianhua” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” were 20.6 and 15.7%, respectively. At 4 h after artificial pollination, the number of pollen grains germinating on each stigma reached a peak: 63.0 and 17.2 per stigma in “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” and “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, respectively. At 1 d after artificial pollination, the percentages of normal embryos in the two crosses were 55.0 and 21.9%, respectively; however, at 11 d after pollination, the corresponding percentages were 20.8 and 11.2%. Seed sets of the two crosses were 17.9 and 8.0%, respectively. The results suggested that low pistil receptivity and embryo abortion caused low seed set in “Qinhuaihuadeng” × “Jinsenianhua”, whereas low fecundity of “Jinsenianhua” × “Qinhuaihuadeng” was mainly attributable to embryo abortion.

  12. Proteomic and functional analyses of Nelumbo nucifera annexins involved in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Zhou, Yuliang; Li, Yin; Ding, Yu; Jiang, Liwen; Tsang, Edward W T; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-06-01

    Annexins are multifunctional proteins characterized by their capacity to bind calcium ions and negatively charged lipids. Although there is increasing evidence implicating their importance in plant stress responses, their functions in seeds remain to be further studied. In this study, we identified a heat-induced annexin, NnANN1, from the embryonic axes of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) using comparative proteomics approach. Moreover, the expression of NnANN1 increased considerably in response to high-temperature treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the transcripts of NnANN1 were detected predominantly during seed development and germination in sacred lotus, implicating a role for NnANN1 in plant seeds. Ectopic expression of NnANN1 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to heat stress in transgenic seeds. In addition, compared to the wild-type seeds, transgenic seeds ectopically expressing NnANN1 exhibited improved resistance to accelerated aging treatment used for assessing seed vigor. Furthermore, transgenic seeds showed enhanced peroxidase activities, accompanied with reduced lipid peroxidation and reduced ROS release levels compared to the wild-type seeds. Taken together, these results indicate that NnANN1 plays an important role in seed thermotolerance and germination vigor.

  13. Overexpression of Nelumbo nucifera metallothioneins 2a and 3 enhances seed germination vigor in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chu, Pu; Chen, Huhui; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich and metal-binding proteins which are involved in metal homeostasis and scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Although plant MTs have been intensively studied, their roles in seeds remain to be clearly established. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and their roles in seed germination vigor. The transcripts of NnMT2a, NnMT2b and NnMT3 were highly expressed in developing and germinating sacred lotus seeds, and were dramatically up-regulated in response to high salinity, oxidative stresses and heavy metals. Analysis of transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that NnMT2a-YFP and NnMT3-YFP were localized in cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds overexpressing NnMT2a and NnMT3 displayed improved resistance to accelerated aging (AA) treatment, indicating their significant roles in seed germination vigor. These transgenic seeds also exhibited higher superoxide dismutase activity compared to wild-type seeds after AA treatment. In addition, we showed that NnMT2a and NnMT3 conferred improved germination ability to NaCl and methyl viologen on transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Taken together, these data demonstrate that overexpression of NnMT2a and NnMT3 in Arabidopsis significantly enhances seed germination vigor after AA treatment and under abiotic stresses.

  14. BACE1 and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of Nelumbo nucifera embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Karki, Subash; Kim, Ji Hye; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the comparative anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activities of different parts of Nelumbo nucifera (leaves, de-embryo seeds, embryos, rhizomes, and stamens) in order to determine the selectivity and efficient use of its individual components. Anti-AD activities of different parts of N. nucifera were evaluated via inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) along with scavenging activity on peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Among the evaluated parts of N. nucifera, the embryo extract exhibited significant inhibitory potential against BACE1 and BChE as well as scavenging activity against ONOO(-). Thus, the embryo extract was selected for detailed investigation on anti-AD activity using BACE1- and ChEs-inhibitory assays. Among the different solvent-soluble fractions, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH) fractions showed promising ChEs and BACE1 inhibitory activities. Repeated column chromatography of the CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions yielded compounds 1-5, which were neferine (1), liensinine (2), vitexin (3), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (4) and northalifoline (5). Compound 2 exhibited potent inhibitory activities on BACE1, AChE, and BChE with respective IC50 values of 6.37 ± 0.13, 0.34 ± 0.02, and 9.96 ± 0.47 µM. Likewise, compound 1 showed potent inhibitory activities on BACE1, AChE, and BChE with IC50 values of 28.51 ± 4.04, 14.19 ± 1.46, and 37.18 ± 0.59 µM, respectively; the IC50 values of 3 were 19.25 ± 3.03, 16.62 ± 1.43, and 11.53 ± 2.21 µM, respectively. In conclusion, we identified potent ChEs- and BACE1-inhibitory activities of N. nucifera as well as its isolated constituents, which may be further explored to develop therapeutic and preventive agents for AD and oxidative stress related diseases.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin flavonoid in various tissues of different lotus (Nelumbo cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Chen

    Full Text Available A validated HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n method for the analysis of non-anthocyanin flavonoids was applied to nine different tissues of twelve lotus genotypes of Nelumbo nucifera and N. lutea, together with an optimized anthocyanin extraction and separation protocol for lotus petals. A total of five anthocyanins and twenty non-anthocyanin flavonoids was identified and quantified. Flavonoid contents and compositions varied with cultivar and tissue and were used as a basis to divide tissues into three groups characterized by kaempferol and quercetin derivatives. Influences on flower petal coloration were investigated by principal components analyses. High contents of kaempferol glycosides were detected in the petals of N. nucifera while high quercetin glycoside concentrations occurred in N. lutea. Based on these results, biosynthetic pathways leading to specific compounds in lotus tissues are deduced through metabolomic analysis of different genotypes and tissues and correlations among flavonoid compounds.

  16. Genome-wide identification and evolution analysis of Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene family in Nelumbo nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijiang Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS plays a key role in plant carbohydrate metabolism and the perception of carbohydrate availability. In the present work, the publicly available Nelumbo nucifera (lotus genome sequence database was analyzed which led to identification of nine lotus TPS genes (NnTPS. It was found that at least two introns are included in the coding sequences of NnTPS genes. When the motif compositions were analyzed we found that NnTPS generally shared the similar motifs, implying that they have similar functions. The dN/dS ratios were always less than 1 for different domains and regions outside domains, suggesting purifying selection on the lotus TPS gene family. The regions outside TPS domain evolved relatively faster than NnTPS domains. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using all predicted coding sequences of lotus TPS genes, together with those from Arabidopsis, poplar, soybean and rice. The result indicated that those TPS genes could be clearly divided into two main subfamilies (I-II, where each subfamily could be further divided into 2 (I and 5 (II subgroups. Analyses of divergence and adaptive evolution show that purifying selection may have been the main force driving evolution of plant TPS genes. Some of the critical sites that contributed to divergence may have been under positive selection. Transcriptome data analysis revealed that most NnTPS genes were predominantly expressed in sink tissues. Expression pattern of NnTPS genes under copper and submergence stress indicated that NNU_014679 and NNU_022788 might play important roles in lotus energy metabolism and participate in stress response. Our results can facilitate further functional studies of TPS genes in lotus.

  17. Investigation on Damage Caused by Adoretus sinicus Burmeister on Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Other Crops in Hubei Province%湖北地区中华喙丽金龟对莲等作物的为害调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利丽; 刘义满; 孙亚林; 匡晶; 李双梅; 黄来春

    2015-01-01

    首次报道了中华喙丽金龟(Adoretus sinicus Burmeister)在湖北地区对莲(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)、芋头[Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot]及黄秋葵(Hibiscus esulentus L.)的为害.调查研究了中华喙丽金龟的为害症状、为害程度及活动习性,并提出了防治措施.

  18. In Vitro Opioid Receptor Affinity and in Vivo Behavioral Studies of Nelumbo nucifera Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarihamy, Mallika; León, Francisco; Pettaway, Sara; Wilson, Lisa; Lambert, Janet A.; Wang, Mei; Hill, Christopher; McCurdy, Christopher R.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Nelumbo nucifera Geartn., known as sacred lotus, has been used traditionally in South East Asia as a traditional medicine for various CNS disorders including stress, fever, depression, insomnia, and cognitive conditions. Aim of the study To investigate the in vitro cannabinoid and opioid receptor binding affinities, and in vivo behavioral actions of Nelumbo flower extracts and to isolate the potential compounds to treat CNS associated disorders. Materials and methods The white and pink flowers of N. nucifera were extracted with 95% EtOH, followed by acid-base partitioning using CHCl3 to give acidic and basic partitions. These partitions were subjected to Centrifugal Preparative TLC (CPTLC) to yield benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (BTIQ) alkaloids and long chain fatty acids, identified by physical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, EtOH extracts and partitions were analyzed for chemical markers by UHPLC/MS and GC/MS. In vitro neuropharmacological effects were evaluated by cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and opioid [delta (δ), kappa (κ), and mu (μ)] competitive radioligand binding and GTPγS functional assays. The in vivo behavioral effect was studied through the use of the mouse tetrad assay at 10, 30, 75 and 100 mg/kg/ip doses that revealed the effect on locomotion, catalepsy, body temperature, and nociception of acidic and basic CHCl3 partitions, fractions, and compounds. Results Three aporphines, nuciferine (1), N-nor-nuciferine (2), asimilobine (3), and five BTIQs, armepavine (4), O-methylcoclaurine (5), N-methylcoclaurine (6), coclaurine (7), neferine (10), and a mixture of linoleic and palmitic acids (LA and PA), were identified and evaluated for cannabinoid and opioid receptor displacement activities. Compounds 5–7 showed binding affinities for the κ opioid receptor with equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) values of 3.5±0.3, 0.9±0.1, 2.2±0.2 µM, respectively. Compound 10 displayed affinities for δ-and μ- opioid

  19. Anticancer activity of Nelumbo nucifera stamen extract in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xia; Wang, Cun; Peng, Deguang; Zhu, Kai; Song, Jia-Le

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activities of Nelumbo nucifera (Ba lotus) stamen ethanol crude extract (BLSEE) in human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay were employed to investigate the anticancer mechanisms of BLSEE (100, 200 and 400 µg/ml) in HCT-116 cells. BLSEE reduced HCT-116 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. BLSEE treatment also significantly increased the sub-G1 population in HCT-116 cells (P=0.0020 at 400 µg/ml), as shown by flow cytometry assay. Following treatment with BLSEE, the mRNA levels of the apoptosis-associated factors Fas, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, death receptor 4 (DR4), death receptor 5 (DR5), caspases 3, 8 and 9, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein were increased, and the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-extra large was decreased in HCT-116 cells. The mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2 were also regulated by BLSEE treatment. In addition, BLSEE was able to modulate the expression of inflammation-associated nuclear factor-κB, inhibitory κBα, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 in HCT-116 cells. The present study clearly indicated the cytotoxicity of BLSEE in HCT-116 cells through induced cellular apoptosis. These results also suggested the BLSEE may be a powerful agent against colon cancer cells. PMID:28454279

  20. Isorhamnetin glycosides with free radical and ONOO-scavenging activities from the stamens of Nelumbo nucifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sook Kyung; Jung, Yu Jung; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2006-04-01

    In this study, we isolated two new isorhamnetin glycosides, designated as nelumboroside A (3) and nelumboroside B (4), as well as the previously-characterized isorhamnetin glucoside (1) and isorhamnetin rutinoside (2), from the n-BuOH fraction of Nelumbo nucifera stamens. The structures of the two new compounds were then determined, using chemical and spectroscopic techniques. All isolated isorhamnetin glycosides 1-4 showed marked antioxidant activities in the DPPH, and ONOO- assays.

  1. The Expression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene from Nelumbo nucifera Responds Strongly to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Li; Lin Qi; Xiaodong Lin; Huhui Chen; Zhanqi Ma; Keqiang Wu; Shangzhi Huang

    2009-01-01

    A manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene, NnMSD1, was identified from embryonic axes of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). The NnMSD1 protein contains all conserved residues of the Mn-SOD protein family, including four consensus metal binding domains and a signal peptide for mitochondrial targeting. Southern blot analysis suggests the existence of two Mn-SOD genes in sacred lotus. NnMSD1 was highly expressed in developing embryonic axes during seed development, but appeared in cotyledons only at the early stage of development and became undetectable in the cotyledons during late embryogenesis. The expression of the NnMSD1 gene in germinating embryonic axes, in response to various stresses such as heat shock, chilling, and exposure to stress-related chemicals, was also studied. Heat shock strongly inhibited the expression of the NnMSD1 gene, whereas the NnMSD1 transcript level increased strongly in chilling stress treatment. An increase in expression was also highly induced by H2O2 in germinating embryonic axes. The results suggest that the expression pattern of the NnMSD1 gene differed between developing axes and cotyledons, and that the NnMSD1 gene expression responds strongly to chilling and oxidative stress.

  2. 莲房原花色素的纯化分级和结构鉴定%Purification, Fractionation and Identification of Proanthocyanidins from Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Seedpods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖俊松; 谢笔钧; 曹雁平; 吴华; 王成涛

    2012-01-01

    Lotus proanthocyanidin extract (LSPE) from lotus seedpods was prepared through extraction with aqueous methanol and purification by macroporous resin adsorption. Average degree of polymerization of LSPE was measured by means of acid degradation. Moreover, it was fractionated using TSK HW-40s resin and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that the extraction yield of proanthocyanidins was 7.65% after 1 h extraction at 60 ℃ with 60% aqueous methanol solution acidified to pH 2.0 at a solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:20 (m/V). AB-8 resin was the most suitable for LSPE purification among three types marcroporous resin investigated. The average degree of polymerization of LSPE was 3.2 in the ethyl acetate phase and 15.4 in the water phase. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of LSPE mainly comprised catechin, gallocatechin, and their dimers, trimers and tetramers in small quantities. This fraction was further fractionated by TSK HW-40s resin chromatography into 11 sub-fractions (F1-F11). F1, F2, F3 and F4 might be flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, F5 was mainly composed of catechin and a small amount of epicatechin, F6 was made up of gallocatechin, catechin, procyanidins dimmer B3 and proanthocyanidins containing gallocatechin units, F7 consisted of catechin, procyanidins dimmers B1, B2 and B3, F8 comprised proanthocyanidins, and F9, F10 and F11 was likely to be polymers with higher degree of polymerization consisting of catechin and gallocatechin.%莲房中原花色素经甲醇水提取,大孔树脂纯化,制得莲房原花色素提取物(LSPE),酸降解法测定其平均聚合度,并经TSKHW-40s凝胶树脂分级,高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器和电喷雾质谱分析。结果表明:采用60%甲醇水溶液,调整pH值至2.0,料液比1:20(m/V),在60℃提取1h,提取率可达7.65%,最

  3. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Catalase Gene (NnCAT) from Nelumbo nucifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Zheng, Xingfei; Diao, Ying; Wang, Youwei; Zhou, Mingquan; Hu, Zhongli

    2015-11-01

    Rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) assay was established to achieve the complete cDNA sequence of a catalase gene (NnCAT) from Nelumbo nucifera. The obtained full-length cDNA was 1666 bp in size and contained a 1476-bp open reading frame. The 3D structural model of NnCAT was constructed by homology modeling. The putative NnCAT possessed all the main characteristic amino acid residues and motifs of catalase (CAT) protein family, and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that NnCAT grouped together with high plants. Moreover, recombinant NnCAT showed the CAT activity (758 U/mg) at room temperature, holding high activity during temperature range of 20-50 °C, then the optimal pH of recombinant protein was assessed from pH 4 to pH 11. Additionally, real-time PCR assay demonstrated that NnCAT mRNA was expressed in various tissues of N. nucifera, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest level in the root, and mRNA level of NnCAT was significantly augmented in response to short-time mechanical wounding. Different expression pattern of NnCAT gene suggested that NnCAT probably played a defensive role in the initial stages of oxidative stress, regulating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by extracellular stimuli such as short-time mechanical wounding.

  4. Kaempferol Isolated from Nelumbo nucifera Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and Increases Fatty Acid Oxidation Signaling in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonggi; Kwon, Misung; Choi, Jae Sue; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Stamens of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn have been used as a Chinese medicine due to its antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and antiatherogenic activity. However, the effects of kaempferol, a main component of N. nucifera, on obesity are not fully understood. We examined the effect of kaempferol on adipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaempferol reduced cytoplasmic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in dose and time-dependent manners during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by retrieving kaempferol treatment. Kaempferol broadly decreased mRNA or protein levels of adipogenic transcription factors and their target genes related to lipid accumulation. Kaempferol also suppressed glucose uptake and glucose transporter GLUT4 mRNA expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, protein docking simulation suggests that Kaempferol can directly bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α by forming hydrophobic interactions with VAL324, THR279, and LEU321 residues of PPARα. The binding affinity was higher than a well-known PPARα agonist fenofibrate. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of PPARα target genes were increased. Our study indicates while kaempferol inhibits lipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation, it may bind to PPARα and stimulate fatty acid oxidation signaling in adipocytes.

  5. Phytochemical screening, acute toxicity, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the Nelumbo nucifera fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2017-02-01

    Recently use of herbal therapies and diet rich in flavonoids and vitamin C have increased significantly to treat minor to modest anxiety disorders and various forms of depression. But further research and studies are necessary to evaluate the pharmacological & toxicological effects of plants. Hence present study was designed to conduct phytochemical screening, acute toxicity study, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the ethanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera fruit in order to ascertain its therapeutic potential. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the seed pods of the N. nucifera fruit extract exposed the existence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins and terpenoids in it. The acute toxicity of the N. nucifera fruit extract in mice revealed its LD50 value to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Antianxiety activity was determined by elevated plus maze and light and dark test using 35 male Wister rats weighing 200-220 g which were equally divided in to 5 groups. The animals used in EPM underwent testing in light and dark box just 30 min after EPM. The antidepressant effect was assessed by forced swimming test using 35 male albino mice weighing 20-25 g equally divided in to 5 groups. In elevated plus maze, N. nucifera fruit extract exhibited substantial rise in number of open arm entries and time spent in open arms at dose 50 mg/kg while highly noteworthy increase in both parameters were observed at extract doses 100 and 200 mg/kg as compared to control. In light dark test highly significant increase in the percentage of time spent in light compartment was observed as compared to control. In forced swimming test highly noteworthy decline in duration of immobility was recorded at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg on 15th day i-e after administration of 14 doses, as compared to control; whereas same doses demonstrated significant decrease as compared to control in duration of immobility after single dose administration i-e on 2nd day of experiment. Thus N

  6. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  7. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus. PMID:27635336

  8. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans. is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten. with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd. with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1 were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  9. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Suk; Shukla, Shruti; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1), and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1) and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1), respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1)) exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming

  10. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Lee

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1 and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1, respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1 exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs

  11. Identification and comparison of anti-inflammatory ingredients from different organs of Lotus nelumbo by UPLC/Q-TOF and PCA coupled with a NF-κB reporter gene assay.

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    Mengge Zhou

    Full Text Available Lotus nelumbo (LN (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. is an aquatic crop that is widely distributed throughout Asia and India, and various parts of this plant are edible and medicinal. It is noteworthy that different organs of this plant are used in traditional herbal medicine or folk recipes to cure different diseases and to relieve their corresponding symptoms. The compounds that are contained in each organ, which are named based on their chemical compositions, have led to their respective usages. In this work, a strategy was used to identify the difference ingredients and screen for Nuclear-factor-kappaB (NF-κB inhibitors with anti-inflammatory ability in LN. Seventeen main difference ingredients were compared and identified from 64 samples of 4 different organs by ultra-performance liquid chromatography that was coupled with quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS with principal component analysis (PCA. A luciferase reporter assay system combined with the UPLC/Q-TOF-MS information was applied to screen biologically active substances. Ten NF-κB inhibitors from Lotus plumule (LP extracts, most of which were isoquinoline alkaloids or flavone C-glycosides, were screened. Heat map results showed that eight of these compounds were abundant in the LP. In conclusion, the LP extracts were considered to have the best anti-inflammatory ability of the four LN organs, and the chemical material basis (CMB of this biological activity was successfully validated by multivariate statistical analysis and biological research methods.

  12. Chloroplasts in seeds and dark-grown seedlings of lotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushimaru, Takashi; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Amano, Toyoki; Katayama, Masao; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Tsuji, Hideo

    2003-03-01

    In most higher plants, mature dry seeds have no chloroplasts but etioplasts. Here we show that in a hydrophyte, lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), young chloroplasts already exist in shoots of mature dry seeds and that they give rise to mature chloroplasts during germination, even in darkness. These shoots contain chlorophyll and chlorophyll-binding proteins CP1 and LHCP. The unique features of chloroplast formation in N. nucifera suggest a unique adaptive strategy for seedling development correlated with the plant's habitat.

  13. Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial properties against some human pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanand, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Kannadasan, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2016-03-01

    In the present report, bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera is explained. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited surface Plasmon resonance at 410 nm. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction pattern. The functional groups responsible for bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Field emission transmission electron microscope micrographs showed the formation of well-separated silver nanoparticles of size in the range of 30-40 nm. The result of dynamic light scattering also confirms the mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles with average size of 35 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis.

  14. The Active Ingredients of Jiang-Zhi-Ning: Study of the Nelumbo nucifera Alkaloids and Their Main Bioactive Metabolites

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    Wei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to identify the major active ingredients of the Chinese Traditional Medicine Jiang-Zhi-Ning (JZN based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiles of plasma samples obtained from beagle dogs at different times after intragastric administration of JZN, crude JZN extracts, different extracted fractions, different subfractions of the active fraction and different isolated ingredients. 2-Hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphin (2H1M, an alkaloid from Nelumbo nucifera, one of the herbs that make up JZN, was identified as the constituent showing the major pharmacodynamic effect. The major metabolites of 2H1M were analyzed and identified as N-demethyl-2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-glycuronic acid and 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-aporphine-2-O-sulphate. This study provided a comprehensive insight into the active components of JZN.

  15. 荷叶中化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭双; 韩立峰; 刘二伟; 张祎; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.. Methods The compounds were isolated by silica gel.ODS.Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and PHPLC, and their structures identified by physico-chemical properties, spectral analysis and literatures. Results Four lignanoids and four C13 nor-isoprenoids were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of lotus leaves and identified as( + ) -pinoresinol (1), ( + ) -epipmoresinol (2), sylvatesmin (3), ( + ) -isolariciresinol (4),(3S,5R,6S, 7E)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(5) ,4,5-dihydroblumenol A(6) ,(E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol (7) ,(3S,5R,6R,7E,9S)-megastigman-7-ene-3,5,6,9-tetraol(8) .respectively. Conclusions Compounds 1-8 are obtained from Nelumbo Adans. for the first time.%目的 研究荷叶中的化学成分.方法 采用正相硅胶、反相ODS、Sephadex LH- 20等柱色谱及PHPLC法进行分离纯化,并通过理化性质、光谱分析方法及与文献对比,鉴定化合物的化学结构.结果 从荷叶体积分数为70%的乙醇提取物中分离鉴定了8个化合物,其中有4个木脂素类:(+)-松脂醇[(+ )-pinoresinol,1]、(+)-表松脂醇[(+)-epipinoresinol,2]、sylvatesmin(3)、(+)-异落叶松树脂醇[(+ )-isolariciresinol,4];4个降倍半萜类:(3S,5R,6S,7E)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(5)、4,5-dihydroblumenol A(6)、(E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol(7)、(3S,5R,6R,7E,9S)-megastigman-7 -ene-3,5,6,9-tetraol(8).结论 化合物1-8均为首次从莲属植物中分离得到.

  16. 荷叶化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小亮; 王智民; 马小军; 荆文光; 刘安

    2013-01-01

    研究植物莲Nelumbo nucifera干燥叶的化学成分,为进一步开发利用荷叶提供依据.分离得到27个化合物,分别为10-二十八烷醇(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、1-十一烷醇(3)、1-二十烷醇(4)、胡萝卜苷(5)、6’-hydroxy-4,4’-dimethoxychalcone(6)、1-羟基-3,7,8-三甲氧基(山)酮(7)、鼠李素-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(8)、chrysoeriol-7-O-3-D-glucoside(9)、槲皮索-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(10)、槲皮素-3-O-α-L-吡喃鼠李糖苷(11)、金丝桃苷(12)、槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(13)、紫云英苷(14)、异鼠李素-3-O-α-L-鼠李糖-(1-6)-[α-D-来苏糖-(1→2)-D-葡萄糖苷](15)、异鼠李素-3-O-α-D-来苏糖-(1→2)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(16)、异鼠李素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(17)、异鼠李素-3-O-α-L-鼠李糖-(1→6)-β-D-葡萄糖苷(18)、槲皮素(19)、山柰酚(20)、去氢荷叶碱(21)、莲碱(22)、stigmast-7-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(23)、stigmast-7-en-3β-ol(24)、邻二羟基苯(25)、alangionoside L(26)、icariside B2(27).化合物1,6~8,24,25为首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物15~18为首次从荷叶中分离得到.经体外活性筛选,发现化合物6,8,10,11,13,15对体外淀粉样蛋白(β-amyloid,Aβ)具抑制活性,抑制率分别为(63.99±24.29)%,(79.61±4.49)%,(49.96±12.61)%,(101.19±8.19)%,(88.41±6.76)%,(72.48±8.97)%,其中有5个化合物为黄酮类化合物.%To study the chemical constituents,twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modem chromatographic techniques.Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1),β-sitosterol (2),1-undecanol (3),1-eicosanol (4),daucosterol (5),6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6),3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7),rhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8),chrysoeriol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (9),quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10),quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11),hyperoside (12),quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13),astragalin (14),isorhamnetin-3-O

  17. Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Petal Extracts on Lipase, Adipogenesis, Adipolysis, and Central Receptors of Obesity

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    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N. nucifera is one among the important medicinal plants assessed for its antiobesity action in various preclinical models. The present study was aimed at investigating the antiobesity effect of methanol and successive water extracts of petals of N. nucifera by studying its effect on adipogenesis, adipolysis, lipase, serotonin (5-HT2C, cannabinoid (CNR2, melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCHR1, and melanocortin (MC4R receptors. Both methanol and successive water extracts of N. nucifera petals had an effect on inhibition of lipid storage in adipocytes and on increasing lipolysis. N. nucifera petal methanol extract exhibited the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC50 value of 47 µg/mL. N. nucifera petal extracts showed evident agonist and antagonist activity towards 5-HT2C and CNR2 receptors, respectively, while it showed no effect towards MCHR1 and MC4R receptors. Overall, methanol extract of N. nucifera petals showed better activity than successive water extract.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles.

  19. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  20. Regulation of the 5-HT3A receptor-mediated current by alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ui Joung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoo Jin; Nam, Joo Won; Bae, Hyunsu; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2010-09-01

    Four known alkyl 4-hydroxybenzoates, i.e., methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (1), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3), and butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (4), were isolated from the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner (Nymphaeaceae) for the first time. The structures of the isolates were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and comparison with published values. The compounds were evaluated for their effects on the 5-HT-stimulated inward current (I(5-HT)) mediated by the human 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 enhanced the I(5-HT), but 4 reduced it. These results indicate that 4 is an inhibitor of the 5-HT(3)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

  1. Purification and Characterization of Aporphine Alkaloids from Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Their Effects on Glucose Consumption in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjun Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV’s activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v. In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity, 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity, 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity, and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4% respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did.

  2. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

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    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.

  3. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.

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    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.

  4. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in LotusNelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 王乃彦; 张丰收

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N^+ into Taikonglian No.l, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.l, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  5. Molecular evolution and functional characterisation of an ancient phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (NnPAL1) from Nelumbo nucifera: novel insight into the evolution of the PAL family in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihua; Gui, Songtao; Wang, Shuzhen; Ding, Yi

    2014-05-09

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; E.C.4.3.1.5) is a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway in plant development, and it catalyses the deamination of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, leading to the production of secondary metabolites. This enzyme has been identified in many organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher plants. Because Nelumbo nucifera is a basal dicot rich in many secondary metabolites, it is a suitable candidate for research on the phenylpropanoid pathway. Three PAL members, NnPAL1, NnPAL2 and NnPAL3, have been identified in N. nucifera using genome-wide analysis. NnPAL1 contains two introns; however, both NnPAL2 and NnPAL3 have only one intron. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of NnPAL1 confirms that it is an ancient PAL member of the angiosperms and may have a different origin. However, PAL clusters, except NnPAL1, are monophyletic after the split between dicots and monocots. These observations suggest that duplication events remain an important occurrence in the evolution of the PAL gene family. Molecular assays demonstrate that the mRNA of the NnPAL1 gene is 2343 bp in size and encodes a 717 amino acid polypeptide. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant NnPAL1 protein are 9.0 and 55°C, respectively. The NnPAL1 protein retains both PAL and weak TAL catalytic activities with Km values of 1.07 mM for L-phenylalanine and 3.43 mM for L-tyrosine, respectively. Cis-elements response to environmental stress are identified and confirmed using real-time PCR for treatments with abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), ultraviolet light, Neurospora crassa (fungi) and drought. We conclude that the angiosperm PAL genes are not derived from a single gene in an ancestral angiosperm genome; therefore, there may be another ancestral duplication and vertical inheritance from the gymnosperms. The different evolutionary histories for PAL genes in angiosperms suggest different mechanisms of functional regulation. The expression

  6. The sacred lotus genome provides insights into the evolution of flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36,385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis.

  7. Genetic linkage maps for Asian and American lotus constructed using novel SSR markers derived from the genome of sequenced cultivar

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    Yang Mei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Nelumbo Adans. comprises two living species, N. nucifera Gaertan. (Asian lotus and N. lutea Pers. (American lotus. A genetic linkage map is an essential resource for plant genetic studies and crop improvement but has not been generated for Nelumbo. We aimed to develop genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from the genome sequence and construct two genetic maps for Nelumbo to assist genome assembly and integration of a genetic map with the genome sequence. Results A total of 86,089 SSR motifs were identified from the genome sequences. Di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, and accounted for 60.73% and 31.66% of all SSRs, respectively. AG/GA repeats constituted 51.17% of dinucleotide repeat motifs, followed by AT/TA (44.29%. Of 500 SSR primers tested, 386 (77.20% produced scorable alleles with an average of 2.59 per primer, and 185 (37.00% showed polymorphism among two parental genotypes, N. nucifera ‘Chinese Antique’ and N. lutea ‘AL1’, and six progenies of their F1 population. The normally segregating markers, which comprised 268 newly developed SSRs, 37 previously published SSRs and 53 sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers, were used for genetic map construction. The map for Asian lotus was 365.67 cM with 47 markers distributed in seven linkage groups. The map for American lotus was 524.51 cM, and contained 177 markers distributed in 11 genetic linkage groups. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from three to 34 with an average genetic distance of 3.97 cM between adjacent markers. Moreover, 171 SSR markers contained in linkage groups were anchored to 97 genomic DNA sequence contigs of ‘Chinese Antique’. The 97 contigs were merged into 60 scaffolds. Conclusion Genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced contigs in Nelumbo enabled the associated contigs to be anchored in the linkage map and facilitated assembly of the genome sequences of

  8. Neferine isolated from Nelumbo nucifera enhances anti-cancer activities in Hep3B cells: molecular mechanisms of cell cycle arrest, ER stress induced apoptosis and anti-angiogenic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Soo; Kim, Hwa-Mi; Yadunandam, Anandam Kasin; Kim, Nan-Hee; Jung, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Jae-Sue; Kim, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Gun-Do

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignant diseases and is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Neferine, a major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the embryos of Nelumbo nucifera, has been reported a few physiological activities. However, the mechanisms of anticancer effects are not well understood and its detailed activities on Hep3B cells have not been determined. Our results suggest that neferine exhibited cytotoxicity against HCC Hep3B cells, but not against HCC Sk-Hep1 and THLE-3, a normal human liver cell line. In addition, consistent with the induction of G1/S phase cell population in flow cytometry, downregulation of c-Myc, cyclin D1, D3, CDK4, E2F-1, as well as dephosphorlyation of cdc2 by western blot analysis, as evidenced by the appearance of cell cycle arrest, were observed in Hep3B cells treated with neferine. Our results demonstrated neferine induced ER stress and apoptosis, acting through multiple signaling cascades by the activation of Bim, Bid, Bax, Bak, Puma, caspases-3, -6, -7, -8 and PARP, and the protein expression levels of Bip, calnexin, PDI, calpain-2 and caspase-12 were also upregulated dramatically by neferine treatment. Overexpression of GFP-LC3B by neferine resulted in a diffuse cytosolic GFP fluorescence and the strong fluorescent spots, representing autophagosomes. The significant reduction of the migration in Hep3B cells and the capillary tube-like formation of HUVECs by neferine were also determined. These observations reveal that the therapeutic potential of neferine in treating HCC Hep3B cells, containing copies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes.

  9. Chemical changes associated with lotus and water lily natto production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S. D.; Fatimah, N.; Nopianti, R.

    2017-04-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made by fermenting whole soybean seeds with pure culture of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto. The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and water lily (Nymphaea stellata) seeds as the raw materials for natto production. Chemical (proximate, amino acids and minerals) changes were observed on raw, steamed and fermented seeds. Proximate compositions of all samples were calculated in both wet basis and dry basis. In wet basis calculation, steaming and fermentation tended to lower the carbohydrates, ashes, fats and protein content which were attributed to the increase of moisture. The total amino acid, iron and magnesium contents of raw lotus seeds were 24.29%, 5.08 mg 100g-1 and 174.23 mg 100g-1 dry matter, respectively. After a 24h-fermentation at 40°C, the total amino acids decreased while iron and magnesium contents increased significantly reaching, in respective order, 9.9 mg 100g-1 and 411.36 mg 100g-1 dry matter. Changes in chemical composition after fermentation were more pronounced in lotus seeds than water lily seeds indicating that their nutrient composition were more suitable to support Bacillus subtilis growth.

  10. Higenamine 4'-O-β-d-glucoside in the lotus plumule induces glucose uptake of L6 cells through β2-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eisuke; Inagaki, Yosuke; Kawabata, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Hypoglycemic effect is an efficient means to modulate elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. We found that the extract of lotus plumule (the germ of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. seed) showed potent glucose uptake enhancement activity against L6 myotubes, which results in a hypoglycemic effect. This activity was further investigated, and an active constituent was identified as a single bioactive compound, higenamine 4'-O-β-d-glucoside. Mechanistic studies employing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, or adrenergic receptor antagonist showed that the compound induced its activity through β2-adrenergic receptor. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus frequently develop insulin resistance. Owing to the differences between the mechanism of action of insulin and of the isolated compound, the compound or lotus plumule itself may have the possibility of modulating blood glucose levels in insulin-resistant patients effectively.

  11. Comparison of Antioxidant Activity Between Phenolic and Nonphenolic Alkaloids in Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn in vitro%莲子心中酚性与非酚性生物碱体外抗氧化活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小青; 宋金春; 谢顺岚; 郝好华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the antioxidant activity between phenolic and nonphenolic alkaloids in Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.in vitro. Methods DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical scavenging, super oxygen anion from oxidation, reducing power and beta carotene bleaching test methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the alkaloids. Results Half maximalinhibitory concentration ( IC50 ) of DPPH among total alkaloid, phenolic alkaloids and nonphenolic alkaloids was 21.89, 27.10 and 32.87 μg·mL-1 , respectively;IC50 of ABTS free radicals was 14.25, 20.55, 25.94μg·mL-1;The hydroxyl radical scavenging IC50 was 0.03, 0.03, 0.08 μg·mL-1; The auto-oxidation rate of super oxygen was 8.72×10-4, 5.87×10-4, 6.68× 10-4;The total alkaloid had the best reducing power, while the non-phennolic alakloids had the worst; Lipid inhibition rate of three alkaloids were 89.63%, 85.85% and 83.78% respectively. Conclusion Phenolic alkaloids are better than non-phenolic alkaloids in hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation, resulting in a promising prospect.%目的 比较莲子心中酚性生物碱与非酚性生物碱的体外抗氧化活性. 方法 采用1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(DPPH)、2,2-联氮-二(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)-二铵盐(ABTS)、羟基自由基清除、超氧阴离子自氧化,还原力及β-胡萝卜素漂白测试等方法评估莲子心中生物碱的抗氧化活性. 结果 总生物碱、酚性生物碱、非酚性生物碱对DPPH自由基的半数清除浓度( IC50 )分别为21.89, 27. 10, 32. 87 μg · mL-1;对 ABTS 自由基的 IC50分别为 14. 25, 20. 55, 25.94 μg·mL-1;对羟基自由基清除IC50分别为0.03,0.03,0.08 μg·mL-1;超氧阴离子自氧化速率分别为8.72×10-4, 5.87×10-4,6.68×10-4;还原力大小:总生物碱>酚性生物碱>非酚性生物碱;脂质抑制率分别为89.63%,85.85%,83.78%.结论 莲子心中酚性生物碱对自由基的清除活性、还原力、抗脂质过氧化活性强于

  12. Lotus leaf extract and L-carnitine influence different processes during the adipocyte life cycle

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    Stäb Franz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue biology have been studied extensively over the last two decades. Adipose tissue growth involves both an increase in fat cell size and the formation of mature adipocytes from precursor cells. To investigate how natural substances influence these two processes, we examined the effects of lotus leaf extract (Nelumbo nucifera-extract solution obtained from Silab, France and L-carnitine on human preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies, we used a lotus leaf extract solution alone or in combination with L-carnitine. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes, we investigated lotus leaf extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. Studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of lotus leaf extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To further characterize lotus leaf extract solution-mediated effects, we determined the expression of the transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1/SREBP-1c on the RNA- and protein level utilizing qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Additionally, the effect of L-carnitine on beta-oxidation was analyzed using human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Finally, we investigated additive effects of a combination of lotus leaf extract solution and L-carnitine on triglyceride accumulation during preadipocyte/adipocyte differentiation. Results Our data showed that incubation of preadipocytes with lotus leaf extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride accumulation during adipogenesis without affecting cell viability. Compared to controls, adipocytes incubated with lotus leaf extract solution exhibited a significant increase in lipolysis-activity. Moreover, cell populations cultivated in the presence of lotus leaf extract solution showed a decrease in adipocyte

  13. Effects of "plant-fish" integrated farming system on the growth and quality of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Trapa acornis Nakano in the lowland areas%低洼田湿地“植-鱼”种养结合模式对莲藕、菱生长发育及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚祥坦; 沈亚强; 张红梅; 王润屹; 徐素琴; 程旺大

    2012-01-01

    As an innovative farming system, integrated "plant-fish" farming has since 2010 developed rapidly in the lowland areas of North Zhejiang Province. This region generally lies in very low altitudes. To optimize integrated aquatic vegetable cultivation in "plant-fish" farming systems, a comparative experiment was carried out in two farms. The growth, quality and food security of Nelumbo nucifera and Trapa acornis in different integrated aquaculture farming systems were analyzed. The results showed that the growth and development, commodity feature and quality of N. nucifera improved in integrated "plant-fish" farming systems. Compared with monocropping system of N. nucifera (control), "plant-fish" integrated farming systems increased N. nucifera leaf length, leaf width and petiole length by 1.2%~38.2%, -8.6%~30.9% and 10.1%~33.2%, respectively. Similarly, N. nucifera commodity features improved under integrated "plant-fish" farming systems. Total tuber weight and maximum tuber node weight of N. nucifera in "plant-fish" integrated fanning systems increased by 19.0%~77.8% and 22.0%~77.5%, respectively, compared with the control. TV. nucifera nutritional quality also improved. N. nucifera contents of starch, protein and total amino acids in "N. nucifera-Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus" farming system increased by 34.0%, 47.3% and 48.7%, respectively, compared with the control. Also those in "N. nucifera-Carassius auratus and P. fulvidraco" system were respectively 23.3%, 5.4% and 11.3% higher than those in the control. In "N. nucifera-Ophicephalus argus" system, N. nucifera starch content was31.1% higher than that in the control. However, the contents of protein and total amino acids decreased respectively by 20.4% and 5.3% over the control. The results also showed that in "T. acornis-Trionyx sinensis" system, growth, development and commodity features of T. acornis increased significantly. T. acornis leaf and phyllome size was larger than that of

  14. Changes in extreme high-temperature tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes of sacred lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, YanFen; Cheng, HongYan; Song, SongQuan

    2008-09-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 'Tielian') seed is long-lived and extremely tolerant of high temperature. Water content of lotus and maize seeds was 0.103 and 0.129 g H2O [g DW](-1), respectively. Water content, germination percentage and fresh weight of seedlings produced by surviving seeds gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100 degrees C. Germination percentage of maize (Zea mays L. 'Huangbaogu') seeds was zero after they were treated at 100 degrees C for 15 min and that of lotus seeds was 13.5% following the treatment at 100 degrees C for 24 h. The time in which 50% of lotus and maize seeds were killed by 100 degrees C was about 14.5 h and 6 min, respectively. With increasing treatment time at 100 degrees C, relative electrolyte leakage of lotus axes increased significantly, and total chlorophyll content of lotus axes markedly decreased. When treatment time at 100 degrees C was less than 12 h, subcellular structure of lotus hypocotyls remained fully intact. When treatment time at 100 degrees C was more than 12 h, plasmolysis gradually occurred, endoplasmic reticulum became unclear, nuclei and nucleoli broke down, most of mitochondria swelled, lipid granules accumulated at the cell periphery, and organelles and plasmolemma collapsed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of lotus axes and cotyledons decreased during 0 -12 h of the treatment at 100 degrees C and then increased. By contrast, the MDA content of maize embryos and endosperms increased during 5-10 min of the treatment at 100 degrees C and then decreased slightly. For lotus seeds: (1) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of axes and cotyledons and of catalase (CAT) of axes increased during the early phase of treatment at 100 degrees C and then decreased; and (2) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) of axes and cotyledons and of CAT of cotyledons gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100 degrees

  15. Changes in extreme high-temperature tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes of sacred lotus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YanFen; CHENG HongYan; SONG SongQuan

    2008-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. 'Tielian') seed is long-lived and extremely tolerant of high temperature. Water content of lotus and maize seeds was 0.103 and 0.129 g H2O [g DW]-1, respectively. Water content, germination percentage and fresh weight of seedlings produced by surviving seeds gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100℃. Germination percentage of maize (Zea mays L. 'Huangbaogu') seeds was zero after they were treated at 100℃ for 15 min and that of lotus seeds was 13.5% following the treatment at 100℃ for 24 h. The time in which 50% of lotus and maize seeds were killed by 100℃ was about 14.5 h and 6 min, respectively. With increasing treatment time at 100℃, relative electrolyte leakage of lotus axes increased significantly, and total chlorophyll content of lotus axes markedly decreased. When treatment time at 100℃ was less than 12 h, subcellular structure of lotus hypocotyls remained fully intact. When treatment time at 100℃ was more than 12 h, plasmoly-sis gradually occurred, endoplasmic reticulum became unclear, nuclei and nucleoli broke down, most of mitochondria swelled, lipid granules accumulated at the cell periphery, and organelles and plas-molemma collapsed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of lotus axes and cotyledons decreased during 0 -12 h of the treatment at 100℃ and then increased. By contrast, the MDA content of maize embryos and endosperms increased during 5-10 min of the treatment at 100℃ and then decreased slightly. For lotus seeds: (1) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of axes and cotyledons and of catalase (CAT) of axes increased during the early phase of treatment at 100℃ and then decreased; and (2) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) of axes and cotyledons and of CAT of cotyledons gradually decreased with increasing treat-ment time at 100℃. For maize seeds: (1) activities of SOD and DHAR of embryos and

  16. Changes in extreme high-temperature tolerance and activities of antioxidant enzymes of sacred lotus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ‘Tielian’) seed is long-lived and extremely tolerant of high temperature. Water content of lotus and maize seeds was 0.103 and 0.129 g H2O [g DW] ?1, respectively. Water content, germination percentage and fresh weight of seedlings produced by surviving seeds gradually decreased with increasing treatment time at 100℃. Germination percentage of maize (Zea mays L. ‘Huangbaogu’) seeds was zero after they were treated at 100℃ for 15 min and that of lotus seeds was 13.5% following the treatment at 100℃ for 24 h. The time in which 50% of lotus and maize seeds were killed by 100℃ was about 14.5 h and 6 min, respectively. With increasing treatment time at 100℃, relative electrolyte leakage of lotus axes increased significantly, and total chlorophyll content of lotus axes markedly decreased. When treatment time at 100℃ was less than 12 h, subcellular structure of lotus hypocotyls remained fully intact. When treatment time at 100℃ was more than 12 h, plasmoly-sis gradually occurred, endoplasmic reticulum became unclear, nuclei and nucleoli broke down, most of mitochondria swelled, lipid granules accumulated at the cell periphery, and organelles and plas-molemma collapsed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of lotus axes and cotyledons decreased during 0-12 h of the treatment at 100℃ and then increased. By contrast, the MDA content of maize embryos and endosperms increased during 5-10 min of the treatment at 100℃ and then decreased slightly. For lotus seeds: (1) activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) of axes and cotyledons and of catalase (CAT) of axes increased during the early phase of treatment at 100℃ and then decreased; and (2) activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) of axes and cotyledons and of CAT of cotyledons gradually decreased with increasing treat-ment time at 100℃. For maize seeds: (1) activities of SOD and DHAR of embryos and

  17. Changes in physicochemical properties related to the texture of lotus rhizomes subjected to heat blanching and calcium immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Xie, Wei; Du, Shenglan; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2016-11-15

    Pretreatments such as low temperature blanching and/or calcium soaking affect the cooked texture of vegetal food. In the work, lotus rhizomes (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) were pretreated using the following 4 treatments, blanching at 40°C, blanching at 90°C, soaking in 0.5% CaCl2, and blanching at 40°C followed by immersion in 0.5% CaCl2. Subsequently, the cell wall material of pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to identify changes in the degree of esterification (DE) and monosaccharide content of each section, and the texture of the lotus rhizomes in different pre-treatments was determined after thermal processing with different time. The results showed that the greatest hardness was obtained after blanching at 40°C in CaCl2, possibly attributing to the formation of a pectate calcium network, which maintains the integrity of cell walls. Furthermore, the content of galactose, rhamnose and arabinose decreased due to the breakage of sugar backbones and subsequent damage to cell walls. Our results may provide a reference for lotus rhizome processing.

  18. 河南省荷花品种资源调查与花莲分类研究%Investigation and Cultivar Classification of Nelumbo nuci fera Resources in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管志涛; 孙小玲; 孔德政

    2013-01-01

    采用路线普查和重点调查的方法对河南地区荷花品种进行了调查和整理,以期为河南省的荷花资源引种、培育提供依据。结果表明,河南已有及引种成功的荷花品种95个,其中花莲品种88个,藕莲品种7个,尚未发现作为生产用的籽莲。依据花莲品种特性(花型、花色、花径、株高和花瓣特征)编制了花莲品种检索表。%The cultivars of Nelumbo nucifera in Henan were investigated and studied using road investigation and major investigation ,which covered 88 lotus flower varieties and 7 rhizome lotus , without seed lotus for production purpose .Keys to the species were compiled for cultivars identification .

  19. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. using high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujie; Chen, Xi; Qi, Jin; Yu, Boyang

    2016-07-01

    A reliable method, combining qualitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantitative assessment by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, has been developed to simultaneously analyze flavonoids and alkaloids in lotus leaf extracts. In the qualitative analysis, a total of 30 compounds, including 12 flavonoids, 16 alkaloids, and two proanthocyanidins, were identified. The fragmentation behaviors of four types of flavone glycoside and three types of alkaloid are summarized. The mass spectra of four representative components, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, norcoclaurine, nuciferine, and neferine, are shown to illustrate their fragmentation pathways. Five pairs of isomers were detected and three of them were distinguished by comparing the elution order with reference substances and the mass spectrometry data with reported data. In the quantitative analysis, 30 lotus leaf samples from different regions were analyzed to investigate the proportion of eight representative compounds. Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide was found to be the predominant constituent of lotus leaf extracts. For further discrimination among the samples, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, based on the areas of the eight quantitative peaks, were carried out. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Present Situation Investigation of Pollination for Asian Sacred Lotus in Jiangxi Province, Hunan Province and Hubei Province%赣湘鄂三省荷花授粉现状调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭凤; 颜志立; 邵有全

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize present situation of Asian sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) in Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei Provinces, beekeepers who collected lotus pollen and lotus growers were interviewed with following aspects on July 5-11, 2012: ways of beekeeping and managing bees, income of beekeepers and lotus growers, necessity of bee pollination for lotus, meanwhile numbers and species of wild pollinators for lotus among three provinces were investigated. Results indicated that, there were fewer numbers and species of wild pollinators for lotus in three provinces, main wild pollinators were Hymenoptera insects as follows: Xylocopa sinensis Smith, Xylocopa valga Gestaecker, Xylocopa appendiculata Smith, Halictus aerarius Smith, Halictus subopacus Smith and so on, so high yield of lotus seed should be depended on bee pollination, bee pollination was more conducive to beekeepers and lotus growers to obtain higher yields. The best time of bee collecting lotus pollen was 5:00-8:00; temperature and wind-force were the main factors which affect the bee collection lotus. The price fluctuation of lotus pollen was influenced by natural disaster, marketing channel and supply-demand relationship. Beekeepers’age structure presented aging trend.%  为掌握赣湘鄂三省荷花(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn)授粉现状,2012年7月5—11日在江西、湖南、湖北三省对采收荷花粉蜂农以及当地荷花种植户进行了采访调查,针对蜂农放蜂和蜂群管理方式,蜂农和荷花种植户收益,蜜蜂为荷花授粉的必要性开展调查,同时在三省进行了荷花野生传粉昆虫数量和种类的资源调查。调查表明:三省荷花野生传粉昆虫种类和数量均较匮乏,经鉴定,荷花野生传粉昆虫主要为膜翅目昆虫,包括中华木蜂(Xylocopa sinensis Smith)、紫木蜂(Xylocopa valga Gestaecker)、黄胸木蜂(Xylocopa appendiculata Smith)、铜色隧蜂(Halictus aerarius Smith)、尖肩隧蜂(Halictus subopacus

  1. 莲属植物叶片及花瓣的比较解剖学研究%Comparative Anatomy Studies on Leaves and Petals of Nelumbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁英; 胡蓉; 游永宁; 郑兴飞; 郑兴汶; 谢克强; 周明全; 胡中立

    2013-01-01

    The comparative anatomy of the leaves and petals of Nelumbo species was studied.The results were as follows,the leaves of Nelumbo species all have the palisade tissues and the spongy tissues,but the thickness and percentage of palisade tissues and spongy tissues were different.The crystals of calcium oxalate were often found in mesophyll cells.The minute projections were found on both sides of epidermal cells of petals.There were only very loose spongy tissues and not palisade tissues existing in Nelumbo petals.There were few differentiations in anatomy of leaves and petals not only between N.nucifera and N.lutea,but also between the tropic origins and the temperate origins.The results suggested that lotus showed the adaptation to the aquatic environment in its anatomic characters of leaves and petals,and the interspecific and intraspecific differentiations were not obvious.%对莲属(Nelumbo)植物的叶片及花瓣进行了比较解剖学研究.结果表明,莲属植物的叶片均有明显的栅栏组织和海绵组织之分,但二者的厚度及它们在叶肉中所占的比例有一定的差别;叶肉细胞内经常可以观察到草酸钙晶体;莲花瓣上下表皮均有乳状突起,无栅栏组织,仅有极为疏松的海绵组织,气室发达.同时,从研究结果来看,美国莲与中国莲在叶片和花瓣的解剖结构上没有明显差异;热带来源的莲与温带来源的莲之间并没有明显分化.莲叶片与花瓣解剖特征均表现出莲对水生生活的适应性,而其种间及种内的分化均不明显.

  2. Neferine, an alkaloid from lotus seed embryo, inhibits human lung cancer cell growth by MAPK activation and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, Paramasivan; Weng, Ching Feng; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Neferine is the major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of a traditional medicinal plant Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). Epidemiological studies have revealed the therapeutic potential of lotus seed embryo. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear anticancer action mechanism of neferine on lung cancer cells is still not known. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the world, and the patients with advanced stage of nonsmall lung cancer require adjunct chemotherapy after surgical resection for the eradication of cancer cells. In this study, the effects of neferine were evaluated and characterized in A549 cells. Neferine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with the hypergeneration of reactive oxygen species, activation of MAPKs, lipid peroxidation, depletion of cellular antioxidant pool, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular calcium accumulation. Furthermore, neferine treatment leads to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB and Bcl2, upregulation of Bax and Bad, release of cytochrome C, activation of caspase cascade, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, neferine could induce p53 and its effector protein p21 and downregulation of cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 thereby inducing G1 cell cycle arrest. These results suggest a novel function of neferine as an apoptosis inducer in lung cancer cells.

  3. Lotus Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120...... such data, allowing users to construct, visualize, and annotate co-expression gene networks. Lotus Base takes advantage of modern advances in browser technology to deliver powerful data interpretation for biologists. Its modular construction and publicly available application programming interface enable...... developers to tap into the wealth of integrated Lotus data. Lotus Base is freely accessible at: https://lotus.au.dk....

  4. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of β-carotene content in four varieties of lotus stamens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithida Phonkot

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to determine -carotene content in lotus stamens.The stamens of four varieties of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn. and ten samples bought from traditional drug stores were determined.Validation of the method was carried out, the linearity of the -carotene concentrations range from 6.50-58.50 g.mL-1were 0.9997-0.9998. The repeatability and intermediate precision were 0.29 %CV (n=9 and 7.48 %CV (n=9, respectively; theaccuracy was 100.10 %w/w, the detection limit was 9.83 ng.mL-1 and the quantitation limit was 29.80 ng.mL-1. The -caroteneof the four varieties were 465.77-1150.80 mg% (n=3, and of the store samples were 4.70-41.73 mg% (n=3. The resultsdemonstrated that the contents varied according to the variety. The contents in the samples obtained from traditionaldrug stores were much lower that those dried in our laboratory, this might due to the source of the stamens, duration, andconditions of storages.

  5. "太空莲36号"与"建莲"莲子的化学成分比较研究%Studies on the Comparison of the Chemical Compounds in Lotus Seeds (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) Between "Tai-Kong lotus 36"and "Jian lotus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善财; 叶国维; 吴锦忠; 郑远斌; 林文雄

    2005-01-01

    目的为了综合评价"太空莲36号"质量,探讨"建莲"的替代品效果.方法本文采用GC、比色等方法,对"太空莲36号"和"建莲"莲子中的单糖、维生素、乙醇浸出物等成分比较分析,并以国家相关标准为依据,测定了两者的重金属和农药残留含量.结果"太空莲36号"莲子和"建莲"莲子单糖组成相似,多数单糖含量、维生素C和E、及乙醇浸出物"太空莲36号"莲子高于"建莲"莲子,两者的重金属和农药残留含量未超出国家相关标准,结论"太空莲36号"莲子可代替"建莲"莲子入药.

  6. Lotus Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The lotus flower is a traditional subject for Chinese painters. Men of letters and painters depict it because although it grows from mud its blossoms are clean and charming, hence it has always been used to euphemize a man who keeps his noble mind even in unfavorable situations Young painter Xing Xiaolin features the lotus flowers again and

  7. Neferine, an alkaloid ingredient in lotus seed embryo, inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells by promoting p38 MAPK-mediated p21 stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiyu; Liu, Zhaojian; Xu, Bing; Sun, Zhaoliang; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2012-02-29

    Identification of natural products that have antitumor activity is invaluable to the chemoprevention and therapy of cancer. The embryos of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seeds are consumed in beverage in some parts of the world for their presumed health-benefiting effects. In this report we studied the effects of neferine, a major alkaloid component in lotus embryos, on human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. We found that neferine possessed a potent growth-inhibitory effect on human osteosarcoma cells, but not on non-neoplastic human osteoblast cells. The inhibitory effect of neferine on human osteosarcoma cells was largely attributed to cell cycle arrest at G1. The induction of G1 arrest was p21(WAF1/CIP1)-dependent, but was independent of p53 or RB (retinoblastoma-associated protein). The up-regulation of p21 by neferine was due to an increase in the half-life of p21 protein. We examined four kinases that are known to affect the stabilization of p21, and found that p38 MAPK and JNK were activated by neferine. However, only SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38), but not SP600125 (the inhibitor of JNK), can attenuate the up-regulation of p21 in response to neferine. Furthermore, the p21-stabilizing effect of neferine was abolished when p38 was silenced by RNA interference. Finally, we showed that neferine treatment led to an increased phosphorylation of p21 at Ser130 that was dependent on p38. Our results for the first time showed a direct antitumor effect of neferine, suggesting that consumption of neferine may have cancer-preventive and cancer-therapeutic benefit.

  8. Difference in wettability of lotus leaves in typical states and its mechanism analysis%典型状态下荷叶润湿性差异及其机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳红; 杨晓东; 杨卓娟; 王庆成; 门玉琢

    2014-01-01

    为了研究荷叶不同状态下润湿性差异的成因与机理,通过对荷叶在鲜、老、病、枯4个典型状态下进行润湿性观察、与水接触角测量、扫描电镜观测,分析其表面微观形貌、化学蜡质含量等要素的变化规律,揭示润湿性差异的成因与机理。结果表明:鲜叶为微米级乳突和纳米级蜡质层覆盖的二元复合微观形貌,枯叶乳突和蜡质层稍有萎缩,但微观结构变化不显著;老叶微观形貌中出现了少许“板条”状突起和乳突、蜡质层共同构成其粗糙叶表结构;而病叶“乳突+蜡质层”的二元复合结构发生明显变化,呈现无序的线型纤维柱状网络结构。不同状态荷叶表面与水接触角测量结果显示,鲜、老、枯叶仍呈现疏水或超疏水状态,而病叶呈现亲水状态,润湿性能发生根本改变。荷叶表面蜡质含量在不同状态下也存在一定差异,老叶、枯叶蜡质含量与鲜叶接近,但疏水性皆低于鲜叶。研究表明荷叶不同状态下润湿性差异的成因在于其叶表微观形貌和化学蜡质含量发生改变造成的,从这2个因素对其疏水性的贡献率来比较,叶表微观形貌是决定其疏水程度的主因。研究结果为疏水表面仿生设计提供参考。%Recent studies have made great progress on the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning functions of lotus (nelumbo nucifera) leaves. However, studies on the self-cleaning function of lotus leaves at different states are still lacking. It is still unclear about whether the self-cleaning function of the lotus leaves remains at different states. In this study, the wettability of lotus leaves under four typical states, including fresh leaves, old leaves, sick leaves and dried-up leaves, was compared to explore the hydrophobic mechanism of lotus leaves. Wettability of different lotus leaves was determined. Another measurements included contact angle tests, scanning

  9. Research Advance in Anti-tumor Activity of Alkaloids from Nelumbo Nuciferia Gaertn%莲生物碱抗肿瘤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 宋金春

    2016-01-01

    Nelumbo nuciferia Gaertn为睡莲科Nymphaeaceae莲属Nelumbo植物,也是重要药食两用作物品种之一.莲生物碱主要在莲心和荷叶中累积,其药理活性主要有抗炎、抗氧化、抗衰老、降脂减肥、降压、抑菌、抗心律失常、抗动脉粥样硬化等,而在抗肿瘤方面的研究甚少,本文通过查阅国内外相关文献,对莲生物碱类在抗肿瘤方面的研究进行综述,以期为从莲中寻找有效的抗肿瘤新药提供理论依据.%Nelumbo nuciferia Gaertn is a Nelumbo plant of Nymphaeaceae, which is one of the most important medicinal and edi-ble crops. Alkaloids in Nelumbo nuciferia Gaertn are mainly accumulated in the lotus and lotus leaves, and the main pharmacological effects include anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-aging, hyperlipidemia, adiposity, antihypertensive effect, anti-bacteria, anti-ar-rhythmic, anti-atherosclerosis and so on. However, there are fewer researches on anti-tumor activity. According to the relevant litera-tures from home and abroad, the studies on anti-tumor activity of alkaloids in lotus were reviewed in order to provide theoretical basis for the studies and development of effective anti-tumor drugs derived from lotus.

  10. The Core-Collection Construction of Flower Lotus Based on AFLP Molecular Markers%利用AFLP分子标记技术构建花莲核心种质资源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美; 付杰; 向巧彦; 刘艳玲

    2011-01-01

    genetic diversity comparison and /-test between original collection and core collection were analyzed. [Result] The core collection of flower lotus with 88 cultivars including 60 Chinese flower lotus {Nelumbo nucifera), 3 American louts (Nelumbo luted), 16 hybrids between N nucifera and N. Lutea, and 9 Japanese lotus cultivars. The core collection reserved 22.27% samples of original collection. The reserved rate of number of polymorphic loci and percentage of polymorphic loci were 99.27%, and the reserved rate of observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon's information index were 100.00%, 101.72%, 110.00% and 106.67%, respectively, /-test's results showed that no significant difference was found in genetic diversity indexes between the core collection and original collection. [Conclusion] The core collection excluded the redundant germplasm from the original collection and conserved maximum genetic diversity with minimum lotus germplasm resource. These results demonstrated that the core collection could stand for original collection excellently.

  11. Technique for rapid establishment of American lotus in remediation efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M. G.; Jett, R. T.; McCracken, M. K.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Fortner, A. M.; Goins, K. N.; Riazi, A. S.

    2013-03-01

    A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) and simplifying planting was developed as part of a pond remediation project. Lotus propagation techniques typically require scarification of the seed, germination in heated water, and planting in nursery containers. Then mature (~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock is transferred to planting site or scarified seed are broadcast applied. Mature plants should grow more quickly, but can be sensitive to handling, require more time to plant, and cost more. Scarified seeds are easier to plant and inexpensive, but have a lag time in growth, can fail to germinate, and can be difficult to site precisely. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier, provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bag lotus demonstrate that bag lotus grow rapidly in a variety of conditions, have a high survival rate, can be processed and planted easily and quickly, and are very suitable for a variety of remediation projects

  12. Alkaloids of Nelumbo lutea (Wild.) pers. (Nymphaeaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, S G

    1977-11-01

    A phytochemical investigation of an alcoholic extract of the petioles of Nelumbo lutea resulted in the identification of the alkaloids N-methylasimilobine, anonaine, and roemerine. The alkaloids nuciferine, armepavine, N-nornuciferine, and N-norarmepavine, previously previously reported in the whole plant, were also identified.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus Lotus corniculatus Lotus_corniculatus_L.png Lotus_corniculatus_NL.png Lotus_corn...iculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corn...iculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japon...icus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  15. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  16. 子莲主要农艺性状与产量的相关及通径分析%Correlation and Path Analysis of Main Agronomic Characters and Yield of Seed Lotus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红莲; 柯卫东; 刘玉平; 彭静; 黄来春; 周凯

    2014-01-01

    Correlation and path analysis was carried on the main agronomic characters and yield of seven seed lotus(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) cultivars. The results showed that the degree of correlation between eleven major characters and yield was:receptacle number>receptacle diameter>single fresh seed weight>single fresh receptacle weight>average carpel number>fresh seed width>seed setting rate>petiole diameter>fresh seed length>leaf long radius>petiole height. Among them,receptacle number,receptacle diameter and single fresh seed weight were significant or very significant positive correlation with seed lotus yield. Based on the path analysis results,receptacle number,single fresh receptacle weight,seed setting rate and average carpel number had direct effect on seed lotus yield. The receptacle diameter,fresh seed length,fresh seed width,petiole diameter had indirect effect on yield. Other characters like petiole height,leaf long radius and single fresh seed weight had both direct and indirect effects on seed lotus yield. Based on the above analysis,the principle breeding objectives were to improve the receptacle numbers,single fresh receptacle weight,average carpel number and seed setting rate per unite area. And the secondary objectives were increasing the receptacle diameter,single fresh seed weight and well coordinating the relationship between them.%对7份子莲材料的主要农艺性状与产量进行相关及通径分析。结果表明:子莲11个主要农艺性状与产量相关性强弱为:莲蓬数>花托直径>单粒鲜莲子质量>单个鲜花托质量>平均心皮数>鲜果实横径>结实率>叶柄粗>鲜果实纵径>叶片长半径>叶柄高。其中,莲蓬数、花托直径和单粒鲜莲子质量与产量呈极显著或显著正相关。从通径分析结果来看,莲蓬数、单个鲜花托质量、结实率、平均心皮数对子莲产量的影响主要取决于直接作用;花托直径、鲜果实横径、鲜果实纵径

  17. The Lotus japonicus genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides insights into some of the key achievements made in the study of Lotus japonicus (birdsfoot trefoil), as well as a timely overview of topics that are pertinent for future developments in legume genomics. Key topics covered include endosymbiosis, development, hormone regulation......, carbon/nitrogen and secondary metabolism, as well as advances made in high-throughput genomic and genetic approaches. Research focusing on model plants has underpinned the recent growth in plant genomics and genetics and provided a basis for investigations of major crop species. In the legume family...... Fabaceae, groundbreaking genetic and genomic research has established a significant body of knowledge on Lotus japonicus, which was adopted as a model species more than 20 years ago. The diverse nature of legumes means that such research has a wide potential and agricultural impact, for example...

  18. 莲子生理活性的研究进展%Advances in the Bioactivity of Lotus-seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾绍校; 陈秉彦; 郭泽镔; 郑宝东

    2012-01-01

    The seed of Nelumbo nucifere Gaertn, has been used as a functional food in China, India and Southeast Asia for thousands of years. Recently, more and more focus has been placed on the lotus-seed because of its rich nutrition components and potential pharmaceutical values. This paper reviewed the bioactives and functional components of lotus-seed for further exploitation and utilization.%莲子是睡莲科莲属(Nelumbo nucifere Gaertn)植物的种子,在中国、印度及东南亚各国莲子作为一种功能食品已有几千年的历史.近年来,由于莲子具有丰富的营养物质和潜在的药用价值而备受关注,本文综述了莲子的生理活性及功效成分,以期为莲子的进一步开发利用提供依据.

  19. Gene Expression Profile in the Long-Living Lotus: Insights into the Heat Stress Response Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Du, Fengfeng; Li, Naiwei; Chang, Yajun; Yao, Dongrui

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Adans) is an aquatic perennial plant that flourished during the middle Albian stage. In this study, we characterized the digital gene expression signatures for China Antique lotus under conditions of heat shock stress. Using RNA-seq technology, we sequenced four libraries, specifically, two biological replicates for control plant samples and two for heat stress samples. As a result, 6,528,866 to 8,771,183 clean reads were mapped to the reference genome, accounting for 92-96% total clean reads. A total of 396 significantly altered genes were detected across the genome, among which 315 were upregulated and 81 were downregulated by heat shock stress. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment of differentially expressed genes revealed protein folding, cell morphogenesis and cellular component morphogenesis as the top three functional terms under heat shock stress. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis led to the identification of protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, plant-pathogen interactions, spliceosome, endocytosis, and protein export as significantly enriched pathways. Among the upregulated genes, small heat shock proteins (sHsps) and genes related to cell morphogenesis were particularly abundant under heat stress. Data from the current study provide valuable clues that may help elucidate the molecular events underlying heat stress response in China Antique lotus.

  20. Gene Expression Profile in the Long-Living Lotus: Insights into the Heat Stress Response Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Liu

    Full Text Available Lotus (Nelumbo Adans is an aquatic perennial plant that flourished during the middle Albian stage. In this study, we characterized the digital gene expression signatures for China Antique lotus under conditions of heat shock stress. Using RNA-seq technology, we sequenced four libraries, specifically, two biological replicates for control plant samples and two for heat stress samples. As a result, 6,528,866 to 8,771,183 clean reads were mapped to the reference genome, accounting for 92-96% total clean reads. A total of 396 significantly altered genes were detected across the genome, among which 315 were upregulated and 81 were downregulated by heat shock stress. Gene ontology (GO enrichment of differentially expressed genes revealed protein folding, cell morphogenesis and cellular component morphogenesis as the top three functional terms under heat shock stress. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis led to the identification of protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, plant-pathogen interactions, spliceosome, endocytosis, and protein export as significantly enriched pathways. Among the upregulated genes, small heat shock proteins (sHsps and genes related to cell morphogenesis were particularly abundant under heat stress. Data from the current study provide valuable clues that may help elucidate the molecular events underlying heat stress response in China Antique lotus.

  1. Lotus Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mun, Terry; Bachmann, Asger; Gupta, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    exploration of Lotus genomic and transcriptomic data. Equally important are user-friendly in-browser tools designed for data visualization and interpretation. Here, we present Lotus Base, which opens to the research community a large, established LORE1 insertion mutant population containing an excess of 120...

  2. 3种农药对莲藕莲缢管蚜的杀虫活性和安全性%Insecticidal activity of three pesticides against Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae in lotus and their safety to crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈迎春; 张怡; 郭慧芳; 祝树德; 徐炜枫

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of three pesticides,imidacloprid,acetamiprid and pymetrozine to Rhopalosiphum nympha-eae in Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.,and their safety to crops,were investigated by indoor incubation and field ex-periment.The results showed that the lethal concentration of 50 percent individuals (LC50 )of imidacloprid,acet-amiprid,pymetrozine was 0.26 mg/L,0.09 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L,respectively,and there was a significant differ-ence among the three pesticides in the toxicity to R .nymphaeae .No damage on the growth of N .nucifera was observed under the experimental dose with the treatment of seed dressing and stem-leaf spraying.The field experi-ments showed that the control efficiency was more than 90% 7 days after application in Fujian,Hunan,Zhejiang, Shandong and Hubei.Residual trails showed that the half-life of imidacloprid,acetamiprid,pymetrozine on the lotus leaf was 2.5-5.9 days,7.4-9.5 days,and 0.8-1.3 days,respectively.Imidacloprid,acetamiprid,and pymetrozine as the easily biodegradable pesticides,remaining in the environment for a short time,are relatively environment-friendly for use.%为筛选防治莲藕莲缢管蚜的理想药剂,比较研究了吡虫啉、啶虫脒、吡蚜酮的杀虫活性、田间防效、作物安全性和残留。结果表明,啶虫脒对莲缢管蚜3日龄蚜虫的 LC50为0.09 mg/L,毒力显著高于吡虫啉和吡蚜酮(LC50值分别为0.26 mg/L 和1.0 mg/L)。湖南、湖北、浙江、福建和山东田间试验结果表明,吡虫啉、啶虫脒和吡蚜酮在15 g/hm2以上有效使用剂量时,药后7 d 对莲藕莲缢管蚜的防治效果均在90%以上。10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂、5%啶虫脒乳油、25%吡蚜酮可湿性粉剂在稀释250倍及以下剂量时拌种或茎叶喷雾对莲藕植株生长均无药害。残留试验结果表明,吡虫啉在莲叶上的半衰期为2.5~5.9 d;啶虫脒在莲叶上的半衰期为7.4~9.5 d;吡蚜酮在莲叶上的半衰期为0.8

  3. Lotus Prize" Announced In Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The national historic dance drama "Farewell, my concubine" and the dance poetry "Dynamic Yunnan" were awarded the golden prizes at the fourth China dance "Lotus Prize" respectively on March 8."Farewell, my concubine," produced by the Shanghai

  4. Enzymatic Browning Controling of Fresh Cut-lotus Roots%鲜切莲藕酶促褐变控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝亚勤

    2014-01-01

    选择柠檬酸(CA)、D-异抗坏血酸钠(D-EA)、乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA-2Na)3种对莲藕(Neulmbo nucifera Gaerth)多酚氧化酶(Polyphenol oxidase,PPO)活性抑制率较高的抑制剂,作为鲜切莲藕酶促褐变抑制剂,研究3种抑制剂及其组合对抑制鲜切莲藕酶促褐变的效应。结果表明,3种褐变抑制剂最佳组合用量为2.5 g / L CA+1.5 g / L D-EA+1.5 g / L EDTA-2Na。%The high inhibitors including Citric acid (CA), Sodium D-isoascorbate (D-EA) and Edathamil disodium (EDTA-2Na) of activity of polyphenol oxidase of lotus root Neulmbo nucifera Gaerth were used as the enzymatic browning inhibitors of fresh-cut lotus roots. The effects of the inhibitors and its combination on the inhibition of enzymatic browning of fresh cut lotus root were studied. The results showed that the optimal dosage of combination of this three enzymatic browning inhibitors was 2. 5g/LCA+1. 5g/LD-EA+1. 5g/LEDTA-2Na.

  5. Batrachedra nuciferae, an inflorescence-feeding moth associated with coconut, Cocos nucifera, and palmiste, Roystonea oleracea, in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Matthew J W

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae) was the first phytophagous insect to be reported from inflorescences of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Trinidad, West Indies. At that time, it was suggested to be an introduced species contributing to decreasing coconut yields on the island and potentially a threat to other palms. In this preliminary study, inflorescences of coconut, seven indigenous palms, and six exotic ornamental palms were surveyed in several areas of Trinidad. Caterpillars of more than 10 species of Lepidoptera were found and reared through to the adult stage. Batrachedra nuciferae was positively identified. It was concluded that the caterpillars of B. nuciferae feed on pollen in the male flowers of coconut and palmiste or royal palm, Roystonea oleracea (Jacquin) O.F. Cook. There was no evidence that B. nuciferae bred on any of the other palms surveyed, but it is not conclusive that they do not do so. A parasitoid, Apanteles (sensu lato) sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), of B. nuciferae was reared. On available information, B. nuciferae is more likely to be an indigenous species that has hitherto been overlooked than an introduced species. In view of what is known about damage-yield relationships and biological control agents, B. nuciferae is unlikely to cause yield losses to coconut, so control measures are not justified.

  6. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  7. Why so strong for the lotus leaf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2008-11-01

    The authors discussed the potential reasons why the lotus leaf is so strong by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the good mechanical properties of lotus leaf should be attributed to its architecture, such as paralleled microtubes structure, umbrellalike structure, and hierarchically layered hexagon structure. The important observation from this work is that the surface of the rear face of the lotus leaf seems to be constituted by the layers of hexagons whose hierarchical pilling up of size decreases as we go deeper from surface. This is a typical fractal-like phenomenon.

  8. Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae: A phytochemical and pharmacological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.C. Lima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocos nucifera (L. (Arecaceae is commonly called the “coconut tree” and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.

  9. Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E B C; Sousa, C N S; Meneses, L N; Ximenes, N C; Santos Júnior, M A; Vasconcelos, G S; Lima, N B C; Patrocínio, M C A; Macedo, D; Vasconcelos, S M M

    2015-11-01

    Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) is commonly called the "coconut tree" and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.

  10. Cyanogenesis in Lotus and Trifolium species

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Blaim; Edmunt Nowacki

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanogenic plants was determined in 48 Trifolium species, 12 Lotus species, in wild population as well as in varieties of T. repens L. and Loins corniculatus L. species. In the genus Trifolium only T. nigrescens Viv. proved to be high-cyanogenic, all the remaining species are acyanogenic or low-cyanogenic. In the T. repens species varieties and wild populations include an insignificant per cent of cyanogenic plants.The genus Lotus comprises both high-cyanogenic and acyanogen...

  11. The origin of Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M D; Jones, W T

    1985-12-01

    Earlier students of the origin of Lotus corniculatus suggested that this tetraploid species arose as an autotetraploid of the closely related diploid species L. tenuis or L. alpinus. More recent studies suggested that L. alpinus and L. japonicus could be ancestral forms. The present study of tannin content, phenolic content, cyanide production, morphology, cytogenetics, Rhizobium specificity and self-incompatibility in the corniculatus group virtually excludes the possibility that L. corniculatus could have arisen through autopolyploidy of L. tenuis or L. alpinus, and suggests that L. corniculatus arose through hybridization of L. alpinus and/or L. tenuis (probably as female parent) with L. uliginosus (probably as male parent), followed by chromosome doubling in the hybrid.

  12. 基于Lotus Domino的Intranet构建技术%The techology of building intranet with lotus domino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飚; 陈传波

    2001-01-01

    通过一个具体的实例,讨论了Lotus Domino的特点,并给出了基于Lotus Domino的Intranet构建方法及关键技术,为企业的Intranet建设提供了参考和借鉴.%The specialities of Lotus Domino and the method of building Intranet based on Lotus Domino by an instance were discussed in this paper, These experiences are very useful for the building of Intranet.

  13. Extraction of Coconut Oil (Cocos nucifera L.) through Fermentation System

    OpenAIRE

    RITA DWI RAHAYU; JOKO SULISTYO; RINI HANDAYANI

    2009-01-01

    Coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) has a unique role in the diet as an important physiologically functional food. The health and nutritional benefits that can be derived from consuming coconut oil have been recognized in many parts of the world for centuries. There are few techniques for coconut oil extraction, such as physical, chemical, and fermentation or enzymatic processes using microbial inoculum as enzymatic starter. Starter with different concentration (1.0; 2.5; 5.0; and 10%) of microbi...

  14. Petal Development in Lotus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Weng; Zhaoxia Tian; Xianzhong Feng; Xin Li; Shilei Xu; Xiaohe Hu; Da Luo

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that petal shape and size in legume flowers are determined by two separate mechanisms,dorsoventral (DV) and organ internal (IN) asymmetric mechanisms,respectively.However,little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling petal development in legumes.To address this question,we investigated petal development along the floral DV axis in Lotus japonicus with respect to cell and developmental biology by comparing wild-type legumes to mutants.Based on morphological markers,the entire course of petal development,from initiation to maturity,was grouped to define 3 phases or 13 stages.In terms of epidermal micromorphology from adaxial surface,mature petals were divided into several distinct domains,and characteristic epidermal cells of each petal differentiated at stage 9,while epidermal cells of all domains were observed until stage 12.TCP and MIXTA-like genes were found to be differentially expressed in various domains of petals at stages 9 and 12.Our results suggest that DV and IN mechanisms interplay at different stages of petal development,and their interaction at the cellular and molecular level guides the elaboration of domains within petals to achieve their ideal shape,and further suggest that TCP genes determine petal identity along the DV axis by regulating MIXTA-like gene expression.

  15. 莲不同药用部位化学成分研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小亮; 章军; 马小军; 王智民; 刘安

    2012-01-01

    莲(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn)为睡莲科(Nymphaeaceae)莲属(Nelumbo)植物,具有多个通用名(Indian lotus,Chinesewater lily,sacred lotus等)和学名(Nelumbium nelumbo,N.speciosa,N.speciosum,Nymphaea nelumbo等)[1].该属植物有2种,分别为美洲黄莲(Nelumbo pentapetala Fernald.)和中国莲(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn).美洲黄莲以美国东北部为中心,分布在北美;中国莲以中国为中心,分布在亚洲、大洋洲.我国仅有中国莲一种,为多年生水生草本植物,在湖南、湖北、浙江、江苏等地有广泛种植.在临床应用中,莲有多个部位入药,包括荷叶、莲子(种胚及莲子心)、藕、莲房和荷花(翼瓣及雄蕊),不同部位药用价值并不完全相同[1-2].

  16. Lotus and rhizobia – match and mismatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrektsen, Anita Søndergaard

    pedunculatus infected with the same strain of rhizobia, is producing white uninfected nodules. On the other hand the slow-growing NZP2309 induces functional nodules on Lotus pedunculatus, whereas the nodules induced on Lotus japonicus are infected, but without the ability to supply the plant with nitrogen....... The phenotypes are characterized in detail using thin-section microscopy of the nodules, and acetylene reduction assays. Infection threads are visualized by lacZ staining of bacteria, and using rhizobia that carries an eGFP marker-gene. Last but not least, to investigate the phenotype at a molecular level...

  17. Identification of Charred Nelumbo nucifera by TLC and Content Determination of Extract%藕节炭的TLC鉴别和浸出物含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善新; 靳光乾; 郭承军; 刘欣欣

    2010-01-01

    目的:对藕节炭药材的鉴别方法及浸出物进行研究.方法:以3-表白桦脂酸、β-谷甾醇为对照,采用薄层色谱(TLC)法对藕节炭药材进行定性鉴别;采用65%乙醇为溶剂测其浸出物的含量.结果:TLC斑点明显;浸出物测定方法可行.结论:TLC法可以鉴别藕节炭药材;不同地区市售藕节炭65%乙醇浸出物含量差异较大.

  18. Variation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Subathira; Rumball, William; Lane, Geoff A; Fraser, Karl; Foo, Lai Y; Yu, Min; Meagher, Lucy P

    2006-08-01

    The proanthocyanidin (PA) chemistry of 12 Lotus species of previously unknown PA content was examined in comparison with agricultural cultivars of L. pedunculatus, L. corniculatus, and L. tenuis and a "creeping" selection of L. corniculatus. Herbage harvested in winter 2000 and again in spring had extractable PA concentrations, estimations of which varied between 0.2 and 10.9% of dry matter. The four novel Lotus spp. with the highest concentrations were selected for further evaluation together with the agricultural accessions. PA concentrations in herbage were estimated for individual plants harvested in spring 2001 and bulk samples harvested in summer 2002-2003. PA oligomer and polymer fractions were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography from aqueous acetone PA extracts of herbage. The chemical characteristics of the fractions were examined by acid catalyzed degradation with benzyl mercaptan, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). A wide variation was found in the chemical composition, mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and polydispersity of PAs from Lotus spp. Fractions from L. americanus, L. corniculatus "creeping selection," and L. pedunculatus consisted predominantly of prodelphinidin (PD) units, whereas PA from L. angustissimus and L. corniculatus consisted predominantly of procyanidin (PC) units. An approximately equal composition in terms of PC and PD units was found in L. parviflorus and L. suaveolens. In L. angustissimus, epicatechin is dominant in both extender and terminal units. In all Lotus PA fractions, the 2,3-cis isomers (epicatechin or epigallocatechin) predominated. Only trace amounts of PA were extracted from L. tenuis. The mDP of the PA fractions ranged from 8 to 97, with high mDP found only for L. pedunculatus and L. americanus. In the ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS of the L. angustissimus PA fraction, ions

  19. Application of Lotus Domino / Notes in OA System%Lotus Domino/Notes在OA系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 王芳

    2012-01-01

    Lotus Domino/Notes是实现和运行办公自动化的最有效的平台之一.本文介绍了Lotus Domino/Notes在办公自动化方面的优势,提出了OA系统的设计思路,并对系统应用Lotus Domino/Notes的部分关键技术进行了讨论.

  20. Texture and Wettability of Metallic Lotus Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Frankiewicz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of sup...

  1. Cyanogenesis in Lotus and Trifolium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Blaim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of cyanogenic plants was determined in 48 Trifolium species, 12 Lotus species, in wild population as well as in varieties of T. repens L. and Loins corniculatus L. species. In the genus Trifolium only T. nigrescens Viv. proved to be high-cyanogenic, all the remaining species are acyanogenic or low-cyanogenic. In the T. repens species varieties and wild populations include an insignificant per cent of cyanogenic plants.The genus Lotus comprises both high-cyanogenic and acyanogenic species. In the L. corniculatus species varieties include much more high-cyanogenic plants than do wild populations. It seems that in L. corniculatus the breeding went in a wrong direction, because of lack of plant selection regarding the presence of toxic compounds.

  2. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  3. The Exquisite Brushwork of Lotus Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Jin Na’s graduation work entitled Lotus Flowers is housed in the collection at the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Jin succeeded in creating a harmonious integral whole which yielded splendid. ambiguous and pleasing visual effects. In recent years. Jin Na has stressed tine relationship of the consciousness of mankind with society and nature. Jin, an exquisite female artist. attempts to express romantic sentiment as obscure dreams.

  4. PERKEMBANGAN MIKROGAMETOFIT DAN UJI VIABILITAS SERBUK SARI KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. “Ancak”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Cerli Tonika Sari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research observed the type of pollen shape, development of microgametophyte, andpollen viability of Cocos nucifera L. “Ancak”, that is the pollen structure Cocos nucifera L. usedpreparation with acetolysis method. Development of microgametophyte, and pollen viabilitywith germinated pollen in vitro used 0,8% of agar media in sugar solution 0%, 50%, and 70%.The result showed that the type of pollen shape Cocos nucifera L. “Ancak”: circular, sulkus,media, Subferoidal, P/E: (1.12-1.18. Development of microgametophyte Cocos nucifera L.“Ancak” the flowers are ripe generally at the level of uninucleate (> 60% and binukleat (<40%.Male gametes (trinukleat started on day 2,4. percentage of pollen viability in vitro low average(< 2.5%.Keywords: Pollen structure, microgametophyte, viability test, in vitro

  5. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches...

  6. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From... Protection. SUMMARY: This notice modifies the temporary exemption granted to Group Lotus plc (Lotus) on March... in the Federal Register a notice granting Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) a temporary exemption from...

  7. 78 FR 15114 - Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Grant of Petition for a Temporary Exemption... Protection. SUMMARY: This notice grants the petition of Group Lotus plc (Lotus) for a temporary exemption of... accordance with 49 U.S.C. 30113 and the procedures in 49 CFR Part 555, Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) has submitted...

  8. Lotus Domino的邮件流转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映; 朱斐

    2007-01-01

    本文主要对基于Lotus Domino的邮件流转机制进行详细的阐述,介绍了Domino邮件服务器的组成并分析了其工作原理.本文详细剖析了在7种不同的拓扑结构中,Domino的邮件流转方式.最后,本文提出了一种结合Internet与多功能数据库的方法,以解决OA系统中邮件的流转.

  9. Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Ensikat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the ‘Lotus effect’. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves.

  10. Superhydrophobicity in perfection: the outstanding properties of the lotus leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensikat, Hans J; Ditsche-Kuru, Petra; Neinhuis, Christoph; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Lotus leaves have become an icon for superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning surfaces, and have led to the concept of the 'Lotus effect'. Although many other plants have superhydrophobic surfaces with almost similar contact angles, the lotus shows better stability and perfection of its water repellency. Here, we compare the relevant properties such as the micro- and nano-structure, the chemical composition of the waxes and the mechanical properties of lotus with its competitors. It soon becomes obvious that the upper epidermis of the lotus leaf has developed some unrivaled optimizations. The extraordinary shape and the density of the papillae are the basis for the extremely reduced contact area between surface and water drops. The exceptional dense layer of very small epicuticular wax tubules is a result of their unique chemical composition. The mechanical robustness of the papillae and the wax tubules reduce damage and are the basis for the perfection and durability of the water repellency. A reason for the optimization, particularly of the upper side of the lotus leaf, can be deduced from the fact that the stomata are located in the upper epidermis. Here, the impact of rain and contamination is higher than on the lower epidermis. The lotus plant has successfully developed an excellent protection for this delicate epistomatic surface of its leaves.

  11. Atomic force microscopy and thermodynamics on taro, a self-cleaning plant leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüger, E.; Rothe, H.; Frant, M.; Grohmann, S.; Hildebrand, G.; Liefeith, K.

    2009-07-01

    The evolution-optimized leaves of Colocasia esculenta (taro) and Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) are the best optimized self-cleaning surfaces known to date. Using an atomic force microscope device equipped with a piezodriven sample stage which enables a z-range of 100 μm we measured the surface morphology of dried and undried leaves of Colocasia esculenta. Thermodynamic calculations were done to investigate the interaction strength of a water droplet with the surfaces of the morphology shown in the images. The results show that the hierarchical structure produces a stable superhydrophobic state with optimal self-cleaning properties.

  12. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  13. Biomorphic SiC from lotus root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang; Donghua Wang; Guoqiang Jin; Yingyong Wang; Xiangyun

    2009-01-01

    Biomorphic silicon carbide (bioSiC) with macro-channels and alveolate micropores was prepared by spon-taneous infiltration of melted silicon into a carbon template derived from lotus root at 1600 ℃. The carbon template and purified bioSiC samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, camera and mercury intrusion. The results suggest that the bioSiC mainly consists of β-SiC and perfectly replicates the shape and microstructure of the carbon template. The bioSiC has a mean pore diameter of 91.1 μm and a porosity of 50.1%, both similar to those of the carbon template, 92.3 μm and 50.7%, respectively.

  14. Antimalarial Activity of Cocos nucifera Husk Fibre: Further Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Adebayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimalarial and toxicity potentials of husk fibre extracts of five Nigerian varieties of Cocos nucifera were evaluated in vitro. The only active extract fraction, West African Tall (WAT ethyl acetate extract fraction, was then evaluated for its phytochemical constituents, antimalarial and toxicity potentials at varying doses (31.25–500 mg/kg body weight using various organ function indices. The results revealed that WAT ethyl acetate extract fraction (WATEAEF contained alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids and was active against Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain maintained in continuous culture, with a selectivity index of 30.3. The same extract fraction was active in vivo against Plasmodium berghei NK65, causing more than 50% reduction in parasitaemia on days 4 and 6 after inoculation at various doses administered. WATEAEF did not significantly alter (P>0.05 function indices of the liver and cardiovascular system at all doses administered but significantly increased (P<0.05 plasma creatinine concentration at 250 and 500 mg/Kg body weight compared to controls. The results of this study suggest that WATEAEF possesses antimalarial activity and may not adversely affect normal liver function nor predispose subjects to cardiovascular diseases but may impair normal kidney function at higher doses. Further studies are underway to isolate the active principles.

  15. Cytoprotective, antihyperglycemic and phytochemical properties of Cocos nucifera (L.) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RS Renjith; AM Chikku; T Rajamohan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the cytoprotective and antidiabetic activities as well as phytochemical composition of the immature inflorescence ofCocos nucifera belonging to theArecaceaeFamily. Methods:The phytochemical screening of inflorescence was done to determine the major constituents present inCocos nuciferainflorescence.The free radical scavenging potential of inflorescence extracts were evaluated using in vitro radical scavenging assay models.Results:The phytochemical analyses on inflorescence showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, resins and alkaloids.The macronutrient analyses, on the other hand, showed the presence of carbohydrate, proteins and fibers.Administration of the methanol extract of coconut inflorescence to the diabetic rats showed dose dependent reduction in hyperglycemia.The cytoprotective property of coconut inflorescence was evidenced from the acute toxicological evaluation.The levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased in the diabetic rats treated with inflorescence when compared with the diabetic control rats.Conclusion:The results obtained from the present study apparently proved the non-toxic nature and the cytoprotective and antihyperglycemic properties of coconut inflorescence.

  16. Analysis of Isoquinoline Alkaloid Composition and Wound-Induced Variation in Nelumbo Using HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xianbao; Zhu, Lingping; Fang, Ting; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Yang, Dong; Ogutu, Collins; Liu, Yanling; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-02-10

    Alkaloids are the most relevant bioactive components in lotus, a traditional herb in Asia, but little is known about their qualitative and quantitative distributions. Here, we report on the alkaloid composition in various lotus organs. Lotus laminae and embryos are rich in isoquinoline alkaloids, whereas petioles and rhizomes contain trace amounts of alkaloids. Wide variation of alkaloid accumulation in lamina and embryo was observed among screened genotypes. In laminae, alkaloid accumulation increases during early developmental stages, reaches the highest level at full size stage, and then decreases slightly during senescence. Vegetative and embryogenic tissues accumulate mainly aporphine-type and bisbenzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids, respectively. Bisbenzylisoquinoline-type alkaloids may be synthesized mainly in lamina and then transported into embryo via latex through phloem translocation. In addition, mechanical wounding was shown to induce significant accumulation of specific alkaloids in lotus leaves.

  17. Lotus birth, a holistic approach on physiological cord clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, Laura A

    2017-09-04

    The positive effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been extensively researched. DCC means: waiting at least one minute after birth before clamping and cutting the cord or till the pulsation has stopped. With physiological clamping and cutting (PCC) the clamping and cutting can happen at the earliest after the pulsation has stopped. With a Lotus birth, no clamping and cutting of the cord is done. A woman called Clair Lotus Day imitated the holistic approach of PCC from an anthropoid ape in 1974. The chimpanzee did not separate the placenta from the newborn. The aim of this case report is to discuss and learn a different approach in the third stage of labour. Three cases of Lotus birth by human beings were observed. All three women gave birth in an out-of-hospital setting and had ambulant postnatal care. The placenta was washed, salted and herbs were put on 2-3h post partum. The placenta was wrapped in something that absorbs the moisture. The salting was repeated with a degreasing frequency depending on moistness of the placenta. On life day six all three Lotus babies experiences a natural separation of the cord. All three Lotus birth cases were unproblematic, no special incidence occurred. One should differentiate between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and physiological cord clamping (PCC). Lotus birth might lead to an optimisation of the bonding and attachment. Research is needed in the areas of both PCC and Lotus birth. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction of Coconut Oil (Cocos nucifera L. through Fermentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA DWI RAHAYU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L. has a unique role in the diet as an important physiologically functional food. The health and nutritional benefits that can be derived from consuming coconut oil have been recognized in many parts of the world for centuries. There are few techniques for coconut oil extraction, such as physical, chemical, and fermentation or enzymatic processes using microbial inoculum as enzymatic starter. Starter with different concentration (1.0; 2.5; 5.0; and 10% of microbial strains were added into coconut cream and allowed to be fermented for over night. The extracted oil was analyzed for further experiment, especially on its antibacterial activity. The maximum yield of 27.2% was achieved by adding 5.0% starter. Water content, acid value, FFA, and peroxide value of the fermented coconut oil were 0.3%, 0.45%, 0.22% and 2.54% respectively. A gas chromatogram showed that this fermented oil contained high lauric acid (46.82%, and 6.01% caprylic, 7.5% capric, 17.02% miristic, 7.21% palmitic, 3.11% palmitoleic, 5.41% stearic, and 1.3% linoleic acid, respectively. Inhibitory effects of such kind coconut oil which contains potential fatty acid against bacterial growth was further examined. It was found that this edible oil exhibited antibacterial activity to inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella; however it showed slightly inhibitory effect when it was exposed to Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.

  19. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption... Crash Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc has... accordance with 49 U.S.C. 30113 and the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) has submitted...

  20. Design of Physical Games for Learning the Lotus Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernhuar Tarng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lotus effect is a learning topic of nanoscience commonly seen in elementary schools. However,nanostructures cannot be observed with naked eyes or using general microscopes. Lacking interactiveoperating environments, it is not easy to inspire students to explore nanophenomena. This study usedvirtual reality (VR technology to develop two physical games, namely “Water Drop in the Maze” and“Cleaning the Dust”, to show the macroscopic and microscopic structures of lotus leaves respectively.Students can control the rolling direction of water drop by the 3-axis accelerometers in smart phones ortablet PCs to complete the missions, and observe the hydrophobic effect and self-cleaning effect of the lotusas well the as the scales of water drops, dust and the nanostructure on the surface of lotus leaves. Ateaching experiment was conducted and the results showed the learning achievement of using physicalgames to learn the lotus effect was significantly higher than that of using instructional video. Thequestionnaire results also revealed that most students thought the physical games could enhance theirmotivation and interest in learning the lotus effect.

  1. In vitro assessment of the synergism between extracts of Cocos nucifera husk and some standard antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiwo Adesola Akinyele; Etinosa Ogbomoede Igbinosa; David Ayinde Akinpelu; Anthony Ifeanyin Okoh

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the interactions between the crude extracts of Cocos nucifera (C.nucifera) and six front line antibiotics (ampicillin sodium salt,penicillin G sodium,amoxicillin,chloramphenicol,ciprofloxacin and tetracycline hydrochloride),against some bacterial pathogens linked with human infection.Methods:The pulverized husk of C.nucifera was dissolved in 95% n-hexane and extracted using Soxhlet extraction method and sterile distilled water (aqueous).The antibacterial susceptibility of the crude extracts of C.nucifera was tested against environmental and clinical strains (6) obtained from the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS),Vibrio (6) and Listeria pathogens (6).The agar-well diffusion method was used for screening the extracts for their antibacterial activity.The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the extracts were determined.Time-kill assay was used to evaluate bactericidal and/or bacteriostatic activity.The synergistic effect of the crude extracts and antibiotics was assessed and evaluated by adopting the checkerboard methods.Results:With the time-kill assay,the highest bactericidal activity was observed on Vibriofluvialis EL041 with a-5.6 ± 0.2 log10 CFU/mL decrease in cell density as a result of the combination of the extracts and chloramphenicol at two-fold minimum inhibitory concentrations.Synergisms using the time-kill assay constituted about 72%,while indifference constituted about 28%.The checkerboard method revealed synergistic interaction in 67% of the combinations,and indifference in 33%.There was no specificity in the observed synergy to a particular class of antibiotics.Conclusions:This investigation suggests the crude extracts of C.nucifera to be a potential broad spectrum antimicrobial compound.Therefore,further study is needed to isolate the pure compounds from these crude extracts.

  2. A new species of Callispa Baly (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Callispini) infesting coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera L.) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2013-01-01

    Callispa keram sp. n. infesting coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) in Kerala, India is described and illustrated. Livistona chinensis R.Br. and Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman are reported as additional host plants.

  3. LOTUS: A low cost, ultraviolet spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, I A; Jermak, H E; Barnsley, R M; Bates, S D; Clay, N R; Fitzsimmons, A; Jehin, E; Jones, G; Mottram, C J; Smith, R J; Snodgrass, C; de Val-Borro, M

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and commissioning of LOTUS; a simple, low-cost long-slit spectrograph for the Liverpool Telescope. The design is optimized for near-UV and visible wavelengths and uses all transmitting optics. It exploits the instrument focal plane field curvature to partially correct axial chromatic aberration. A stepped slit provides narrow (2.5x95 arcsec) and wide (5x25 arcsec) options that are optimized for spectral resolution and flux calibration respectively. On sky testing shows a wavelength range of 3200-6300 Angstroms with a peak system throughput (including detector quantum efficiency) of 15 per cent and wavelength dependant spectral resolution of R=225-430. By repeated observations of the symbiotic emission line star AG Peg we demonstrate the wavelength stability of the system is less than 2 Angstroms rms and is limited by the positioning of the object in the slit. The spectrograph is now in routine operation monitoring the activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during its ...

  4. Phosphoproteome analysis of Lotus japonicus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoko; Ishikawa, Akiyo; Nomura, Ayako; Kajiwara, Hideyuki; Harada, Kyuya; Hirano, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report the first dataset of phosphoproteins of the seeds of a model plant, Lotus japonicus. This dataset might be useful in studying the regulatory mechanisms of seed germination in legume plants. By proteomic analysis of seeds following water absorption, we identified a total of 721 phosphopeptides derived from 343 phosphoproteins in cotyledons, and 931 phosphopeptides from 473 phosphoproteins in hypocotyls. Kinase-specific prediction analyses revealed that different kinases were activated in cotyledons and hypocotyls. In particular, many peptides containing ATM-kinase target motifs, X-X-pS/pT-Q-X-X, were detected in cotyledons. Moreover, by real-time RT-PCR analysis, we found that expression of a homolog of ATM kinase is upregulated specifically in cotyledons, suggesting that this ATM-kinase homolog plays a significant role in cell proliferation in the cotyledons of L. japonicus seeds. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000053 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000053).

  5. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production.

  6. Ultrahydrophobic Textiles Using Nanoparticles: Lotus Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Ramaratnam, Ph.D.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the water wettability of ma-terials is governed by both the chemical composition and the geometrical microstructure of the surface.1 Traditional textile wet processing treatments do in-deed rely fundamentally upon complete wetting out of a textile structure to achieve satisfactory perform-ance.2 However, the complexities introduced through the heterogeneous nature of the fiber surfaces, the nature of the fiber composition and the actual con-struction of the textile material create difficulties in attempting to predict the exact wettability of a par-ticular textile material. For many applications the ability of a finished fabric to exhibit water repellency (in other words low wettability is essential2 and po-tential applications of highly water repellent textile materials include rainwear, upholstery, protective clothing, sportswear, and automobile interior fabrics. Recent research indicates that such applications may benefit from a new generation of water repellent ma-terials that make use of the “lotus effect” to provide ultrahydrophobic textile materials.3,4 Ultrahydropho-bic surfaces are typically termed as the surfaces that show a water contact angle greater than 150°C with very low contact angle hysteresis.4 In the case of tex-tile materials, the level of hydrophobicity is often determined by measuring the static water contact angle only, since it is difficult to measure the contact angle hysteresis on a textile fabric because of the high levels of roughness inherent in textile structures.

  7. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  8. [Self-fertility problems in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    The problems of Lotus corniculatus self-fertility are analyzed. The self-compatibility of hereditivity character, the efficacy of different methods of self-pollination (autogamy, geitonogamy within one plant and among plants of one clone), and usage of the mixture of self-compatible and self-incompatible pollen were studied.

  9. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    , focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  10. Establishment and fecundity of Ostertagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in lambs fed lotus (Lotus pedunculatus) or perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezen, J H; Waghorn, G C; Charleston, W A

    1998-07-17

    Forty four 12-14 week old Polled Dorset ram lambs, raised helminth free from birth, were used to investigate the effects of condensed tannins (CT) in lotus (Lotus pedunculatus) on lamb growth and gastrointestinal nematode establishment and fecundity. Condensed tannins bind to proteins in the rumen and increase the flow of protein to the intestines. Lambs were allocated to either a ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or lotus diet fed ad libitum, with or without twice daily drenching of polyethylene glycol (PEG) which binds with and deactivates the CT. One week after allocation to the diets, each lamb was infected per os with 10,000 Ostertagia circumcincta and 10,000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and slaughtered 28 or 29 days later. Lambs fed lotus had lower faecal egg counts (P < 0.0001) and lower O. circumcincta burdens (P < 0.001), fewer female O. circumcincta (P < 0.0001) and higher faecal dry matter (P < 0.001) than lambs fed ryegrass, but numbers of T. colubriformis nematodes were not affected. This trial did not ascribe beneficial effects of L. pedunculatus to CT per se and the use of PEG does not seem appropriate to studies of parasitology.

  11. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

  12. 利用浏览器管理Lotus Domino服务器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿雁; 罗进; 邵学清

    2001-01-01

    @@ 人们通常习惯使用Lotus Domino Administrator管理Lotus Domino服务器,那么在没有安装Lotus Domino Administrator的情况下如何管理Domino服务器呢?答案是可以使用浏览器.如果希望使用浏览器管理和查看Domino服务器的设置,则可以使用"Web管理".

  13. Facile fabrication of a lotus-effect composite coating via wrapping silica with polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Changhong, E-mail: suchhnju@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Material Science, School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zhangzou Road 22, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A lotus-effect coating was fabricated by wrapping micro-silica and nano-silica with polyurethane (PU) and subsequent spraying. The coating shows the similar self-cleaning property as lotus leaves: the contact angle is as large as 168 deg. and the sliding angle is as low as 0.5 deg. Surface morphology of the coating was studied with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composite coating shows the similar structure as lotus leaves.

  14. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meircurius Dwi C.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs can be used to eliminate pain by inhibiting the activity of conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. The chemical compositions of coconut shell are cellulose, pentosan, lignin, solvent extraction, uronat anhydrous, nitrogen, and water. One active ingredient in coconut shell is phenyl propanoid (consisting in lignin structure and guaicol. Phenyl propanoid and guaicol are phenolic compounds that can be used as antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and analgesic. Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L contains phenolic compound is believed able to bind a component conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the analgesic effect of liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research, conducted on 2-3 months old male mice (Mus musculus with 20-30 grams of weight. There were control group and treatment groups each of which had seven mice. Control group was orally given 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of distilled water, after 30 minutes 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of acetic acid 0.6% was delivered via intraperitoneal injection. The treatment groups were given liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100% respectively. The analgesic effect was then determined by decreasing of writhing reflex on mice recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: There were significant differences of writhing reflexes in the treatment groups given liquid smoke of coconut shell with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. The higher concentration of liquid smoke the higher its analgesic effect. Conclusion: Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L has analgesic effect.Latar belakang: Salah satu mekanisme obat yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri adalah menghambat aktivitas konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Komposisi kimia tempurung kelapa terdiri dari

  15. LOTUS overexpression accelerates neuronal plasticity after focal brain ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hajime; Kurihara, Yuji; Yokoyama, Taka-Akira; Kawahara, Nobutaka; Takei, Kohtaro

    2017-01-01

    Nogo receptor-1 (NgR1) and its ligands inhibit neuronal plasticity and limit functional recovery after brain damage such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS) antagonizes NgR1-mediated signaling. Here, we investigated whether LOTUS enhances neuronal plasticity and functional recovery after brain focal ischemia in adult mice. Focal ischemic infarcts were induced in wild-type and LOTUS-overexpressing transgenic mice via middle cerebral artery occlusion. Endogenous LOTUS expression was increased in brain and cervical spinal cord of the contralateral side of ischemia in the chronic phase after brain ischemia. LOTUS overexpression accelerated midline-crossing axonal sprouting from the contralateral side to the ipsilateral side of ischemia in the medullar reticular formation and gray matter of denervated cervical spinal cord. Importantly, LOTUS overexpression improved neurological score highly correlated with laterality ratio of corticoreticular fibers of the medulla oblongata, indicating that LOTUS overexpression may overcome the inhibitory environment induced by NgR1 signaling for damaged motor pathway reconstruction after ischemic stroke. Thus, our data suggest that LOTUS overexpression accelerates neuronal plasticity in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord after stroke and LOTUS administration is useful for future therapeutic strategies.

  16. Purification and utilization of garlic processing wastewater in lotus pond wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun PANG; Xue-ling FENG; Xiu-feng WANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the experiments of utilization of garlic processing wastewater in a lotus pond, this study demonstrates that lotus pond wetlands have a remarkable ability to remove organic pollutants and decrease chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and suspended substances (SS) in garlic processing wastewater. Results also show evident effects of lotus roots on absorption of NH3-N. The pH value in a lotus pond with wastewater discharged was relatively stable. The water quality in the lotus pond reached the classⅡ emission standard, according to the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996), seven days after pretreated garlic processing wastewater had been discharged into the lotus pond. Garlic processing wastewater irrigation does not produce pollution in the pond sediment and has no negative effect on the growth of lotus roots. Due to utilization of garlic processing wastewater, the output of lotus roots increased by 3.0% to 8.3%, and the quality of lotus roots was improved. Therefore, better purification and utilization results can be achieved.

  17. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  18. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Felipe A; Tonial, Fabiana; Chini, Silvia O; Sobottka, Andréa M; Scheffer-Basso, Simone M; Bertol, Charise D

    2014-09-01

    The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv.) extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano), L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga) and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel) were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  19. Phytochemical profile and antimicrobial properties of Lotus spp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE A. GIRARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of cultivar (cv. extracts of Lotus uliginosus (cvs. Trojan and Serrano, L. tenuis (cv. Larrañaga and L. corniculatus (cv. São Gabriel were investigated. The phytochemical analysis revealed tannins, coumarins and flavonoids in all extracts, with variations among cultivars, showing genotypic variability. By High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method, the cvs. Larrañaga and São Gabriel showed the highest percentage of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, and presented rutin, which was not detected in the other ones. These genotypes showed antifungal activity but not antibacterial one. The cv. Larrañaga inhibited the mycelia growth of Alternaria sp. and Fusarium graminearum while the cv. São Gabriel was active only against Alternaria sp. The cultivars showed the greatest amounts of secondary metabolites and demonstrated significant activity against filamentous fungi. The results provide a direction for further research about pharmacological use of Lotus spp.

  20. Lupine leghemoglobin I: expression in transgenic Lotus and tobacco tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózycki, P M; Karłowski, W M; Dessaux, Y; Petit, A; Legocki, A B

    2000-03-01

    The proximal parts of the promoters of the genes for symbiotic-type hemoglobins are generally conserved, but the promoter of the lbI gene of lupine (LulbI) shows some unusual structural features. It lacks typical organ-specific elements characteristic of all the leghemoglobin gene promoters described thus far. We have analysed its functional activity in transgenic Lotus corniculatus. A fusion construct between the lbI promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed mainly in the central zone of the root nodule, but the product was also detected in the non-nodule root zone and in roots in tissue culture. In roots of transgenic tobacco, the activity of the promoter was only 24% lower than in Lotus nodules. LulbI promoter activity was also detected in tobacco leaves. Lupine hemoglobin I has a higher sequence identity to symbiotic-type hemoglobins and thus it groups within the "Class II" hemoglobins.

  1. A rare cause of gastrointestinal phytobezoars: diospyros lotus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Gökhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Diospyros Lotus (“Wild Date Palm of Trabzon or Persimmon”, which has been proven to cause phytobezoars, is a widely consumed fruit in the Black Sea and Northeast Anatolia regions of Turkey. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Diospyros Lotus together with other predisposing factors, on the development of gastrointestinal phytobezoars and to discuss the treatment results in comparison to the literature. Material and method The records of 13 patients, who had been admitted to the General Surgery Clinic of Düzce Atatürk State Hospital between August 2008 and August 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, predisposing factors, clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, and the outcomes of the patients were recorded from the patient files. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient for publication of this research article and accompanying images. Results All the patients had a history of consuming Diospyros Lotus. Of the patients, 30,7% had a history of previous gastric surgery, 30,7% had diabetes mellitus and 23% had dental implants. None of the patients had hypothyroidism, which is another predisposing factor for phytobezoars. The phytobezoars were located in the stomach alone in 23% of the patients, whereas 15,3% was detected in the jejunum and stomach, 15,3% was detected in the jejunum alone, and 46,1% was detected in the ileum alone. All patients were treated with surgery, and there were no deaths. Conclusion Gastric phytobezoars are rare. Preventive measures have particular importance in the management of this condition, which is difficult to treat. For this purpose, excessive consumption of herbal nutrients containing a high amount of indigestible fibers such as Diospyros Lotus should be avoided in patients with a history of gastrointestinal surgery or poor oral and dental health.

  2. Production of (+)-5-deoxystrigol by Lotus japonicus root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yukihiro; Ueyama, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Lotus japonicus roots, cultured in a modified B5 medium, produced and secreted germination stimulants that induced Striga hermonthica seed germination. The germination-inducing activity was detected both in the roots and the culture filtrate. Following bioassay-guided purification procedures, an active compound was isolated from hexane extracts of the roots and the culture filtrate. Based on chromatographic behaviour on HPLC, and 1H NMR, UV, MS and CD spectroscopic analyses, the germination stimulant was identified as (+)-5-deoxystrigol.

  3. RNA-Seq analysis of Cocos nucifera: transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for subsequent functional genomics approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haikuo Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocos nucifera (coconut, a member of the Arecaceae family, is an economically important woody palm grown in tropical regions. Despite its agronomic importance, previous germplasm assessment studies have relied solely on morphological and agronomical traits. Molecular biology techniques have been scarcely used in assessment of genetic resources and for improvement of important agronomic and quality traits in Cocos nucifera, mostly due to the absence of available sequence information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To provide basic information for molecular breeding and further molecular biological analysis in Cocos nucifera, we applied RNA-seq technology and de novo assembly to gain a global overview of the Cocos nucifera transcriptome from mixed tissue samples. Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained 54.9 million short reads and conducted de novo assembly to obtain 57,304 unigenes with an average length of 752 base pairs. Sequence comparison between assembled unigenes and released cDNA sequences of Cocos nucifera and Elaeis guineensis indicated that the assembled sequences were of high quality. Approximately 99.9% of unigenes were novel compared to the released coconut EST sequences. Using BLASTX, 68.2% of unigenes were successfully annotated based on the Genbank non-redundant (Nr protein database. The annotated unigenes were then further classified using the Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a large quantity of novel genetic information for Cocos nucifera. This information will act as a valuable resource for further molecular genetic studies and breeding in coconut, as well as for isolation and characterization of functional genes involved in different biochemical pathways in this important tropical crop species.

  4. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Ussatjuk, Anna; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Ventosa, Miguel; Lorentzen, Andrea; Gupta, Vikas; Andersen, Stig U; Enghild, Jan J; Ronson, Clive W; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2014-02-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches, and high-throughput transcriptomics. We have employed proteomics to further understand nodule development. Two developmental stages representing nodules prior to nitrogen fixation (white) and mature nitrogen fixing nodules (red) were compared with roots. In addition, the proteome of a spontaneous nodule formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7%. Interestingly, an indication of more pronounced PTMs in nodules than in roots was determined. Between the two nodule developmental stages, higher levels of pathogen-related 10 proteins, HSPs, and proteins involved in redox processes were found in white nodules, suggesting a higher stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous presence of several nitrilases, ascorbate metabolic enzymes, and putative rhizobial effectors.

  5. Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the separation and purification of Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengguo DENG; Zeyuan DENG; Yawei FAN; Jing LI; Rong LIU; Dongmei XIONG

    2009-01-01

    @@ This research was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (2006GY0066), the Research Project of Education Office of Jiangxi Province (20030058) and the Program for Yangtse Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT0540). Dr. Guiming Fu (Nanchang University, Nanchang, China) and Dr. Delong Zhou (Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, China) are greatly acknowledged for their help in structure analysis and identification of compounds.

  6. SSL Security Technology Research in Lotus Domino%Lotus Domino中的SSL安全技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 金炜东

    2002-01-01

    Domino/Notes运用了较新的安全技术,具有较为完善的安全机制.本文就Lotus Domino中的SSL服务进行研究分析,并介绍了如何建立Domino验证字权威,最后通过实例探讨应用中的技巧.

  7. Long Term Upper Ocean Study (LOTUS) at 34 deg N, 70 deg W: Meteorological Sensors, Data, and Heat Fluxes for May-October 1982 (LOTUS-3 and LOTUS-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    houses the electronics and recording packages of both Vector Averaging Wind Recorders (VAWRs) and the VAWR battery packs (Figure 3). The removable tower...VAWRs were mounted on the tower of LOTUS-3. On LOTUS-4, the VAWR electron- ics packages were placed inside the instrument well primarily to increase...The frequencyt--l of the pulses is directly proportional to wind speed (30 Hz - 8.9 m s-1 ). The main housing and vane are thermoformed of rigid

  8. Identification and characterization of LyM-genes in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Mai-Britt

    of carbohydrates released by the microbe. Mai-Britt has identified 16 LysM-genes in the model plant Lotus japonicus and investigated their role in the establishment of symbiosis between Lotus japonicus and certain symbiotic root bacteria and fungi. The obtained research results have contributed...

  9. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic...

  10. The husk fiber of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae is a source of anti-neoplastic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Koschek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the in vitro anti-tumoral activities of fractions from aqueous extracts of the husk fiber of the typical A and common varieties of Cocos nucifera (Palmae. Cytotoxicity against leukemia cells was determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Cells (2 x 104/well were incubated with 0, 5, 50 or 500 µg/mL high- or low-molecular weight fractions for 48 h, treated with MTT and absorbance was measured with an ELISA reader. The results showed that both varieties have almost similar antitumoral activity against the leukemia cell line K562 (60.1 ± 8.5 and 47.5 ± 11.9% for the typical A and common varieties, respectively. Separation of the crude extracts with Amicon membranes yielded fractions with molecular weights ranging in size from 1-3 kDa (fraction A to 3-10 kDa (fraction B and to more than 10 kDa (fraction C. Cells were treated with 500 µg/mL of these fractions and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT. Fractions ranging in molecular weight from 1-10 kDa had higher cytotoxicity. Interestingly, C. nucifera extracts were also active against Lucena 1, a multidrug-resistant leukemia cell line. Their cytotoxicity against this cell line was about 50% (51.9 ± 3.2 and 56.3 ± 2.9 for varieties typical A and common, respectively. Since the common C. nucifera variety is extensively cultured in Brazil and the husk fiber is its industrial by-product, the results obtained in the present study suggest that it might be a very inexpensive source of new antineoplastic and anti-multidrug resistant drugs that warrants further investigation.

  11. An Overview of Phytoconstituents, Biotechnological Applications, and Nutritive Aspects of Coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Cocos nucifera is one of the highest nutritional and medicinal value plants with various fractions of proteins which play a major role in several biological applications such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, and leishmanicidal activities. This review is focused on several biotechnological, biomedical aspects of various solvent extracts collected from different parts of coconut and the phytochemical constituents which are present in it. The results obtained from this source will facilitate most of the researchers to focus their work toward the process of diagnosing diseases in future.

  12. Estimating the total leaf area of the green dwarf coconut tree (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Elias Fernandes de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area has significant effect on tree transpiration, and its measurement is important to many study areas. This work aimed at developing a non-destructive, practical, and empirical method to estimate the total leaf area of green dwarf coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L. in plantations located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A mathematical model was developed to estimate total leaf area values (TLA as function of the average lengths of the last three leaf raquis (LR3, and of the number of leaves in the canopy (NL. The model has satisfactory degree of accuracy for agricultural engineering purposes.

  13. Study on Leakage of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hudiyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leakage phenomena on sesame (Sesamum indicum L. and coconut (Cocos nucifera L. liposomes has been studied to evaluate their ability as drug delivery materials. Permeation of carboxyfluorescein through the liposomes with and without added cholesterol was examined. Sesame liposomes release carboxyfluorescein less than coconut liposomes in all circumstances. Sesame liposomes save about 50% of payload after 17 hours of storage while coconut liposomes only 10%. Addition of cholesterol has increase storage capability of all liposomes. The sesame-cholesterol and coconut-cholesterol liposomes save greater amount of payload compare to the original. Sesame liposomes have better potency as drug delivery systems.

  14. 构建Lotus Domino的Brower/Web Server模式%Construction of the Lotus Domino Brower / Web Server model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金穗

    2008-01-01

    随着企业原来开发lotus Domino/Notes的Client/Server(客户端朋艮务器)模式,改为现今Brower/Web Serv-er(浏览器/服务器)模式及其实际应用,详细讲述企业局域网B/S模式优势以及如何构建Lotus Domino/Notes的B/S运行模式的具体方法.

  15. [Application of NIR Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Lotus Seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng-yin; Fu, Xia-ping; You, Gui-rong; He, Jin-cheng

    2015-10-01

    By extracting the Near Infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectral characteristics from the post-harvest lotus seeds in different storage periods, the quantitative and qualitative analysis were applied to lotus seeds with the Soluble Solids Content (SSC) and dry matter content (DM) as criteria. The results of the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and distance discrimination (DA) models showed that the absorption spectra of lotus seeds and lotus kernels has clear relations to their SSC and DM. The PLSR models of SSC and DM of lotus seeds had the best performance in 5 941-12 480 cm(-1) spectral region in this study. Their correlation coefficients of prediction were 0.74 and 0.82, and the correlation coefficients of calibration were 0.82 and 0.84, and the correlation coefficients of leave one out cross validation were 0.72 and 0.71. The PLSR model of SSC of lotus kernels was better in 7 891-9 310 cm(-1) spectral region. Its correlation coefficient of prediction was 0.79, and the correlation coefficient of calibration was 0.84, and the correlation coefficient of leave one out cross validation was 0.77. The PLSR model of DM of lotus kernels is better in the full spectral region. Its correlation coefficient of prediction was 0.92, and the correlation coefficient of calibration was 0.89, and the correlation coefficient of leave one out cross validation was 0.82. For lotus seeds, the DA model in 5 400-7 885 cm(-1) spectral region is the best with a correctness of 84.2%. And for lotus kernels, the DA model in 9 226-12 480 cm(-1) spectral region is the best with a correctness of 90.8%. For dry lotus kernels, the discriminant accuracy of the DA model is 98.9% in the optimal spectral region. All kernels with membrane and plumule were correctly discriminated. This research shows that the NIR spectroscopy technique can be used to determine SSC and DM content of lotus seeds and lotus kernels, as well as to discriminate their freshness and also to discriminate dry lotus

  16. Complete Sequence and Analysis of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) Mitochondrial Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljohi, Hasan Awad; Liu, Wanfei; Lin, Qiang; Zhao, Yuhui; Zeng, Jingyao; Alamer, Ali; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alawad, Abdullah O; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5.07% of the total assembly length, including 13 proteins, 2 pseudogenes, and 11 tRNAs. The mt genome has a relatively large fraction of repeat content (17.26%), including both forward (tandem) and inverted (palindromic) repeats. Sequence variation analysis shows that the Ti/Tv ratio of the mt genome is lower as compared to that of the nuclear genome and neutral expectation. By combining public RNA-Seq data for coconut, we identify 734 RNA editing sites supported by at least two datasets. In summary, our data provides the second complete mt genome sequence in the family Arecaceae, essential for further investigations on mitochondrial biology of seed plants.

  17. Complete Sequence and Analysis of Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) Mitochondrial Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuhui; Zeng, Jingyao; Alamer, Ali; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Alawad, Abdullah O.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important crops in tropics, serving as an important source of food, drink, fuel, medicine, and construction material. Here we report an assembly of the coconut (C. nucifera, Oman local Tall cultivar) mitochondrial (mt) genome based on next-generation sequencing data. This genome, 678,653bp in length and 45.5% in GC content, encodes 72 proteins, 9 pseudogenes, 23 tRNAs, and 3 ribosomal RNAs. Within the assembly, we find that the chloroplast (cp) derived regions account for 5.07% of the total assembly length, including 13 proteins, 2 pseudogenes, and 11 tRNAs. The mt genome has a relatively large fraction of repeat content (17.26%), including both forward (tandem) and inverted (palindromic) repeats. Sequence variation analysis shows that the Ti/Tv ratio of the mt genome is lower as compared to that of the nuclear genome and neutral expectation. By combining public RNA-Seq data for coconut, we identify 734 RNA editing sites supported by at least two datasets. In summary, our data provides the second complete mt genome sequence in the family Arecaceae, essential for further investigations on mitochondrial biology of seed plants. PMID:27736909

  18. Flavonoids from the bird's foot trefoil seeds (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr M. Górski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the seeds of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. the presence of quercetin- and kaempferol heterosides was found. Eight crystalline compounds and one chromatographically homogeneous fraction were obtained from the flavonoid mixture using column chromatography on polyamide and cellulose. By means of TL-chromatography, elemental analysis and UV-spectrometry seven of the isolated compounds were identified to be quercetin, quercetin 3-arabopyranoside (guajaverin, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3,7-diglucoside, kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside kaempferol 3-glucosyl-7-rhamnoside and two remaining ones were only partly characterized a snearer indefinite kaempferol heterosides.

  19. Characteristics of Heavy Metals Contamination in Lotus Root in the Dongting Lake Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Man

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in soils in the Dongting Lake areas has evoked widespread concerns about the excessive heavy metals in aquatic product. Based on the national standards of food contaminant limits and the method of comprehensive pollution index, heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn in lotus root were clarified through field investigation in the Dongting Lake area. Results showed that lotus root in the Dongting Lake area was contaminated seriously by heavy metals. Cd and Pb were two main pollutants and the single pollution indices were 5.70 and 8.35 respectively. According to the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals, lotus root in Yueyanglou District and Yuanjiang City were classified into medium pollution and Junshan District, Huarong County, Nan County, and Datong District were classified into heavy pollution. Principal component analysis showed that planting areas of lotus root were clumped and medium and heavy pollution areas were separated significantly. Habitat contamination by heavy metals and decreasing area of lotus ponds were two main factors for excessive heavy metals in lotus root. Thus, some measurements, such as habit restoration, were proposed for local government to decrease heavy metals in planting areas and to promote the healthy development of lotus root industry in the Dongting Lake area.

  20. 基于Lotus Domino/Notes办公自动化系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曼; 杜磊; 殷克功

    2011-01-01

    Lotus Domino/Notes是目前最为流行的文档数据库系统之一,作为群件系统,它利用自身强大的功能使其在企业、政府等办公自动化方面的应用越来越广。本文从Lotus Domino/Notes的特点与实现技术出发,对Lotus Domino/Notes用于院校日常公文处理进行了设想。

  1. Occurrence and control of weevils in Cocos nucifera L. in Sinop, Mato Grosso Ocorrência e controle de Curculionidae em Cocos nucifera L. em Sinop, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliton Rocha Barreto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of pests in coconut trees is a factor that limits its cultivation, accounting for a significant depletion of the culture as well as for reducing productivity, considering that, in Brazil, coconut is mostly cultivated by small farmers who do not have access to technology and financial resources, thus increasing the precariousness of disease control. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the curculionidae-pests in coconut cultures in the region of Sinop – Mato Grosso, and present possible control methods. The experiment was conducted at three coconut (Cocos nucifera L. farms in Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil, from September 2009 to April 2010. Bucket and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate bottle traps were used to collect the samples. The traps were spread among the coconut trees, and the results indicated the first record of Metamasius cinnamominus Perty 1830, Metamasius hemipterus hemipterus Linnaeus, 1765 and Rhynchophorus palmarum Linnaeus, 1758 in the State of Mato Grosso, and of Rhinostomus barbirostris Fabricius, 1775, in the Sinop region, as well as Homalinotus coriaceus Gyllenhal, 1836 and Amerrhinus ynca Sahlberg, 1823. Distribution and control data are also presented.A incidência de pragas nos coqueirais constitui um fator limitante à exploração, respondendo de maneira significativa pelo depauperamento geral da cultura e também pela redução da produtividade, visto que grande parte do coqueiral brasileiro é cultivado por pequenos produtores sem acesso à tecnologia e a recursos financeiros, o que aumenta ainda mais a precariedade no manejo dessas enfermidades. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os curculionideos-praga na cultura do coco na região de Sinop, MT a apresentar possíveis métodos de controle. O experimento foi conduzido em três propriedades com cultivo de coco (Cocos nucifera L. em Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, no período de setembro de 2009 a abril de 2010. Para a coleta

  2. Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. isolated from nodules of Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Maximo; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Lorite, María J; Sanjuán, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna; Monza, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    Strain S658(T) was isolated from a Lotus corniculatus nodule in a soil sample obtained in Uruguay. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and atpD gene showed that this strain clustered within the genus Phyllobacterium. The closest related species was, in both cases, Phyllobacterium trifolii PETP02(T) with 99.8 % sequence similarity in the 16S rRNA gene and 96.1 % in the atpD gene. The 16S rRNA gene contains an insert at the beginning of the sequence that has no similarities with other inserts present in the same gene in described rhizobial species. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the only quinone detected. Strain S658(T) differed from its closest relatives through its growth in diverse culture conditions and in the assimilation of several carbon sources. It was not able to reproduce nodules in Lotus corniculatus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic tests and fatty acid analyses confirmed that this strain should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Phyllobacterium, for which the name Phyllobacterium loti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S658(T)( = LMG 27289(T) = CECT 8230(T)).

  3. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  4. Super water repellent surface 'strictly' mimicking the surface structure of lotus leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Tae Gon; Kim, Ho Young [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jin Woo; Lee, Kwang Ryeol; Moon, Myoung Woon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    To achieve the hierarchy of roughness as observed in lotus leaves, most artificial water-repellent surfaces have nano-asperities on top of micropillars. However, observation of real lotus leaves through SEM reveals that nonoscale roughness covers the entire surface including the base as well as bumps. Thus we fabricate surfaces having the same hierarchical roughness structure as the lotus leaf by forming nanopillars on both micropillars and base. We compare the measures of water-repellency (static contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, and transition pressure between the Cassie and Wenzel states) of the lotus-like surface with those of surfaces having single micro- and nano- roughness. The results show that nanoscale roughness covering entire surface area leads to superior water-repellency to other surface roughness structures. We also give a theoretical consideration of this observation.

  5. Long-Term follow up after intra-Uterine transfusionS; the LOTUS study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verduin, Esther P; Lindenburg, Irene T M; Smits-Wintjens, Vivianne E H J; van Klink, Jeanine M M; Schonewille, Henk; van Kamp, Inge L; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Doxiadis, Ilias I N; Lopriore, Enrico; Brand, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    .... We set up a large long-term observational follow-up study (LOTUS study), in cooperation with the Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation and the LUMC departments of Obstetrics, Neonatology and ImmunoHematology...

  6. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  7. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2013-01-01

    Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae), is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.). There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available.

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-05-01

    Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil, oil from the dried coconut fruit, is composed of 90% saturated triglycerides. It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%. The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil. The salts and esters are expected to have similar toxicological profiles as the oil, its hydrogenated forms, and its constituent fatty acids. Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  9. Complete sequence and comparative analysis of the chloroplast genome of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yi Huang

    Full Text Available Coconut, a member of the palm family (Arecaceae, is one of the most economically important trees used by mankind. Despite its diverse morphology, coconut is recognized taxonomically as only a single species (Cocos nucifera L.. There are two major coconut varieties, tall and dwarf, the latter of which displays traits resulting from selection by humans. We report here the complete chloroplast (cp genome of a dwarf coconut plant, and describe the gene content and organization, inverted repeat fluctuations, repeated sequence structure, and occurrence of RNA editing. Phylogenetic relationships of monocots were inferred based on 47 chloroplast protein-coding genes. Potential nodes for events of gene duplication and pseudogenization related to inverted repeat fluctuation were mapped onto the tree using parsimony criteria. We compare our findings with those from other palm species for which complete cp genome sequences are available.

  10. Antidepressant, antioxidant and neurotrophic properties of the standardized extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Eliane Brito Cortez; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; E Silva Pereira, Yuri Freitas; Ximenes, Naiara Coelho; Santos Júnior, Manuel Alves; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; Brito, Rayanne; Miron, Diogo; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2016-07-01

    The plant Cocos nucifera and its derivatives have shown antidepressant-like effects, although its hydroalcoholic extract has not been studied with this end in mind. Therefore, we decided to determine the antidepressant-like effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber (HECN) as well as oxidative alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST), and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the HC of mice. The extract was characterized based on the content of total polyphenols as well as two phenol compounds-catechin and chlorogenic acid-by HPLC-PDA. Male animals were treated per os (p.o.) for 7 days with distilled water or HECN (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg), or intraperitoneally with vitamin E (Vit E 400 mg/kg). One hour after the last drug administration, the animals were submitted to the open field test, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and, immediately after the behavioral tests, had their brain removed for neurochemical determinations. The results showed that HECN100 decreased the immobility time in the FST and TST presenting, thus demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. The administration of HECN decreased malondialdehyde levels in all doses and brain areas studied with the exception of HECN50 in the HC. The administration of HECN also decreased nitrite levels in all doses and brain regions studied. HECN100 also increased the levels of BDNF in HC of mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HECN has antidepressant-like properties, probably based on its antioxidant and neurotrophic effects, and is thus relevant for the treatment of depression.

  11. Lotus Domino/Notes的安全机制的剖析及应用%An Analysis and Application of the Safety Mechanism of "Lotus Domino/Notes"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武坤; 徐刚

    2002-01-01

    随着社会竞争的加剧,各行各业对数据的安全性的要求越来越高.而Lotus Domino/Notes由于它在数据库方面的独特的优势,使用越来越广.为了让人们了解Lotus Domino/Notes的安全机制,本文通过对Domino/Notes数据库安全需求的分析,向读者剖析了Lotus Domino/Notes安全机制,以便用户在开发信息系统时能合适选择所需的安全机制的组件,同时阐述了安全机制的应用.

  12. Characterization of strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti that nodulate lotus spp. in saline soils of Granada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, María J; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J; Sanjuán, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts.

  13. Superhydrophobic Surfaces Developed by Mimicking Hierarchical Surface Morphology of Lotus Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Latthe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lotus plant is recognized as a ‘King plant’ among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous ‘Lotus Effect’, along with extremely high water contact angle (>150° and low sliding angle (<10°, have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces.

  14. 荷叶总生物碱降脂减肥作用的体内外试验%Effect of total alkaloids from lotus leaves on body mass and lipid regulation in vivo and in vitro .

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婷婷; 法鲁克; 方芳; 蒋益虹

    2013-01-01

    Summary Obesity and disorder of lipid metabolism , also called dyslipidemia , have been one of the most important diseases threating people health worldwide , and is closely connected with hypertension , high serum glucose and other cardiac‐cerebral vascular diseases . The high fat diet is the main pathogenic cause of obesity and dyslipidemia , how to regulate blood lipid and control body mass effectively has been hotspots on nutriology research nowadays . Agents from natural products that inhibit fat digestion and absorption are of theoretical benefit in the treatment of obesity and dyslipidemia . Among them , lotus ( Nelumbo nuci f era) leaf is a kind of natural plant material used both in food and medicine , which contains multiple useful components . In modern research , scientists found that alkaloids were one of the main bioactive ingredients in them , helping lowing the serum lipid level and controlling body mass . Thus , this study aims to investigate the effect of lotus leaf total alkaloids on the body mass and lipid regulation in in vivo and in vitro experiments , and to find a new potential food additive to prevent effectively obesity from abnormal fat accumulation . Lipid‐lowering efficacy in vivo of lotus leaf total alkaloids was determined by animal experiment . After adapting to the feeding environment for 10 days , 30 experimental rats were randomly divided into six experimental groups according to their serum‐lipid level and body mass , including general diet group ( blank group) , high fat diet with lotus leaf total alkaloid ( high , moderate , low doses) groups , positive drug control group and high fat diet group ( model group) . Except for the general diet group feeding normal diet , the other five groups were fed high fat diet for 40 d to set up the model of hyperlipidemia rats . Then , the contents of TC ( total cholesterol) , TG ( triglyceride) , LDL‐C ( low density lipoprotein‐cholesterol) , HDL‐C ( high density lipoprotein

  15. Condensation and jumping relay of droplets on lotus leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cunjing; Hao, Pengfei; Yao, Zhaohui; Song, Yu; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2013-07-01

    Dynamic behavior of micro water droplet condensed on a lotus leaf with two-tier roughness is studied. Under laboratory environment, the contact angle of the micro droplet on single micro papilla increases smoothly from 80° to 160° during the growth of condensed water. The best-known "self-cleaning" phenomenon will be lost. A striking observation is the out-of-plane jumping relay of condensed droplets triggered by falling droplets, as well as its sustained speed obtained in continuous jumping relays. The underlying mechanism can be used to enhance the automatic removal of dropwise condensation without the help from any external force. The surface tension energy dissipation is the main reason controlling the critical size of jumping droplet and its onset velocity of rebounding.

  16. Lotus hairy roots expressing inducible arginine decarboxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, María A; Ruiz, Oscar A; Sánchez, Diego H

    2004-05-01

    Biotechnological uses of plant cell-tissue culture usually rely on constitutive transgene expression. However, such expression of transgenes may not always be desirable. In those cases, the use of an inducible promoter could be an alternative approach. To test this hypothesis, we developed two binary vectors harboring a stress-inducible promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana, driving the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and the oat arginine decarboxylase. Transgenic hairy roots of Lotus corniculatus were obtained with osmotic- and cold-inducible beta-glucuronidase and arginine decarboxylase activities. The increase in the activity of the latter was accompanied by a significant rise in total free polyamines level. Through an organogenesis process, we obtained L. corniculatus transgenic plants avoiding deleterious phenotypes frequently associated with the constitutive over-expression of arginine decarboxylation and putrescine accumulation.

  17. Antipyretic and antinociceptive activity of Diospyros lotus L. in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur Rauf; Ghias Uddin; Bina S Siddiqui; Naveed Muhammad; Haroon Khan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacologically the traditional use of Diospyros lotus as antipyretic and antinociceptive in various animal models.Methods: In vivo experimental models were used in this study. Antipyretic activity of extract/fractions was evaluated in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermic mice while antinociceptive activity was studied in acetic acid induced writhing test at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.Results:The crude extract strongly ameliorated the induced pyrexia during various assessment times. Upon fractionation, the antipyretic effects were strongly augmented by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant. However, hexane and butanol fractions were insignificant in their effect as antipyretic. The extract showed marked inhibition on the noxious simulation induced by post acetic acid injection. The effect was strongly supported by other fraction expect hexane.Conclusions:In short, our study scientifically validated the traditional use of the plant as antipyretic.

  18. Identification of genetic components involved in Lotus-endophyte interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal Lukasz

    colonisation of below-ground plant organs. It focused on bacterial endophyte, Rhizobium KAW12, colonisation of spontaneously formed nodules in snf1 mutants and symbiotic signalling mutants in a snf1 background. Additionally, participation of genes required for rhizobial accomodation during endophytic invasion...... was tested by coinoculation experiments with Rhizobium KAW12 and nodule inducing strains or their symbiotically deficient mutants. Such approaches allowed to identify genes possibly involved in host-endophyte recognition. Additionally, bacterial mutants used in these screenings pointed towards...... populations depending on their genotype. Additionally, analysis of Lotus defence response genes was performed after inoculation with epiphytic and endophytic strains of Rhizobium, indicating only minimal differences in their perception by the host....

  19. Multi-responsive hydrogel based on lotus root starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baodong; Ma, Dongzhuo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    The lotus root starch-based hydrogel was synthesized by free radical copolymerization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that the formation of target product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the change of the starch's crystallization. The morphology and pore structure of the hydrogel were evaluated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Biomicroscope. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the better thermal stability of hydrogel. Furthermore, the swelling in CaCl2 and AlCl3 solutions/temperature (25°C-65°C) displayed the "overshooting effect" swelling-deswelling phenomenon with prolonging the swelling time. The hydrogel can rapidly response to various pH value as well.

  20. Condensation and jumping relay of droplets on lotus leaf

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cunjing; Yao, Zhaohui; Song, Yu; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of micro water droplet condensed on a lotus leaf with two-tier roughness is studied. Under laboratory environment, the contact angle of the micro droplet on single micro papilla increases smoothly from 80 deg to 160 deg during the growth of condensed water. The best-known "self-clean" phenomenon, will be lost. A striking observation is the out-of-plane jumping relay of condensed droplets triggered by falling droplets, as well as its sustained speed obtained in continuous jumping relays, enhance the automatic removal of dropwise condensation without the help from any external force. The surface tension energy dissipation is the main reason controlling the critical size of jumping droplet and its onset velocity of rebounding.

  1. Conditional requirement for exopolysaccharide in the Mesorhizobium-Lotus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon J; Muszyński, Artur; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; Hubber, Andree M; Sullivan, John T; Sandal, Niels; Carlson, Russell W; Stougaard, Jens; Ronson, Clive W

    2013-03-01

    Rhizobial surface polysaccharides are required for nodule formation on the roots of at least some legumes but the mechanisms by which they act are yet to be determined. As a first step to investigate the function of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in the formation of determinate nodules, we isolated Mesorhizobium loti mutants affected in various steps of EPS biosynthesis and characterized their symbiotic phenotypes on two Lotus spp. The wild-type M. loti R7A produced both high molecular weight EPS and lower molecular weight (LMW) polysaccharide fractions whereas most mutant strains produced only LMW fractions. Mutants affected in predicted early biosynthetic steps (e.g., exoB) formed nitrogen-fixing nodules on Lotus corniculatus and L. japonicus 'Gifu', whereas mutants affected in mid or late biosynthetic steps (e.g., exoU) induced uninfected nodule primordia and, occasionally, a few infected nodules following a lengthy delay. These mutants were disrupted at the stage of infection thread (IT) development. Symbiotically defective EPS and Nod factor mutants functionally complemented each other in co-inoculation experiments. The majority of full-length IT observed harbored only the EPS mutant strain and did not show bacterial release, whereas the nitrogen-fixing nodules contained both mutants. Examination of the symbiotic proficiency of the exoU mutant on various L. japonicus ecotypes revealed that both host and environmental factors were linked to the requirement for EPS. These results reveal a complex function for M. loti EPS in determinate nodule formation and suggest that EPS plays a signaling role at the stages of both IT initiation and bacterial release.

  2. Pollination success of Lotus corniculatus (L.) in an urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Vincent; Muratet, Audrey; Verfaillie, Fabien; Machon, Nathalie

    2012-02-01

    Most anthropogenic activities are known to have deleterious effects on pollinator communities. However, little is known about the influence of urbanization on pollination ecosystem services. Here, we assessed the pollination service on Lotus corniculatus (L.), a self-sterile, strictly entogamous Fabaceae commonly observed in urban and suburban areas. We assessed the pollination success of artificial Lotus corniculatus populations at three levels: at large scale, along an urbanization gradient; at intermediate scale, based on landscape fragmentation within a 250 m radius and at local scale based on floral resource abundance and local habitat type. The main findings were that the pollination success, when assessed with the number of fruit produced per inflorescence, was lower in urban areas than in suburban ones, and was negatively affected by the number of impervious spaces in the neighborhood. The relationship between the number of fruits and the distance to the nearest impervious space was either positive or negative, depending on the gray/green ratio (low vs. high). Finally, on a local scale, floral resource abundance had a negative effect on pollination success when L. corniculatus populations were located in paved courtyards, and a positive one when they were located in parks. Pollination success seems to be explained by two intertwined gradients: landscape fragmentation estimated by the number of impervious spaces in a 250 m radius around L. corniculatus populations, and the behavior of bumblebees toward birdsfoot trefoil and floral displays, which appears to differ depending on whether a neighborhood is densely or sparsely urbanized. An abundance of attracting floral resources seems to enhance pollination success for L. corniculatus if it is not too isolated from other green spaces. These results have important implications for the sustainability of pollination success in towns by identifying local and landscape factors that influence reproductive success of

  3. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects ofCocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Opeyemi Oreofe Akindele; Yinusa Raji

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects ofCocos nucifera (C. nucifera) water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water),C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater), high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet) and high fat diet +C. nuciferawater (1 mL/100 gC. nuciferawater + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet). All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-wayANOVA andP Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P Conclusions:C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of lotus seed mixtures and test on pneumatic separating device for lotus seed kernel and contaminants%莲子物料空气动力学特性与壳仁分离装置试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋成; 卢安舸; 高连兴; 王正根; 谭泽华; 李献奇

    2015-01-01

    Lotus seed hulling is the first process in rough processing, which is removing the tough shell that covers lotus seed kernel. Generally, it can utilize the mechanical processing method. After processing, the mixtures of lotus seed kernel, lotus seed shell, kernel debris and a small amount of imperfectly shelled lotus seed can be yielded. Because the lotus seed shell, kernel debris and other contaminants are easy to block the entrance of next working position (kernel coring process), a separating process for shell and kernel after the hulling process would be necessary and crucial. Pneumatic separating method is commonly used in separating equipment in agriculture products. However, there is limited academic research on pneumatic separating technology for lotus seed mixtures. In this paper, a negative pressure, pneumatic separating method was proposed to separate lotus seed kernel and shell. Firstly, the density parameter, the moisture content and the shape parameter of lotus seed mixture constituent were measured. The test results showed that the density parameters of lotus seed kernel, lotus seed, shell and kernel debris were 1 080, 1 042, 1 210 and 1 163 kg/m3 respectively, the moisture content of lotus seed kernel, unhulled lotus seed (with imperfectly shelled lotus seed), shell and kernel debris were 7.35%, 3.91%, 12.36%and 12.45%respectively. The shape of lotus seed kernel, lotus seed and the imperfectly shelled lotus seed could be abstracted as the spherical, and the grain diameter could be represented by maximum cross section. Secondly, the theoretical analysis and aerodynamics characteristics test of lotus seed mixtures were carried out. The results showed that the drag coefficient of lotus seed mixtures was within the Newton area, and the drag coefficient was 0.44. The ranges of theoretical suspension velocity of lotus seed kernel, lotus seed and imperfectly shelled lotus seed calculated were 14.134-16.115, 14.745-17.327 and 15.763-17.623 m/s respectively

  5. Rebrota de Lotus spp. de diferentes hábitos de crescimento Regrowth of Lotus spp. with different growth habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Poles Maroso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar cultivares de Lotus spp. de diferentes hábitos de crescimento (L. corniculatus: São Gabriel - semi-ereto; ARS2620 - prostrado; L. uliginosus: cv. Maku - decumbente cultivados em vasos e submetidos a diferentes alturas (4 - 8 cm e freqüências (quinzenal - mensal de corte do 95º ao 233º dia de idade. As maiores produções de massa seca (g/planta foram obtidas com cortes mensais a 8 cm (Maku = 13,3; S. Gabriel = 11,5; ARS2620 = 7,3. Em níveis intermediários (mensal - 4 cm; quinzenal - 8 cm, o cultivar Maku foi superior aos demais, enquanto, em cortes quinzenais (4 cm, não houve diferença entre os cultivares. O cultivar ARS2620 apresentou menor estatura e maior cobertura verde residual após os cortes. Na condição residual após o último corte, o cultivar Maku superou os demais quanto ao diâmetro da coroa e às produções de MS da raiz primária, subterrânea, aérea e de sóboles. Todos os cultivares foram favorecidos pelo manejo menos intenso, mas apresentaram mecanismos compensatórios ao serem manejados com cortes baixos em menor freqüência ou com cortes freqüentes, mas menos intensos. Os três cultivares apresentaram caules subterrâneos sobolíferos. A sobrevivência do cultivar São Gabriel e o sistema subterrâneo de Lotus spp. foram comprometidos em cortes intensos e freqüentes.This work aimed to compare Lotus spp. cultivars with different growth habits (L. corniculatus: cv. São Gabriel, semi-erect, cv. ARS2620, prostrate, and L. uliginosus: cv. Maku, decumbent, submitted to different height (4 - 8 cm and cutting frequencies (15 d and 30 d, between the 95th and 233rd days old, grown in pot. Greater DM production (g. plant-1 of DM was obtained under monthly cutting at 8 cm (Maku = 13.3; S. Gabriel = 11.5; ARS2620 = 7.3. Maku surpassed the others when intermediate levels (monthly cutting-4 cm; fortnighly cutting-8 cm were used; harvests every 15 d and at 4 cm resulted

  6. Nanostructure on taro leaves resists fouling by colloids and bacteria under submerged conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianwei; Sun, Yuekai; Gleichauf, Karla; Lou, Jun; Li, Qilin

    2011-08-16

    The antifouling and self-cleaning properties of plants such as Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and Colocasia esculenta (taro) have been attributed to the superhydrophobicity resulting from the hierarchical surface structure of the leaf and the air trapped between the nanosized epicuticular wax crystals. The reported study showed that the nanostructures on the taro leaf surfaces were also highly resistant to particle and bacterial adhesion under completely wetted conditions. Adhesion force measurements using atomic force microscopy revealed that the adhesion force on top of the papilla as well as the area around it was markedly lower than that on the edge of an epidermal cell. The decreased adhesion force and the resistance to particle and bacterial adhesion were attributed to the dense nanostructures found on the epidermal papilla and the area surrounding it. These results suggest that engineered surfaces with properly designed nanoscale topographic structures could potentially reduce or prevent particle/bacterial fouling under submerged conditions.

  7. Reactions of Lotus japonicus ecotypes and mutants to root parasitic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Mie; Ueda, Hiroaki; Park, Pyoyun; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-03-01

    Witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are obligate root parasitic plants on economically important field and horticultural crops. The parasites' seeds are induced to germinate by root-derived chemical signals. The radicular end is transformed into a haustorium which attaches, penetrates the host root and establishes connection with the vascular system of the host. Reactions of Lotus japonicus, a model legume for functional genomics, were studied for furthering the understanding of host-parasite interactions. Lotus japonicus was compatible with Orobanche aegyptiaca, but not with Orobanche minor, Striga hermonthica and Striga gesnerioides. Orobanche minor successfully penetrated Lotus japonicus roots, but failed to establish connections with the vascular system. Haustoria in Striga hermonthica attached to the roots, but penetration and subsequent growth of the endophyte in the cortex were restricted. Striga gesnerioides did not parasitize Lotus japonicus. Among seven mutants of Lotus japonicus (castor-5, har1-5, alb1-1, ccamk-3, nup85-3, nfr1-3 and nsp2-1) with altered characteristics in relation to rhizobial nodulation and mycorrhizal colonization, castor-5 and har1-5 were parasitized by Orobanche aegyptiaca with higher frequency than the wild type. In contrast, Orobanche aegyptiaca tubercle development was delayed on the mutants nup85-3, nfr1-3 and nsp2-1. These results suggest that nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and infection by root parasitic plants in Lotus japonicus may be modulated by similar mechanisms and that Lotus japonicus is a potential model legume for studying plant-plant parasitism.

  8. 基于Lotus Domino/Notes的电话站管理信息系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜湘军

    2003-01-01

    本文介绍了Lotus Domino/Notes的特点,探讨了利用Lotus Domino/Notes基于网络的实际应用方法,即在Lotus Domino/Notes平台上建立电话站管理信息系统的设计和实现方法.

  9. Phenylpropanoid defence responses in transgenic Lotus corniculatus 1. Glutathione elicitation of isoflavan phytoalexins in transformed root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, M P; Hartnoll, J; Morris, P

    1991-06-01

    When Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed root cultures of Lotus corniculatus were treated with glutathione, isoflavan phytoalexins accumulated in both tissue and culture medium. This accumulation of phytoalexins was preceded by a transient increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Elicitation of PAL occurred throughout the growth curve of Lotus 'hairy roots' and in different sectors of transformed root material.

  10. The Lotus japonicus ndx gene family is involved in nodule function and maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Gustafsen, Camilla; Jensen, Dorthe Bødker

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the function of the ndx homeobox genes during the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, two Lotus japonicus ndr genes were expressed in the antisense orientation under the control of the nodule-expressed promoter Psenod12 in transgenic Lotus japonicus plants. Many of the transformants obtained...

  11. Procyanidins in Lotus L. genotypes grown in soil with different saturations of aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ortiz Chini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannins are formed by monomers of procyanidins and prodelfinidins, where the proportion and concentration of their monomers varies according to the plant species and environmental conditions. In Lotus spp., condensed tannins prevent tympanism in ruminants that feed on them. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of procyanidins and their monomers, catechin and epicatechin in the genotypes of Lotus L. grown in soil with different saturations of aluminum. A two-factor (genotype × Al saturation assay was performed, where the genotypes São Gabriel, Ganador, and UFRGS (Lotus corniculatus L.; Serrano (Lotus uliginosus; and El Rincón (Lotus subbiflorus were cultivated in soil with an Al saturation of 0-20%. The procyanidins were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography, which was previously validated for catechin and epicatechin. The concentration of procyanidins and the proportion of epicatechin:catechin were affected by the genotype × environment interaction. In L. corniculatus and L. subbiflorus, the concentration of procyanidin was significantly higher when they were grown in the soil with an Al saturation of 20% compared to that when they were grown in the soil with 0% Al saturation, but the opposite effect was observed in L. uliginosus. The proportion of epicatechin:catechin decreased in plants grown in soil without Al, and only the UFRGS genotype maintained a similar proportion under both the soil acidity conditions. The predominant monomer was epicatechin, which varied from 57% to 75% according to the soil in which the plants were grown.

  12. Phylogenetic relationship of Lotus uliginosus symbionts with bradyrhizobia nodulating genistoid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, María J; Videira e Castro, Isabel; Muñoz, Socorro; Sanjuán, Juan

    2012-02-01

    Lotus species are legumes with potential for pastures in soils with low-fertility and environmental constraints. The aim of this work was to characterize bacteria that establish efficient nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the forage species Lotus uliginosus. A total of 39 isolates were obtained from nodules of L. uliginosus naturally growing in two different locations of Portugal. Molecular identification of the isolates plus the commercial inoculant strain NZP2039 was performed by REP-PCR, 16S rRNA RFLP, and 16S rRNA, glnII and recA sequence analyses. Limited genetic diversity was found among the L. uliginosus symbionts, which showed a close phylogenetic relationship with the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The symbiotic nifH, nodA and nodC gene sequences were closely related with the corresponding genes of various Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from Lupinus and other genistoid legumes and therefore were phylogenetically separated from other Lotus spp. rhizobia. The L. uliginosus bradyrhizobia were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in association with L. uliginosus, could nodulate Lotus corniculatus with generally poor nitrogen-fixing efficiency, formed nonfixing nodules in Lotus tenuis and Lupinus luteus roots and were unable to nodulate Glycine soja or Glycine max. Thus, L. uliginosus rhizobia seem closely related to B. japonicum biovar genistearum strains.

  13. APROVEITAMENTO DO RESÍDUO DE COCO VERDE (Cocos nucifera L.) COMO SORVENTE EM DERRAMAMENTO DE PETRÓLEO EM AMBIENTE MARINHO

    OpenAIRE

    Caldas, Alex Soares

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e avaliar o potencial da fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera L.) como sorvente em derramamento de petróleo no mar. Foi utilizado para simulação quatro reservatórios com 5L de água do mar, bombas de aeração para simular o efeito hidrodinâmico. Em três unidades foram adicionados 15mL de petróleo e 0,5g de fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera L.). Foram realizados na fibra de coco teste de flutuabilidade, densidade, microscopia eletrônica d...

  14. KEANEKARAGAMAN KARAKTER TANAMAN KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L. YANG DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN UPACARA PADUDUSAN AGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniek Kriswiyanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to identify the characteristic variations of the coconuts (Cocos nucifera L. trees that are used as materials for the Padudusan Agung ceremony in Bali. Exploration, interview, and observation of character variations of coconuts have been conducted from coconut plantation area from each regency in Bali. The characteritations was identified based on measurements and observations of parts of plant according to “Discriptors for Coconuts”. The result shows that there was a narrow variation on the stem and leaf characters (2.81-11.83%, while high variations found on the fruit numbers in a bunche for the generative characters (42.8%. Padudusan Agung ceremony uses eleven types (cultivars of coconuts. Those are: gadang, gading, bulan, and surya with green, yellow, white, red epicarpium colours respectively. Young fruit of Udang coconuts have red mesocarpium, sudamala has double spathas, bingin has root grown on stem, be julit has plicated primordium leaves, bojog has hush likes the color of monkey hairs, ancak has branched stem, and rangda has petiole twisted on the top of the stem.

  15. Analyses of Phytohormones in Coconut (Cocos Nucifera L. Water Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Ngin Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Capillary electrophoresis (CE coupled with mass spectrometry (MS or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is reported as an alternative and potentially useful method for the simultaneous analysis of various classes of phytohormones with diversified structures, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellic acid (GA, zeatin (Z, N6-benzyladenine (BA, α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The key to the CE-MS/MS analysis was based on electroosmotic flow reversal using a cationic polymer-coated capillary. Under optimum conditions, a baseline separation of eight phytohormones was accomplished within 30 min using 60 mM ammonium formate/formic acid buffer of pH 3.8 with −20 kV as the separation voltage. The accessibility of MS/MS together with the characterization by migration properties obtained by CE allows for the development of CE-MS/MS as an emerging potential method for the analysis of different classes of phytohormones in a single run. The utility of the CE-MS/MS method was demonstrated by the comprehensive screening of phytohormones in coconut (Cocos nucifera L. water after pre-concentration and purification through solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridge. IAA, ABA, GA and Z were detected and quantified in the purified coconut water extract sample.

  16. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the old world tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Bee F; Baudouin, Luc; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  17. Conservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm at sub-zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Sopade, Peter A; Samosir, Yohannes M S; Rival, Alain; Adkins, Steve W

    2012-01-01

    Protocols are proposed for the low (-20 degree C) and ultra-low (-80 degree C) temperature storage of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) embryos. A tissue dehydration step prior to storage, and a rapid warming step upon recovery optimized the protocol. The thermal properties of water located within embryos were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the most efficient version of the protocol, embryos were dehydrated under a sterile air flow in a dehydration solution containing glucose (3.33 M) and glycerol (15 percent) for 16 hours. This protocol decreased the embryo water content from 77 to 29 percent FW and at the same time reduced the amount of freezable water down to 0.03 percent. The dehydrated embryos could be stored for up to 3 weeks at -20 degree C (12 percent producing normal plants upon recovery) or 26 weeks at -80 degree C (28 percent producing normal plants upon recovery). These results indicate that it is possible to store coconut germplasm on a medium term basis using an ultra-deep freezer unit. However for more efficient, long term storage, cryopreservation remains the preferred option.

  18. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebMandal, Manisha; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-03-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as 'Kalpavriksha' (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

  19. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Eduardo H M; Kabuki, Dirce Y; Esper, Luciana M R; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Kuaye, Arnaldo Y

    2009-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in the fresh coconut water stored at 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C was studied. The coconut water was aseptically extracted from green coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) and samples were inoculated in triplicate with a mixture of 5 strains of L. monocytogenes with a mean population of approximately 3 log(10) CFU/mL. The kinetic parameters of the bacteria were estimated from the Baranyi model, and compared with predictions of the Pathogen Modelling Program so as to predict its behaviour in the beverage. The results demonstrated that fresh green coconut water was a beverage propitious for the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes and that refrigeration at 10 degrees C or 4 degrees C retarded, but did not inhibit, growth of this bacterium. Temperature abuse at 35 degrees C considerably reduced the lagtimes. The study shows that L. monocytogenes growth in fresh green coconut water is controlled for several days by storage at low temperature, mainly at 4 degrees C. Thus, for risk population this product should only be drunk directly from the coconut or despite the sensorial alterations should be consumed pasteurized.

  20. Investigation of Structure and Property of Indian Cocos nucifera L. Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gautam; Mishra, Leena; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Structure and physico-mechanical properties of Cocos nucifera L. fibre from a specific agro-climatic region of India, was thoroughly studied. Fine structure of the fibre was examined by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), component analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. SEM shows prominent longitudinal cracks and micro-pores on the surface. XRD shows a low degree of crystallinity (45%), bigger crystallite size, and even the presence of appreciable amount of non-cellulose matter. FTIR reveals presence of large quantities of hydroxyl, phenolic and aldehyde groups. Component and thermal analyses indicates presence of cellulose and lignin as major components. Physical parameters reveal that, fibres are highly variable in length (range 44-305 mm), and diameter (range 100-795 µm). Mechanical properties of the fibre viz. breaking tenacity, breaking extensibility, specific work of rupture, and coefficient of friction were measured. Microbial decomposition test under soil reveals excellent durability of coconut fibre which makes it appropriate for the application in geotextiles. Mass specific electrical resistance of 4 Ω-kg/m2 indicates its enhanced insulation as compared to the jute.

  1. Adsorption of Ni(II) onto Chemically Modified Spent Grated Coconut (Cocos Nucifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, F. I.; Khalid, K.; Hanafiah, M. A. K. M.

    2017-06-01

    A new adsorbent of plant waste origin from coconut processing food factory was explored for removing Ni(II) from aqueous solutions. Several parameters such as pH, dosage, concentration and contact time were studied to obtain optimum conditions for treatment of Ni(II) contaminated wastewater. Spent grated coconut (Cocos nucifera) treated with sulfuric acid (SSGC) showed good adsorption capacity for Ni(II) ion. The amount adsorbed was affected by solution pH with the highest value achieved at pH 5. Other optimum conditions found were; dosage of 0.02 g, and 60 min of equilibrium time. Ni(II) adsorption obeyed the pseudo-second order kinetic model which suggested that chemisorption mechanism occurred in the adsorption process. The equilibrium data presented a better fitting to the Langmuir isotherm model, an indication that monolayer adsorption occurred onto a homogeneous surface. The maximum adsorption capacity, qmax was 97.09 mg g-1, thus SSGC can be classified as good and comparable with other plant waste adsorbents.

  2. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.:Arecaceae):In health promotion and disease prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManishaDebMandal; ShyamapadaMandal

    2011-01-01

    Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated for its multiple utilities, mainly for its nutritional and medicinal values. The various products of coconut include tender coconut water, copra, coconut oil, raw kernel, coconut cake, coconut toddy, coconut shell and wood based products, coconut leaves, coir pith etc. Its all parts are used in someway or another in the daily life of the people in the traditional coconut growing areas. It is the unique source of various natural products for the development of medicines against various diseases and also for the development of industrial products. The parts of its fruit like coconut kernel and tender coconut water have numerous medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, immunostimulant. Coconut water and coconut kernel contain microminerals and nutrients, which are essential to human health, and hence coconut is used as food by the peoples in the globe, mainly in the tropical countries. The coconut palm is, therefore, eulogised as‘Kalpavriksha’ (the all giving tree) in Indian classics, and thus the current review describes the facts and phenomena related to its use in health and disease prevention.

  3. Independent origins of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera L. in the old world tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee F Gunn

    Full Text Available As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L. played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and "niu vai" fruit morphology arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.

  4. Effects of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusup, Cep Hikmat Maulana; Nugroho, Rudy A.

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the optimum concentration of copra meal as a fish meal replacement on the growth performance of Cyprinus carpio. Various concentrations of copra (Cocos nucifera) meal, viz 3, 6, 9, and 12 % were used to determine the final weight, body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the C. carpio (Initial body weight 25-25.2 g/fish) and compare with control group (Basal diet) without copra meal replacement and commercial diet (CD). Six groups of C. carpio with three replicates were used and fed with different concentration of copra meal at satiation level five times per day for 12 weeks. At the end of feeding trial, the C. carpio fed 9% copra meal in the diet had higher final weight, BWG, AWG, DWG, SGR than any other groups, except commercial diet (CD). Meanwhile, the highest PER was found on the fish fed CD, followed by fish fed 3 % of copra meal in the diet. However, FCR was not affected by any types of diets. These finding suggested that the 9% replacement of wheat in the diet with copra meal is beneficial to improve growth performance.

  5. Suspected photosensitisation in lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K J; West, D M; Alley, M R; Waghorn, G C

    1995-06-01

    Suspected photosensitisation occurred in three groups of lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus c.v. Grasslands Goldie). In one group, sucking lambs aged about 10 weeks, grazing birdsfoot trefoil, developed skin lesions while lambs of a similar age and from the same flock grazing lucerne (Medicago sativa) or a mixed sward of both species showed no signs of photosensitisation. Affected lambs had lesions on their backs and ears. In a few animals the tips of the ears were shortened by 2-3 cm. In the affected lambs, serum liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyltransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase), bilirubin and serum Vitamin B12 levels were within the normal range. At necropsy, no significant pathological changes were detected in the liver and histological changes in the skin were consistent with primary photosensitisation. In the second group, three of 80 weaned lambs grazing the same birdsfoot trefoil at a restricted intake were affected in the same manner as the first group. In the third group, 15 animals from 28 sets of sucking twin lambs were also affected. In only two sets of twins were both lambs affected. None of the ewes grazing with the lambs in the first or third groups showed any clinical signs of photosensitisation.

  6. Mesorhizobium olivaresii sp. nov. isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, María J; Flores-Félix, José David; Peix, Álvaro; Sanjuán, Juan; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-12-01

    In this study four Mesorhizobium strains isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules in Granada (Spain) were characterized. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely related to those of M. albiziae LMG 23507(T) and M. chacoense Pr5(T) showing 99.4 and 99.2% similarity values, respectively. The analysis of concatenated rpoB, recA, atpD and glnII genes showed they formed a cluster with internal similarities higher than 97%. The closest species also were M. albiziae LMG 23507(T) and M. chacoense Pr5(T) showing similarity values lower than 92% in rpoB, recA and glnII genes and lower than 96.5% in the atpD gene. These results indicated that the L. corniculatus strains belong to a new species of genus Mesorhizobium which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characterization. Therefore a new species with the name Mesorhizobium olivaresii sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is CPS13(T) (LMG 29295(T)=CECT 9099(T)).

  7. Role of lupeol synthase in Lotus japonicus nodule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Costas; Krokida, Afrodite; Georgiou, Sofia; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Osbourn, Anne E; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2011-01-01

    • Triterpenes are plant secondary metabolites, derived from the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). Here, we investigated the role of lupeol synthase, encoded by OSC3, and its product, lupeol, in developing roots and nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. • The expression patterns of OSC3 in different developmental stages of uninfected roots and in roots infected with Mesorhizobium loti were determined. The tissue specificity of OSC3 expression was analysed by in situ hybridization. Functional analysis, in which transgenic L. japonicus roots silenced for OSC3 were generated, was performed. The absence of lupeol in the silenced plant lines was determined by GC-MS. • The expression of ENOD40, a marker gene for nodule primordia initiation, was increased significantly in the OSC3-silenced plant lines, suggesting that lupeol influences nodule formation. Silenced plants also showed a more rapid nodulation phenotype, consistent with this. Exogenous application of lupeol to M. loti-infected wild-type plants provided further evidence for a negative regulatory effect of lupeol on the expression of ENOD40. • The synthesis of lupeol in L. japonicus roots and nodules can be solely attributed to OSC3. Taken together, our data suggest a role for lupeol biosynthesis in nodule formation through the regulation of ENOD40 gene expression.

  8. [Second structure of the protein factions from lotus seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lian-Hui; Zeng, Hong-Yan; Cai, Xi-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Following the sequential Osborne extraction procedure, the proteins of lotus seeds were classified. The secondary structures of albumin, globulin, prolamine and glutelin fractions were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR images of amide I and III bands from the four protein fractions were analyzed using Fourier deconvolution and curve-fitting technique. The results showed that there were minor differences in every corresponding peak position and peak area percent of secondary structure between albumin and globulin as well as between prolamin and glutelin. But there were differences in every corresponding peak position between albumin (or globulin) and prolamin (or glutelin). Especially the area percents of the corresponding nonrandom structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) of albumin and globulin were significantly larger than those of prolamin and glutelin. The contents of nonrandom structures of albumin and globulin extracted with 0.1 mol x L(-1) NaCl solution were about 55% and those of prolamine and glutelin fractions were only at round 40%, indicating that the secondary structures of the salt-extraction protein were ordered and stable.

  9. plenty, a novel hypernodulation mutant in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chie; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation in nodules that contain symbiotic rhizobial bacteria enables legumes to thrive in nitrogen-poor soils. However, this symbiosis is energy consuming. Therefore, legumes strictly control nodulation at both local and systemic levels. Mutants deficient in such controls exhibit a range of phenotypes from non-nodulation to hypernodulation. Here, we isolated a novel hypernodulation mutant from the M(2) progeny derived from Lotus japonicus MG-20 seeds mutagenized by irradiation with a carbon ion beam. We named the mutant 'plenty' because it formed more nodules than the wild-type MG-20. The nodulation zone in the plenty mutant was wider than that in the wild type, but not as enhanced as those in other previously reported hypernodulation mutants such as har1, klv or tml of L. japonicus. Unlike these hypernodulation mutants, the plenty mutant developed nodules of the same size as MG-20. Overall, the plenty mutant exhibited a unique phenotype of moderate hypernodulation. However, a biomass assay indicated that this unique pattern of hypernodulation was a hindrance to host plant growth. The plenty mutant displayed some tolerance to external nitrates and a normal triple response to ethylene. Grafting experiments demonstrated that the root of plenty was responsible for its hypernodulation phenotype. Genetic mapping indicated that the PLENTY gene was located on chromosome 2.

  10. Phytosulfokine Is Involved in Positive Regulation of Lotus japonicus Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Haixiang; Zhang, Zhongming; Yu, Liangliang; Xu, Xiaoshu; Hong, Zonglie; Luo, Li

    2015-08-01

    Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a tyrosine-sulfated peptide that is widely distributed in plants, participating in cell proliferation, differentiation, and innate immunity. The potential role of PSK in nodulation in legumes has not been reported. In this work, five PSK precursor genes were identified in Lotus japonicas, designated as LjPSK1 to LjPSK5. Three of them (LjPSK1, LjPSK4, and LjPSK5) were found to be expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LjPSK1 and LjPSK4 were not induced at the early stage of nodulation. Interestingly, while the expression of LjPSK4 was also found in spontaneous nodules without rhizobial colonization, LjPSK1 was not induced in these pseudo nodules. Promoter-β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that LjPSK1 was highly expressed in enlarged symbiotic cells of nodules. Exogenous addition of 1 1M synthetic PSK peptide resulted in increased nodule numbers per plant. Consistently, the number of mature nodules but not the events of rhizobial infection and nodule initiation was increased by overexpressing LjPSK1 in transgenic hairy roots, in which the expression of jasmonate-responsive genes was found to be repressed. These results suggest that PSK is a new peptide signal that regulates nodulation in legumes, probably through cross-talking with other phytohormones.

  11. Activation of an endogenous retrotransposon associated with epigenetic changes in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Stougaard, Jens; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons occupy a large portion of genomes in flowering plants. In spite of their abundance, the majority are silenced and rarely transpose. One of the examples of a highly active retrotransposon is Lotus Retrotransposon 1(LORE1), of the model legume Lotus japonicus...... (Regel) K. Larsen (syn. Lotus corniculatus L. var. japonicus Regel). LORE1 has several unusual characteristics that are interesting both for studying evolutional genomics and for the use of LORE1 as a genetic tool. In this review, we present the characteristics of LORE1 and discuss the biological...... significance of LORE1 as a member of chromovirus, a chromodomain containing clade of the Gypsy superfamily. Then we discuss possibilities and methodologies for using endogenous transposable elements as mutagens to generate gene tagging populations in plants...

  12. The proteome of seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Ornfelt, Jane H; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Staerfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Besenbacher, Søren; Krusell, Lene; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-03-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea. In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5, and two convicilins, LCP1 and LCP2, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For two distinct developmental phases, seed filling and desiccation, a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used, and 665 and 181 unique proteins corresponding to gene accession numbers were identified for the two phases, respectively. All of the proteome data, including the experimental data and mass spectrometry spectra peaks, were collected in a database that is available to the scientific community via a Web interface (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi). This database establishes the basis for relating physiology, biochemistry, and regulation of seed development in Lotus. Together with a new Web interface (http://bioinfoserver.rsbs.anu.edu.au/utils/PathExpress4legumes/) collecting all protein identifications for Lotus, Medicago, and soybean seed proteomes, this database is a valuable resource for comparative seed proteomics and pathway analysis within and beyond the legume family.

  13. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed.

  14. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-08-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti. The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable to that of endogenous Lotus leghemoglobin.

  15. Lotus corniculatus condensed tannins decrease in vivo populations of proteolytic bacteria and affect nitrogen metabolism in the rumen of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Attwood, G T; Reilly, K; Sun, W; Peters, J S; Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    2002-10-01

    Condensed tannins in forage legumes improve the nutrition of sheep by reducing ruminal degradation of plant protein and increasing crude protein flow to the intestine. However, the effects of condensed tannins in forage legumes on rumen bacterial populations in vivo are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of condensed tannins from Lotus corniculatus on four proteolytic rumen bacteria in sheep during and after transition from a ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) diet (i.e., low condensed tannins) to a Lotus corniculatus diet (i.e., higher condensed tannins). The bacterial populations were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction. Lotus corniculatus was fed with or without ruminal infusions of polyethylene glycol (PEG), which binds to and inactivates condensed tannins, enabling the effect of condensed tannins on bacterial populations to be examined. When sheep fed on ryegrass-white clover, populations of Clostridium proteoclasticum B316T, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens C211a, Eubacterium sp. C12b, and Streptococcus bovis B315 were 1.5 x 10(8), 1.1 x 10(6), 4.6 x 10(8), and 7.1 x 10(6) mL(-1), respectively. When the diet was changed to Lotus corniculatus, the average populations (after 8-120 h) of C. proteoclasticum, B. fibrisolvens, Eubacterium sp., and S. bovis decreased (P Lotus corniculatus, the populations of C. proteoclasticum, B. fibrisolvens, Eubacterium sp., and S. bovis were higher (P Lotus corniculatus without the PEG infusion, with average populations (after 8-120 h) of 4.9 x 10(7), 3.8 x 10(5), 1.9 x 10(8), and 1.0 x 10(6), respectively. Sheep fed the Lotus corniculatus diet had lower rumen proteinase activity, ammonia, and soluble nitrogen (P Lotus corniculatus plus PEG. The Lotus corniculatus diet reduced rumen nitrogen digestibility (P Lotus corniculatus and in sheep fed Lotus corniculatus plus PEG, but nonmicrobial non-ammonia nitrogen flux to the abomasum was higher (P

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the extract of the inflorescence of Cocos nucifera (Family: Arecaceae) for enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, R; Ranjitsingh, A J A; Usha Raja Nanthini, A; Kalirajan, K; Padmalatha, C; Mosae Selvakumar, P

    2014-08-14

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant source has been given much importance. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the ethyl acetate and methanol (EA: M 40:60) extracts of the inflorescence of the tree Cocous nucifera. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscope, FTIR and TEM analysis. The particle size of the synthesized AgNPs was 22nm as confirmed by TEM. The qualitative assessment of reducing potential of the extracts of inflorescence indicated the presence of reducing agents. Synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi.

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the extract of the inflorescence of Cocos nucifera (Family: Arecaceae) for enhanced antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariselvam, R.; Ranjitsingh, A. J. A.; Usha Raja Nanthini, A.; Kalirajan, K.; Padmalatha, C.; Mosae Selvakumar, P.

    2014-08-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant source has been given much importance. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the ethyl acetate and methanol (EA: M 40:60) extracts of the inflorescence of the tree Cocous nucifera. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscope, FTIR and TEM analysis. The particle size of the synthesized AgNPs was 22 nm as confirmed by TEM. The qualitative assessment of reducing potential of the extracts of inflorescence indicated the presence of reducing agents. Synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi.

  18. Condensed Tannin Concentrations of Three Lotus Species Grown in Different Environments Contenido de Taninos Condensados en Germoplasma de Tres Especies del Género Lotus en Diferentes Ambientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Acuña

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensed tannins (CT present in Lotus spp., depending on their concentration in the plant, can prevent bloating and improve protein absorption in ruminants. With the objective to know the variability of this characteristic, the CT concentration (% dry matter basis was determined by the butanol-HCl procedure in 13 cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L. (Lc introduced from North and South America and Oceania, 11 accessions of Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd. (Lt, and 22 accessions of Lotus uliginosus Schkuhr (Lu collected in Chile, from 32° to 38° S and 36° to 46° S, respectively. The field experiments, with two randomized complete blocks, were established in autumn 1998, in five different environments in the central-southern zone of Chile (clay soil, sandy soil, and three volcanic soils with different levels of water availability. The herbage sampling was conducted in spring-summer 1999-2000, when the plants were in full flowering. Significant differences between cultivars or accessions were found within each site, in total CT and/or in extractable or protein or fiber bound fractions of CT concentrations. The Lc and Lu genotypes showed high variability, with a range of 4.7 to 8.7% and 6.3 to 11.0%, and means of 6.1 and 8.2%, respectively, of total CT. The Lt general mean was 4.8%, considerably higher than the figures reported in the literature, and had low variability. This information will contribute to select genotypes for the improvement of this species by selection and breedingLos taninos condensados (TC presentes en Lotus spp ., dependiendo de su concentración en la planta, pueden evitar el meteorismo y favorecer la absorción de proteína en rumiantes. Con el objetivo de conocer la variabilidad de esta característica se determinó por el método del butanol-HCl la concentración (% base materia seca de TC en 13 cultivares de Lotus corniculatus L. (Lc introducidos de Norteamérica, Sudamérica y Oceanía, 11 accesiones de Lotus

  19. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Lotus Root Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lotus root attracts increasing attention mainly because of its phenolic compounds known as natural antioxidants. Its thirteen varieties were systematically analyzed on the content, distribution, composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds for a better understanding of this aquatic vegetable. The respective mean contents of total phenolics in their flesh, peel and nodes were 1.81, 4.30 and 7.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g fresh weight (FW, and those of total flavonoids were 3.35, 7.69 and 15.58 mg rutin equivalents/g FW. The phenolic composition determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method varied significantly among varieties and parts. The phenolics of flesh were mainly composed of gallocatechin and catechin; those of peel and node were mainly composed of gallocatechin, gallic acid, catechin and epicatechin. The antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts in increasing order were flesh, peel and node; their mean concentrations for 50% inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were 46.00, 26.43 and 21.72 µg GAE/mL, and their mean values representing ferric reducing antioxidant power were 75.91, 87.66 and 100.43 µg Trolox equivalents/100 µg GAE, respectively. “Zoumayang”, “Baheou”, “No. 5 elian” and “Guixi Fuou” were the hierarchically clustered varieties with relatively higher phenolic content and stronger antioxidant activity as compared with the others. Especially, their nodes and peels are promising sources of antioxidants for human nutrition.

  20. Novosphingobium lotistagni sp. nov., isolated from a lotus pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hien T T; Trinh, Huan; Kim, Jung-Hee; Yang, Jung-Eun; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Ju-Han; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN6.20T, was isolated from a lotus pond near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN6.20T was found to be most closely related to Novosphingobium rosa IFO 15208T (97.6 % sequence similarity), Novosphingobium sediminicola HU1-AH51T (97.5 %) and Novosphingobium barchaimii LL02T (96.9 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN6.20T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 60.0 %. The respiratory quinone and polyamine detected in strain THG-DN6.20T were ubiquinone Q-10 and spermidine, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, sphingoglycolipid and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were identified as C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C14 : 0 2-OH. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG-DN6.20T to the genus Novosphingobium. Strain THG-DN6.20T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Novosphingobium by physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Novosphingobium lotistagni sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DN6.20T as the type strain (=KACC 18541T=CCTCC AB 2015354T).

  1. Apoplastic plant subtilases support arbuscular mycorrhiza development in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Sato, Shusei; Asamizu, Erika; Tabata, Satoshi; Parniske, Martin

    2009-06-01

    In the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis, plant roots accommodate Glomeromycota fungi within an intracellular compartment, the arbuscule. At this symbiotic interface, fungal hyphae are surrounded by a plant membrane, which creates an apoplastic compartment, the periarbuscular space (PAS) between fungal and plant cell. Despite the importance of the PAS for symbiotic signal and metabolite exchange, only few of its components have been identified. Here we show that two apoplastic plant proteases of the subtilase family are required for AM development. SbtM1 is the founder member of a family of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilase genes that occur in at least two clusters in the genome of the legume Lotus japonicus. A detailed expression analysis by RT-PCR revealed that SbtM1, SbtM3, SbtM4 and the more distantly related SbtS are all rapidly induced during development of arbuscular mycorrhiza, but only SbtS and SbtM4 are also up-regulated during root nodule symbiosis. Promoter-reporter fusions indicated specific activation in cells that are adjacent to intra-radical fungal hyphae or in cells that harbour them. Venus fluorescent protein was observed in the apoplast and the PAS when expressed from a fusion construct with the SbtM1 signal peptide or the full-length subtilase. Suppression of SbtM1 or SbtM3 by RNAi caused a decrease in intra-radical hyphae and arbuscule colonization, but had no effect on nodule formation. Our data indicate a role for these subtilases during the fungal infection process in particular arbuscule development.

  2. Elemental composition of birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russelle, M.P.; McGraw, R.L.; Grava, J.; Beuselinck, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Developmental and environmental effects on mineral nutrient concentration in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) are not well documented. In this study, elemental composition of two birdsfoot trefoil stands were determined from a late vegetative stage through reproductive growth. Norcen birdsfoot trefoil was established on a Glyndon silt loam (coarse-silty, frigid Aeric Calciaquolis)( in Roseau County, in 1980, and Norcen and Leo birdsfoot trefoil were seeded on a Waukegan silt loam (fine-silty over sandy or sandy-skeletal, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludolls) near Rosemount, in 1981. Shoot and root samples were taken at approximately biweekly intervals in the year following establishment. Shoots were separated into stems, leaves, umbels, and seed. Environment influenced the concentration of most elements. This environmental effect was generally consistent among plant parts for C, Mg, S, Na, and Mn; i.e., all parts had lower elemental concentrations at Rosemount than at Roseau. The relationship between environments for P, K, Zn, and Cu concentrations varied with different plant parts; i.e., some plant components had element concentrations higher at the southern than northern location, whereas other components had element concentrations that showed the converse. Although most elements were less concentrated with advancing developmental stage, environment modified the rate and extent of change in concentration of every element in at least one plant part. Interactions of environment with development stage were not as evident for shoots as for the separate shoot components. Whereas other reports have often emphasized the large differences in nutrient concentrations among legume species, this data suggest that nutrient concentration may be as strongly influenced by environment as by species.

  3. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola’, a novel taxon associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise sequence similarity values based on alignment of near full-length 16SrRNA genes (1530 bp) reve...

  4. Hierarchically structured superhydrophobic flowers with low hysteresis of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor – new design principles for biomimetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Schulte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchically structured flower leaves (petals of many plants are superhydrophobic, but water droplets do not roll-off when the surfaces are tilted. On such surfaces water droplets are in the “Cassie impregnating wetting state”, which is also known as the “petal effect”. By analyzing the petal surfaces of different species, we discovered interesting new wetting characteristics of the surface of the flower of the wild pansy (Viola tricolor. This surface is superhydrophobic with a static contact angle of 169° and very low hysteresis, i.e., the petal effect does not exist and water droplets roll-off as from a lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaf. However, the surface of the wild pansy petal does not possess the wax crystals of the lotus leaf. Its petals exhibit high cone-shaped cells (average size 40 µm with a high aspect ratio (2.1 and a very fine cuticular folding (width 260 nm on top. The applied water droplets are in the Cassie–Baxter wetting state and roll-off at inclination angles below 5°. Fabricated hydrophobic polymer replicas of the wild pansy were prepared in an easy two-step moulding process and possess the same wetting characteristics as the original flowers. In this work we present a technical surface with a new superhydrophobic, low adhesive surface design, which combines the hierarchical structuring of petals with a wetting behavior similar to that of the lotus leaf.

  5. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  6. Whole-plant adjustments in coconut (Cocos nucifera) in response to sink-source imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialet-Serra, I; Clement-Vidal, A; Roupsard, O; Jourdan, C; Dingkuhn, M

    2008-08-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a perennial tropical monocotyledon that produces fruit continuously. The physiological function of the large amounts of sucrose stored in coconut stems is unknown. To test the hypothesis that reserve storage and mobilization enable the crop to adjust to variable sink-source relationships at the scale of the whole plant, we investigated the dynamics of dry matter production, yield and yield components, and concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in a coconut plantation on Vanuatu Island in the South Pacific. Two treatments were implemented continuously over 29 months (April 2002 to August 2004): 50% leaf pruning (to reduce the source) and 100% fruit and inflorescence pruning (to reduce the sink). The pruning treatments had little effect on carbohydrate reserves because they affected only petioles, not the main reserve pool in the stem. Both pruning treatments greatly reduced dry matter production of the reproductive compartment, but vegetative growth and development were negligibly affected by treatment and season. Leaf pruning increased radiation-use efficiency (RUE) initially, and fruit pruning greatly reduced RUE throughout the experiment. Changes in RUE were negatively correlated with leaflet soluble sugar concentration, indicating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. We conclude that vegetative development and growth of coconut show little phenotypic plasticity, assimilate demand for growth being largely independent of a fluctuating assimilate supply. The resulting sink-source imbalances were partly compensated for by transitory reserves and, more importantly, by variable RUE in the short term, and by adjustment of fruit load in the long term. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed, as well as modeling concepts that may be applied to coconut and similar tree crops.

  7. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carina T; Loke, Ian; Lorentzen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicusLORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of one...

  8. LOTUS field demonstration of integrated multi-sensor mine-detection system in Bosnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Breejen, E. den; Benoist, K.W.; Schutte, K.; Tettelaar, P.; Bijl, M. de; Fritz, P.J.; Cohen, L.H.; Mark, W. van der; Chignell, R.

    2003-01-01

    The successful demonstration of the LOTUS landmine detection system was discussed. The demonstration of the integrated multi-sensor mine-detection system took place in August 2002 near the village of Vidovice, in the northeast of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The system consisted of a metal detector (MD)

  9. In vivo sedative and muscle relaxants activity of Diospyros lotus L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdur; Rauf; Ghias; Uddin; Bina; Shaheen; Siddiqui; Haroon; Khan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sedative effect of Diospyros lotus L(D. lotus) extract in mice using the open field and Rota rod tests.Methods: For the sedative and muscle relaxants activities of extract/fractions of the plant, invivo open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time were used, while the Roda rod test was employed in animals for the assessment of muscle relaxant activity.Results: Results from this investigation revealed that the extracts of D. lotus have exhibited significant sedative effect in mice(45.98%) at 100 mg/kg i.p. When the extract was partitioned with different solvents, the n-hexane fraction was inactive whereas the chloroform fraction was the most active with 82.67% sedative effect at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. On the other hand,the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions displayed significant sedative effects(55.65% and40.87%, respectively) at 100 mg/kg i.p. Among the tested extract/fractions, only chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed significant(P < 0.05) muscle relaxant activity in the Rota rod test.Conclusions: In short, our study provided scientific background to the traditional uses of D.lotus as sedative.

  10. In vitro corrosion resistance of Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Kelly; Hyun, Soong-Keun; Fujimoto, Shinji; Nakajima, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of three kinds of austenitic high nitrogen Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels was examined in acellular simulated body fluid solutions and compared with type AISI 316L stainless steel. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical techniques, the analysis of released metal ions was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the cytotoxicity was investigated in a culture of murine osteoblasts cells. Total immunity to localized corrosion in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions was exhibited by Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels, while Lotus-type porous AISI 316L showed very low pitting corrosion resistance evidenced by pitting corrosion at a very low breakdown potential. Additionally, Lotus-type porous Ni-free stainless steels showed a quite low metal ion release in SBF solutions. Furthermore, cell culture studies showed that the fabricated materials were non-cytotoxic to mouse osteoblasts cell line. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the investigated alloys are biocompatible and corrosion resistant and a promising material for biomedical applications.

  11. Sound Absorption and Friction Properties of Nano-Lotus Leaf Coated Concrete for Rigid Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo GONZALEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility of superhydrophobic films to create the nano-lotus leaf effect on concrete surface and their influence on sound absorption and friction properties of concrete for application in rigid pavements. The study involved an evaluation of nanomaterials at the laboratory scale to analyze the effects of microtexture modification on the friction and sound absorption of concrete pavement. A number of laboratory specimens were produced by applying different amounts of nano-lotus leaf coating on the top of the textured concrete surface. The British pendulum test was used to measure the friction number, and an impedance tube was used to determine the sound absorption coefficient. Laboratory results indicate that nano-lotus leaf coated concrete can maintain the required friction property for rigid pavement, but may not increase the noise absorption. Further research must be carried out to determine possible benefit of the lotus leaf effect for reducing hydroplaning, particularly during heavy rainfall.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7638

  12. Infection of Lotus japonicus Roots by Mesorhizobium loti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markmann, Katharina; Radutoiu, Elena Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Like the two important crop legumes soybean and common bean, the model legume Lotus japonicus develops determinate root nodules. L. japonicus is normally infected through root hair infection threads in a process closely synchronised with the progressing primordial cell divisions and organ...

  13. The National BioResource Project (NBRP) Lotus and Glycine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Abe, Jun; Aoki, Toshio; Anai, Toyoaki; Suzuki, Akihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the National BioResource Project (NBRP) in Japan is to collect, conserve and distribute biological materials for life sciences research. The project consists of twenty-eight bioresources, including animal, plant, microorganism and DNA resources. NBRP Lotus and Glycine aims to support the development of legume research through the collection, conservation, and distribution of these bioresources. Lotus japonicus is a perennial legume that grows naturally throughout Japan and is widely used as a model plant for legumes because of such advantages as its small genome size and short life cycle. Soybean (Glycine max) has been cultivated as an important crop since ancient times, and numerous research programs have generated a large amount of basic research information and valuable bioresources for this crop. We have also developed a "LegumeBase" a specialized database for the genera Lotus and Glycine, and are maintaining this database as a part of the NBRP. In this paper we will provide an overview of the resources available from the NBRP Lotus and Glycine database site, called "LegumeBase".

  14. Over de taxonomische plaats en de variabiliteit van de subspecies van Lotus corniculatus L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Willie

    1972-01-01

    As a result of an investigation on the variability in morphology, anatomy and cytology in relation to ecological behaviour of the subspecies of Lotus corniculatus L. in the Netherlands, we found subsp. corniculatus as an ecological-plastic taxon with a number of modifications. In subsp. tenuis we co

  15. Prolific plant regeneration from protoplast-derived tissues of Lotus corniculatus L. (birdsfoot trefoil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, P S; Hadiuzzaman, S; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C

    1983-04-01

    Protoplasts isolated enzymatically from seedling roots, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Lotus corniculatus L. produced callus which underwent prolific shoot regeneration. The rapidity and ease of recovering plants from protoplast-derived tissues makes this forage legume an attractive experimental system for genetic manipulation.

  16. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BENZILAMINOPURINE AND THE DIFFERENTIATION OF LOTUS CORNICULATUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SELEGEAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables represent an important study source for the research of significant biological phenomen. The experiments made have shown the possibility of in vitro organogenesis induction at Lotus corniculatus, viable clones being obtained after approximately three months. The in vitro culture in Gamborg medium (1968 supplimented with BAP, offers the possibility of callus induction, caulogenesis and rhisogenesis.

  17. Een afwijkende vorm van Lotus corniculatus L. in wegbermen, in het bijzonder in de Lauwerszeepolder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der D.T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. var. sativus Chrtková-Žertová is an erect form of Birdsfoot-trefoil, up to 0.5 m high, with hollow stems. It is a component of a commercial (grass) seed mixture which is sown in sandy road verges all over the country. At the Lauwerszee polder it appeared to hybridize with wild

  18. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE BENZILAMINOPURINE AND THE DIFFERENTIATION OF LOTUS CORNICULATUS L.

    OpenAIRE

    M. SELEGEAN; CARMEN BABAITA

    2007-01-01

    Vegetables represent an important study source for the research of significant biological phenomen. The experiments made have shown the possibility of in vitro organogenesis induction at Lotus corniculatus, viable clones being obtained after approximately three months. The in vitro culture in Gamborg medium (1968) supplimented with BAP, offers the possibility of callus induction, caulogenesis and rhisogenesis.

  19. 浅析越南莲花文化%An Analysis of Lotus Culture in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯尚宏

    2012-01-01

    Being a holy plant,lotus features special religious moral. In Vietnamese folk songs and sayings,lotus is used to portray gentlemen with noble nature and unsullied personality and symbolize love and a metaphor for pretty girls. Accordingly, lotus enjoys great popularity with the Vietnamese. The article attempts to explore the Vietnamese attachment to lotus so as to get the world better aware of Vietnamese aesthetic tastes and cultural features%莲花作为一种圣洁的植物,具有特殊的宗教寓意。在越南民间歌谣俗语中,莲花是君子高洁的写照,是爱情的象征,是美妙女子的比喻。莲花深受越南人的喜爱,探寻越南人对莲花的情结,能更好地了解越南民族的审美情趣和文化特色。

  20. Long Term Upper Ocean Study (LOTUS). A Summary of the Historical Data and Engineering Test Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    result of observations made during the engineering test period are discussed below. The loss of LOTUS-l has been attributed to the failure of a Crosby ...Observations on the energy balance of internal waves during JASIN. Phil . Trans. !t2y. Soc., in press. Eriksen, C. C., J. M. Dablen, and J. T. Shillingford, Jr

  1. Seed Germination Characteristics of Rhus tripartitum (Ucria Grande and Ziziphus lotus (L.: Effects of Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouaoui Refka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae and Rhus tripartitum or Sumac (Anacardiaceae are two indigenous species from arid and semiarid regions of Tunisia, characterized by a severe climate where dry seasons are very long. The combined action of anthropogenic factors and climate in arid regions caused a gradual threat of plant assets. In this context, an experimental study of the effects of water stress (0 to −1 MPa on seeds has identified the water requirements germinal stage of both species. The results showed that both species were able to germinate at relatively low water potentials. However, beyond −0.6 MPa, germination was completely inhibited for R. tripartitum, when it reached for another 50% for Z. lotus. Increasing the concentration of PEG6000 progressively inhibited germination in both species. Only Z. lotus could be considered tolerant of water stress, because, to −1 MPa, seeds germinated with a rate of 17%. It resulted in that the species Z. lotus presented an adaptive capacity to aridity much greater than that observed for R. tripartitum.

  2. STRATEGI PEMASARAN PAKET INBOUND TOUR: STUDI KASUS DI PT. LOTUS ASIA TOURS JIMBARAN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Agatha Mahayu Putri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor internal yaitu kekuatan dan kelemahan dan eksternal yaitu peluang dan ancaman dari PT. Lotus Asia Tours serta untuk mengetahui strategi yang dapat dilakukan pihak PT. Lotus Asia Tours untuk memasarkan paket inbound tour. Lokasi penelitian dilakukan di PT. Lotus Asia Tours yang terletak di Jl. By Pass Ngurah Rai No. 18, Jimbaran Bali.. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara observasi, wawancara, studi kepustakaan, studi dokumentasi dan didukung dengan daftar pertanyaan yang disebarkan kepada 60 informan. Daftar pertanyaan yang disebarkan berpedoman pada indikator marketing mix 7 P (product, price, place, promotion, physical evidence, people, process. Hasil data yang diperoleh lalu dianalisis dengan IFAS (Internal Factor Analysis Summary dan EFAS ( External Factor Analysis Summary, selanjutnya untuk mengetahui posisi perusahaan digunakan matriks internal eksternal dan untuk mengetahui alternatif strategi digunakan matriks SWOT, sehingga dapat menciptakan strategi pemasaran baru serta mengembangkan program-program yang telah ada agar dapat diterapkan oleh PT. Lotus Asia Tours Jimbaran Bali. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh total nilai rata-rata lingkungan internal yaitu sebesar 3,01 dan lingkungan eksternal yaitu sebesar 2,96, dapat diketahui bahwa posisi perusahaan berada di sel IV yang berarti stability strategy dimana strategi yang tetapkan tidak merubah arah strategi yang telah ada.

  3. Early Lotus japonicus root transcriptomic responses to symbiotic and pathogenic fungal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGiovannetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate Lotus japonicus transcriptomic responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM germinated spore exudates (GSE, responsible for activating nuclear Ca2+ spiking in plant root epidermis. A microarray experiment was performed comparing gene expression in Lotus rootlets treated with GSE or water after 24 h and 48 h. The transcriptional pattern of selected genes that resulted to be regulated in the array was further evaluated upon different treatments and timings. In particular, Lotus rootlets were treated with: GSE from the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum trifolii; short chitin oligomers (acknowledged AM fungal signals and long chitin oligomers (as activators of pathogenic responses. This experimental set up has revealed that AM GSE generates a strong transcriptomic response in Lotus roots with an extensive defense-related response after 24 hours and a subsequent downregulation after 48 hours. A similar subset of defense-related genes resulted to be upregulated also upon treatment with C. trifolii GSE, although with an opposite trend. Surprisingly, long chitin oligomers activated both defense-like and symbiosis-related genes. Among the genes regulated in the microarray, promoter-GUS assay showed that LjMATE1 activates in epidermal cells and root hairs.

  4. Sound Absorption and Friction Properties of Nano-Lotus Leaf Coated Concrete for Rigid Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo GONZALEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility of superhydrophobic films to create the nano-lotus leaf effect on concrete surface and their influence on sound absorption and friction properties of concrete for application in rigid pavements. The study involved an evaluation of nanomaterials at the laboratory scale to analyze the effects of microtexture modification on the friction and sound absorption of concrete pavement. A number of laboratory specimens were produced by applying different amounts of nano-lotus leaf coating on the top of the textured concrete surface. The British pendulum test was used to measure the friction number, and an impedance tube was used to determine the sound absorption coefficient. Laboratory results indicate that nano-lotus leaf coated concrete can maintain the required friction property for rigid pavement, but may not increase the noise absorption. Further research must be carried out to determine possible benefit of the lotus leaf effect for reducing hydroplaning, particularly during heavy rainfall.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7638

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly and identification of the gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saensuk, Chatree; Wanchana, Samart; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Kraithong, Tippaya; Imsabai, Wachiraya; Chaichoompu, Ekawat; Ruanjaichon, Vinitchan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2016-11-01

    Thailand's aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a special type of green dwarf coconut, the liquid endosperm of which is characterized by a pleasant "pandan-like" aroma due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transriptome from C. nucifera endosperm and to identify the gene responsible for 2AP biosynthesis. CnAMADH2 was identified as an ortholog of the rice aromatic gene and a G-to-C substitution found in exon 14 was associated with 2AP content in the aromatic green dwarf coconut accessions. The base substitution caused an amino-acid change, alanine-to-proline, at position 442 (P442A). The presence of P at this position might alter the steric conformation at the loop region and subsequently result in an unstabilized dimer conformation that could lower AMADH enzyme activity. Among AMADH/BADH protein sequences in different plant species, the P442A mutation was found exclusively in aromatic coconut. The PCR marker developed based on this sequence variation can perfectly detect the aromatic and non-aromatic alleles of the gene. This study confirms the hypothesis that plants may share a mechanism of 2AP biosynthesis. This is the first identification of the gene associated with 2AP biosynthesis in a tree plant.

  6. Lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan–polyvinyl pyrrolidone films as an anti-adhesion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Kang, Min Ji; Lee, Woo-Kul, E-mail: leewo@dankook.ac.kr

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Improved mechanical properties by hydrogen bond between chitosan and PVP chains. • Improved anti-adhesion effect by lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan–PVP (L-chitosan–PVP) film. • L-Chitosan–PVP film as a blood/tissue anti-adhesion barrier for post-surgical treatment. - Abstract: For postsurgical anti-adhesion barrier applications, lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan–PVP films were prepared using a solution casting method with dodecyltrichloro-immobilized SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. We evaluated whether the lotus-leaf-like structured chitosan–PVP films (L-chitosan–PVP) could be applied as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers. A recovery test using a tensile strength testing machine and measurement of crystallinity using X-ray diffraction indicated that films with 75% PVP were the optimal composition of the chitosan–PVP films. Also, dodecyltrichloro-immobilized SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and sprayed on the film after pretreatment with the instant bio-glue. Analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation, and anti-thrombus efficiency were performed via a WST assay, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and hemacytometry. The contact angle with the lotus-leaf-like surface was of approximately 150°. Furthermore, the L-chitosan–PVP film yielded a lower cell and platelet adhesion rate (around less than 4%) than that yielded by the untreated film. These results indicate that the lotus-leaf-like structure has a unique property and that this novel L-chitosan–PVP film can be applied as a blood/tissue-compatible, biodegradable material for implantable medical devices that need an anti-adhesion barrier.

  7. Application of Government Affair Management Systems Based on Lotus Domino Security%基于Lotus Domino安全机制在政务管理系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芝; 范成功; 郭秋亮

    2004-01-01

    主要介绍Lotus Domino数据库的安全基础,包括:身份验证、存取控制、字段级加密和电子签名等四级安全措施,并分析了Lotus Domino安全机制在政务管理系统的具体实现以及强大的应用前景.

  8. The plant growth promoting substance, lumichrome, mimics starch and ethylene-associated symbiotic responses in lotus and tomato roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel eGouws

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis involves responses that maintain the plant host and symbiotic partner’s genetic program; yet these cues are far from elucidated. Here we describe the effects of lumichrome, a flavin identified from Rhizobium spp., applied to lotus (Lotus japonicus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Combined transcriptional and metabolite analyses suggest that both species shared common pathways that were altered in response to this application under replete, sterile conditions. These included genes involved in symbiosis, as well as transcriptional and metabolic responses related to enhanced starch accumulation and altered ethylene metabolism. Lumichrome priming also resulted in altered colonization with either Mesorhizobium loti (for lotus or Glomus intraradices/Glomus mossea (for tomato. It enhanced nodule number but not nodule formation in lotus; while leading to enhanced hyphae initiation and delayed arbuscule maturation in tomato.

  9. Separation of Oligosaccharides from Lotus Seeds via Medium-pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with ELSD and DAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xu; Zheng, Zhichang; Miao, Song; Li, Huang; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-03-01

    Lotus seeds were identified by the Ministry of Public Health of China as both food and medicine. One general function of lotus seeds is to improve intestinal health. However, to date, studies evaluating the relationship between bioactive compounds in lotus seeds and the physiological activity of the intestine are limited. In the present study, by using medium pressure liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detector and diode-array detector, five oligosaccharides were isolated and their structures were further characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vitro testing determined that LOS3-1 and LOS4 elicited relatively good proliferative effects on Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. These results indicated a structure-function relationship between the physiological activity of oligosaccharides in lotus seeds and the number of probiotics applied, thus providing room for improvement of this particular feature. Intestinal probiotics may potentially become a new effective drug target for the regulation of immunity.

  10. Genetic diversity of rhizobial populations recovered from three Lotus species cultivated in the infra-arid Tunisian soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mokhtar Rejili; Maria José Lorite; Mosbah Mahdhi; Juan Sanjuan Pinilla; Ali Ferchichi; Mohamed Mars

    2009-01-01

    gments from each strain based on the UPGMA algorithm from the combined patterns showed that Lotus isolates are very diverse and that they were affiliated to Sinorhizobium,Rhizobium,and Mesorhizobium genera.

  11. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  12. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  13. Cocos sahnii Kaul: A Cocos nucifera L.-like fruit from the Early Eocene rainforest of Rajasthan, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anumeha Shukla; Rakesh C Mehrotra; Jaswant S Guleria

    2012-09-01

    Cocos sahnii Kaul, a fossil palm fruit, is validated and described from the Fuller’s earth deposits of Kapurdi village of Rajasthan considered as Early Eocene in age. The fossil best resembles the genus Cocos, particularly Cocos nucifera L., which is now a common coastal element thriving in highly moist conditions. The recovery of this coconut-like fruit, along with earlier described evergreen taxa from the same formation, suggests the existence of typical tropical, warm and humid coastal conditions during the depositional period. The present arid to semi-arid climatic conditions occurring in Rajasthan indicate drastic climate change in the region during the Cenozoic. The possible time for the onset of aridity in the region which caused the total eradication of semi-evergreen to evergreen forests is discussed, as well as the palaeobiogeography of coconuts.

  14. Antimicrobial peptide (Cn-AMP2) from liquid endosperm of Cocos nucifera forms amyloid-like fibrillar structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Shalini; Kaushik, Vibha; Kumar, Vijay; Bhat, Priyanka; Yadav, Subhash C; Yadav, Jay K

    2016-04-01

    Cn-AMP2 is an antimicrobial peptide derived from liquid endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera). It consists of 11 amino acid residues and predicted to have high propensity for β-sheet formation that disposes this peptide to be amyloidogenic. In the present study, we have examined the amyloidogenic propensities of Cn-AMP2 in silico and then tested the predictions under in vitro conditions. The in silico study revealed that the peptide possesses high amyloidogenic propensity comparable with Aβ. Upon solubilisation and agitation in aqueous buffer, Cn-AMP2 forms visible aggregates that display bathochromic shift in the Congo red absorbance spectra, strong increase in thioflavin T fluorescence and fibrillar morphology under transmission electron microscopy. All these properties are typical of an amyloid fibril derived from various proteins/peptides including Aβ.

  15. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) habitat at Palmyra Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Hathaway, Stacie A; Wegmann, Alex S; Shipley, Frank S; Backlin, Adam R; Helm, Joel; Fisher, Robert N

    2010-02-01

    Black rats ( Rattus rattus ) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59%) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll.

  16. Development of a heavy metal sorption system through the P=S functionalization of coconut (Cocos nucifera) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Dayane Almeida; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; da Costa Nogueira, Márcio; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic residues are interesting materials for the production of heavy metal adsorbents for aquatic systems. Whole fibers taken from coconut (Cocos nucifera) husks were functionalized with the thiophosphoryl (P=S) group by means of the direct reaction with Cl(3)PS, (CH(3)O)(2)ClP=S or (CH(3)CH(2)O)(2)ClP=S in order to obtain an adsorptive system for 'soft' metal ions, particularly Cd(2+). These functionalized fibers (FFs) were characterized by means of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and acid-base titration. Adsorption isotherms for Cd(2+) fitted the Langmuir model, with binding capacities of 0.2-5 m mol g(-1) of FF at 25 degrees C.

  17. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  18. ERP系统应用与Lotus Domino for AS/400的集成%ERP System Application and Integration of Lotus Domino for AS/400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉华; 王晶洁

    2001-01-01

    IBM eServer AS/400以其功能强大的数据库系统DB2/400,逐渐成为ERP系统应用的核心.Lotus Domino for AS/400是以邮件为驱动的群件系统服务器,它为企业办公提供了安全方便的流程管理机制.通过分析Domino与DB2/400的集成技术,提出在Domino中实现ERP系统应用的可行方案.

  19. 椰子CBF基因的克隆研究%Study on Cloning of CBF Gene from Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖勇; 杨耀东; 曹红星; 雷新涛; 范海阔; 赵松林; 马子龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of coconuts cold resistance, this study designed primers according to the CBF gene sequence of oil palm, and then amplified the genomic DNA of Cocos nucifera by using PCR method. The PCR products were retrieved, linked, transformed and sequenced; finally, a DNA sequence of Cocos nucifera was obtained. This sequence had the highest identity (99%) with CBF gene of oil palm, and it was confirmed to be CBF gene. Through the clustering analysis of the cloned CBF gene of coconut and CBF genes of graminaceous crops, the high homology was found between the cloned CBF gene and HvCBF1, Os-DREB1E, HvCBF11, TaCBF11.%为了从分子水平上解析椰子抗寒的机理,以油棕的CBF基因序列设计引物,对椰子的基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,并对PCR产物进行回收、连接、转化以及测序,最后获得了1条DNA序列.这条序列与油棕的CBF基因的同源性高达99%,被证实为CBF基因.将克隆的椰子的CBF基因与禾本科作物的CBF基因进行聚类分析,结果显示:所克隆的CBF基因与HvCBF1、OsDREB1E、HvCB F11和TaCBF11具有较高的同源性.

  20. Evaluation of hypotheses concerning the origin of Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) using isoenzyme data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1988-08-01

    An isoenzyme survey was conducted for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, L. tenuis Waldst. et Kit and L. uliginosus Schkuhr, and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether isoenzyme data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of L. corniculatus. Seven enzyme systems were examined using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. These were PGI, TPI, MDH, IDH, PGM, 6-PGDH, and ME. Lotus uliginosus had monomorphic unique alleles, that were not found within L. corniculatus, at 7 loci. These loci and alleles are: Tpi1-112, Pgm1,2-110, Pgm3-82, Mdh3-68, 6-Pgdh1-110, 6-Pgdh2-98,95, and Me2-100. Other diploid taxa contained alleles found in L. corniculatus for these and other loci. The implications of the isoenzyme data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus are discussed.

  1. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... types of adaptations enable plants to avoid the potential lethal effects of their own defence compounds. These adaptations include detoxification and stabilization by glycosylation and the genomic clustering of biosynthetic pathway genes. These two types are the main focus of this PhD thesis...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...

  2. Tomographic X-ray data of a lotus root filled with attenuating objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bubba, Tatiana A; Huotari, Simo; Rimpeläinen, Juho; Siltanen, Samuli

    2016-01-01

    This is the documentation of the tomographic X-ray data of a lotus root, filled with four different attenuating objects, of different sizes. Data are available at www.fips.fi/dataset.php, and can be freely used for scientific purposes with appropriate references to them, and to this document in http://arxiv.org/arXiv. The data set consists of (1) the X-ray sinogram of a single 2D slice of the lotus root with two different resolutions and (2) the corresponding measurement matrices modeling the linear operation of the X-ray transform. Each of these sinograms was obtained from a measured 360-projection fan-beam sinogram by down-sampling and taking logarithms. The original (measured) sinogram is also provided in its original form and resolution.

  3. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  4. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.;

    2010-01-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod...... of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965...

  5. Identification and antioxidant properties of polyphenols in lotus seed epicarp at different ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ma, Shuang-shuang; Ibrahim, S A; Li, Er-hu; Yang, Hong; Huang, Wen

    2015-10-15

    In this study, polyphenols from lotus seed epicarp (PLSE) at three different ripening stages were purified by column chromatography and identified by RP-HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). The antioxidant activities of PLSE were also investigated. We found that the contents of PLSE at the green ripening stage, half ripening stage and full ripening stage are 13.08%, 10.95% and 6.73% respectively. The levels of catechin, epicatechin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin in PLSE at the three different ripening stages were different. Moreover, the amounts of catechin and epicatechin decreased, while the contents of hyperoside and isoquercitrin increased as the seed ripened. We found that PLSE at three different ripening stages had good scavenging abilities on DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals. However, the scavenging ability decreased with maturation. Our results may be valuable with regard to the utilization of lotus seed epicarp as a functional food material.

  6. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces by combining mussel-inspired adhesion with lotus-inspired coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Ji, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-08-21

    Superhydrophobic surfaces on PET textiles were fabricated by combined bioinspiration from the strong adhesion of marine mussels and the two-scale structure of lotus leaves under mild conditions. Dopamine can spontaneously polymerize in alkaline aqueous solution to form a thin adhesive layer of polydopamine (PDA) wrapping on the micro-scale fibers. The as-formed thin PDA layer worked as a reactive template to generate PDA nanoparticles decorated on the fiber surfaces, imparting the textiles with excellent UV-shielding properties as well as a hierarchical structure similar to the morphology of the lotus leaf. After further modification with perfluorodecyl trichlorosilane, the textiles turned superhydrophobic with a water contact angle higher than 150°. Due to the strong adhesion of PDA to a wide range of materials, the present strategy may be extendable to fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces on a variety of other substrates.

  7. Workflow Automation with Lotus Notes for the Governmental Administrative Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Maskeliunas, Saulius

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents an introductory overview of the workflow automation area, outlining the main types, basic technologies, the essential features of workflow applications. Two sorts of process models for the definition of workflows (according to the conversation-based and activity-based methodologies) are sketched. Later on, the nature of Lotus Notes and its capabilities (as an environment for workflow management systems development) are indicated. Concluding, the experience of automating adm...

  8. Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39μg/ml and 50μg/ml and 60μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay.

  9. Een afwijkende vorm van Lotus corniculatus L. in wegbermen, in het bijzonder in de Lauwerszeepolder

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, van der, B.

    1988-01-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. var. sativus Chrtková-Žertová is an erect form of Birdsfoot-trefoil, up to 0.5 m high, with hollow stems. It is a component of a commercial (grass) seed mixture which is sown in sandy road verges all over the country. At the Lauwerszee polder it appeared to hybridize with wild populations with prostrate habit and solid stems.

  10. Genome relationships among Lotus species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L P; Raelson, J V; Grant, W F

    1994-06-01

    The ability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to distinguish among different taxa of Lotus was evaluated for several geographically dispersed accessions of four diploid Lotus species, L. tennis Waldst. et Kit, L. alpinus Schleich., L. japonicus (Regel) Larsen, and L. uliginosus Schkuhr and for the tetraploid L. corniculatus L., in order to ascertain whether RAPD data could offer additional evidence concerning the origin of the tetraploid L. corniculatus. Clear bands and several polymorphisms were obtained for 20 primers used for each species/accession. The evolutionary pathways among the species/accessions presented in a cladogram were expressed in terms of treelengths giving the most parsimonious reconstructions. Accessions within the same species grouped closely together. It is considered that L. uliginosus which is most distantly related to L. corniculatus, may be excluded as a direct progenitor of L. corniculatus, confirming previous results from isoenzyme studies. Lotus alpinus is grouped with accessions of L. corniculatus, which differs from previous studies. With this exception, these findings are in agreement with previous experimental studies in the L. corniculatus group. The value of the RAPD data to theories on the origin of L. corniculatus is discussed.

  11. Lotus corniculatus regulates the inflammation induced by bradykinin in a murine model of pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana Ana; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Wisniewski, Alberto; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2011-03-23

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the crude extract (CE), the fractions derived from hexane (HEX), ethyl acetate (AcOEt), n-butanol (BuOH), and aqueous (Aq) and isolated compounds (oleanolic acid or kaempferitrin) obtained from the aerial parts of Lotus corniculatus var. São Gabriel in mice with bradykinin-induced pleurisy. Swiss mice were used for the In Vivo experiments. Inflammatory parameters [leukocytes; exudate concentrations; myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, and nitric oxide and interleukin-17 levels] were evaluated 4 h after pleurisy induction. The crude extract of Lotus corniculatus, its derived fractions, and isolated compounds inhibited leukocytes and the exudate. This inhibitory effect was associated with decreased of myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitric oxide products, and IL-17A levels. Lotus corniculatus presented important anti-inflammatory action by inhibiting leukocyte influx and exudate concentrations. This effect was directly related to the inhibition of nitric oxide and interleukinin17 levels. Oleanolic acid and kaempferitrin can account for these anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. Self-propulsion of dew drops on lotus leaves: a potential mechanism for self cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S; Gellender, Marty; Watson, Jolanta A

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that condensation on the hierarchically structured lotus leaf can facilitate self-propulsion of water droplets off the surface. Droplets on leaves inclined at high angles can be completely removed from the surface by self-propulsion with the assistance of gravity. Due to the small size of mobile droplets, light breezes may also fully remove the propelled droplets, which are typically projected beyond the boundary layer of the leaf cuticle. Moreover the self-propelled droplets/condensate were able to remove contaminants (eg silica particles) from the leaf surface. The biological significance of this process may be associated with maintaining a healthy cuticle surface when the action of rain to clean the surface via the lotus effect is not possible (due to no precipitation). Indeed, the native lotus plants in this study were located in a region with extended time periods (several months) without rain. Thus, dew formation on the leaf may provide an alternative self-cleaning mechanism during times of drought and optimise the functional efficiency of the leaf surface as well as protecting the surface from long term exposure to pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.

  13. Design in Lotus Seeds Sheller%鲜莲子剥壳机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余群; 易启伟; 张永林

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the existing lotus seeds decladding equipment is inefficient and can not meet the demand of enterprise, a new efficient lotus seeds sheller with high de-hulling rate and low broken rate was designed on the base of researching the theory of lotus seed decladding. This new sheller is compact in structure and stable in performance. And it can fill the enterprise's requirement of expanding production.%针对我国鲜莲子剥壳设备落后、效率低下、不能满足企业需求这一现象,在深入分析鲜莲子剥壳杌理的基础上,设计了一种高效的莲子剥壳机.该机剥壳率高,破损率低,结构紧凑,性能稳定,可满足相关企业扩大生产的需求.

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation on some quality attributes of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2009-01-01

    Radiation processing has been employed successfully for value addition of food and agricultural products. Preliminary studies were undertaken to evaluate the changes induced by ionizing radiation (up to 30 kGy), in the form of gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation, on some quality attributes and nutritive values of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds. Significant loss in seed firmness was recorded between control and irradiated seeds, irrespective of radiation source. Similarly, the specific viscosity of irradiated lotus seeds decreased significantly up to a dose of 7.5 kGy. Starch increased after exposure to gamma or electron beam irradiation, whereas the total phenolic contents were decreased. Gamma irradiation revealed an enhancement in protein, while the electron beam showed a decrease. Partial oxidation of the seeds during radiation treatments might have occurred as evidenced from the decomposition profiles (thermogravimetry) during heating. It is evident that ionizing radiation brought about significant and variable changes in the quality and nutritive values of lotus seed. Further exploration of this technology for safety and quality is warranted.

  15. [Contamination level of aflatoxin B1 in lotus seeds rapid screening by indirect competitive ELISA method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xian-feng; Dou, Xiao-wen; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Chong; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    A simple and cost-effective indirect competitive enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed to rapidly screen the content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in lotus seeds, and the results were confirmed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry( UFLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibration expressed a good linearity ranging from 0. 171 to 7. 25 µg · L(-1) for AFB, with R2 > 0.978. The medium inhibitory concentration( IC50 ) for AFB1 was 1.29 µg · L(-1), the recovery for AFB1 was 74.73% to 126.9% with RSD lotus seeds samples and the results indicated that the contents of AFB, in samples 1-15 were in the range of 1. 19- 115. 3 µg · kg(-1) and in 40% of the samples exceeded the legal limit(5 µg · kg(-1)), while the contamination rate of AFB, in samples 16-20 was 40%. Pearson correlation coefficient(r) reached 0.997 for AFB1 content in the samples detected by ic-ELSIA and UFLC-MS/MS methods. The results proved that the developed ic-ELISA method is simple, sensitive and reliable, and can be used for rapid and high-throughput screening of AFB1 in lotus seeds

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Alkaloid Nuciferine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martilias S Farrell

    Full Text Available The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera contains many phytochemicals and has a history of human use. To determine which compounds may be responsible for reported psychotropic effects, we used in silico predictions of the identified phytochemicals. Nuciferine, an alkaloid component of Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea caerulea, had a predicted molecular profile similar to antipsychotic compounds. Our study characterizes nuciferine using in vitro and in vivo pharmacological assays.Nuciferine was first characterized in silico using the similarity ensemble approach, and was followed by further characterization and validation using the Psychoactive Drug Screening Program of the National Institute of Mental Health. Nuciferine was then tested in vivo in the head-twitch response, pre-pulse inhibition, hyperlocomotor activity, and drug discrimination paradigms.Nuciferine shares a receptor profile similar to aripiprazole-like antipsychotic drugs. Nuciferine was an antagonist at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT2B, an inverse agonist at 5-HT7, a partial agonist at D2, D5 and 5-HT6, an agonist at 5-HT1A and D4 receptors, and inhibited the dopamine transporter. In rodent models relevant to antipsychotic drug action, nuciferine blocked head-twitch responses and discriminative stimulus effects of a 5-HT2A agonist, substituted for clozapine discriminative stimulus, enhanced amphetamine induced locomotor activity, inhibited phencyclidine (PCP-induced locomotor activity, and rescued PCP-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition without induction of catalepsy.The molecular profile of nuciferine was similar but not identical to that shared with several approved antipsychotic drugs suggesting that nuciferine has atypical antipsychotic-like actions.

  17. Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae en la provincia de Alicante [Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. (Rhamnaceae in the province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se cita por primera vez para la flora de la Comunidad Valenciana la presencia de Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. en la provincia de Alicante, especie hasta el momento únicamente localizada dentro de la Península Ibérica en las provincias de Almería y Murcia, y con una cita dispersa en Córdoba. La planta se ha localizado cerca del límite con la Región de Murcia. Aparentemente se trata de la cita mundial más septentrional para la especie en el Mediterráneo Occidental.. ABSTRACT: A first citation of Ziziphus lotus (L. Lam. in the Valencian Community (Spain is reported. Formerly the species was citated in the Iberian peninsule from the provinces of Murcia and Almeria; in addition there is a disperse citation from Cordoba. This plant has been found in the province of Alicante, close to the borderline with the neighbouring Region of Murcia. It deals apparently with the Northernmost site for this species in the Western Mediterranean.

  18. 基于Liferay门户与Lotus Domino OA单点登录系统的实现%Implementation of Single Sign-On system Based on Liferay Portal and Lotus Domino OA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成宝

    2014-01-01

    Achieving the SSO(Single Sign-On) between Liferay Portal and Lotus Domino OA, with the advantages of Liferay platform and Domino platform, then we can have better collaboration. Liferay Portal is the effective platform that is running for ofifce automation. This paper introduces the implementation of SSO and the key technologies were discussed.%本文介绍了Liferay门户与lotus Domino OA服务器的单点登录的实现,系统介绍Liferay门户应用优势和Lotus Domino平台在企业协作方面的优势,描述了单点登录认证方式的实现原理,并对其关键技术进行了讨论。

  19. The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus on plasma metabolism of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphate by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Waghorn, G C; Barry, T N; Shelton, I D

    1994-12-01

    Fresh Lotus corniculatus containing 27 g extractable condensed tannin (CT)/kg dry matter (DM) and 8 g bound CT/kg DM was fed at hourly intervals to sheep held in metabolism cages to study the effects of CT on nutrient digestion and on metabolism of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphate in plasma. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was continuously infused into the rumen of half the sheep to remove the effects of CT. Principal measurements in the two groups were plasma irreversible loss (IRL) rate and interconversions of methionine, cystine and inorganic sulphate using 35S labelling. CT in Lotus corniculatus had no effects on the apparent digestion of cellulose and minerals, slightly depressed DM, organic matter and hemicellulose digestion and markedly reduced the apparent digestion of N (P Lotus corniculatus reduced rumen protein degradation and markedly increased utilization of plasma cystine for body synthetic reactions.

  20. Drug: D06803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotusine [CPD:C17567] Nelumbonaceae (lotus family) Nelumbo mature fruit Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06803 Nelumbo seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304...] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06803 Nelumbo seed Crude drugs

  1. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab.

  2. Seasonal variation of Hemiptera community of a temple pond of Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study records seven families, 11 genera and 14 species of hemipteran insect community in different seasons in a temple pond near Silchar, Cachar District, Assam, northeastern India. The pond is very rich in macrophytes like Nelumbo nucifera (Water Lotus, Hygrorhiza aristata (Indian Lotus, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda Grass, Philotria sp. etc. The hemipteran families recorded in the system were Corixidae, Gerridae, Aphididae, Mesoveliidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae and Belostomatidae. The species were Micronecta haliploides, Micronecta (Basileonecta scutellaris scutellaris (Stål (Corixidae; Neogerris parvula (Stål, Limnogonus nitidus (Mayr, Tenagogerris sp., Rhagadotarsus sp. (Gerridae; Enithares ciliata (Fabricius, Anisops lundbladiana Landsbury, (Notonectidae; Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius and Diplonychus annulatus (Fabricius (Belostomatidae, Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Linnaeus (Aphididae, Ranatra elongata (Fabricius, Ranatra varipes varipes (Stål (Nepidae and Mesovelia vittigera Horváth (Mesoveliidae. The highest population of Hemiptera was recorded during the post-monsoon followed by the pre-monsoon and the monsoon periods. The lowest was recorded in the winter. Shannon Weiner diversity index (H/ and evenness index (J/ showed the highest diversity and evenness during the post monsoon period. Berger Parker index of dominance (d was found highest in winter. In winter both diversity and density were the lowest. The study revealed the presence of four dominant species and three sub-dominant species in the pond. Insect diversity did not show any significant relationship with the environmental variables.

  3. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab.

  4. Evolution of Pore Size Distribution and Mean Pore Size in Lotus-type Porous Magnesium Fabricated with Gasar Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan LIU; Yanxiang LI; Huawei ZHANG; Jiang WAN

    2006-01-01

    The effect of gas pressures on the mean pore size, the porosity and the pore size distribution of lotus-type porous magnesium fabricated with Gasar process were investigated. The theoretical analysis and the experimental results all indicate that there exists an optimal ratio of the partial pressures of hydrogen pH2 to argon pAr for producing lotus-type structures with narrower pore size distribution and smaller pore size. The effect of solidification mode on the pore size distribution and pore size was also discussed.

  5. DEVELOPING EXPERT DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM WTH VP-EXPERT AND LOTUS 1-2-3 IN RE -BLENDING BY USE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒航; 杨鹏

    1994-01-01

    An expert decision support system (EDSS) for multi-bins balance and control of ore quality in production ore bins of some large-scale open pit iron mine in China has been developed by expert system tool software VP-EXPERT and integration software LOTUS 1-2-3 in this paper. It is known by practicing that a medium-scale EDSS constructed on microcomputer is completely feasible by means of VP-EXEPERT to construct knowledge base system (KBS), LOTUS 1-2-3 to make decision support system (DSS) and link them with BAT.

  6. Fabrication of a lotus-like micro nanoscale binary structured surface and wettability modulation from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan

    2005-10-01

    We report a simple method for fabricating a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface of copper phosphate dihydrate. The copper phosphate dihydrate nanosheets were generated by galvanic cell corrosion of a copper foil with aqueous phosphorus acid solution drops and dried in an oxygen gas atmosphere, and they self-organized into a film with a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface. The wettability of this surface can be changed from superhydrophilic to highly hydrophobic or superhydrophobic by heating or modifying it with an n-dodecanethiol monolayer.

  7. Fabrication of a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface and wettability modulation from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan

    2005-10-01

    We report a simple method for fabricating a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface of copper phosphate dihydrate. The copper phosphate dihydrate nanosheets were generated by galvanic cell corrosion of a copper foil with aqueous phosphorus acid solution drops and dried in an oxygen gas atmosphere, and they self-organized into a film with a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface. The wettability of this surface can be changed from superhydrophilic to highly hydrophobic or superhydrophobic by heating or modifying it with an n-dodecanethiol monolayer.

  8. The effect of condensed tannins from Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus on the growth of proteolytic rumen bacteria in vitro and their possible mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molan, A L; Attwood, G T; Min, B R; McNabb, W C

    2001-07-01

    Five strains of proteolytic rumen bacteria were treated with condensed tannins (CT) purified from Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus to investigate their effect on the growth of these bacteria in vitro. Streptococcus bovis NCFB 2476, Eubacterium sp. C124b, Prevotella bryantii B14, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c, and Clostridium proteoclasticum B316T were tested against 200, 400, and 600 microg CT x mL(-1) extracted from L. pedunculatus and L. corniculatus. In the absence of CT, all bacterial strains showed typical growth and reached maximum optical density (OD) after 6-8 h of incubation in a plant protein medium. Growth of Eubacterium sp., P. bryantii, and B. fibrisolvens was inhibited (P corniculatus. All strains continued to grow in the presence of 200 microg x mL(-1) of the CT from L. pedunculatus, but attained significantly (P corniculatus, but then declined leading to a significant difference in OD values compared with the controls. At 400 microg x mL(-1), the CT from L. corniculatus reduced (P corniculatus and L. pedunculatus. Both preincubations decreased LSU degradation, but they differed in their response to polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition. Addition of PEG to CT-Rubisco preincubations negated the effects of CT, while PEG addition to CT-bacteria preincubations did not. This implies that the CT-bacterial interaction is stronger than the CT-Rubisco interaction or the interaction is of a different type. Also, L. pedunculatus CT reduced the degradation of the LSU to a greater extent than the CT from L. corniculatus when preincubated with bacteria.

  9. Efficient inactivation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation related genes in Lotus japonicus using CRISPR-Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor kinase loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3 for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus.

  10. Efficient Inactivation of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Related Genes in Lotus japonicus Using CRISPR-Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Longlong; Tan, Qian; Fan, Qiuling; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming; Duanmu, Deqiang

    2016-01-01

    The targeted genome editing technique, CRISPR/Cas9 system, has been widely used to modify genes of interest in a predictable and precise manner. In this study, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated efficient editing of representative SNF (symbiotic nitrogen fixation) related genes in the model legume Lotus japonicus via Agrobacterium-mediated stable or hairy root transformation. We first predicted nine endogenous U6 genes in Lotus and then demonstrated the efficacy of the LjU6-1 gene promoter in driving expression of single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) by using a split yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) reporter system to restore the fluorescence in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Next, we chose a customized sgRNA targeting SYMRK (symbiosis receptor-like kinase) loci and achieved ~35% mutagenic efficiency in 20 T0 transgenic plants, two of them containing biallelic homozygous mutations with a 2-bp deletion near the PAM region. We further designed two sgRNAs targeting three homologous leghemoglobin loci (LjLb1, LjLb2, LjLb3) for testing the possibility of generating multi-gene knockouts. 20 out of 70 hairy root transgenic plants exhibited white nodules, with at least two LjLbs disrupted in each plant. Compared with the constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter, the nodule-specific LjLb2 promoter was also effective in gene editing in nodules by hairy root transformation. Triple mutant knockout of LjLbs was also obtained by stable transformation using two sgRNAs. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system should greatly facilitate functional analyses of SNF related genes in Lotus japonicus. PMID:27630657

  11. Biomimetic Multi-Functional Superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 Particles beyond Lotus Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-10-12

    It is widely known that natural examples like lotus leaves can only repel room-temperature water but cannot repel hot water and oils. Even though superamphiphobic surfaces composed of re-entrant "mushroom-like" or "T-shaped" structures are promising, they are generally regarded as substrate-dependent and difficult to fabricate, and hence, their practical use on various materials has been limited. Here, we synthesize a flower-like superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 powder by solvothermal process and self-assembly functionalization. These structured and functionalized submicron particles can repel the liquids with surface tension as low as 23.8 mN·m(-1) (n-decane), which is the lowest among powder samples. With respect to the biomimetic aspect, the surface morphology of FOTS-TiO2 particle is similar to the hierarchical micro/nano-structures of the lotus leaf surface, but it is beyond the lotus leaf for superoleophobic capacity. The difference in the oleophobicity is suggested to be the interplay of quasi-spherical re-entrant structure and perfluorined modification. Because of superior superamphiphobicity of the powder, a facile yet versatile strategy is developed, adhesive-assisted sieve deposition fabrication (AASDF), for preparing superamphiphobic coatings on various substrates. The investigation results pertaining to the water/oil proofing, mechanical durability, self-cleaning, and antifouling performances prove that the FOTS-TiO2 coating is robust and multifunctional, which will enable more opportunities for practical applications. Apart from these general applications, we find that the superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 powders when coated on sponge as anti-icing surface have good ice delay and icephobic performances. Furthermore, they can be used to prepare magnetic Fe3O4&FOTS-TiO2 composite particles through liquid marbles, implying significant scientific value.

  12. A lotus root-like appearance in both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Hiromu; Taguchi, Eiji; Kotono, Yoshihiro; Suzuyama, Hiroto; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Shinzo; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nishigami, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea on exertion. He was diagnosed with heart failure due to an old myocardial infarction. Myocardial stress perfusion scintigraphy revealed inducible myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed hazy slit lesions in both the left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary arteries (RCA). We first performed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the LAD lesion. Subsequently, we performed PCI for the RCA lesion using multiple imaging modalities. We observed a lotus root-like appearance in both the LAD and RCA, and PCI was successful for both vessels. We describe this rare case in detail.

  13. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...... symbiotic responses such as calcium spiking, root hair deformation, and curling, as well as for the induction of cortical cell division and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Complementation tests and genetic mapping indicate that itd2 is allelic to Ljsym7, whereas the itd1, itd3, and itd4 mutations...

  14. Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. modulates antioxidant activity and human T-cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Meriem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. also known as Jujube, is a deciduous shrub which belongs to Rhamnaceae family. This plant is used in Algerian traditional medicine for its anti-diabetic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of different vitamins (vitamin A, C and E and fatty acids in root, stem, leaves, fruit pulp and seed of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. and assessed the effects of their aqueous extracts on antioxidant status and human T-cell proliferation. Methods Aqueous filtrates from different parts, i.e, root, leaf, stem, fruit pulp and seed, of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. were prepared. Vitamin C levels were determined by precipitating with 10% trichloroacetic acid and vitamin A and E were assessed by HPLC. Lipid composition of these extracts was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated by using anti-radical resistance kit [Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL@; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France]. T-cell blastogenesis was assessed by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. IL-2 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results Our results show that fruit pulp contained higher vitamin A and C contents than other parts of the plant. Furthermore, the fruit pulp was the richest source of linoleic acid (18:2n-6, a precursor of n-6 fatty acids. Fruit seeds possessed higher vitamin C levels than leaves, roots and stem. The leaves were the richest source of vitamin E and linolenic acid (18:3n-3, a precursor of n-3 fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts, measured by KRL@ test, was as follows: pulp Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf. exerted immunosuppressive effects. Conclusion Seed extracts exerted the most potent immunosuppressive effects on T cell proliferation and IL-2 mRNA expression. The results of the present study are discussed in the light of their use to modulate the immune-mediated diseases.

  15. Root-determined hypernodulation mutant of Lotus japonicus shows high-yielding characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Keisuke; Li, Yong Yi; Hisatomi, Masahiro; Wang, Yanxu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Liu, Chi-Te; Suzuki, Shino; Aonuma, Kho; Aono, Toshihiro; Nakamoto, Tomomi; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Here we report the phenotypic characteristics of a novel hypernodulation mutant, Ljrdh1 (root-determined hypernodulation 1) of Lotus japonicus. At 12 weeks after rhizobial inoculation, there were no differences between the growth of Ljrdh1 and, wild-type. However, Ljrdh1 showed 2 to 3 times higher nitrogen-fixing activity, and seed and pod yields, were approximately 50% higher than the wild-type. This is the first report of a legume hypernodulation mutant showing normal growth and a high-yielding characteristic under optimal cultivation conditions.

  16. Impact of Seed Size and of Ultrasounds on Seed Germination in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Toth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors point out the impact of ultrasounds on seed germination in bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The bird’s-foot trefoil seeds, grouped into 4 size groups, were exposed to ultrasounds with variable intensities and exposure times ranging between 0.11 and 2.72 W/cm2 and between 10 and 160 seconds. Research shows that both germinating energy and germinating ability measured at 10 and 21 days, respectively, were positively impacted by ultrasounds. The highest values were when we treated with ultrasounds medium- and largesize bird’s-foot trefoil seeds.

  17. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    three developmental phases of legume seeds and the presence of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat in desiccated seeds. Furthermore, protein, oil, starch, phytic acid, and ash contents were determined, and this indicates that the composition of mature Lotus seed is more similar to soybean than to pea....... In a first attempt to determine the seed proteome, both a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis approach and a gel-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach were used. Globulins were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and five legumins, LLP1 to LLP5...

  18. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Is a Direct Target of the Anti-Inflammatory Compound Amentoflavone Derived from Torreya nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueun Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid compound with antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and UV-blocking activities that can be isolated from Torreya nucifera, Biophytum sensitivum, and Selaginella tamariscina. In this study, the molecular mechanism underlying amentoflavone’s anti-inflammatory activity was investigated. Amentoflavone dose dependently suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS; derived from Gram-negative bacteria. Amentoflavone suppressed the nuclear translocation of c-Fos, a subunit of activator protein (AP-1, at 60 min after LPS stimulation and inhibited the activity of purified and immunoprecipitated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, which mediates c-Fos translocation. In agreement with these results, amentoflavone also suppressed the formation of a molecular complex including ERK and c-Fos. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that amentoflavone’s immunopharmacological activities are due to its direct effect on ERK.

  19. Cryopreservation of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos does not induce morphological, cytological or molecular changes in recovered seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisunandar; Rival, Alain; Turquay, Patricia; Samosir, Yohannes; Adkins, Steve W

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed at exploring the fidelity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plants recovered from cryopreservation. Zygotic embryos from various different cultivars were cryopreserved following four successive steps, namely: rapid dehydration, rapid freezing, rapid thawing and in vitro recovery followed by acclimatization. At the end of the acclimatization period, the seedlings were compared to counterparts of the same age, which were produced from non-cryopreserved embryos. Both series were submitted to morphological, cytological and molecular comparisons. No significant differences in terms of growth rates could be measured. In addition, no morphological variation could be detected through the measurement of shoot elongation rates, production of opened leaves, and the number and total length of primary roots. Karyotype analysis revealed the same chromosome number (2n = 32) in all studied cultivars independently of cryopreservation. No significant differences could be observed between control and cryopreserved material concerning the type of chromosomes, the length of the long and short arms, the arm length ratio and the centromeric index. However, idiogram analysis did show a greater number of black banding on chromosomes isolated from cryopreserved material. Genetic and epigenetic fidelity was assessed through microsatellite (SSR) analysis and global DNA methylation rates; no significant differences would be observed between genomic DNAs isolated from seedlings originating from cryopreserved embryos and respective controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that the method of cryopreservation under study did not induce gross morphological, genetic or epigenetic changes, thus suggesting that it is an appropriate method to efficiently preserve coconut germplasm.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola', associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nigel A; Davis, Robert E; Oropeza, Carlos; Helmick, Ericka E; Narváez, María; Eden-Green, Simon; Dollet, Michel; Dickinson, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise similarity values based on alignment of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (1530 bp) revealed that the Mozambique coconut phytoplasma (LYDM) shared 100% identity with a comparable sequence derived from a phytoplasma strain (LDN) responsible for Awka wilt disease of coconut in Nigeria, and shared 99.0-99.6% identity with 16S rRNA gene sequences from strains associated with Cape St Paul wilt (CSPW) disease of coconut in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Similarity scores further determined that the 16S rRNA gene of the LYDM phytoplasma shared coconut LYDM phytoplasma strains from Mozambique as novel members of established group 16SrXXII, subgroup A (16SrXXII-A). Similarity coefficients of 0.97 were obtained for comparisons between subgroup 16SrXXII-A strains and CSPW phytoplasmas from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. On this basis, the CSPW phytoplasma strains were designated members of a novel subgroup, 16SrXXII-B.

  1. APROVEITAMENTO DA CASCA DO COCO-VERDE (Cocos nucifera L. PARA PRODUÇÃO DE POLPA CELULÓSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalia Sojo Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coconut husk is a residue from consumption of coconut water. In coastal cities this residue has already become a big problem, because it is difficult to decompose. The present study aimed to evaluate the husk of the coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. for production of kraft pulp. The raw material was characterized and had its basic density, chemical composition, fiber size and proportion of anatomical elements analyzed. Pulping tests were conducted and one of them was chosen for repetition. In each pulping the alkali charge was variable in order to prepare an alkaline curve. The results from the pulping process show high levels of kappa number, low yields and low rejects content. The following characteristics of the material, low basic density (0.128 g/cm ³, high amount of extractives (33.68% and low proportion of fibers (22.11%, corroborate to these results. Thus, the production of pulp from the coconut husk by the kraft process, it is not an alternative technically feasible.

  2. Effect of ethyl acetate extract from husk fiber water of Cocos nucifera in Leishmania braziliensis infected hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. C. Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment with ethyl acetate extract (EAE from husk fiber water of Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae, in L. braziliensis (Lb infected hamsters. Twelve male hamsters were randomly allocated in three groups (n=4: G1 received only EAE; G2 was infected with Lb only and G3 received EAE after Lb infection. The infection was carried 28 days prior to the treatment with EAE, which was administrated (0.2 mL, 300 mg.kg-1 for 21 consecutive days. Infection was evaluated through skin lesions and infected footpad edema. Haematological evaluation was done on -28th, 0 and 21st days. Imprint footpad and lymph node weight were evaluated on 21st day. Lb infection significantly inhibited the peripheral leukocytes blood. However, neutrophils and lymphocytes values did not have significant alterations. G3 presented eosinophilia in relation to G2. The treatment with EAE did not reduce edema of infected footpad neither weight of drainage lymph node. Infected footpad imprints revealed amastigotes forms and cellular infiltration. Animals from G3 presented skin lesions on 7th day, shown a reduction of these lesions in day 14. Therefore, the treatment with EAE did not alter the etiological agent elimination in these conditions. However, EAE presents a healing activity in this experimental model.

  3. 莲子的营养保健价值及其开发应用%Nutritional properties of lotus seeds and its application in functional foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芳彤; 肖贵平

    2012-01-01

    莲子是中国传统的滋补佳品,具有多种保健功效。本文就莲子的营养保健价值和保健功效进行综述,并展望了莲子产品开发前景。%Lotus seeds, one of most popular traditional functional foods in China, has plenty of health functions. A critical review is given on the nutritional value, the comprehensive utilization of lotus seeds and the recommendations of the development of the lotus seeds products in the future.

  4. Evolution and regulation of the Lotus japonicus LysM receptor gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Gitte Vestergaard; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Nielsen, Mette Wibroe; Jørgensen, Frank Grønlund; Grossmann, Christina; Sandal, Niels; Sørensen, Kirsten; Thirup, Søren; Madsen, Lene Heegaard; Tabata, Satoshi; Sato, Shusei; Stougaard, Jens; Radutoiu, Simona

    2010-04-01

    LysM receptor kinases were identified as receptors of acylated chitin (Nod factors) or chitin produced by plant-interacting microbes. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the LysM receptor kinase gene (Lys) family (17 members) in Lotus japonicus. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis revealed a correlation between Lys gene structure and phylogeny. Further mapping coupled with sequence-based anchoring on the genome showed that the family has probably expanded by a combination of tandem and segmental duplication events. Using a sliding-window approach, we identified distinct regions in the LysM and kinase domains of recently diverged Lys genes where positive selection may have shaped ligand interaction. Interestingly, in the case of NFR5 and its closest paralog, LYS11, one of these regions coincides with the predicted Nod-factor binding groove and the suggested specificity determining area of the second LysM domain. One hypothesis for the evolutionary diversification of this receptor family in legumes is their unique capacity to decipher various structures of chitin-derived molecules produced by an extended spectrum of interacting organisms: symbiotic, associative, endophytic, and parasitic. In a detailed expression analysis, we found several Lotus Lys genes regulated not only during the symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium loti but also in response to chitin treatment.

  5. Radiation-Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect for Achieving Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anticontamination Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Pirich, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment involving radiation-resistant hydrophobic coatings is planned for space exposure and experimental testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2011. The Lotus biocide coatings are designed for supporting space exploration missions. This innovation is an antibacterial, anti-contamination, and self-cleaning coating that uses nano-sized semiconductor semimetal oxides to neutralize biological pathogens and toxic chemicals, as well as to mitigate dust accumulation (see figure). The Lotus biocide coating is thin (approximately microns thick), lightweight, and the biocide properties will not degrade with time or exposure to biological or chemical agents. The biocide is stimulated chemically (stoichiometric reaction) through exposure to light (photocatalysis), or by an applied electric field (electrocatalysis). The hydrophobic coating samples underwent preliminary high-energy proton and alpha-ray (helium ion) irradiations at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88" cyclotron and demonstrated excellent radiation resistance for a portion of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GRC) and Solar Proton spectrum. The samples will undergo additional post-flight studies when returned to Earth to affirm further the radiation resistance properties of the space exposed coatings.

  6. Lotus corniculatus Crop Growth of in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil. Part 2 Biomass Metals Bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation involves the ability of plants to remove pollutants and is a promise on low costs and efficient processes for cleaning oil polluted soil. Studies for phytoremediation of soils polluted with petroleum products were critical and were based on monitoring strategies implemented efficiency. These strategies are based on the necessity of treating polluted soil and plant cultivation. Treatment was performed with recycled materials, sewage sludge as fertilizer and fly ash as amendment. The studies took on the characteristics of qualitative and quantitative of Lotus corniculatus crops, plants tolerant to conditions for phytoremediation strategy implemented on polluted soils by 80.5 ± 3.9 g·kg-1 D.M. The use of sewage sludge mixed with fly ash resulted in formation of a layer covering the surface with vegetable grown by 85 - 94 % in July and by 67 - 83 % in August. In Lotus corniculatus crops have not been registered bioaccumulation of toxic metals according to legislation from Romania.

  7. Sn, a maize bHLH gene, modulates anthocyanin and condensed tannin pathways in Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mark Paske; Paolocci, Francesco; Hughes, John-Wayne; Turchetti, Valentina; Allison, Gordon; Arcioni, Sergio; Morris, Phillip; Damiani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Anthocyanins and condensed tannins are major flavonoid end-products in higher plants. While the transactivation of anthocyanins by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors is well documented, very little is known about the transregulation of the pathway to condensed tannins. The present study analyses the effect of over-expressing an Sn transgene in Lotus corniculatus, a model legume, with the aim of studying the regulation of anthocyanin and tannin end-products. Contrary to expectation, effects on anthocyanin accumulation were subtle and restricted to the leaf midrib, leaf base and petiole tissues. However, the accumulation of condensed tannin polymers was dramatically enhanced in the leaf blade and this increase was accompanied by a 50-fold increase in the number of tannin-containing cells in this tissue. A detailed analysis of selected lines indicated that this transactivational phenotype correlated with high steady-state transcript levels of the introduced transgene and the introduction of a single copy of the CaMV35S-Sn construct into these clonal genotypes. While the levels of condensed tannins in leaves were increased by up to 1% of the dry weight, other major secondary end-products (flavonols, lignins and inducible phytoalexins) were unaltered in transactivated lines. These results give an initial insight into the developmental and higher-order regulation of polyphenolic metabolism in Lotus and other higher plant species.

  8. Lotus corniculatus nodulation specificity is changed by the presence of a soybean lectin gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn P; Goldberg; Hirsch

    1998-08-01

    Plant lectins have been implicated as playing an important role in mediating recognition and specificity in the Rhizobium-legume nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. To test this hypothesis, we introduced the soybean lectin gene Le1 either behind its own promoter or behind the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into Lotus corniculatus, which is nodulated by R. loti. We found that nodulelike outgrowths developed on transgenic L. corniculatus plant roots in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which nodulates soybean and not Lotus spp. Soybean lectin was properly targeted to L. corniculatus root hairs, and although infection threads formed, they aborted in epidermal or hypodermal cells. Mutation of the lectin sugar binding site abolished infection thread formation and nodulation. Incubation of bradyrhizobia in the nodulation (nod) gene-inducing flavonoid genistein increased the number of nodulelike outgrowths on transgenic L. corniculatus roots. Studies of bacterial mutants, however, suggest that a component of the exopolysaccharide surface of B. japonicum, rather than Nod factor, is required for extension of host range to the transgenic L. corniculatus plants.

  9. Damage and failure modeling of lotus-type porous material subjected to low-cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kramberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of lotus-type porous material is presented in this paper. Porous materials exhibit some unique features which are useful for a number of various applications. This paper evaluates a numerical approach for determining of damage initiation and evolution of lotus-type porous material with computational simulations, where the considered computational models have different pore topology patterns. The low-cycle fatigue analysis was performed by using a damage evolution law. The damage state was calculated and updated based on the inelastic hysteresis energy for stabilized cycle. Degradation of the elastic stifness was modeled using scalar damage variable. In order to examine crack propagation path finite elements with severe damage were deleted and removed from the mesh during simulation. The direct cyclic analysis capability in Abaqus/Standard was used for low-cycle fatigue analysis to obtain the stabilized response of a model subjected to the periodic loading. The computational results show a qualitative understanding of pores topology influence on low-cycle fatigue under transversal loading conditions in relation to pore orientation.

  10. Genome sequence of the Lotus spp. microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon; Sullivan, John; Ronson, Clive; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Munk, Christine; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Cliff; Woyke, Tanja; Reddy, Tatiparthi; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A was isolated in 1993 in Lammermoor, Otago, New Zealand from a Lotus corniculatus root nodule and is a reisolate of the inoculant strain ICMP3153 (NZP2238) used at the site. R7A is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. The symbiotic genes in the strain are carried on a 502-kb integrative and conjugative element known as the symbiosis island or ICEMlSym(R7A). M. loti is the microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus and strain R7A has been used extensively in studies of the plant-microbe interaction. This report reveals that the genome of M. loti strain R7A does not harbor any plasmids and contains a single scaffold of size 6,529,530 bp which encodes 6,323 protein-coding genes and 75 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  11. Influence of gamma-radiation on the nutritional and functional qualities of lotus seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Karim, Alias A; Young, Chiu C; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha B

    2009-10-28

    In the present study, we investigated the physicochemical and functional properties of lotus seed flour exposed to low and high doses of gamma-radiation (0-30 kGy; the dose recommended for quarantine and hygienic purposes). The results indicated raw seed flour to be rich in nutrients with minimal quantities of antinutritional factors. Irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in some of the proximal constituents. The raw and gamma-irradiated seeds meet the Food and Agricultural Organization-World Health Organization recommended pattern of essential amino acids. Some of the antinutritional factors (phytic acid, total phenolics, and tannins) were lowered with gamma-irradiation, while the seed flours were devoid of lectins, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, and polonium-210. The functional properties of the seed flour were significantly improved with gamma-radiation. gamma-radiation selectively preserved or improved the desired nutritional and functional traits of lotus seeds, thus ensuring a safe production of appropriate nutraceutically valued products.

  12. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S; Siegumfeldt, Astrid L; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Friis, Carsten; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2010-11-01

    Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965 seed proteins, including 263 proteins distinguishing the pod. The complete data set is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cgi-bin/lotus/db.cgi , where spots in a reference map are linked to experimental data, such as matched peptides, quantification values, and gene accessions. Identified pod proteins represented enzymes from 85 different metabolic pathways, including storage globulins and a late embryogenesis abundant protein. In contrast to seed maturation, pod maturation was associated with decreasing total protein content, especially proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate metabolism pathway were identified.

  13. Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound.

  14. Biomimetic approaches for green tribology: from the lotus effect to blood flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy S.; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The research in Green tribology combines several areas including biomimetic tribomaterials and surfaces for controlled adhesion. Biomimetic surfaces mimic living nature and thus they are eco-friendly. The most famous biomimetic surface effect is the Lotus effect (reduction of water adhesion to a solid surface due to micro/nanostructuring of the solid surface). Several extensions of the Lotus effect have been discussed in the literature including the oleophobicity (repelling organic liquids such as oils), underwater oleophobicity to reduce fouling, and the shark skin effect (flow drag reduction due to specially oriented micro-riblets). Here we suggest a potentially important application of micro/nanostructured surfaces in the biomedical area: the micro/nanostructure controlled adhesion in blood flow. Blood is a suspension, and its adhesion properties are different from those of water and oil. For many cardiovascular applications, it is desirable to reduce stagnation and clotting of blood. Therefore, both the underwater oleophobicuity and shark-skin effect can be used. We discuss how computational fluid dynamics models can be used to investigate the structure-property relationships of surface pattern-controlled blood flow adhesion.

  15. Proteome analysis. Novel proteins identified at the peribacteroid membrane from ¤Lotus japonicus¤ root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienkoop, S.; Saalbach, G.

    2003-01-01

    The peribacteroid membrane (PBM) forms the structural and functional interface between the legume plant and the rhizobia. The model legume Lotus japonicus was chosen to study the proteins present at the PBM by proteome analysis. PBM was purified from root nodules by an aqueous polymer two...... physiological processes and localized proteins known from nodule-specific expressed sequence tag databases to the PBM....

  16. Comparative ionomics and metabolomics in extremophile and glycophytic Lotus species under salt stress challenge the metabolic pre-adaptation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego H; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Escaray, Francisco; Erban, Alexander; Kraemer, Ute; Udvardi, Michael K; Kopka, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    The legume genus Lotus includes glycophytic forage crops and other species adapted to extreme environments, such as saline soils. Understanding salt tolerance mechanisms will contribute to the discovery of new traits which may enhance the breeding efforts towards improved performance of legumes in marginal agricultural environments. Here, we used a combination of ionomic and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profilings of complete shoots (pooling leaves, petioles and stems) to compare the extremophile Lotus creticus, adapted to highly saline coastal regions, and two cultivated glycophytic grassland forage species, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis. L. creticus exhibited better survival after exposure to long-term lethal salinity and was more efficient at excluding Cl⁻ from the shoots than the glycophytes. In contrast, Na+ levels were higher in the extremophile under both control and salt stress, a trait often observed in halophytes. Ionomics demonstrated a differential rearrangement of shoot nutrient levels in the extremophile upon salt exposure. Metabolite profiling showed that responses to NaCl in L. creticus shoots were globally similar to those of the glycophytes, providing little evidence for metabolic pre-adaptation to salinity. This study is the first comparing salt acclimation responses between extremophile and non-extremophile legumes, and challenges the generalization of the metabolic salt pre-adaptation hypothesis.

  17. Identification of QTLs for shoot and root growth under ionic-osmotic stress in Lotus, using a RIL population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quero, Gastón; Gutíerrez, Lucía; Lascano, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) d...

  18. Identification of symbiotically defective mutants of Lotus japonicus affected in infection thread growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Fabien; Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    During the symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the host cell plasma membrane and associated plant cell wall invaginate to form a tunnel-like infection thread, a structure in which bacteria divide to reach the plant root cortex. We isolated four Lotus japonicus mutants that make...

  19. Identification of QTLs for shoot and root growth under ionic-osmotic stress in Lotus, using a RIL population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quero, Gastón; Gutíerrez, Lucía; Lascano, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs...

  20. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 modulates plant growth, reproduction, senescence, and determinate nodulation in the model legume Lotus japonicas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Novero, M.; Charnikhova, T.; Ferrandino, A.; Schubert, A.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Biofante, P.; Lovisolo, C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are newly identified hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant development, infection by parasitic weeds, and mutualistic symbiosis in the roots. In this study, the role of SLs was studied for the first time in the model plant Lotus japonicus using transgenic lines silenc

  1. 基于LotusNotes的过程设计ERP管理系统的开发与应用%Development and Application of Engineering Design ERP Management System Based on Lotus Notes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔚然

    2012-01-01

    The network transmission of data and liaison has been used in the whole process of the engineering design. In order to realize the office automation, develop the Engineering Design ERP management system by Lotus Notes distributed document database and by Lotus Script language, provide the function model and agriculture of the system by the development model of agriculture technology and set up the access to the system, thus the information platform for the engineering design and management has been established, making the information real time, dynamic, reliable, safe and sharing in the engineering design and management of Ansteel Group Engineering Technology Co., Ltd..%为在工程设计全过程中应用网络传输资料、联络、实现办公自动化,采用了基于分布式的文档数据库LotusNotes和LotusScnpt语言,开发了基于LotusNotes的工程设计ERP管理系统;采用了基于架构技术的开发模式,给出了系统的功能模型和系统架构,设置了系统访问权限,从而建立了工程设计与管理的信息化平台,使鞍钢工程技术公司的工程设计管理实现了信息实时、动态、可靠、安全、共享,达到了预期效果。

  2. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  3. Secuestro de carbono en la biomasa aérea de un sistema agrosilvopastoril de Cocos nucifera, Leucaena leucocephala Var. Cunningham y Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Anguiano; Aguirre, J.; Palma, J.M. (José Manuel)

    2013-01-01

    Con el objetivo de estimar el secuestro de carbono en la biomasa aérea de un sistema agrosilvopastoril (sasp) compuesto por cocotero (Cocos nucifera), Leucaena leucocephala Var. Cunningham sembrada en alta densidad y Pennisetum purpureum Cuba CT-115, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un suelo con textura franco arcillo- arenosa. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con cuatro tratamientos 0, 40, 60 y 80 mil árboles de leucaena ha-1 y tres repeticiones; la eval...

  4. Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative activities of the extracts and chemical constituents of Diospyros lotus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ghias; Rauf, Abdur; Siddiqui, Bina S; Muhammad, Naveed; Khan, Ajmal; Shah, Syed Uzair Ali

    2014-06-15

    Diospyros lotus L. is traditionally used in various diseases including pain and sleep disorders. The pain and inflammation are the common problems, which are treated with various synthetic analgesic drugs, and associated the side effects. The natural products have gained significant importance over synthetic drugs. The importance of phyto-medicine the current study has been designed with the aim to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Diospyros lotus and bioassay guided isolation from its crude fractions. Seven known compounds; lupeol (1), 7-methyljuglone (2), β-Sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4) betulinic acid (5), diospyrin (6; DS) and 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (7; HDS) which were hitherto unreported from D. lotus. The chloroform fraction (CFDL) and isolated compounds DS and HDS were evaluated for anti-nociceptive, sedative and anti-inflammatory effects. The acetic acid induced writing was significantly (pHDS (65.76%) at higher doses which exhibited peripheral and central analgesic effects in acetic acid and hot-plat pain paradigms. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effect the CFDL (77.43%), DS (80.54%) and HDS (75.87%) protected the carrageenan paw edema after 3rd h. The central analgesic effect was significantly antagonized with naloxone (0.5 mg/kg), showing opiodergic mechanism of action. The CFDL, DS and HDS were also proved sedative in open field animal models. In acute toxicity study the chloroform fraction [CFDL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg)], DS (5 and 10 mg/kg) and HDS (5 and 10 mg/kg) were found safe. Our study concluded that CFDL, DS and HDS have marked anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative effect. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the roots of D. lotus are partially attributed due to the presence of analgesic constituents like diospyrin (DS), 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (HDS) and strongly supports the ethno-pharmacological uses of D. lotus as anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and sedative.

  5. 滚切式莲子剥壳机设计%Design of Rolling-cut Lotus Seed Sheller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兴元; 熊伟明; 京玉海; 周献华

    2012-01-01

    In view of the low efficiency, high damage rate, poor universality and stability exist in the lotus seed shelling machine,a new type of lotus seed shelling machine that base on the principle of rolling-cut was designed. The method of lotus seed cutting and synchronous shelling was improved by the innovative design. The machine was designed via the intermittent movement of geneva mechanism and makes the movement more effective. The new designed lotus seed rolling-cut machine with simple structure could satisfied the demand of seed shelling mechanization. The results of analysis and experiment showed that the new lotus seed rolling-cut mechine has more effective and stable and lower damage.%针对现有莲子剥壳机存在着效率低、破碎率高、通用性和运行稳定性差等现状,根据莲子结构特点和剥壳特性,设计了一种基于滚切原理的莲子剥壳机.通过创新设计改变现有将莲子切割与脱壳同步进行的剥壳方法,利用槽轮机构的间歇运动实现莲子割壳与脱壳分步进行,使脱壳更彻底有效.分析和试验结果表明:滚切式莲子剥壳机剥壳效率高、破碎率低、设计新颖、结构简单、性能稳定,能够满足莲子机械化剥壳的实用性需求.

  6. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stenkjær, Eva

    2013-01-01

    interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed...... β-1,2-xylose and α-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectin containing two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2...... the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy....

  7. Single base substitution causing the fragrant phenotype and development of a type-specific marker in aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongvanrungruang, A; Mongkolsiriwatana, C; Boonkaew, T; Sawatdichaikul, O; Srikulnath, K; Peyachoknagul, S

    2016-09-19

    The fragrance gene, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Badh2), has been well studied in many plant species. The objectives of this study were to clone Badh2 and compare the sequences between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The complete coding region was cloned from cDNA of both aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The nucleotide sequences were highly homologous to Badh2 genes of other plants. Badh2 consisted of a 1512-bp open reading frame encoding 503 amino acids. A single nucleotide difference between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts resulted in the conversion of alanine (non-aromatic) to proline (aromatic) at position 442, which was the substrate binding site of BADH2. The ring side chain of proline could destabilize the structure leading to a non-functional enzyme. Badh2 genomic DNA was cloned from exon 1 to 4, and from exon 5 to 15 from the two coconut types, except for intron 4 that was very long. The intron sequences of the two coconut groups were highly homologous. No differences in Badh2 expression were found among the tissues of aromatic coconut or between aromatic and non-aromatic coconuts. The amino acid sequences of BADH2 from coconut and other plants were compared and the genetic relationship was analyzed using MEGA 7.0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by the Bayesian information criterion consisted of two distinct groups of monocots and dicots. Among the monocots, coconut (Cocos nucifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were the most closely related species. A marker for coconut differentiation was developed from one-base substitution site and could be successfully used.

  8. Combined N-glycome and N-glycoproteome analysis of the Lotus japonicus seed globulin fraction shows conservation of protein structure and glycosylation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stenkjær, Eva; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Packer, Nicolle H; Stougaard, Jens

    2013-07-05

    Legume food allergy, such as allergy toward peanuts and soybeans, is a health issue predicted to worsen as dietary advice recommends higher intake of legume-based foods. Lotus japonicus (Lotus) is an established legume plant model system for studies of symbiotic and pathogenic microbial interactions and, due to its well characterized genotype/phenotype and easily manipulated genome, may also be suitable for studies of legume food allergy. Here we present a comprehensive study of the Lotus N-glycoproteome. The global and site-specific N-glycan structures of Lotus seed globulins were analyzed using mass spectrometry-based glycomics and glycoproteomics techniques. In total, 19 N-glycan structures comprising high mannose (∼20%), pauci-mannosidic (∼40%), and complex forms (∼40%) were determined. The pauci-mannosidic and complex N-glycans contained high amounts of the typical plant determinants β-1,2-xylose and α-1,3-fucose. Two abundant Lotus seed N-glycoproteins were site-specifically profiled; a predicted lectin containing two fully occupied N-glycosylation sites carried predominantly pauci-mannosidic structures in different distributions. In contrast, Lotus convicilin storage protein 2 (LCP2) carried exclusively high mannose N-glycans similar to its homologue, Ara h 1, which is the major allergen in peanut. In silico investigation confirmed that peanut Ara h 1 and Lotus LCP2 are highly similar at the primary and higher protein structure levels. Hence, we suggest that Lotus has the potential to serve as a model system for studying the role of seed proteins and their glycosylation in food allergy.

  9. How Istanbul HSBC Bank Operators Use Lotus Notes within Electronic Performance Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet BAYRAM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available From the educational and training point of view, to understand and use the ElectronicPerformance Support Systems (EPSS efficiently is important in developing web-basedapplications. In this way, the aim of the study is proving the idea that Lotus Notes is aconvenient tool for creating a powerful EPSS within the HSBC Bank example in Istanbul.For this reason, EPSS Domain Features Checklist is developed to assess the study group’sperceptions at the bank. The participants of the present study group consisted of 104expert Lotus Notes (LN users from the Bank Executive Management Center in Istanbul.The study group was asked online to rank the LN program for the bank applicationswithin the EPSS Domain Features Checklist. Based on the checklist data, the experts’(HSBC Bank operators’ perceptions on the LN were calculated within the EPSS features.The study showed that LN is a suitable tool for creating powerful EPSS activities withinthe HSBC Bank example.Keywords: EPSS, Domains, Features, Lotus Notes, HSBC Bank, Training and EducationINTRODUCTIONAn Electronic Performance Support System (EPSS is not a software system that containsa specific set of features and functions. Rather, it is the matter of modifying anddeveloping software to measurability improve human performance. These improvementscan be achieved with a variety of software development and enhancement strategies(Collis & Verwijs, 1995. EPSS as computer-based systems contains functions forcollaboration, coordination, and communication of group in an organization. EPSS is mosteffective when supporting routine standardized tasks that can be accurately documentedand that require standardized actions. The importancy of EPSS applications foreducational and training activities are very wide (Chandler, 2000; Marioni, 2002;Coffey et al. 2003. Some advantages of EPSS are listed by Seels & Glasgow (1998 asfollow: Standardizing training and performance throughout the organization. When thework

  10. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  11. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalinee Ronpirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB, a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight, while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD. Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  12. 论荷叶的减肥降脂作用%Weight lowering effect on the lotus leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨光

    2014-01-01

    随着人民生活水平的不断提高,饮食习惯的改变,肥胖的人群不断增多,人们对减肥和降脂的需求也越来越大。荷叶是常见的清热中药,其主要活性成分是生物碱和黄酮类,荷叶的现代研究有减肥、降血脂的功效,所以近些年来荷叶不断受到肥胖人群的推崇。荷叶的临床应用较多的是以复方的形式用于减肥降脂,已有的复方有:降脂中药煎剂、荷叶合剂、荷叶水煎剂、降脂一号胶囊等,主要用于防治冠心病、动脉粥样硬化及高脂血症。近些年以来,以荷叶为主要成分的减肥降脂制品应用越来越广泛,已有各种以荷叶为主要成分的减肥降脂制剂上市,主要有:荷丹片、血脂宁、脂脉康胶囊、通脉降脂片等。主要用于减肥及冠心病、高血压病、高脂血症、糖尿病、脑血管疾病的预防。临床应用证明,肥胖的人群经常食用荷叶,减肥效果明显。本文就以荷叶的减肥降脂作用的现代研究情况作简要综述。%Along with the improvement of people's living standards, changes in diet, obesity population increasing, the demand for reducing weight and fat is also more and more big. The leaves are heat clearing herbs in common, the main active ingredients are alkaloids and flavonoids of lotus leaf, the modern study of weight loss, reducing blood fat, respected so in recent years, lotus has been obese people. Lotus leaf clinical application is more compound form for reducing weight and fat, the existing:Jiangzhi Decoction of Chinese medicine compound, lotus leaf, lotus leaf decoction, lipid-lowering mixture, capsule, mainly used for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. In recent years, with lotus leaf as the main component of the application of lipid-lowering diet products more and more widely, there are various with lotus leaf as the main component of the diet of lipid

  13. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Malolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    including software for automated data analysis, which take full advantage of high next-generation sequencing throughput. Here we address these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package and we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8,935 LORE1 insertions in 3,744 Lotus japonicus...... plants. The identified insertions showed that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to its homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. Since LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating...... progeny generates a complete mutant population. This ease of LORE1 mutagenesis combined with the efficient FSTpoolit protocol, which exploits 2D pooling, Illumina sequencing, and automated data analysis, allows highly cost-efficient development of a comprehensive reverse genetic resource....

  14. Fabrication of lotus-type porous micro-channel copper by single-mold Gasar technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuan; Zhuo Weijia; Zhang Huawei; Li Yanxiang

    2014-01-01

    A single-mold Gasar technique was developed to produce lotus-type porous micro-channel copper with uniform porous structure. In this paper the effect of withdrawal rate on the solid/liquid interface morphology and the corresponding porous structure was systematically investigated, especially the pore morphology, pore growth direction, porosity, and pore diameter of porous copper ingots. In addition, a temperature field simulation was carried out based on ProCast software to investigate the shape and movement velocity of the solidifying solid/liquid interface. The experimental results show that the solidification interface changes from convex to planar, then to concave shape with an increase in withdrawal rate. The average porosities of copper ingots are constant and independent of the withdrawal rate. The average pore diameter decreases with an increase in withdrawal rate.

  15. Urease inhibition potential of Di-naphthodiospyrol from Diospyros lotus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Raza, Muslam; Patel, Seema; Bawazeer, Saud; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Jehan, Noor; Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Khan, Ajmal; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2017-05-01

    The dimeric napthoquione 5,8,4'-trihydroxy-1'-methoxy-6, 6'-dimethyl-7,3'-binaphtyl-1,4,5',8'-tetraone (1) was isolated from the chloroform fraction of Diospyros lotus extract. Compound 1 was screened for its inhibitory effects against four enzymes: urease, phosphodiesterase-I, carbonic anhydrase-II and α-chymotrypsin, and showed selective activity against urease enzyme with an IC50 value of 254.1 ± 3.82 μM as compared to the standard thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.11 μM). Furthermore, in silico docking study was carried out to explain the molecular mechanism of compound 1 against the target receptor.

  16. The development of sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) plants from in vitro selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofelis, S; Le, H; Grant, W F

    1992-02-01

    Herbicide-resistant lines of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. cv 'Leo') were isolated after sequential selection at the callus, shoot, and whole plant levels to the sulfonylurea (SU) herbicide Harmony {DPX-M6316; 3-[[[(4-methoxy-6methyl-1,3,5, triazine-2-yl) amino] carbonyl] amino] sulfonyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate}. In field and growth chamber tests the Harmony regenerant lines displayed an increased tolerance as compared to control plants from tissue culture and controls grown from seed. Results of evaluation of callus cultures of regenerated mutant lines signify stability of the resistance. Outcrossed seeds collected from field trials, and tested in vitro for herbicide resistance, indicate that the trait is heritable and that resistance may be due to reduced sensitivity of acetolactate synthase to SU inhibition. Genetically stable herbicide-resistant lines of birdsfoot trefoil were successfully isolated using in vitro selection.

  17. Phenotypic variation of Lotus corniculatus L. natural populations in relation to habitat type and management regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giagourta Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus is a highly diverse legume with good adaptability to different soil and climatic conditions. The objective of this research was to estimate the phenotypic diversity of individual L. corniculatus plants growing under two different habitat types with different grazing management. The collection of plant material was conducted in four forested and four open grassland sites in northern Greece. Plants from open grassland had significantly lower leaf area, leaf perimeter, leaf length, leaf width and internode length compared to those from the forest. This morphological differentiation could be contributed to by differences in grazing intensity. Plants from open grasslands had significantly higher total phenols and condensed tannins, but lower crude protein content compared to those from the forest. Environmental factors in association with grazing management are the main contributors to the highly divergent concentrations of phenols, tannins and condensed tannins.

  18. [Water-soluble galactomannan from the seeds of Lotus corniculatus L.: structure and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A V; Mestechkina, N M; Plennik, R Ia; Shcherbukhin, V D

    2003-01-01

    Galactomannan, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, was isolated from the seed of Far-Eastern population of ground honeysuckle Lotus corniculatus L. (yield, 1.65%). Analysis of this galactomannan showed that is consists of D-mannose and D-galactose residues (molar ratio, 1.22:1). Its aqueous solutions were characterized by specific rotation [alpha]D = +84.10 and characteristic viscosity [eta] = 559 ml/g. Analysis of this heteropolysaccharide using chemical and enzymatic procedures, as well as IR- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, showed that its main chain comprises 1,4-beta-D-mannopyranose residues, 95.5% of which are substituted at C-6 with single residues of alpha-D-galactopyranose.

  19. Cytokinins and urea derivatives stimulate seed germination in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radomirka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of various cytokinins and urea derivatives on germination of aged seeds of in Lotus corniculatus L. The following substances were applied: N6-isoprenoid cytokinins (isopentenyl adenine and zeatin, adenine sulfate, N6-aromatic cytokinins (kinetin, benzyladenine and their N9-ribosides, N-benzyl-9-(2- tetrahydropyranyladenine, and urea derivatives (diphenylurea, thidiazuron, and chloro-pyridyl phenylurea. With the exception of adenine sulfate, all cytokinins increased the percentage of seed germination up to twofold, depending on their kind and concentration. It is concluded that cytokinins may be among the missing factors in aged seeds of L. corniculatus contributing to the implementation of their full germination potential. They could be used to improve germination of both freshly harvested and aged seed samples, if necessary. .

  20. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-27

    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  1. Preparation of Material Surface Structure Similar to Hydrophobic Structure of Lotus Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; GUAN Zisheng; LI Dongxu

    2008-01-01

    Nano/micro replication,a technique widely applied in the microelectronics field,was introduced to prepare the hydrophobic bionics microstructure on material surface.Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)and polystyrene(PS)moulds of the mastoid microstructure on lotus leaf surface were prepared respectively by the nano/micro replication technology.And poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS)replicas with the mastoid-like microstructure were prepared from these two kinds of polymer moulds.Scanning electronic microscope(SEM) was employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures on moulds and replicas.Both the static and dynamic contact angles between water droplet and PDMS replicas'surface were also measured.As a result,similar microstructure Can be observed clearly on the surface of PDMS replicas and the static contact angle on PDMS replicas was enhanced dramatically by the existence of these microstructures.

  2. Shoot HAR1 mediates nitrate inhibition of nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a major environmental factor in the inhibition of nodulation. In a model legume Lotus japonicus, a CLV1-like receptor kinase, HAR1, mediates nitrate inhibition and autoregulation of nodulation. Autoregulation of nodulation involves root-to-shoot-to-root long-distance communication, and HAR1 functions in shoots. However, it remains elusive where HAR1 functions in the nitrate inhibition of nodulation. We performed grafting experiments with the har1 mutant under various nitrate conditions, and found that shoot HAR1 is critical for the inhibition of nodulation at 10 mM nitrate. Combined with our recent finding that the nitrate-induced CLE-RS2 glycopeptide binds directly to the HAR1 receptor, this result suggests that CLE-RS2/HAR1 long-distance signaling plays an important role in the both nitrate inhibition and the autoregulation of nodulation.

  3. Fabrication of lotus-type porous micro-channel copper by single-mold Gasar technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A single-mold Gasar technique was developed to produce lotus-type porous micro-channel copper with uniform porous structure. In this paper the effect of withdrawal rate on the solid/liquid interface morphology and the corresponding porous structure was systematically investigated, especially the pore morphology, pore growth direction, porosity, and pore diameter of porous copper ingots. In addition, a temperature field simulation was carried out based on ProCast software to investigate the shape and movement velocity of the solidifying solid/liquid interface. The experimental results show that the solidification interface changes from convex to planar, then to concave shape with an increase in withdrawal rate. The average porosities of copper ingots are constant and independent of the withdrawal rate. The average pore diameter decreases with an increase in withdrawal rate.

  4. Evolutionary history of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) genes in Lotus, Medicago, and Phaseolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Achal; Nepal, Madhav P; Benson, Benjamin V; Macarthur, Kenton J; Piya, Sarbottam

    2013-11-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) genes encode proteins that mediate various signaling pathways associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses in eukaryotes. The MAPK genes form a 3-tier signal transduction cascade between cellular stimuli and physiological responses. Recent identification of soybean MAPKs and availability of genome sequences from other legume species allowed us to identify their MAPK genes. The main objectives of this study were to identify MAPKs in 3 legume species, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, and Phaseolus vulgaris, and to assess their phylogenetic relationships. We used approaches in comparative genomics for MAPK gene identification and named the newly identified genes following Arabidopsis MAPK nomenclature model. We identified 19, 18, and 15 MAPKs and 7, 4, and 9 MAPKKs in the genome of Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, and Phaseolus vulgaris, respectively. Within clade placement of MAPKs and MAPKKs in the 3 legume species were consistent with those in soybean and Arabidopsis. Among 5 clades of MAPKs, 4 founder clades were consistent to MAPKs of other plant species and orthologs of MAPK genes in the fifth clade-"Clade E" were consistent with those in soybean. Our results also indicated that some gene duplication events might have occurred prior to eudicot-monocot divergence. Highly diversified MAPKs in soybean relative to those in 3 other legume species are attributable to the polyploidization events in soybean. The identification of the MAPK genes in the legume species is important for the legume crop improvement; and evolutionary relationships and functional divergence of these gene members provide insights into plant genome evolution.

  5. Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in lotus plant (Nelumbonucifera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shouhui; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Min; Chai, Tingting; Fan, Li; Yang, Shuming

    2014-09-15

    Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 91, 95, 136, 149, 176 and 183 was investigated in lotus plants (Nelumbonucifera spp.) exposed to these chemicals via spiked sediment, to determine uptake and possible biotransformation for aquatic phytoremediation purposes. The concentrations of most PCBs were greatest in roots at 60 d (19.6 ± 1.51-70.6 ± 6.14 μg kg(-1)), but were greatest in stems and leaves at 120 d (25.3 ± 6.14-95.5 ± 19.4 μg kg(-1) and 17.4 ± 4.41-70.4 ± 10.4 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total amounts were greatest at 120 d and significantly higher in roots than those in stems and in leaves (1,457 ± 220-5,852 ± 735 ng, 237 ± 47.1-902 ± 184 ng and 202 ± 60.3-802 ± 90.2 ng, respectively), but represented less than 0.51% of the total mass of PCBs added to sediments, indicating that lotus plants were unlikely to remove appreciable amounts of PCBs from contaminated sediments. Racemic PCB residues in sediment indicate no enantioselective biodegradation by sedimentary microbial consortia over the entire experiment. Preferential accumulation of the (-)-enantiomers of PCBs 91, 95 and 136 were observed in roots, stems and leaves, but non-enantioselective accumulation was observed for PCBs 149, 176 and 183. These results indicate that aquatic plants can accumulate PCBs enantioselectively via root uptake, possibly by biotransformation within plant tissues as observed for terrestrial plants. This is also the first report to identify optical rotation of the atropisomers of PCBs 91 and 95.

  6. Genetic diversity of root nodule bacteria nodulating Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    Very little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia nodulating Lotus species in northern temperate regions. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity among a total of 61 root nodule bacteria isolated from Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria from different geographic sites and habitats in Sweden by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer between their 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA (IGS) region. A high diversity consisting of 26 IGS types from 54 L. corniculatus isolates and five IGS types from seven A. vulneraria isolates was found. The 16S rRNA sequences and phylogeny of representatives of the different IGS types showed four interesting exceptions from the majority of the isolates belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium: Two isolates were both found to be closely related to Rhodococcus spp., and two other isolates showed close relationship with Geobacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. The nodA sequences and phylogeny showed that all the isolates, including those not belonging to the traditional rhizobia genera, harbored nodA sequences which were typical of Mesorhizobium loti. Generally, the 16S rRNA and nodA phylogenetic trees were not congruent in that isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences were associated with isolates harboring different nodA sequences. All the isolates were confirmed to nodulate L. corniculatus in an inoculation test. This is the first report of members of these non-rhizobia genera being able to nodulate legumes, and we suggest that they may have acquired their nodulating properties through lateral gene transfer.

  7. Salt effects on functional traits in model and in economically important Lotus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiya, P; Escaray, F J; Bilenca, D; Pieckenstain, F; Ruiz, O A; Menéndez, A B

    2016-07-01

    A common stress on plants is NaCl-derived soil salinity. Genus Lotus comprises model and economically important species, which have been studied regarding physiological responses to salinity. Leaf area ratio (LAR), root length ratio (RLR) and their components, specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) and specific root length (SRL) and root mass fraction (RMF) might be affected by high soil salinity. We characterised L. tenuis, L. corniculatus, L. filicaulis, L. creticus, L. burtii and L. japonicus grown under different salt concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl) on the basis of SLA, LMF, SRL and RMF using PCA. We also assessed effects of different salt concentrations on LAR and RLR in each species, and explored whether changes in these traits provide fitness benefit. Salinity (150 mm NaCl) increased LAR in L. burtii and L. corniculatus, but not in the remaining species. The highest salt concentration caused a decrease of RLR in L. japonicus Gifu, but not in the remaining species. Changes in LAR and RLR would not be adaptive, according to adaptiveness analysis, with the exception of SLA changes in L. corniculatus. PCA revealed that under favourable conditions plants optimise surfaces for light and nutrient acquisition (SLA and SRL), whereas at higher salt concentrations they favour carbon allocation to leaves and roots (LMF and RMF) in detriment to their surfaces. PCA also showed that L. creticus subjected to saline treatment was distinguished from the remaining Lotus species. We suggest that augmented carbon partitioning to leaves and roots could constitute a salt-alleviating mechanism through toxic ion dilution.

  8. Four unnamed species of nonsymbiotic rhizobia isolated from the rhizosphere of Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J T; Eardly, B D; van Berkum, P; Ronson, C W

    1996-08-01

    Previously, we found that genetically diverse rhizobia nodulating Lotus corniculatus at a field site devoid of naturalized rhizobia had symbiotic DNA regions identical to those of ICMP3153, the inoculant strain used at the site (J. T. Sullivan, H. N. Patrick, W. L. Lowther, D. B. Scott, and C. W. Ronson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:8985-8989, 1995). In this study, we characterized seven nonsymbiotic rhizobial isolates from the rhizosphere of L. corniculatus. These included two from plants at the field site sampled by Sullivan et al. and five from plants at a new field plot adjacent to that site. The isolates did not nodulate Lotus species or hybridize to symbiotic gene probes but did hybridize to genomic DNA probes from Rhizobium loti. Their genetic relationships with symbiotic isolates obtained from the same sites, with inoculant strain ICMP3153, and with R. loti NZP2213T were determined by three methods. Genetic distance estimates based on genomic DNA-DNA hybridization and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were correlated but were not consistently reflected by 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence divergence. The nonsymbiotic isolates represented four genomic species that were related to R. loti; the diverse symbiotic isolates from the site belonged to one of these species. The inoculant strain ICMP3153 belonged to a fifth genomic species that was more closely related to Rhizobium huakuii. These results support the proposal that nonsymbiotic rhizobia persist in soils in the absence of legumes and acquire symbiotic genes from inoculant strains upon introduction of host legumes.

  9. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Carina T; Loke, Ian; Lorentzen, Andrea; Wolf, Sara; Kamble, Manoj; Kristensen, Sebastian K; Munch, David; Radutoiu, Simona; Spillner, Edzard; Roepstorff, Peter; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Stougaard, Jens; Dam, Svend

    2017-08-01

    Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicusLORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of one of the 12 enzymes required for normal N-glycan maturation in the glycosylation machinery. The inactivation of the individual genes resulted in altered N-glycan patterns as documented using mass spectrometry and glycan-recognising antibodies, indicating successful identification of null mutations in the target glyco-genes. For example, both mass spectrometry and immunoblotting experiments suggest that proteins derived from the α1,3-fucosyltransferase (Lj3fuct) mutant completely lacked α1,3-core fucosylation. Mass spectrometry also suggested that the Lotus japonicus convicilin 2 was one of the main glycoproteins undergoing differential expression/N-glycosylation in the mutants. Demonstrating the functional importance of glycosylation, reduced growth and seed production phenotypes were observed for the mutant plants lacking functional mannosidase I, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I, and α1,3-fucosyltransferase, even though the relative protein composition and abundance appeared unaffected. The strength of our N-glycosylation mutant platform is the broad spectrum of resulting glycoprotein profiles and altered physiological phenotypes that can be produced from single, double, triple and quadruple mutants. This platform will serve as a valuable tool for elucidating the functional role of protein N-glycosylation in plants. Furthermore, this technology can be used to generate stable plant mutant lines for biopharmaceutical production of glycoproteins displaying relative homogeneous and mammalian-like N-glycosylation features. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Defense responses in two ecotypes of Lotus japonicus against non-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar D Bordenave

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus is a model legume broadly used to study many important processes as nitrogen fixing nodule formation and adaptation to salt stress. However, no studies on the defense responses occurring in this species against invading microorganisms have been carried out at the present. Understanding how this model plant protects itself against pathogens will certainly help to develop more tolerant cultivars in economically important Lotus species as well as in other legumes. In order to uncover the most important defense mechanisms activated upon bacterial attack, we explored in this work the main responses occurring in the phenotypically contrasting ecotypes MG-20 and Gifu B-129 of L. japonicus after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv. tomato. Our analysis demonstrated that this bacterial strain is unable to cause disease in these accessions, even though the defense mechanisms triggered in these ecotypes might differ. Thus, disease tolerance in MG-20 was characterized by bacterial multiplication, chlorosis and desiccation at the infiltrated tissues. In turn, Gifu B-129 plants did not show any symptom at all and were completely successful in restricting bacterial growth. We performed a microarray based analysis of these responses and determined the regulation of several genes that could play important roles in plant defense. Interestingly, we were also able to identify a set of defense genes with a relative high expression in Gifu B-129 plants under non-stress conditions, what could explain its higher tolerance. The participation of these genes in plant defense is discussed. Our results position the L. japonicus-P. syringae interaction as a interesting model to study defense mechanisms in legume species.

  11. A high-throughput method for the quantification of proanthocyanidins in forage crops and its application in assessing variation in condensed tannin content in breeding programmes for Lotus corniculatus and Lotus uliginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Athole; Bryant, David; Latypova, Galina; Hauck, Barbara; Olyott, Phil; Morris, Phillip; Robbins, Mark

    2008-02-13

    Lotus corniculatus and Lotus uliginosus are agronomically important forage crops used in ruminant livestock production. The condensed tannin (CT) content, dry matter (DM) production, and persistence of these species are key characteristics of interest for future exploitation of these crops. Here we present field data on 19 varieties of L. corniculatus, 2 varieties of L. uliginosus and, additionally, a glasshouse experiment using 6 varieties of L. corniculatus and 2 varieties of L. uliginosus. Current methods for the quantification of condensed tannins in crop species are slow and labor intensive and are generally based upon polymer hydrolysis following the extraction of chlorophyll in a liquid phase. Presented here is a high-throughput protocol for condensed tannin quantification suitable for microtiter plates based upon the precipitation of condensed tannin polymers in complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) with subsequent hydrolysis of precipates using butan 1-ol/ hydrochloric acid.

  12. 荷叶功能茶饮料的制备研究%Study on the Preparation of Lotus Leaf Tea Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽玲; 王周平; 徐永; 李汉臣; 马淑凤

    2012-01-01

    [目的]优化荷叶功能茶饮料的最佳调配工艺.[方法]以千荷叶为主要原料,先制取荷叶提取液,然后再调配荷叶功能荼饮料,再添加稳定剂以提高产品品质.以荷叶提取液、白砂糖、柠檬酸、膳食纤维为因素,通过单因素和正交试验来确定荷叶功能荼饮料的最佳调配工艺,在此基础上添加稳定剂制成成品.[结果]荷叶功能茶饮料的最佳配方为荷叶提取液30%(彬V)、白砂糖6%、柠檬酸0.05%、膳食纤维0.5%、精制卡拉胶0.05%,制成的荷叶功能茶饮料有淡荷叶香味,口感清爽,具有一定的保健功效.[结论]该研究为荷叶功能茶饮料的生产和加工提供理论依据.%[Objective] To study the optimum production formula of functional lotus leaf tea beverage. [Method] With the main material selected as dry lotus leaf, water extraction of dry lotus leaf was made at first, and then functional lotus leaf tea beverage was produced. The stabilizers were used to improve the quality of the product. Effects of water extraction of dry lotus leaf, white granulated sugar, citric acid, dietary fiber additive amount on the quality of lotus leaf tea beverage were studied by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. Then the stabilizers were mixed into the product. [ Result] The optimum production formula of functional lotus leaf tea beverage was as follows; water extraction of dry lotus leaf 30% ( V/V), white granulated sugar 6% f citric acid 0.05% , dietary fiber 0. 5% , and refined carrageenan 0.05% . The beverage showed good features on its cool taste and slight flavor of lotus leaf and had certain health benefits. [ Conclusion ] The paper provided a theoretical basis for production and processing of functional lotus leaf tea beverage.

  13. The trehalose utilization gene thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti does not influence competitiveness for nodulation on Lotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Jensen, John Beck

    2014-03-01

    Competitiveness for nodulation is a desirable trait in rhizobia strains used as inoculant. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 mutation in either of the trehalose utilization genes thuA or thuB influences its competitiveness for root colonization and nodule occupancy depending on the interacting host. We have therefore investigated whether mutation in the thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 also leads to a similar competitive phenotype on its hosts. The results show that M. loti thuA mutant Ml7023 was symbiotically effective and was as competitive as the wild type in colonization and nodule occupancy on Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus. The thuA gene in M. loti was not induced during root colonization or in the infection threads unlike in S. meliloti, despite its induction by trehalose and high osmolarity in in vitro assays.

  14. Dyeing property research of knitted lotus fabric%莲纤维针织物染色性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佩

    2016-01-01

    Lotus fiber is a novel green and environmental protection nature fiber. Reactive dye was chosen for knitted lotus fabric dyeing, and the dyeing process was optimized by univariate analysis experiment. The optimum dyeing technology was determined and the color fastness was tested.%莲纤维是一种具有绿色环保性能的新型天然纤维,采用活性染料对莲纤维针织物进行染色,通过单因素试验对其染色工艺进行优化,得出最佳工艺条件并进行色牢度测试。

  15. Lotus Shortbread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams flour, 125 grams oil, and a rightamount of water for water dough, another 500 grams flour and250 grams oil for oil dough; 200 grams sweetened red beanpaste.Method: 1. Mix flour with oil and water, and knead into waterdough; mix the other amount of flour with oil, and knead into

  16. Desenvolvimento morfológico de Lotus spp. de diferentes hábitos de crescimento Morphological development of Lotus spp. with different growth habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Poles Maroso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar cultivares de Lotus corniculatus L. (cv. São Gabriel, cv. ARS2620 e L. uliginosus Schkuhr (cv. Maku por meio da análise do desenvolvimento morfológico. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos, colhidas aos 90, 120, 150, 180 e 210 dias após a semeadura e avaliadas por medidas lineares e de peso, volume, área e contagem. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão em função dos dias de crescimento. Os cultivares apresentaram a mesma tendência temporal quanto à estatura, ao volume radical e à massa seca (MS aérea, mas diferiram quanto à grandeza das alterações. O acúmulo de MS (g/planta foi superior nos cultivares Maku (15,0 e S. Gabriel (14,0 em relação ao cultivar ARS2620 (11,0. Os cultivares S. Gabriel, Maku e ARS2620 diferiram quanto ao diâmetro da planta (96,7; 80,7; 68,5 cm, ao diâmetro da coroa (6,5; 15,7; 8,1 mm, ao comprimento da massa radical (37,8; 29,2; 40,4 cm e ao número de hastes da coroa (37,8; 29,2 e 40,4. O sistema subterrâneo foi mais vigoroso no cultivar Maku, que produziu mais MS de sóboles (16,3 em relação aos cultivares ARS2620 (4,7 e São Gabriel (2,0, mostrando ser potencialmente mais persistente em condições de pastejo.This work aimed to compare cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L. (cv. São Gabriel, cv. ARS2620 and L. uliginosus Schkuhr (cv. Maku through the morphological development analysis. The plants were cultivated in pots and they were harvested at 90, 120, 150, 180, and 210 days after seeding being evaluated by linear, weight, volume, area, and count measurements. Data were submitted to regression analysis as a function of growth days. Cultivars had the same temporal trend for height, root volume, and shoot dry matter (DM, but differed in terms of the magnitude. The DM accumulation (g/plant was greater for the cvs. Maku (15.0 and S. Gabriel (14.0 in relation to cv. ARS2620 (11.0. The cvs. S. Gabriel, Maku, and ARS2620 differed

  17. Simple preparation of lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO₂ and their DSSC performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Yeon; Bae, Sang-Eun; Won, Yong Sun; Huh, Seong

    2015-06-15

    In pursuit of superior TiO2 photoanode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), we prepared lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO2. The lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO2 was easily prepared by using a cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (CTAOH) template in aqueous solution. The crystallization of the as-prepared amorphous lotus-root shaped TiO2 was performed at 700 °C in air. Crystalline anatase phase with a very small portion of rutile phase was generated after the heat treatment at 700 °C and the BET surface area of crystalline lotus-root shaped meso-/macroporous TiO2 material (LR-700) was 30.0 m(2) g(-1). The wall of LR-700 displayed well-developed mesoporosity with a pore dimension of 28.3 nm. Periodically arranged microscale one-dimensional (1D) macropores were also observed in the particles. The photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (η) of LR-700 photoanodes in Grätzel type DSSCs were examined. The conversion efficiency of DSSC prepared by mixing nanoparticulate Evonik P25 and LR-700 (ratio=85:150 by mass) was 28% greater compared to the reference electrode using P25. Incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) of the DSSCs were dramatically improved by employing the photoanodes composed of a mixture of P25 and LR-700 but impedance analysis indicated that P25/LR-700 mixed cells have resistances similar to the standard P25 reference cell. Thus, photovoltaic performances could be improved mainly due to the increases of dye uptake and external quantum efficiency by using a mixed photoanode composed of LR-700 and nanocrystalline P25 particles.

  18. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve [Unite mixte CNRS/Saint Gobain Saint Gobain Recherche, BP135, 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Berthier, Serge [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 140 rue Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: cperoz@lbl.gov

    2008-12-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C.

  19. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Berthier, Serge; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Hervé

    2008-12-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 degrees water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 degrees C and 500 degrees C.

  20. Efecto de distintas concentraciones de sacarosa en la conservación in vitro de coco (cocos nuciferas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente el germoplasma de cocotero en Cuba se encuentra mantenido en colecciones in situ; esta forma de conservación conlleva elevados costos de manutención y altos riesgos de erosión genética debido principalmente a la exposición del material vegetal al ataque de plagas y enfermedades, y a la incidencia de desastres naturales. El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la adición de diferentes concentraciones de sacarosa en el medio de cultivo in vitro de embriones cigóticos de coco para la conservación de los recursos genéticos de esta especie. Se utilizó el medio Eeuwens con la adición de sacarosa al 20, 40, 60 y 80 g/l -1. A los 6 meses de cultivo se determinó el porcentaje de germinación, y a los 18 meses las siguientes variables: los porcentajes de supervivencia y enraizamiento, el número de hojas, la longitud y el grosor del vástago de las plántulas mantenidas in vitro. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con análisis de varianza de clasificación simple y prueba de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que la incorporación de 60 g/l-1 de sacarosa en el medio Eeuwens es la más adecuada para la conservación de los recursos genéticos de coco (Cocos nucifera L en condiciones in vitro a partir de embriones cigóticos, donde se muestran los más altos porcentajes de supervivencia y el mayor vigor de las plántulas a los 18 meses de cultivo. Palabras clave: cultivo de tejidos; embriones cigóticos; recursos genéticos; Genetic resources; plant tissue culture; zygotic embryo.

  1. Alcoholic Extract of Lotus Leaves Improves Lipid Profile in Rats with HIV Protease Inhibitor-induced Dyslipidaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, QJ; Lu, ZZ; Deng, QY; Wei, BM

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of lotus leaves (AELL) on antiretroviral treatment-induced dyslipidaemia in a rat model. Methods: Lotus leaves were extracted by 95% ethanol. Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were given lopinavir/ritonavir for six weeks. At weeks 0 and 6, sera were collected for measurement of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG). Rats meeting the criteria for dyslipidaemia were assigned to four groups and received once daily for another four weeks lopinavir/ritonavir (group A), lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.52 g/kg AELL (group B), lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.26 g/kg AELL (group C), or lopinavir/ritonavir plus 0.13 g/kg AELL (group D), respectively. At weeks 8 and 10, blood samples were collected again for measurement of TC and TG. Results: Both TC and TG increased over time in group A during the observation period (weeks 6 to 10), however, TC and TG decreased in group B, and TG declined in group C. Neither TC nor TG could be reduced to a level near baseline. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of lotus leaves may have the potential to treat dyslipidaemia related to highly active antiretroviral treatment, but may not be potent enough to reduce TC or TG concentrations to goal levels when used alone. PMID:26426169

  2. Phosphorus absorption and use efficiency by Lotus spp. under water stress conditions in two soils: A pot experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Castillo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The response to P and water deficiencies of forage Lotus species has not been sufficiently studied in the Andisol and Vertisol soil orders in Chile's marginal areas. A pot experiment under cover was carried out between October 2007 and March 2008 to study the effects of P and soil water availability (SWA on DM production, P absorption, and P use efficiency in Lotus spp. The experiment included three Lotus (L. corniculatus L., L. tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd., and L. uliginosus Schkuhr species, two soils (Andisol and Vertisol, two contrasting P levels (low and high, and two SWA levels (10% and 100%. A completely randomized design with a 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with four replicates was used. Accumulated shoot and root DM, P absorption and efficiency, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization were measured. Phosphorus absorption was significantly higher in Andisol with 100% SWA and high P in the three species, which was reflected in P efficiency where the species exhibited higher P absorption efficiency (PAE and P utilization efficiency (PUE with low P, and mean of the three species with low P and high SWA. When the P level was low, L. uliginosus showed the highest PAE and L. corniculatus exhibited the highest PUE. Phosphorus efficiency was also influenced by AM colonization since on the average mycorrhization in the three species was significantly higher in the low P treatments. Differences existed among species for DM production, response to P, P absorption, PAE, and PUE.

  3. Study on lotus-type porous copper electroplated with a Ni coating on inner surface of pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Song, Guihong; Nakajima, Hideo; Zhao, Yanhui; Xiao, Jinquan; Xiong, Tianying

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of Ni coating on inner surface of pores was attempted by electroplating for lotus-type porous copper with pore size of 0.6 mm and pore length of 6 mm. The surface morphology, thickness, thickness distribution along the pore length, and phase composition of the coating were characterized. It is proven that the Ni coating with a polycrystalline structure can be deposited on the inner surface of the pores with length/diameter of 10 for lotus-type porous copper by agitating the electroplating solution properly during the process. It is indicated that the coating thickness distributes uniformly along the pore depth and is about 4-5 μm. Furthermore, the mechanical properties including vicker hardness, compressive yield strength and absorbed energy ability of the electroplated porous copper were evaluated. It is found that the mechanical properties are improved significantly after depositing the nickel coating inside pores of the lotus-type porous copper. Among them, 0.2% yield stress increases from 22.96 to 30.15 MPa, while absorbed energy per volume from 60.83 to 96.01 MJ/m3 when compressed to strain of 80%, which is attributed mainly to the Ni coating as an obstacle to dislocation slip during deformation and its strengthening effect for the higher strength, and the good adhesion to the pore wall of the porous copper.

  4. UJI VIABILITAS SERBUK SARI SECARA In-Vitro KELAPA (Cocos nucifera L.“Rangda” DENGAN WAKTU DAN SUHU PENYIMPANAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sista Nirmala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This aims of the research was to determine the structure and pollen viability of RangdaCoconut (Cocos nucifera L. “Rangda” stored at different time and temperatures. Pollen sampleswere collected from Gianyar, Klungkung and Negara. The experiment was conducted at theLaboratorium of Forensic and the Laboratorium of Plant Development and Structure, UdayanaUniversity, from October 2012 to January 2013. Pollen structure was analyzed with acetolysemethod, while pollen viability was analyzed in-vitro. The results showed that the structure of thepollen of “Rangda” coconut was circular, media, monosulcate, Subferoidal-Prolat, Sferoidal.Pollen viability of “Rangda" coconut was low (less than 3%. Pollen stored in the freezer has thebest viability, which continually increased until the 2nd weeks, then declined after that, whiepollen viability stored at room temperature tend to decline up to the fourth weeks.Keywords: structure, viability, pollen, time, storage

  5. Cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding stearoyl-ACP Δ9-desaturase from the endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingchao; Sun, Ruhao; Liang, Yuanxue; Zhang, Mengdan; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong

    2014-10-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an economically tropical fruit tree with special fatty acid compositions. The stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) plays a key role in the properties of the majority of cellular glycerolipids. In this paper, a full-length cDNA of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase, designated CocoFAD, was isolated from cDNA library prepared from the endosperm of coconut (C. nucifera L.). An 1176 bp cDNA from overlapped PCR products containing ORF encoding a 391-amino acid (aa) protein was obtained. The coded protein was virtually identical and shared the homology to other Δ9-desaturase plant sequences (greater than 80% as similarity to that of Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR result indicated that the yield of CocoFAD was the highest in the endosperm of 8-month-old coconut and leaf, and the yield was reduced to 50% of the highest level in the endosperm of 15-month-old coconut. The coding region showed heterologous expression in strain INVSc1 of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). GC-MS analysis showed that the levels of palmitoleic acid (16:1) and oleic acid (18:1) were improved significantly; meanwhile stearic acid (18:0) was reduced. These results indicated that the plastidial Δ9 desaturase from the endosperm of coconut was involved in the biosynthesis of hexadecenoic acid and octadecenoic acid, which was similar with other plants. These results may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of fatty acid metabolism and the genetic improvement of CocoFAD gene in palm plants in the future.

  6. The evolutionary appearance of non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides in the Lotus genus is accompanied by the substrate specialization of paralogous beta-glucosidases resulting from a crucial amino acid substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Daniela; Abou Hachem, Maher; Robson, Fran

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, like several other legumes, biosynthesizes the cyanogenic alpha-hydroxynitrile glucosides lot-australin and linamarin. Upon tissue disruption these compounds are hydrolysed by a specific beta-glucosidase, resulting in the release of hydrogen cyanide. Lotus japonicus also produces...

  7. Polymorphic infection and organogenesis patterns induced by a Rhizobium leguminosarum isolate from Lotus root nodules are determined by the host genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossmann, Jasmin A; Markmann, Katharina; Brachmann, Andreas; Rose, Laura E; Parniske, Martin

    2012-10-01

    To sample the natural variation in genes controlling compatibility in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, we isolated rhizobia from nodules of endemic Lotus species from 21 sites across Europe. The majority of isolates were identified as Mesorhizobium- or Bradyrhizobium-related and formed nitrogen-fixing root nodules on Lotus corniculatus and L. pendunculatus, respectively, thus confirming previously defined cross-inoculation groups. Rhizobium leguminosarum (Rl) strain Norway, isolated from L. corniculatus nodules, displayed an exceptional phenotypic variation on different Lotus genotypes. On L. burttii, Rl Norway formed infected nodules, whereas tumors and elongated infected swellings were induced on L. glaber and L. japonicus ecotype Nepal, respectively. A symbiosis- and Nod-factor-responsive promoter:uidA fusion was strongly and rapidly induced in L. japonicus Gifu, but infection threads or signs of nodule organogenesis were absent. This complex phenotypic pattern was not mimicked by either of three engineered R. leguminosarum bv viciae strains producing different Nod-factor variants. Intriguingly, Rl Norway formed infection threads on Pisum sativum cv Sparkle, but failed to induce organogenesis. Rl Norway thus uncovered variation in symbiotic capabilities among diploid Lotus species and ecotypes that are obscured by optimally adapted M. loti strains. These contrasting infection and organogenesis phenotypes reveal recent diversification of recognition determinants in Lotus.

  8. Molecular Characterization of LjABCG1, an ATP-Binding Cassette Protein in Lotus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akifumi Sugiyama

    Full Text Available LjABCG1, a full-size ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins of a model legume, Lotus japonicus, was reported as a gene highly expressed during the early stages of nodulation, but have not been characterized in detail. In this study we showed that the induction of LjABCG1 expression was remarkable by methyl jasmonate treatment, and reporter gene experiments indicated that LjABCG1 was strongly expressed in the nodule parenchyma and cell layers adjacent to the root vascular tissue toward the nodule. LjABCG1 was suggested to be localized at the plasma membrane based on the fractionation of microsomal membranes as well as separation via aqueous two-phase partitioning. The physiological functions of LjABCG1 in symbiosis and pathogenesis were analyzed in homologous and heterologous systems. LjABCG1 knock-down L. japonicus plants did not show clear phenotypic differences in nodule formation, and not in defense against Pseudomonas syringae, either. In contrast, when LjABCG1 was expressed in the Arabidopsis pdr8-1 mutant, the penetration frequency of Phytophthora infestans, a potato late blight pathogen, was significantly reduced in LjABCG1/pdr8-1 than in pdr8-1 plants. This finding indicated that LjABCG1, at least partially, complemented the phenotype of pdr8 in Arabidopsis, suggesting the multiple roles of this protein in plant-microbe interactions.

  9. A Rare Class of New Dimeric Naphtoquiones from Diospyros lotus have Multidrug Reversal and Antiproliferative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdur eRauf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new dimeric naphthoquinones, 5,4′-dihydroxy-1′-methoxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,5′,8′-tetraone (1, 5′,8′-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,1′,4′-tetraone (2 and 8,5′,8′-trihydroxy-6,6′-dimethyl-7,3′-binaphthyl-1,4,1′,4′-tetraone (3, were isolated from the roots of Diospyros lotus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, such as HSQC, HMBS, NOESY and J resolved. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their effects on the reversion of multidrug resistance (MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein through use of the rhodamine-123 exclusion screening test on human ABCB1 gene transfected L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma. Compounds 1-3 were also assessed for their antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on L5178 and L5178Y mouse T-cell lymphoma lines. Both 1 and 2 exhibited promising antiproliferative and MDR-reversing effects in a dose dependent manner. The effects of the tested compounds on the activity of doxorubicin were observed to vary from slight antagonism to antagonism.

  10. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shanwei [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou, Libin, E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu [Biophysics Group, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yuze [College of Life Science and Technology, Gansu Agricultural University, No. 1 Yingmen Village, Anning District, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M{sub 1} populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M{sub 2} plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M{sub 2} populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  12. In vitro morphogenic events in culture of Lotus corniculatus L. seedling root explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Rybczyński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out on Lotus corniculatus (L. seedling root explants of the cultivar varieties Skrzeszowicka, Caroll A10 and strain 175. Callus formation and shoot regeneration were the major explant response depended mainly on of the studied genotype and used plant growth regulators (PGRs. Primary cortex of proximal and distal end of explant was the most active tissue for callus proliferation. For shoot primordia differentiation deeper zones of cortex took a part. The process of meristematic centre initiation was not uniform and various level of shoot differentiation events were observed not earlier than 3 weeks of culture. Usually, the shoot primordia regeneration began on proximal rather than distal end of the explant. BAP rather than urea derivatives stimulated shoot proliferation in extended cultures. Increasing of BAP and TDZ concentrations brought about the explant polarity and expansion of the meristematic zones. The explant position in root did not have significant influence on the number of regenerated shoots. The cultures only had better bud formation by TDZ when compared to BAP. BAP stimulated bud formation and development of the shoots from them. Short term of TDZ treatment of explants stimulated meristem formation which developed into buds and shoots. CPPU stimulated callus proliferation and bud formation when explants pretreatment was prolonged from 12 to 36 hrs.

  13. Genetic diversity and virulence of Rhizoctonia species associated with plantings of Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Keith M; Beuselinck, Paul R; English, James T

    2003-02-01

    Species of Rhizoctonia cause a blight of Lotus corniculatus, a perennial forage legume. We characterized genetic variation and virulence in populations of R. solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia's associated with diseased L. corniculatus in field plantings over several years. Isolates of anastomosis groups AG-1 and AG-4 accounted for the R. solani recovered from diseased leaf and shoot tissues. Isolates of binucleate Rhizoctonia were recovered predominantly from soil and associated plant debris. Isolates of R. solani were more virulent on leaves and shoots of L. corniculatus than were binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates. Numerous unique DNA restriction patterns were observed among binucleate isolates and anastomosis groups of R. solani. Variation in restriction patterns was greater among isolates of AG-1 from the lower plant canopy than from the upper canopy. No restriction pattern was shared by any isolate from AG-1 and AG-4. Allelic and genotypic heterogeneity of AG-1 isolates were also greater in the lower plant canopy. Binucleate isolates exhibited greater heterogeneity than AG-1 isolates from either canopy region. L. corniculatus offers significant opportunities for investigating temporal and spatial dynamics of genetic structure of Rhizoctonia populations in perennial plant systems.

  14. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L. ; Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of /sup 14/C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O/sub 2/ uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage /sup 14/C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots.

  15. Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Camille E; Strochein, Marcos; Vargas, Luciano K; Bruxel, Manuela; de Sá, Enilson Luiz Saccol; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species.

  16. The Effect of Abscisic Acid on the Freezing Tolerance of Callus Cultures of Lotus corniculatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, C N; McKersie, B D

    1986-03-01

    The effects of growth temperature (2 degrees C and 24 degrees C), abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, duration of exposure to ABA, and light were assessed for their ability to induce acclimation to freezing temperatures in callus cultures of Lotus corniculatus L. cv Leo, a perennial forage legume. The maximal expression of freezing tolerance was achieved on B(5) media containing 10(-5) molar ABA, at 24 degrees C for 7 or 14 days. Under these culture conditions, the freezing tolerance of the callus approximated that observed in field grown plants. In contrast, low temperatures (2 degrees C) induced only a limited degree of freezing tolerance in these cultures. Viability was assessed by tetrazolium reduction and by regrowth of the callus. The two assays often differed in their estimates of absolute freezing tolerance. Regression analysis of the temperature profile suggested that there may be two or more distinct populations of cells differing in freezing tolerance, which may have contributed to the variability between viability assays.

  17. Effect of Dehydration on Leakage and Membrane Structure in Lotus corniculatus L. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKersie, B D; Stinson, R H

    1980-08-01

    Membrane damage as a result of dehydration was studied in Lotus corniculatus L. cv. Carroll seeds which had been pregerminated for 0, 12, and 24 hours prior to dehydration. During reimbibition, desiccation-tolerant (0- and 12-hour) seeds leaked relatively low quantities of all solutes (total electrolytes, potassium, phosphate, sugar, amino acid, and protein). Desiccation-sensitive (24-hour) seeds leaked higher levels, but evidence of selective permeability remained. Membrane damage was not manifested as a complete removal of the diffusion barrier, although its permeability properties were dramatically altered. Consequently, the plasmalemma was not ruptured or torn by the dehydration treatment, but a more subtle structural alteration occurred.The possibility that seed membranes form a hexagonal rather than a lamellar phase at moisture contents below 20% was investigated by x-ray diffraction. Phospholipids were extracted from desiccation-tolerant (0-hour) and desiccation-sensitive (24-hour) seeds and hydrated to 5, 10, 20, and 40% water. This phospholipid-water system was examined using low-and wide-angle x-ray diffraction and was found to be exclusively lamellar, even at 5% water. Consequently, membrane damage and the leakage of cytoplasmic solutes from seeds cannot be explained by the formation of a hexagonal phase by membrane phospholipids.

  18. Induction of two mutants in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) by x-rays and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therrien, M.C.; Grant, W.F. (McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada). Macdonald Coll.)

    1982-10-01

    The mutagenic effects of X-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), 8-ethoxycaffeine (EOC), N-hydroxyurea (HU) and 2-aminopurine (2AP) on seed treatment of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. 'Mirabel') were assessed over four generations. Mutants were recovered in the M/sub 2/, M/sub 3/ and M/sub 4/ generations from selfed lines, from crosses derived form selfed lines and from open pollination lines. Mutant plants exhibiting vestigial floret character were recovered from X-rays, EMS, EOC and HU treatments. Mutant chlorotica plants were obtained from EMS treatment only. No mutants were recovered from 2AP treatment, EMS, the most effective mutagen, produced nine vestigial floret and 12 chlorotica mutants. Mutants were obtained from only one exposure of X-rays (12 krad). There was evidence for preferential elimination of gametes. The chlorotica and vestigial floret mutants were inherited as tetrasomic recessives. Mutation frequencies of 0.4 - 3.1% in a tetrasomic background are indicative of the effectiveness of EMS in birdsfoot trefoil.

  19. Measuring gene flow from two birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) field trials using transgenes as tracer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, F; Bellucci, M; Arcioni, S

    2003-06-01

    Genetic engineering is becoming a useful tool in the improvement of plants but concern has been expressed about the potential environmental risks of releasing genetically modified (GM) organisms into the environment. Attention has focused on pollen dispersal as a major issue in the risk assessment of transgenic crop plants. In this study, pollen-mediated dispersal of transgenes via cross-fertilization was examined. Plants of Lotus corniculatus L. transformed with either the Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase gene asnA or the beta-glucuronidase gene uidA, were used as the pollen donor. Nontransgenic plants belonging to the species L. corniculatus L., L. tenuis Waldst. and Kit. ex Willd, and L. pedunculatus Cav., were utilized as recipients. Two experimental fields were established in two areas of central Italy. Plants carrying the uidA gene were partially sterile, therefore only the asnA gene was used as a tracer marker. No transgene flow between L. corniculatus transformants and the nontransgenic L. tenuis and L. pedunculatus plants was detected. As regards nontransgenic L. corniculatus plants, in one location flow of asnA transgene was detected up to 18 m from the 1.8 m2 donor plot. In the other location, pollen dispersal occurred up to 120 m from the 14 m2 pollinating plot.

  20. Preparing superhydrophobic copper surfaces with rose petal or lotus leaf property using a simple etching approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talesh Bahrami, H. R.; Ahmadi, B.; Saffari, H.

    2017-05-01

    A facile chemical etching process is developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces. In the first step, cleaned copper surfaces immersed in ferric chloride (FeCl3) solutions with specific concentrations for different times. Etched surfaces exhibit the maximum contact angle of 140°. They have large sliding angle and water droplets stuck to the surface even if they were turned upside down which is well-known as rose petal effect. After stearic acid modification of etched surfaces, their contact angle slightly increased to above 150° and sliding angle decreased to smaller than 10° in some cases, which is same as lotus plant leaves property against water. Inspecting SEM images of etched surfaces reveals that many micro-nano structures forming blossom like buildings with curved petals of nanoscale thicknesses are formed. The micro-nano structures sizes and shapes affecting surface hydrophobicity are regulated by controlling reaction times and etchant solution concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis is done on a sample before and after of the etching process where patterns indicate that the same compositions present on the sample.

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Lotus japonicus Roots During Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Development and Comparison with that of Nodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Yuichi; Banba, Mari; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Chechetka, Svetlana A.; Suzuri, Ryota; Okusako, Yasuhiro; Ooki, Yasuhiro; Toyokura, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Higashi, Shiro; Abe, Mikiko; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Izui, Katsura; Hata, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To better understand the molecular responses of plants to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we analyzed the differential gene expression patterns of Lotus japonicus, a model legume, with the aid of a large-scale cDNA macroarray. Experiments were carried out considering the effects of contaminating microorganisms in the soil inoculants. When the colonization by AM fungi, i.e. Glomus mosseae and Gigaspora margarita, was well established, four cysteine protease genes were induced. In situ hybridization revealed that these cysteine protease genes were specifically expressed in arbuscule-containing inner cortical cells of AM roots. On the other hand, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase, etc. were repressed in the later stage, although they were moderately up-regulated on the initial association with the AM fungus. Real-time RT–PCR experiments supported the array experiments. To further confirm the characteristic expression, a PAL promoter was fused with a reporter gene and introduced into L. japonicus, and then the transformants were grown with a commercial inoculum of G. mosseae. The reporter activity was augmented throughout the roots due to the presence of contaminating microorganisms in the inoculum. Interestingly, G. mosseae only colonized where the reporter activity was low. Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of AM roots and nitrogen-fixing root nodules formed with Mesorhizobium loti indicated that the PAL genes and other phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes were similarly repressed in the two organs. PMID:17634281

  2. The integral membrane protein SEN1 is required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Lotus japonicus nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Niimi, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Isobe, Sawa; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Kumagai, Hirotaka; Umehara, Yosuke; Brossuleit, Katja; Petersen, Thomas R; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Udvardi, Michael K; Tamaoki, Masanori; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Suganuma, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Legume plants establish a symbiotic association with bacteria called rhizobia, resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. A Lotus japonicus symbiotic mutant, sen1, forms nodules that are infected by rhizobia but that do not fix nitrogen. Here, we report molecular identification of the causal gene, SEN1, by map-based cloning. The SEN1 gene encodes an integral membrane protein homologous to Glycine max nodulin-21, and also to CCC1, a vacuolar iron/manganese transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and VIT1, a vacuolar iron transporter of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of the SEN1 gene was detected exclusively in nodule-infected cells and increased during nodule development. Nif gene expression as well as the presence of nitrogenase proteins was detected in rhizobia from sen1 nodules, although the levels of expression were low compared with those from wild-type nodules. Microscopic observations revealed that symbiosome and/or bacteroid differentiation are impaired in the sen1 nodules even at a very early stage of nodule development. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SEN1 belongs to a protein clade specific to legumes. These results indicate that SEN1 is essential for nitrogen fixation activity and symbiosome/bacteroid differentiation in legume nodules.

  3. Structural and physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch treated with ultra-high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Lu, Xu; Zhou, Meiling; Zheng, Mingjing; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous lotus seed starch suspensions (15%, w/w) were subjected to ultra-high pressure treatment (UHP, 100-600 MPa) for 30 min. The effects of UHP treatment on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch were investigated. The SEM and laser diffraction particle size analysis revealed that UHP treatment affected the shape and size distribution of starch granules. The morphological structure of starch was completely destroyed at 600 MPa, indicating complete gelatinization. Analysis of HPSEC-MALLS-RI suggested that the dispersity index of UHP-treated starch were decreased from 1.28 to 1.11. According to XRD analyses, UHP treatment converted native starch (C-type) into a B-type pattern. The swelling power and solubility presented a significant decrease at 85 and 95 °C, but opposite trends were found at 55-75 °C. The DSC results indicated a reduction in gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy with increasing pressure treatment. The RVA viscograms revealed that UHP-treated starch showed a decreased breakdown and setback viscosity, reflecting lower retrogradation tendency compared to native starch.

  4. Genetic diversity and symbiotic compatibility among rhizobial strains and Desmodium incanum and Lotus spp. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille E Granada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the symbiotic compatibility and nodulation efficiency of rhizobia isolated from Desmodium incanum, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus and L. glaber plants by cross-inoculation. Twelve reference strains and 21 native isolates of rhizobia were genetically analyzed by the BOX-PCR technique, which showed a high genetic diversity among the rhizobia studied. The isolates were also characterized based on their production of indolic compounds and siderophores, as well as on their tolerance to salinity. Fifteen of the 33 rhizobia analyzed were able to produce indolic compounds, whereas 13 produced siderophores. All the tested rhizobia were sensitive to high salinity, although some were able to grow in solutions of up to 2% NaCl. Most of the native rhizobia isolated from L. uliginosus were able to induce nodulation in all plant species studied. In a greenhouse experiment using both D. incanum and L. corniculatus plants, the rhizobia isolate UFRGS Lu2 promoted the greatest plant growth. The results demonstrate that there are native rhizobia in the soils of southern Brazil that have low host specificity and are able to induce nodulation and form active nodules in several plant species.

  5. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calderón, Margarita; Pons-Ferrer, Teresa; Mrázova, Anna; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Vilková, Mária; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Vega, José M; Eliášová, Adriana; Repčák, Miroslav; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L. japonicus plants in response to stress.

  6. Effect of granule size on the properties of lotus rhizome C-type starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lingshang; Huang, Jun; Zhao, Lingxiao; Wang, Juan; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2015-12-10

    Lotus rhizome C-type starch was separated into different size fractions. Starch morphologies changed from irregular to elongated, ellipsoid, oval, and spherical with decreasing granule size. The small- and very-small-sized fractions had a centric hilum, and the other size fractions had an eccentric hilum. The different size fractions all showed C-type crystallinity, pseudoplasticity and shear-thinning rheological properties. The range of amylose content was 25.6 to 26.6%, that of relative crystallinity was 23.9 to 25.8%, that of swelling power was 29.0 to 31.4 g/g, and that of gelatinization enthalpy was 12.4 to 14.2J/g. The very-small-sized fraction had a significantly lower short-range ordered degree and flow behavior index and higher scattering peak intensity, water solubility, gelatinization peak temperature, gelatinization conclusion temperature, consistency coefficient, hydrolysis degrees, and digestion rate than the large-sized fraction. Granule size significantly positively influenced short-range ordered structure and swelling power and negatively influenced scattering peak intensity, water solubility, hydrolysis and digestion of starch (p<0.01).

  7. Crystalline and structural properties of acid-modified lotus rhizome C-type starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinwen; Cai, Canhui; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Fengmin; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-02-15

    The crystalline and structural properties of acid-modified C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques. The degradation of granule during hydrolysis began from the end distant from the hilum and then propagated into the center of granule, accompanied by loss of birefringence. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during hydrolysis. At the early stage of hydrolysis, the amylose content substantially reduced, the peak and conclusion gelatinization temperatures increased, and the enthalpy decreased. During hydrolysis, the double helix content gradually increased and the amorphous component decreased, the lamellar peak intensity firstly increased and then decreased accompanied by hydrolysis of amorphous and crystalline regions. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs.

  8. Short communication. Radial variations of wood different properties in Diospyros lotus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiaei, M.; Bakhshi, R.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to determine some of the physical, biometry and mechanical strength properties of Diospyros lotus L. wood along radial direction from the pith to the bark and the relationship between wood various properties. Area of study: The study area is located in north Iran in the province of Mazandarn. Material and methods: Testing samples were taken at breast height of tree stem and three radial position of stem radius to determine physical (basic density), fiber biometry (fiber length, fiber diameter, cell-wall thickness) and mechanical properties (modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity). Main results: The results of ANOVA indicated that there are significant differences along radial direction in above mentioned properties for persimmon wood. Basic density, fiber length, fiber diameter, cell-wall thickness, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture increased along radial direction from pith toward the bark. Research highlights: The persimmon wood isnt suitable for pulp and paper production due to the unfavorable flexibility and Runkel coefficients. (Author)

  9. Genome sequence of the Lotus corniculatus microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain R88B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Sullivan, John; Ronson, Clive; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Davenport, Karen; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; Woyke, Tanja; Lobos, Elizabeth; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti strain R88B was isolated in 1993 in the Rocklands range in Otago, New Zealand from a Lotus corniculatus root nodule. R88B is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. This report reveals the genome of M. loti strain R88B contains a single scaffold of size 7,195,110 bp which encodes 6,950 protein-coding genes and 66 RNA-only encoding genes. This genome does not harbor any plasmids but contains the integrative and conjugative element ICEMlSym(R7A), also known as the R7A symbiosis island, acquired by horizontal gene transfer in the field environment from M. loti strain R7A. It also contains a mobilizable genetic element ICEMladh(R88B), that encodes a likely adhesin gene which has integrated downstream of ICEMlSym(R7A), and three acquired loci that together allow the utilization of the siderophore ferrichrome. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  10. Allomorph distribution and granule structure of lotus rhizome C-type starch during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Canhui; Cai, Jinwen; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-01

    The allomorph distribution and granule structure of C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques during gelatinization. The disruption of crystallinity during gelatinization began from the end distant from the eccentric hilum and then propagated into the center of granule. The periphery of hilum end was finally gelatinized, accompanied by high swelling. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during gelatinization, and finally became amorphous structure. The amylose content, crystal degree, helix content, ratio of 1045/1022cm(-1), and peak intensity of crystalline lamellae of gelatinizing starch significantly decreased after 70°C. The amorphous content and ratio of 1022/995cm(-1) increased after 70°C. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple components are integrated to determine leaf complexity in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Jianghua; Weng, Lin; Li, Xin; Cao, Xianglin; Hu, Xiaohe; Luo, Da; Yang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Transcription factors and phytohormones have been reported to play crucial roles to regulate leaf complexity among plant species. Using the compound-leafed species Lotus japonicus, a model legume plant with five visible leaflets, we characterized four independent mutants with reduced leaf complexity, proliferating floral meristem (pfm), proliferating floral organ-2 (pfo-2), fused leaflets1 (ful1) and umbrella leaflets (uml), which were further identified as loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis orthologs LEAFY (LFY), UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 2 (CUC2) and PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1), respectively. Comparing the leaf development of wild-type and mutants by a scanning electron microscopy approach, leaflet initiation and/or dissection were found to be affected in these mutants. Expression and phenotype analysis indicated that PFM/LjLFY and PFO/LjUFO determined the basipetal leaflet initiation manner in L. japonicus. Genetic analysis of ful1 and uml mutants and their double mutants revealed that the CUC2-like gene and auxin pathway also participated in leaflet dissection in L. japonicus, and their functions might influence cytokinin biogenesis directly or indirectly. Our results here suggest that multiple genes were interplayed and played conserved functions in controlling leaf complexity during compound leaf development in L. japonicus.

  12. Quantitative trait locus analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Gondo, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Arima, Susumu; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2012-05-01

    Many legumes form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. An elevation of nitrogen fixation in such legumes would have significant implications for plant growth and biomass production in agriculture. To identify the genetic basis for the regulation of nitrogen fixation, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Miyakojima MG-20 × Gifu B-129 in the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and grown for 14 days in pods containing vermiculite. Phenotypic data were collected for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per plant (ARA/P), ARA per nodule weight (ARA/NW), ARA per nodule number (ARA/NN), NN per plant, NW per plant, stem length (SL), SL without inoculation (SLbac-), shoot dry weight without inoculation (SWbac-), root length without inoculation (RLbac-), and root dry weight (RWbac-), and finally 34 QTLs were identified. ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL showed strong correlations and QTL co-localization, suggesting that several plant characteristics important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation are controlled by the same locus. QTLs for ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL, co-localized around marker TM0832 on chromosome 4, were also co-localized with previously reported QTLs for seed mass. This is the first report of QTL analysis for symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity traits.

  13. Heat-pretreatment and enzymolysis behavior of the lotus seed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A-Dan; Zeng, Hong-Yan; Alain, Gohi Bi Foua Claude; Feng, Bo

    2016-06-15

    Lotus seed protein (LSP) was heat-pretreated before enzymolysis in order to seek a greater degree of hydrolysis (DH) during enzymatic hydrolysis. The parameters including substrate concentration, temperature, pH, and papain concentration were optimized by response surface methodology in the enzymolysis of the heat-pretreated LSP. The influence of substrate concentration on the non-pretreated LSP enzymolysis was assessed, and the enzymolysis was found to obey the Haldane model with inhibition by LSP substrate. The initial concentration of non-pretreated LSP was inferred theoretically to be 11.07 g/L in order to avoid substrate inhibition. On the other hand, Chrastil model was fitted and the diffusion resistance constant values were in the range of 0.5-0.6 for the diffusion-controlled encounter of enzyme and substrate, implying that diffusion was a rate-limiting step. The heat-pretreatment at 60 °C for 60 min could increase the DH of the LSP, which enhanced the efficiency of the enzymolysis by papain.

  14. Discriminating the Geographical Origins of Chinese White Lotus Seeds by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of a Chinese white lotus seed (WLS with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO was investigated using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Three chemometrics methods, discrimination analysis (DA, class modeling, and a newly proposed strategy, the fusion of DA and class modeling, were investigated to compare their capacity to trace the geographical origins of WLS. Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM was developed to distinguish the PDO WLS from non-PDO WLS of four main producing areas. A class modeling technique, one-class partial least squares (OCPLS, was developed only using the data of PDO WLS. By the fusion of LS-SVM and OCPLS, the best prediction sensitivity and specificity were 0.900 and 0.973, respectively. The results indicate that fusion of DA and class modeling can enhance the specificity for detection of non-PDO products. The conclusion is that DA and class modeling should be combined for tracing food geographical origins.

  15. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of lotus seed resistant starch prepared by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Wu, Xiaoting; Lin, Shan; Zeng, Hongliang; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different preparation methods on the structural characteristics and physicochemical properties of LRS3. The molar mass of LRS3 prepared by autoclaving method (GP-LRS3) and ultrasonic-autoclaving method (UP-LRS3) was mainly distributed in the range 1.0 × 10(4)-2 × 10(4) g/mol while a decrease of LRS3 prepared by microwave-moisture method (MP-LRS3) was observed. The particle of MP-LRS3 was smaller and relatively smoother while UP-LRS3 was bigger and rougher compared to GP-LRS3. Among these samples, GP-LRS3 exhibited the highest degree of ordered structure and crystallinity, the amorphous region of MP-LRS3 was the biggest and UP-LRS3 displayed the highest degree of double helical structure. Additionally, MP-LRS3 displayed the strongest solubility and swelling power while UP-LRS3 exhibited the strongest iodine absorption ability and thermostability, which were affected by their structural characteristics.

  16. Rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton mediates invasion of Lotus japonicus roots by Mesorhizobium loti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Keisuke; Fukai, Eigo; Madsen, Lene H; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Rueda, Paloma; Radutoiu, Simona; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof; Morieri, Giulia; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, J Allan; Nielsen, Mette W; Rusek, Anna Maria; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; James, Euan K; Oyaizu, Hiroshi; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Infection thread-dependent invasion of legume roots by rhizobia leads to internalization of bacteria into the plant cells, which is one of the salient features of root nodule symbiosis. We found that two genes, Nap1 (for Nck-associated protein 1) and Pir1 (for 121F-specific p53 inducible RNA), involved in actin rearrangements were essential for infection thread formation and colonization of Lotus japonicus roots by its natural microsymbiont, Mesorhizobium loti. nap1 and pir1 mutants developed an excess of uncolonized nodule primordia, indicating that these two genes were not essential for the initiation of nodule organogenesis per se. However, both the formation and subsequent progression of infection threads into the root cortex were significantly impaired in these mutants. We demonstrate that these infection defects were due to disturbed actin cytoskeleton organization. Short root hairs of the mutants had mostly transverse or web-like actin filaments, while bundles of actin filaments in wild-type root hairs were predominantly longitudinal. Corroborating these observations, temporal and spatial differences in actin filament organization between wild-type and mutant root hairs were also observed after Nod factor treatment, while calcium influx and spiking appeared unperturbed. Together with various effects on plant growth and seed formation, the nap1 and pir1 alleles also conferred a characteristic distorted trichome phenotype, suggesting a more general role for Nap1 and Pir1 in processes establishing cell polarity or polar growth in L. japonicus.

  17. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Dorian Fabian; Małolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2012-02-01

    Use of insertion mutants facilitates functional analysis of genes, but it has been difficult to identify a suitable mutagen and to establish large populations for reverse genetics in most plant species. The main challenge is developing efficient high-throughput procedures for both mutagenesis and identification of insertion sites. To date, only floral-dip T-DNA transformation of Arabidopsis has produced independent germinal insertions, thereby allowing generation of mutant populations from seeds of single plants. In addition, advances in insertion detection have been hampered by a lack of protocols, including software for automated data analysis, that take full advantage of high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We have addressed these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package, and here we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8935 LORE1 insertions in 3744 Lotus japonicus plants. The identified insertions show that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. As LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating progeny generates a complete mutant population. This ease of LORE1 mutagenesis, combined with the efficient FSTpoolit protocol, which exploits 2D pooling, Illumina sequencing and automated data analysis, allows highly cost-efficient development of a comprehensive reverse genetic resource.

  18. Impact of Ultrasounds on the Share of Hard Seeds in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Toth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has focused on 4 size groups of bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L. (Ø 1.0-1.6 mm and 10 variants of ultrasound treatments with different intensities and exposure times (0.11-2.72 W/cm2 and 10-160 seconds. After treating the bird’s-foot trefoil seed groups with ultrasounds, the bird’s-foot trefoil seeds were put into Petri vases for germination and the following parameters were measured: germinating energy (after 10 days, germinating faculty (after 21 days and share of hard bird’s-foot trefoil seeds (after 31 days. Research results show a very significant decrease of the share of hard bird’s-foot trefoil seeds in the groups of medium- and large-size bird’s-foot trefoil seeds treated with ultrasounds, compared to the control variant (no group seeds or to the small-size bird’s-foot trefoil seed group treated with ultrasounds. Intensity and exposure time do not correlate with the share of hard bird’s-foot trefoil seeds.

  19. Pollen development and tube growth are affected in the symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, crinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansengco, Myra L; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Takagi, Shingo; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2004-05-01

    The symbiotic mutant of Lotus japonicus, crinkle (crk), exhibits abnormal nodulation and other alterations in the root hairs, trichomes, and seedpods. Defective nodulation in crk mutant is due to the arrested infection thread growth from the epidermis into the cortex. Here, we describe that crk is also affected in male fertility that causes the production of small pods with few seeds. Under in vitro conditions, pollen germination and tube growth were markedly reduced in the crk mutant. A swollen tip phenotype with disorganized filamentous actin (F-actin) was observed in the mutant pollen tubes after prolonged in vitro culture. During pollen development, the striking difference noted in the mutant was the small size of the microspores that remained spherical. Histological examination of ovule development, as well as outcrosses of the mutant as female to wild type as male, showed no evidence of abnormality in the female gametophyte development. Based on these findings, the Crk gene, aside from its role in the infection process during nodulation, is also involved in male gametophyte development and function. Therefore, this gene represents a connection between nodule symbiosis, polar tip growth, and other plant developmental processes.

  20. Quantitative trait locus analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Takahiro; Sato, Shusei; Okumura, Kenji; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Isobe, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    The first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus was performed with a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129. Thirteen agronomic traits were evaluated in 2004 and 2005: traits of vegetative parts (plant height, stem thickness, leaf length, leaf width, plant regrowth, plant shape, and stem color), flowering traits (flowering time and degree), and pod and seed traits (pod length, pod width, seeds per pod, and seed mass). A total of 40 QTLs were detected that explained 5%-69% of total variation. The QTL that explained the most variation was that for stem color, which was detected in the same region of chromosome 2 in both years. Some QTLs were colocated, especially those for pod and seed traits. Seed mass QTLs were located at 5 locations that mapped to the corresponding genomic positions of equivalent QTLs in soybean, pea, chickpea, and mung bean. This study provides fundamental information for breeding of agronomically important legume crops.

  1. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTL in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Melinda A; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-08-01

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129 recombinant inbred population from the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was grown to seed under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and 2007. Phenotypic data were collected for seed calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations and content. Data for physical seed traits (average seed mass and seed-pod allocation values) were also collected. Based on these phenotypic data, QTL analyses identified 103 QTL linked to 55 different molecular markers. Transgressive segregation, identified within this recombinant inbred population for both seed nutrient and physical traits, suggests new allelic combinations are available for agronomic trait improvement. QTL co-localization was also seen, suggesting that common transport processes might contribute to seed nutrient loading. Identification of loci involved in seed mineral density can be an important first step in identifying the genetic factors and, consequently, the physiological processes involved in mineral distribution to developing seeds. Longer term research efforts will focus on facilitating agronomic breeding efforts through ortholog identification in related crop legumes.

  2. Structural characteristics and crystalline properties of lotus seed resistant starch and its prebiotic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Hongliang; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Zheng, Baodong

    2014-07-15

    Lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) is a type of retrograded starch that is commonly known as resistant starch type 3 (RS3). The structural and crystalline properties of unpurified LRS (NP-LRS3), enzyme purified LRS after drying (GP-LRS3), and enzyme purified LRS (ZP-LRS3) were characterized. The result showed that the molecular weights of NP-LRS3, GP-LRS3, and ZP-LRS3 were 0.102 × 10(6), 0.014 × 10(6), and 0.025 × 10(6)Da, respectively. Compared with native starch and high amylose maize starch (HAMS), LRS lacked the polarization cross and the irregularly shaped LRS granules had a rougher surface, B-type crystal structure, and greater level of molecular order. The FT-IR measurements indicated no differences in the chemical groups. Analysis by (13)C NMR indicated an increased propensity for double helix formation and higher crystallinity in LRS than in the two other types of starch. Moreover, LRS was more effective than either glucose or HAMS in promoting the proliferation of bifidobacteria.

  3. Identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jihong; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ding, Yi

    2013-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of non-protein coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants and animals. Although thousands of miRNAs were identified in many plant species, only 3 miRNAs have been reported in Lotus Japonicus, a model legume plant. In this study, 80 potential miRNA candidates were identified in 28 ESTs and 52 GSSs of L. japonicus using a homology-based computational analysis. A total of 735 miRNA targets were predicted and some of them encoded transcription factors as well as genes that function in stress response, signal transduction, methylation and others. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that miR156a, miR160a and miR399a participated in seed germination of L. japonicus. GO and KEGG analysis suggested that the predicted miRNAs might target genes involved in lipid, nitrogen, starch sucrose metabolism and signal transduction.

  4. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanwei; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan; Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu; Chen, Yuze

    2016-09-01

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M1 populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD50) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M2 plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M2 populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  5. A Novel ABA Insensitive Mutant of Lotus japonicus with a Wilty Phenotype Displays Unaltered Nodulation Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bandana Biswas; Pick Kuen Chan; Peter M Gresshoff

    2009-01-01

    An ABA insensitive mutant,Beyma,was isolated in Lotus japonicus MG-20 from an EMS mutagenesis pop-ulation using root growth inhibition to applied ABA as the screening criterion.(The name 'Beyma" was taken from the Australian Aboriginal language,Wagiman,beyma,meaning 'drying up'.) The stable mutant that segregates as a dominant Mendelian mutation is insensitive to ABA induced inhibition of germination,vegetative growth,stomatal opening,as well as nodulation.Tissue ABA levels were normal,suggesting a sensitivity rather than biosynthesis mutation.It is slow-growing (50-70% of wild-type MG-20) and has a near-constitutive wilty phenotype associated with its inability to regulate stomatal opening.Whilst showing a wide range of ABA insensitive phenotypes,Beyma did not show alteration of nodule number control,as,in the absence of added ABA,the number and patterning (but not size) of nodules formed in the mutant were similar to that of MG-20.Split root experiments on MG-20 showed that application of ABA on one side of the root inhibited nodulation locally but not systemically.We propose that ABA is not involved directly in systemic autoregulation of nodulation (AON).

  6. LjCYC Genes Constitute Floral Dorsoventral Asymmetry in Lotus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiechen Wang; Yumei Wang; Da Luo

    2010-01-01

    Previous study shows that LjCYC2, a CYC-like TCP (TB1, CYC and PCFs) gene in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, is involved in dorsal petal development, which together with the other two homologous genes,LjCYC1 and LjCYC3, belongs to an LjCYC gene cluster. In this report, we modified the transformation system in L. japonicus, and constructed different RNAi transgenes to target different LjCYC genes. The expression of three endogenous LjCYC genes was specifically suppressed by different specific RNAi transgenes, and a chimerical RNAi transgene that contains the specific sequences from LjCYC1 and LjCYC2 was found to downregulate the expression of both endogenous genes simultaneously. Effects of silencing three LjCYC genes were mainly restricted on either dorsal or lateral petals, demonstrating their dorsalizing and lateralizing activities during the development of zygomorphic flower. Furthermore,abolishing the expression of three LjCYC genes could give rise to complete loss of dorsoventral (DV) differentiation in the flower whose petals all resembled the ventral one in the wild type and displayed intact organ internal (IN) asymmetry. Our data demonstrate that during zygomorphic flower development, the DV asymmetry is constituted by the LjCYC genes, while the floral organ IN asymmetry is independently determined by other genetic factors.

  7. Modulation of phenolic metabolism under stress conditions in a Lotus japonicus mutant lacking plastidic glutamine synthetase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita eGarcía-Calderón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper was aimed to investigate the possible implications of the lack of plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2 in phenolic metabolism during stress responses in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Important changes in the transcriptome were detected in a GS2 mutant called Ljgln2-2, compared to the wild type, in response to two separate stress conditions, such as drought or the result of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Detailed transcriptomic analysis showed that the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was affected in the mutant plants in these two different types of stress situations. For this reason, the genes and metabolites related to this metabolic route were further investigated using a combined approach of gene expression analysis and metabolite profiling. A high induction of the expression of several genes for the biosynthesis of different branches of the phenolic biosynthetic pathway was detected by qRT-PCR. The extent of induction was always higher in Ljgln2-2, probably reflecting the higher stress levels present in this genotype. This was paralleled by accumulation of several kaempferol and quercetine glycosides, some of them described for the first time in L. japonicus, and of high levels of the isoflavonoid vestitol. The results obtained indicate that the absence of GS2 affects different aspects of phenolic metabolism in L .japonicus plants in response to stress.

  8. Efficiency of partner choice and sanctions in Lotus is not altered by nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regus, John U; Gano, Kelsey A; Hollowell, Amanda C; Sachs, Joel L

    2014-04-22

    Eukaryotic hosts must exhibit control mechanisms to select against ineffective bacterial symbionts. Hosts can minimize infection by less-effective symbionts (partner choice) and can divest of uncooperative bacteria after infection (sanctions). Yet, such host-control traits are predicted to be context dependent, especially if they are costly for hosts to express or maintain. Legumes form symbiosis with rhizobia that vary in symbiotic effectiveness (nitrogen fixation) and can enforce partner choice as well as sanctions. In nature, legumes acquire fixed nitrogen from both rhizobia and soils, and nitrogen deposition is rapidly enriching soils globally. If soil nitrogen is abundant, we predict host control to be downregulated, potentially allowing invasion of ineffective symbionts. We experimentally manipulated soil nitrogen to examine context dependence in host control. We co-inoculated Lotus strigosus from nitrogen depauperate soils with pairs of Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness and fertilized plants with either zero nitrogen or growth maximizing nitrogen. We found efficient partner choice and sanctions regardless of nitrogen fertilization, symbiotic partner combination or growth season. Strikingly, host control was efficient even when L. strigosus gained no significant benefit from rhizobial infection, suggesting that these traits are resilient to short-term changes in extrinsic nitrogen, whether natural or anthropogenic.

  9. Comportamento de leguminosas (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium em mistura com festuca Response of legumes (Adesmia, Lotus, Trifolium in mixture with tall fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de leguminosas hibernais é uma das práticas mais importantes para incrementar a quantidade, a qualidade e a sustentabilidade de pastagens perenes no Sul do Brasil. Durante os anos de 2000 e 2001, foi avaliado o comportamento de seis leguminosas temperadas (Adesmia latifolia - nativa, Lotus corniculatus, L. subbiflorus, L. uliginosus e Trifolium repens - cv. Yi e Regal, em mistura com festuca (Festuca arundinacea. Entre a semeadura e o último corte decorreram 475 dias, sendo realizados seis cortes: no outono-inverno/2000, foi feito um corte; na primavera-verão, três e, no outono-inverno/2001, dois cortes. Os intervalos entre cortes variaram entre 43 a 91 dias, sendo menores na estação estival. No total do período experimental obtiveram-se, na média das misturas, 15.038 kg/ha de MS, sendo que, na primavera-verão foram produzidos cerca de 54% desse total, com taxa de crescimento média de 46 kg/ha/dia de MS. Nos meses de outono-inverno de 2000 e 2001, foram obtidas taxas de 22 e 24 kg/ha/dia de MS. O cornichão e o trevo-branco cv. Yi foram as leguminosas mais produtivas, sendo que a primeira destacou-se na primavera-verão (3.500 kg/ha de MS e a última participou com 86,3% na mistura no outono-inverno/2001, com 2.300 kg/ha de MS. As misturas contendo essas leguminosas apresentaram a menor quantidade de invasoras e produziram, respectivamente, 13.663 e 11.184 kg/ha de MS, sendo 82 e 71% desses totais compostos das leguminosas, festuca e azevém. A. latifolia não teve bom estabelecimento e sua participação foi de 0,84% no primeiro corte. L. subbiflorus teve uma boa participação no primeiro ano (37%, mas desapareceu no segundo ano. L. uliginosus mostrou boa persistência, produzindo 1.400 kg/ha de MS no outono/2001.Overseeding temperate legumes is one of the most practices to increase the quantity, quality and sustainability of perennial pastures in Southern Brazil. During the years of 2000 and 2001 the response of six

  10. Expanding the Lotus japonicus reverse genetics toolbox – Development of LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and artificial miRNA-mediated silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most common approach to studying Lotus japonicus (Lotus) genes is forward genetics in which a gene responsible for the studied phenotype is identified through map-based cloning. In reverse genetics, the activity of a gene of interest is modified to discover its mutant phenotype......-generation sequencing. Automatic assignment of insertions to individuals within the pools was done using an in-house developed bioinformatics pipeline. Analysis of the 8935 novel LORE1 insertions obtained in this study showed LORE1 to be an efficient mutagen with strong exon-specific insertional preference....... The protocols developed in the current project are now the cornerstone of a new LORE1 reverse genetics resource characterized by efficient mutant line generation and accurate mutation annotation. In parallel, artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) were designed based on both Arabidopsis and Lotus backbones...

  11. 莲藕顶芽繁殖育苗技术应用效果研究%Application Effects of Apical Bud Propagation Technology of Lotus Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常发杰; 张锋; 王开昌

    2013-01-01

      为提升保障莲藕供给能力,节本增效,开展莲藕顶芽繁殖和整藕繁殖对产量和效益影响的对比试验。试验结果表明,自莲藕顶芽下1 cm处切下,经杀菌消毒后,移至育苗床,3周后移栽大田,通过施用有机肥和精细田间管理,其效益明显高于整身种藕常规栽培,可大幅降低种子成本,且主藕顶芽繁殖比子藕顶芽繁殖产量更高,具有较大的推广价值。%  In the paper, we studied the effects of the apical bud propagation and conventional lotus root propagation on yield and benefit of lotus root production. We cut the apical buds of lotus root 1 cm under the buds, and moved the buds to the seedling bed after sterilization and disinfection, and then transplanted the seedlings to field three weeks later. The results showed that, the yield and benefit of the apical bud propagation were obviously higher than those of the conventional lotus root propagation by applying organic fertilizers and strengthening field management, and the apical bud propagation method sharply reduced the seed cost of farmers. In addition, the propagation technology using apical buds of mother lotus root possessed higher yield than that of lateral lotus root, and the propagation technology was more worthy of wide promotion.

  12. Efficacy and safety of the Lotus Valve System for treatment of patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and intermediate surgical risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Götberg, Matthias; Ihlberg, Leo

    2016-01-01

    .9% - this rate was 12.8% in case of a combined implantation depth 1.05. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of the repositionable, retrievable Lotus Valve System in intermediate risk patients with AS. The VARC-defined device success rate was 97......)-defined device success was obtained in 97.4%. A Lotus Valve was successfully implanted in all patients. There was no valve migration, embolization, ectopic valve deployment, or TAV-in-TAV deployment. The VARC-defined combined safety rate at 30days was 92.2%, with a mortality rate of 1.9% and stroke rate of 3...

  13. Optimization of Quick-boiling Process for Lotus Root Slices%藕片水焯工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计红芳; 张令文; 杨铭铎; 李光磊; 蔡振林

    2011-01-01

    Lotus root slices was quick boiled in four different media such as water,acetic acid,sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate solution and as a result,acetic acid was identified as the best medium through comprehensive considering VC content and sensory score of quick-boiled lotus root slices as well as dry matter dissolution rate.Further,on the basis of one-factor-at-a-time experiments,Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimize process conditions for the quick boiling of lotus root slices in acetic acid.The results indicated that the optimal quick boiling conditions were acetic acid concentration of 0.35%,temperature of 68.4 ℃ and quick-boiling time of 2.4 min.After quick boiling under the optimal process conditions,the content of vitamin C in lotus root slices was 30.185 mg/100 g fresh weight,and better eating quality was also achieved.The results of variance analysis showed that acetic acid concentration,quick-boiling temperature and quick-boiling time had significant effects on the content of vitamin C in quick-boiled lotus root slices(P0.01).Moreover,the cross-interactions between acetic acid concentration and temperature and between temperature and quick-boiling time also revealed a significant effect on the content of vitamin C in lotus root slices(P0.05).%以新鲜莲藕为试验材料,对水、乙酸溶液、食盐溶液和碳酸氢钠溶液等4种水焯介质进行探讨;通过单因素试验和Box-Behnken设计及响应面分析法,对藕片水焯的最佳工艺条件进行研究。结果表明:乙酸可作为藕片的水焯介质;藕片水焯的最佳工艺条件为乙酸体积分数0.35%、温度68.4℃、时间2.4min,在该条件下藕片中VC含量为30.185mg/100g,干物质溶出率为5.384%,藕片食用品质可达到较高水平。响应面方差分析结果显示,乙酸体积分数、温度和水焯时间对水焯藕片VC含量有显著影响(P〈0.01),乙酸体积分数和温度、温度和

  14. Hydrodynamic modelling and characterisation of a shallow fluvial lake: a study on the Superior Lake of Mantua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fenocchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical modelling framework developed to simulate circulations and to generally characterise the hydrodynamics of the Superior Lake of Mantua, a shallow fluvial lake in Northern Italy. Such eutrophied basin is characterised by low winds, reduced discharges during the summer and by the presence of large lotus flower (Nelumbo nucifera meadows, all contributing to water stagnation. A hydrodynamic numerical model was built to understand how physical drivers shape basic circulation dynamics, selecting appropriate methodologies for the lake. These include a 3D code to reproduce the interaction between wind and through-flowing current, a fetch-dependent wind stress model, a porous media approach for canopy flow resistance and the consideration of wave-current interaction. The model allowed to estimate the circulation modes and water residence time distributions under identified typical ordinary, storm and drought conditions, the hydrodynamic influence of the newly-opened secondary outlet of the lake, the surface wave parameters, their influence on circulations and the bottom stress they originate, and the adaptation time scales of circulations to storm events. Some probable effects of the obtained hydrodynamic characteristics of the Superior Lake of Mantua on its biochemical processes are also introduced.

  15. Neferine attenuates the protein level and toxicity of mutant huntingtin in PC-12 cells via induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent Kam Wai; Wu, An Guo; Wang, Jing Rong; Liu, Liang; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan

    2015-02-18

    Mutant huntingtin aggregation is highly associated with the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder, which leads to a loss of motor control and decline in cognitive function. Recent literature has revealed the protective role of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases through degradation of mutant toxic proteins, including huntingtin or a-synuclein. Through the GFP-LC3 autophagy detection platform, we have  identified  neferine,  isolated  from  the  lotus  seed  embryo  of Nelumbo nucifera, which is able to induce autophagy through an AMPK-mTOR-dependent pathway. Furthermore, by overexpressing huntingtin with 74 CAG repeats (EGFP-HTT 74) in PC-12 cells, neferine reduces both the protein level and toxicity of mutant huntingtin through an autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7)-dependent mechanism. With the variety of novel active compounds present in medicinal herbs, our current study suggests the possible protective mechanism of an autophagy inducer isolated from Chinese herbal medicine, which is crucial for its further development into a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders in the future.

  16. Microstructures of superhydrophobic plant leaves - inspiration for efficient oil spill cleanup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Claudia; Rodrigues da Silva, Isabelle C; Mail, Matthias; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Hölscher, Hendrik

    2016-08-16

    The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling water. These selective wetting properties are optimal for natural oil absorbent applications and bioinspired oil sorbent materials. In this paper we quantify the oil absorption capacity of four Salvinia species with different surface structures, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera), and compare their absorption capacity to artificial oil sorbents. Interestingly, the oil absorption capacities of Salvinia molesta and Pistia stratiotes leaves are comparable to artificial oil sorbents. Therefore, these pantropical invasive plants, often considered pests, qualify as environmentally friendly materials for oil spill cleanup. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of oil density and viscosity on the oil absorption, and examine how the presence and morphology of trichomes affect the amount of oil absorbed by their surfaces. Specifically, the influence of hair length and shape is analyzed by comparing different hair types ranging from single trichomes of Salvinia cucullata to complex eggbeater-shaped trichomes of Salvinia molesta to establish a basis for improving artificial bioinspired oil absorbents.

  17. Gradients of seed photosynthesis and its role for oxygen balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiersch, Henning; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Rutten, Twan; Rolletschek, Hardy

    2011-02-01

    Seeds are generally viewed in the context of plant reproduction and the supply of food and feed, but only seldom as a site of photosynthesis. However, the seeds of many plant species are green, at least during their early development, which raises the issue of the significance of this greening for seed development. Here we describe the two contrasting modes of photosynthesis in the developing seed. The dicotyledonous pea seed has a green embryo, while the monocotyledonous barley caryopsis has a chlorenchymatic layer surrounding its non-green endosperm (storage organ). We have employed pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorescence and oxygen-sensitive microsensors to localize and describe gradient distributions of photosynthetic activity across the seed/caryopsis, and have discussed its role in maintaining the endogenous O₂ balance. We also report the lack of photosynthetic activity in the stay-green embryo axis of the sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seed following imbibition. The observations are discussed with respect to in vivo light supply and contrasted with the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis.

  18. Neferine Attenuates the Protein Level and Toxicity of Mutant Huntingtin in PC-12 Cells via Induction of Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kam Wai Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutant huntingtin aggregation is highly associated with the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease, an adult-onset autosomal dominant disorder, which leads to a loss of motor control and decline in cognitive function. Recent literature has revealed the protective role of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases through degradation of mutant toxic proteins, including huntingtin or a-synuclein. Through the GFP-LC3 autophagy detection platform, we have  identified  neferine,  isolated  from  the  lotus  seed  embryo  of Nelumbo nucifera, which is able to induce autophagy through an AMPK-mTOR-dependent pathway. Furthermore, by overexpressing huntingtin with 74 CAG repeats (EGFP-HTT 74 in PC-12 cells, neferine reduces both the protein level and toxicity of mutant huntingtin through an autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7-dependent mechanism. With the variety of novel active compounds present in medicinal herbs, our current study suggests the possible protective mechanism of an autophagy inducer isolated from Chinese herbal medicine, which is crucial for its further development into a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders in the future.

  19. Root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus drives the establishment of distinctive rhizosphere, root, and nodule bacterial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Jensen, Dorthe Bodker; Koprivova, Anna; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Radutoiu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lotus japonicus has been used for decades as a model legume to study the establishment of binary symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia that trigger root nodule organogenesis for bacterial accommodation. Using community profiling of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we reveal that in Lotus, distinctive nodule- and root-inhabiting communities are established by parallel, rather than consecutive, selection of bacteria from the rhizosphere and root compartments. Comparative analyses of wild-type (WT) and symbiotic mutants in Nod factor receptor5 (nfr5), Nodule inception (nin) and Lotus histidine kinase1 (lhk1) genes identified a previously unsuspected role of the nodulation pathway in the establishment of different bacterial assemblages in the root and rhizosphere. We found that the loss of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis dramatically alters community structure in the latter two compartments, affecting at least 14 bacterial orders. The differential plant growth phenotypes seen between WT and the symbiotic mutants in nonsupplemented soil were retained under nitrogen-supplemented conditions that blocked the formation of functional nodules in WT, whereas the symbiosis-impaired mutants maintain an altered community structure in the nitrogen-supplemented soil. This finding provides strong evidence that the root-associated community shift in the symbiotic mutants is a direct consequence of the disabled symbiosis pathway rather than an indirect effect resulting from abolished symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our findings imply a role of the legume host in selecting a broad taxonomic range of root-associated bacteria that, in addition to rhizobia, likely contribute to plant growth and ecological performance. PMID:27864511

  20. Cell-specific expression of the promoters of two nonlegume hemoglobin genes in a transgenic legume, Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, C R; Llewellyn, D J; Peacock, W J; Dennis, E S

    1997-01-01

    The promoters of the hemoglobin genes from the nitrogen-fixing tree Parasponia andersonii and the related nonnitrogen-fixing Trema tomentosa both confer beta-glucuronidase reporter gene expression to the central zone of the nodules of a transgenic legume, Lotus corniculatus. beta-Glucuronidase expression was high in the uninfected interstitial cells and parenchyma of the surrounding boundary layer and was low in the Rhizobium-infected cells. This contrasts with the expression of both the P. andersonii hemoglobin protein in P. andersonii nodules and the endogenous Lotus leghemoglobins that are expressed in the infected cells at very high levels. The expression pattern of the P. andersonii and T. tomentosa hemoglobin promoters in L. corniculatus resembles that of a nonsymbiotic hemoglobin gene from Casuarina glauca, which was introduced into this legume, and suggests that only the nonsymbiotic functions of the P. andersonii promoter are being recognized. Deletion of the distal segments of both the P. andersonii and T. tomentosa promoters identified regions important for the control of their tissue-specific and temporal activity in Lotus. Potential regulatory elements, which enhance nodule expression and suppress nonnodule expression, were also identified and localized to a distal promoter segment. A proximal AAGAG motif is present in the P. andersonii, T. tomentosa, and nonsymbiotic Casuarina hemoglobin genes. Mutation of this motif in the P. andersonii promoter resulted in a significant reduction in both the nodule and root expression levels in L. corniculatus. Some of the regulatory motifs characterized are similar to, but different from, the nodulin motifs of the leghemoglobins.

  1. Lotus tenuis tolerates the interactive effects of salinity and waterlogging by 'excluding' Na+ and Cl- from the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teakle, Nl; Flowers, Tj; Real, D; Colmer, Td

    2007-01-01

    Salinity and waterlogging interact to reduce growth of poorly adapted species by, amongst other processes, increasing the rate of Na(+) and Cl(-) transport to shoots. Xylem concentrations of these ions were measured in sap collected using xylem-feeding spittlebugs (Philaenus spumarius) from Lotus tenuis and Lotus corniculatus in saline (NaCl) and anoxic (stagnant) treatments. In aerated NaCl solution (200 mM), L. corniculatus had 50% higher Cl(-) concentrations in the xylem and shoot compared with L. tenuis, whereas concentrations of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between the species. In stagnant-plus-NaCl solution, xylem Cl(-) and Na(+) concentrations of L. corniculatus increased to twice those of L. tenuis. These differences in xylem ion concentrations, which were not caused by variation in transpiration between the two species, contributed to lower net accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in shoots of L. tenuis, indicating that ion transport mechanisms in roots of L. tenuis were contributing to better 'exclusion' of Cl(-) and Na(+) from shoots, compared with L. corniculatus. Root porosity was also higher in L. tenuis, due to constitutive aerenchyma, than in L. corniculatus, suggesting that enhanced root aeration contributed to the maintenance of Na(+) and Cl(-) 'exclusion' in L. tenuis exposed to stagnant-plus-NaCl treatment. Lotus tenuis also had greater dry mass than L. corniculatus after 56 d in NaCl or stagnant-plus-NaCl treatment. Thus, Cl(-) 'exclusion' is a key trait contributing to salt tolerance of L. tenuis, and 'exclusion' of both Cl(-) and Na(+) from the xylem enables L. tenuis to tolerate, better than L. corniculatus, the interactive stresses of salinity and waterlogging.

  2. 从NT Domino服务器到Lotus Domino 向AS/400的移植方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁春江; 邓伟; 等

    2002-01-01

    AS/400以其卓越的性能,越来越受到用户的青睐,把原来基于其它平台的Domino系统移植到AS/400上成为我们首先面临的问题,本文主要介绍了如何在对Notes client影响最小的情况下,把NT Domino server移植到Lotus Domino for AS/400上。

  3. [Analysis of quantitative traits connected with seed weight and flowering terms in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaĭchuk, V I

    2000-01-01

    The nature of inheritance of characters connected with the seed size (seed mass) and quality of the shoots (germination energy, seed viability, general shoot length, shoot mass, dry weight of shoots) in Lotus corniculatus L. was analyzed. The investigations were carried out on plants of three varieties: the wild form from the Krasnodar Region and local forms MF1 and MF3. The correlation analysis was carried out. The pattern of inheritance in the terms of plant flowering and length of shoots were studied.

  4. Experimental study on mechanical properties of lotus seed%莲子机械特性的测试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽娟; 宗力; 李小昱

    2005-01-01

    对莲子的机械特性进行了测试,以研究脱壳机理,为莲子脱壳机的设计提供技术数据.用压缩试验的方法求取各种工况下莲子的机械特性,分析了莲子等级和加载速率对其破壳力的影响,同时测定了不同部位、测点破壳力的差异.结果表明:莲子破壳力与等级成线性正相关关系,相关系数为0.955;加载速率与破壳力之间没有明确的关系,其应力-应变曲线的斜率随加载速率的增加而增大,而应变随之减小;莲子"赤道"与"两极"间轮廓上不同测点的破壳力差异较大,而同一部位的圆周上各点所需破壳力相差不大.该文的研究结果为莲子加工工艺的研究开发提供了理论依据.%To research lotus seed decladding mechanism and provide technical data for designing an ideal sheller, its mechanical properties were tested. some compressive experiments were conducted to determine its mechanical properties under various conditions. The effects of loading velocity and grade on compressive crushing load (CCL) were analyzed and the differences of CCL at various loading positions and points were measured. Experimental results show that CCL is influenced by grade. The equation of the stress-strain curve was well fitted, which gave a correlation coefficient of 0.955. With the inerease of loading velocity, the curve slope augments and the deformation lessens. With respect to rupture limit and CCL, there is no notable relationship due to the tissue of lotus seed. CCL decreases gradually from lotus seed ‘equator' to its ‘poles'. The stress-strain curves and CCL are very anomalous. However, at the points around the same position, the properties are homogeneous. The results provide a theoretical basis for the development of the technology for lotus seed processing.

  5. Identification and Functional Characterisation of Nod Factor Receptor (NFR) Paralogs in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Gitte; Radutoiu, Elena Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    an important missing link in plant-bacterial communication. This picture changed with the cloning of LysM-domain containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs) in different legume species. In Lotus japonicus, two LysM-RLKs, Nod Factor Receptor 1 (NFR1) and Nod Factor Receptor 5 (NFR5), are believed to bind Nod...... factor, subsequently initiating a signal cascade leading to symbiotic nodule development. Similar genes have also been identified in other plants: seven LysM-domain containing receptor-like kinases (LYKs) were found in the model legume Medicago truncatula, two of them, LYK3 and LYK4 playing a role...

  6. Indução de calo a partir de eixo embrionário de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. Callus induction from coconut embryogenic axis (Cocos nucifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicia Karinne Pereira Gomes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de formação de calos a partir de tecidos originários do eixo embrionário de embriões zigóticos de coqueiro (Cocos nucifera L. em diferentes concentrações de 2,4-D. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 concentrações de 2,4-D x 5 segmentos do eixo embrionário. Os eixos embrionários foram excisados longitudinalmente dos embriões zigóticos e, em seguida, submetidos à assepsia com hipoclorito de sódio (0,2% por dois minutos, lavados com água destilada estéril e imersos por dois minutos em solução de ácido cítrico estéril (100 mg.L-1. Os eixos embrionários foram então seccionados em cinco segmentos correspondentes às posições A, B, C, D e E, e transferidos para placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura Y3, suplementado com quatro concentrações de 2,4-D (10-4; 1,36x10-4; 3,62x10-4 e 4,52x10-4 M, sacarose (50 g.L-1, carvão ativado (2,5 g.L-1 e vitaminas de Morel e Wetmore, mantidos em ambiente escuro, em temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC. Após 15 dias de inoculação, os segmentos A e B apresentaram 97,5% de explantes com calos friáveis na concentração de 10-4 M de 2,4-D, e 92,5% e 80%, respectivamente, na concentração de 1,36x10-4 M. O segmento E, em ambas as concentrações, apresentou 60% de calogênese. Após 30 dias de inoculação, os segmentos A e B apresentaram 100% e 97,5% de calogênese na concentração de 10-4 M, e 90% e 80%, respectivamente, na concentração de 1,36x10-4 M. Em ambas as concentrações, o segmento E apresentou de 55 a 57,5% de formação de calos. As concentrações de 2,4-D que melhor induzem calogênese, são as de 10-4 e 1,36x10-4 M. Os segmentos A, B e E apresentaram maior competência para calogênese.The ability of callus formation from the embryo axes of coconut in different concentrations of 2,4-D was evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4x5

  7. CERBERUS and NSP1 of Lotus japonicus are common symbiosis genes that modulate arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Suzaki, Takuya; Parniske, Martin; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) are mutualistic plant-microbe interactions that confer nutritional benefits to both partners. Leguminous plants possess a common genetic system for intracellular symbiosis with AM fungi and with rhizobia. Here we show that CERBERUS and NSP1, which respectively encode an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a GRAS transcriptional regulator and which have previously only been implicated in RNS, are involved in AM fungal infection in Lotus japonicus. Hyphal elongation along the longitudinal axis of the root was reduced in the cerberus mutant, giving rise to a lower colonization level. Knockout of NSP1 decreased the frequency of plants colonized by AM fungi or rhizobia. CERBERUS and NSP1 showed different patterns of expression in response to infection with symbiotic microbes. A low constitutive level of CERBERUS expression was observed in the root and an increased level of NSP1 expression was detected in arbuscule-containing cells. Induction of AM marker gene was triggered in both cerberus and nsp1 mutants by infection with symbiotic microbes; however, the mutants showed a weaker induction of marker gene expression than the wild type, mirroring their lower level of colonization. The common symbiosis genes are believed to act in an early signaling pathway for recognition of symbionts and for triggering early symbiotic responses. Our quantitative analysis of symbiotic phenotypes revealed developmental defects of the novel common symbiosis mutants in both symbioses, which demonstrates that common symbiosis mechanisms also contribute to a range of functions at later or different stages of symbiont infection.

  8. Selection and characterization of glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerboom, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    If birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) was tolerant to glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) and other dicot weeds could be selectively controlled in certified seed production fields. Glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil was identified in plants from the cultivar Leo, plants regenerated from tolerant callus, and selfed progeny of plants regenerated from callus. Plants from the three sources were evaluated in field studies for tolerance to glyphosate at rates up to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Plants of Leo selected for tolerance exhibited a twofold range in the rate required to reduce shoot weight 50% (I{sub 50}s from 0.6 to 1.2 kg/ha glyphosate). Plants regenerated from tolerant callus had tolerance up to 66% greater than plants regenerated from unselected callus. Transgressive segregation for glyphosate tolerance was observed in the selfed progeny of two regenerated plants that both had I{sub 50}s of 0.7 kg/ha glyphosate. The selfed progeny ranged from highly tolerant (I{sub 50} of 1.5 kg/ha) to susceptible (I{sub 50} of 0.5 kg/ha). Spray retention, {sup 14}C-glyphosate absorption and translocation did not account for the differential tolerance of nine plants that were evaluated from the three sources. The specific activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 nmol/min{sm bullet}mg among the nine plants and was positively correlated with glyphosate tolerance. Leo birdsfoot trefoil was found to have significant variation in glyphosate tolerance which made it possible to initiate a recurrent selection program to select for glyphosate tolerance in birdsfoot trefoil. Two cycles of selection for glyphosate tolerance were practiced in three birdsfoot trefoil populations, Leo, Norcen, and MU-81.

  9. Ammonia-regulated expression of a soybean gene encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase in transgenic Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, G H; Hirel, B; Marsolier, M C; Ridge, R W; Verma, D P

    1991-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS), expressed in roots and root nodules of soybean, was isolated by direct complementation of an Escherichia coli gln A- mutant. This sequence is induced in roots by the availability of ammonia. A 3.5-kilobase promoter fragment of a genomic clone (lambda GS15) corresponding to this cDNA was isolated and fused with a reporter [beta-glucuronidase (GUS)] gene. The GS-GUS fusion was introduced into a legume (Lotus corniculatus) and a nonlegume (tobacco) plant by way of Agrobacterium-mediated transformations. This chimeric gene was found to be expressed in a root-specific manner in both tobacco and L. corniculatus, the expression being restricted to the growing root apices and the vascular bundles of the mature root. Treatment with ammonia increased the expression of this chimeric gene in the legume background (i.e., L. corniculatus); however, no induction was observed in tobacco roots. Histochemical localization of GUS activity in ammonia-treated transgenic L. corniculatus roots showed a uniform distribution across all cell types. These data suggest that the tissue specificity of the soybean cytosolic GS gene is conserved in both tobacco and L. corniculatus; however, in the latter case, this gene is ammonia inducible. Furthermore, the ammonia-enhanced GS gene expression in L. corniculatus is due to an increase in transcription. That this gene is directly regulated by externally supplied or symbiotically fixed nitrogen is also evident from the expression of GS-GUS in the infection zone, including the uninfected cells, and the inner cortex of transgenic L. corniculatus nodules, where a flux of ammonia is encountered by this tissue. The lack of expression of GS-GUS in the outer cortex of the nodules suggests that ammonia may not be able to diffuse outside the endodermis.

  10. Performance of Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes submitted to cutting interval: subsidies to a breeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of five birdsfoot trefoil populations (Lotus corniculatus L., selected under severe and intense grazing (P38, P37, P9 and P3 or cutting (population Corte, one rhizomatous population from Morocco and two cultivars, São Gabriel (Brazil and ARS 2620 (USA, to different cutting intervals (20 and 40 days. The trial was carried out in a greenhouse for 224 days. The plants were submitted to the treatments during four months, when it was made four and two cuttings for the 20 and 40 day intervals, respectively. In the following months, aerial part of the plants was totally removed and after 70 days of regrowth, evaluation of roots and aerial section were performed. Analysis of variance and multivariate analysis was performed, obtaining the Mahalanobis distance (Md, dendogram by UPGMA method and the relative contribution of the characters for genetic divergence. There was no genotype × cutting interval interaction and the genotypes presented a reduction on dry matter yield of roots, crown and aerial sections, number of stems and plant height when submitted to frequent cuttings. The most divergent genotypes were Marrocos and P9 (Md = 108.7 and the most similar ones were São Gabriel and P37 (Md = 7.8. The results suggest exclusion of the population P9 because of its weak performance and the utilization of the populations Corte and P37 as progenitors in the birdsfoot trefoil breeding program. Root dry matter accumulation and plant height were the characters that contributed most to genetic divergence and they can be used for selection works.

  11. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis. PMID:23046713

  12. Geobacter luticola sp. nov., an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium isolated from lotus field mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viulu, Samson; Nakamura, Kohei; Okada, Yurina; Saitou, Sakiko; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    A novel species of Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, designated strain OSK6(T), belonging to the genus Geobacter, was isolated from lotus field mud in Japan. Strain OSK6(T) was isolated using a solid medium containing acetate, Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and gellan gum. The isolate is a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, motile, straight rod-shaped bacterium, 0.6-1.9 µm long and 0.2-0.4 µm wide. The growth of the isolate occurred at 20-40 °C with optima of 30-37 °C and pH 6.5-7.5 in the presence of up to 0.5 g NaCl l(-1). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined by HPLC to be 59.7 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were 16 : 1ω7c and 16 : 0. Strain OSK6(T) was able to grow with Fe(III)-NTA, ferric citrate, amorphous iron (III) hydroxide and nitrate, but not with fumarate, malate or sulfate as electron acceptors. Among examined substrates grown with Fe(III)-NTA, the isolate grew on acetate, lactate, pyruvate and succinate. Analysis of the near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain OSK6(T) is closely related to Geobacter daltonii and Geobacter toluenoxydans with 95.6 % similarity to the type strains of these species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and physiological tests, strain OSK6(T) is described as a representative of a novel species, Geobacter luticola sp. nov.; the type strain is OSK6(T) ( = DSM 24905(T) = JCM 17780(T)).

  13. Functional characterization of an unusual phytochelatin synthase, LjPCS3, of Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Javier; Naya, Loreto; Gay, Marina; Abián, Joaquín; Becana, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    In plants and many other organisms, phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the synthesis of phytochelatins from glutathione in the presence of certain metals and metalloids. We have used budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a heterologous system to characterize two PCS proteins, LjPCS1 and LjPCS3, of the model legume Lotus japonicus. Initial experiments revealed that the metal tolerance of yeast cells in vivo depends on the concentrations of divalent cations in the growth medium. Detailed in vivo (intact cells) and in vitro (broken cells) assays of PCS activity were performed with yeast expressing the plant enzymes, and values of phytochelatin production for each metal tested were normalized with respect to those of cadmium to correct for the lower expression level of LjPCS3. Our results showed that lead was the best activator of LjPCS1 in the in vitro assay, whereas, for both assays, arsenic, iron, and aluminum were better activators of LjPCS3 and mercury was similarly active with the two enzymes. Most interestingly, zinc was a powerful activator, especially of LjPCS3, when assayed in vivo, whereas copper and silver were the strongest activators in the in vitro assay. We conclude that the in vivo and in vitro assays are useful and complementary to assess the response of LjPCS1 and LjPCS3 to a wide range of metals and that the differences in the C-terminal domains of the two proteins are responsible for their distinct expression levels or stabilities in heterologous systems and patterns of metal activation.

  14. ROP6 is involved in root hair deformation induced by Nod factors in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Danxia; Li, Xiangyong; Han, Yapeng; Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hongyu; Wang, Lei

    2016-11-01

    Roots of leguminous plants perceive Nod factor signals, and then root hair deformation responses such as swelling and curling are activated. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms of such root hair deformation. We have previously shown that LjROP6, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, was identified as an NFR5 (Nod Factor Receptor 5)-interacting protein and participated in symbiotic nodulation in Lotus japonicus. In this study, we identified ten LjROP GTPases including LjROP6, and they were distributed into groups II, III, IV but not group I by phylogenetic analysis. The expression profiles of ten LjROP genes during nodulation were examined. LjROP6 belonged to group IV and interacted with NFR5 in a GTP-dependent manner. Overexpression of either wild-type ROP6 or a constitutively active mutant (ROP6-CA) generated root hair tip growth depolarization, while overexpression of a dominant negative mutant (ROP6-DN) exhibited normal root hair growth. After inoculating with Mesorhizobium loti or adding Nod factors to hairy roots, overexpression of ROP6 and ROP6-CA exhibited extensive root hair deformation, while overexpression of ROP6-DN inhibited root hair deformation. The infection event and nodule number were increased in ROP6 and ROP6-CA overexpressing transgenic plants; but decreased in ROP6-DN overexpressing transgenic plants. These studies provide strong evidence that ROP6 GTPase, which binds NFR5 in a GTP-dependent manner, is involved in root hair development as well as root hair deformation responses induced by NFs in the early stage of symbiotic interaction in L. japonicus.

  15. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; García-Calderón, Margarita; Márquez, Antonio J; Betti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2) is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4(+) accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4(+) when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and asparagine synthetase (ASN) was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4(+). Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4(+) when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity.

  16. Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannetti Marco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.

  17. Peroxiredoxins and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin systems in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Méndez, Alejandro; Matamoros, Manuel A; Bustos-Sanmamed, Pilar; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Becana, Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thioredoxins (Trxs), and NADPH-thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) constitute central elements of the thiol-disulfide redox regulatory network of plant cells. This study provides a comprehensive survey of this network in the model legume Lotus japonicus. The aims were to identify and characterize these gene families and to assess whether the NTR-Trx systems are operative in nodules. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunological and proteomic approaches were used for expression profiling. We identified seven Prx, 14 Trx, and three NTR functional genes. The PrxQ1 gene was found to be transcribed in two alternative spliced variants and to be expressed at high levels in leaves, stems, petals, pods, and seeds and at low levels in roots and nodules. The 1CPrx gene showed very high expression in the seed embryos and low expression in vegetative tissues and was induced by nitric oxide and cytokinins. In sharp contrast, cytokinins down-regulated all other Prx genes, except PrxQ1, in roots and nodules, but only 2CPrxA and PrxQ1 in leaves. Gene-specific changes in Prx expression were also observed in response to ethylene, abscisic acid, and auxins. Nodules contain significant mRNA and protein amounts of cytosolic PrxIIB, Trxh1, and NTRA and of plastidic NTRC. Likewise, they express cytosolic Trxh3, Trxh4, Trxh8, and Trxh9, mitochondrial PrxIIF and Trxo, and plastidic Trxm2, Trxm4, and ferredoxin-Trx reductase. These findings reveal a complex regulation of Prxs that is dependent on the isoform, tissue, and signaling molecule and support that redox NTR-Trx systems are functional in the cytosol, mitochondria, and plastids of nodules.

  18. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Lotus japonicus mutants specifically defective in arbuscular mycorrhizal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Katsuharu; Oba, Hirosuke; Yoshida, Yuma; Terasawa, Junya; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    Several symbiotic mutants of legume plants defective in nodulation have also been shown to be mutants related to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. The origin of the AM symbiosis can be traced back to the early land plants. It has therefore been postulated that the older system of AM symbiosis was partially incorporated into the newer system of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. To unravel the genetic basis of the establishment of AM symbiosis, we screened about 34,000 plants derived from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Lotus japonicus seeds by microscopic observation. As a result, three lines (ME778, ME966 and ME2329) were isolated as AM-specific mutants that exhibit clear AM-defective phenotypes but form normal effective root nodules with rhizobial infection. In the ME2329 mutant, AM fungi spread their hyphae into the intercellular space of the cortex and formed trunk hyphae in the cortical cells, but the development of fine branches in the arbuscules was arrested. The ME2329 mutant carried a nonsense mutation in the STR-homolog gene, implying that the line may be an str mutant in L. japonicus. On the ME778 and ME966 mutant roots, the entry of AM fungal hyphae was blocked between two adjacent epidermal cells. Occasionally, hyphal colonization accompanied by arbuscules was observed in the two mutants. The genes responsible for the ME778 and ME966 mutants were independently located on chromosome 2. These results suggest that the ME778 and ME966 lines are symbiotic mutants involved in the early stage of AM formation in L. japonicus.

  19. A suite of Lotus japonicus starch mutants reveals both conserved and novel features of starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriet, Cécile; Welham, Tracey; Brachmann, Andreas; Pike, Marilyn; Pike, Jodie; Perry, Jillian; Parniske, Martin; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Smith, Alison M; Wang, Trevor L

    2010-10-01

    The metabolism of starch is of central importance for many aspects of plant growth and development. Information on leaf starch metabolism other than in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is scarce. Furthermore, its importance in several agronomically important traits exemplified by legumes remains to be investigated. To address this issue, we have provided detailed information on the genes involved in starch metabolism in Lotus japonicus and have characterized a comprehensive collection of forward and TILLING (for Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) reverse genetics mutants affecting five enzymes of starch synthesis and two enzymes of starch degradation. The mutants provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glucan, water dikinase1 in particular. Analyses of the mutant phenotypes indicate that the pathways of leaf starch metabolism in L. japonicus and Arabidopsis are largely conserved. However, the importance of these pathways for plant growth and development differs substantially between the two species. Whereas essentially starchless Arabidopsis plants lacking plastidial phosphoglucomutase grow slowly relative to wild-type plants, the equivalent mutant of L. japonicus grows normally even in a 12-h photoperiod. In contrast, the loss of GLUCAN, WATER DIKINASE1, required for starch degradation, has a far greater effect on plant growth and fertility in L. japonicus than in Arabidopsis. Moreover, we have also identified several mutants likely to be affected in new components or regulators of the pathways of starch metabolism. This suite of mutants provides a substantial new resource for further investigations of the partitioning of carbon and its importance for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legume seed development, and perenniality and vegetative regrowth.

  20. Reassimilation of Photorespiratory Ammonium in Lotus japonicus Plants Deficient in Plastidic Glutamine Synthetase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen M Pérez-Delgado

    Full Text Available It is well established that the plastidic isoform of glutamine synthetase (GS2 is the enzyme in charge of photorespiratory ammonium reassimilation in plants. The metabolic events associated to photorespiratory NH4(+ accumulation were analyzed in a Lotus japonicus photorespiratory mutant lacking GS2. The mutant plants accumulated high levels of NH4(+ when photorespiration was active, followed by a sudden drop in the levels of this compound. In this paper it was examined the possible existence of enzymatic pathways alternative to GS2 that could account for this decline in the photorespiratory ammonium. Induction of genes encoding for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and asparagine synthetase (ASN was observed in the mutant in correspondence with the diminishment of NH4(+. Measurements of gene expression, polypeptide levels, enzyme activity and metabolite levels were carried out in leaf samples from WT and mutant plants after different periods of time under active photorespiratory conditions. In the case of asparagine synthetase it was not possible to determine enzyme activity and polypeptide content; however, an increased asparagine content in parallel with the induction of ASN gene expression was detected in the mutant plants. This increase in asparagine levels took place concomitantly with an increase in glutamine due to the induction of cytosolic GS1 in the mutant, thus revealing a major role of cytosolic GS1 in the reassimilation and detoxification of photorespiratory NH4(+ when the plastidic GS2 isoform is lacking. Moreover, a diminishment in glutamate levels was observed, that may be explained by the induction of NAD(H-dependent GDH activity.

  1. Expression of the CLE-RS3 gene suppresses root nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hanna; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Suzaki, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication, principally mediated by short- or long-range mobile signals, is involved in many plant developmental processes. In root nodule symbiosis, a mutual relationship between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, the mechanism for the autoregulation of nodulation (AON) plays a key role in preventing the production of an excess number of nodules. AON is based on long-distance cell-to-cell communication between roots and shoots. In Lotus japonicus, two CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) peptides, encoded by CLE-ROOT SIGNAL 1 (CLE-RS1) and -RS2, act as putative root-derived signals that transmit signals inhibiting further nodule development through interaction with a shoot-acting receptor-like kinase HYPERNODULATION ABERRANT ROOT FORMATION 1 (HAR1). Here, an in silico search and subsequent expression analyses enabled us to identify two new L. japonicus CLE genes that are potentially involved in nodulation, designated as CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40. Time-course expression patterns showed that CLE-RS1/2/3 and LjCLE40 expression is induced during nodulation with different activation patterns. Furthermore, constitutive expression of CLE-RS3 significantly suppressed nodule formation in a HAR1-dependent manner. TOO MUCH LOVE, a root-acting regulator of AON, is also required for the CLE-RS3 action. These results suggest that CLE-RS3 is a new component of AON in L. japonicus that may act as a potential root-derived signal through interaction with HAR1. Because CLE-RS2, CLE-RS3 and LjCLE40 are located in tandem in the genome and their expression is induced not only by rhizobial infection but also by nitrate, these genes may have duplicated from a common gene.

  2. Analogy Between Lotus Images and Female Under the View of Archetypal Criticism%原型批评视角下的莲荷意象与女性类比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉霜

    2015-01-01

    从《诗经》起,建立在生殖崇拜心理之上的莲荷原型,便奠定了荷花和女子之间的隐喻类比关系,孕育了后世诗文中以荷花喻女子和以女子喻荷花两种模式。随着《楚辞》莲荷原型以及佛教莲荷原型意绪的渗入,荷花喻女子从“以色拟色”发展为“泯色重质”,女子喻荷花则达到了仙子比喻荷花的极致。在此过程中,莲荷原型的生殖生命意义、艺术美学意义以及哲学宗教意义被不断发掘,获得了各个文化层面的认同与完善。%From The Book of Songs, archetypal images of lotus, which were based on reproduction worship psychol-ogy, have established the metaphorical and analogical relationship between lotus and women, breeding two modes:one is to compare women to lotus, another is to compare lotus to women.With the penetration of lotus archetype from The Songs of Chu and emotional appeal of lotus from Buddhism, comparing women to lotus went from“exter-nal metaphor” into“attention to the inherent”, comparing lotus to women reach perfection to using fairies as meta-phor.During this process, life, art aesthetic, philosophic and religion significance of lotus images have been ex-plored continuously, obtaining the identity and improvement from various cultural dimension.

  3. Study on Three Functional Components of Chinese Main Lotus Seed Varieties%我国主要莲子品种中三种功效成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宝东; 郑金贵; 曾绍校

    2004-01-01

    莲子又名水芝丹,是我国水生蔬菜栽培中的特种挺水宿根经济植物,属睡莲科莲属(Nympheaceae Nelumbo Adans),主要分布在福建、浙江、湖北、江苏等地,在民间广为食用。

  4. 影响鲜食子莲产量的形态指标相关分析和通径分析%Correlation and Path Analysis on the Morphological Index and Output of the Fresh Seedy Lotus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元军

    2009-01-01

    The correlation and path analysis on morphological index and output of the fresh seedy lotus which were picked from Nansihu Lake were conducted,and the results indicated that the relativity of morphological index and output as in turn: weight of lotus (0.953 6),diameter of the lotus(0.810 3) .diameter of the lotus seed(0.761 4),weight of lotus seed(0.713 1),weight of lotus seed peel (0.677 8) .maturity (0.638 3) .height of lotus seed (0.565 1),number of locus seeds (0.411 2).The importance of the direct factors to the output were in turn:number of hollow(-0.456 4) .weight of lotus seed(0.450 1),weight of lotus(0.434 2),number of locus seeds(0.266 5) .diameter of the lotus(-0.093 7),diameter of the lotus seed(0.076 5) .maturity (0.041 4),and so on. Also,it indicated that the morphological indices had the obvious restricted relations.Finally,the strategy and the technology of the high production of seedy lotus were suggested.%对影响"南四湖"鲜食子莲产量的形态指标进行了相关和通径分析.结果表明,影响鲜食子莲莲子产量的主要形态指标与产量的相关程度依次为;莲蓬重(0.953 6)、莲蓬径(0.810 3)、莲子径(0.761 4)、莲子重(0.713 1)、果皮重(0.677 8)、成熟度(0.638 3)、莲子高(0.565 1)、莲子数(0.411 2),对产量的直接影响重要性依次为:瘪种子数(-0.456 4)、莲子重(0.450 1)、莲蓬重(0.434 2)、莲子数(0.266 5)、莲蓬径(-0.093 7)、莲子径(0.076 5)、成熟度(0.041 4)等;形态指标间具有明显的制约关系;并提出了增加子莲产量的策略和技术.

  5. 莲子热加工及其贮藏过程中硬度变化规律的研究%Changes of Lotus-seed Hardness During Thermal Processing and Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳芳; 曾绍校; 郭泽镔; 郑宝东; 梁亦亘; 吴萍萍

    2012-01-01

    为进一步开发莲子深加工产品,对比研究干莲和鲜莲在不同热加工处理及其贮藏过程中硬度的变化.结果表明:热加工过程中莲子的硬度逐渐降低,降幅随着热加工温度的升高而增大;鲜莲最长热加工时间为12 min,干莲则为25 min,同时为保证莲子的充分熟化,热加工温度需达到90℃以上;在贮藏过程中,熟化莲子的硬度在7d内迅速增大,而后处于较平稳状态,干莲硬度均大于鲜莲,为鲜莲的1.4~1.6倍;冷热激变处理可使鲜莲在贮藏过程中硬度的增幅降低(由99.11%降低55.58%),并保持较好的表观结构,在某种程度上有利于莲子产品的深加工.%The hardness of dried lotus-seed and fresh lotus-seed during thermal processing and storage was comparatively investigated in this paper. The results showed that the hardness of lotus-seed was decreased, and the decreasing degree was greater with the increasing temperature during thermal processing. The fresh lotus-seed could bear 12-minutes thermal processing at most, while it was 25minutes when it turned to dried lotus-seed. In addition, in order to make sure lotus seed became fully curing, the temperature of thermal processing should be 90 ℃ at least. In the storage of lotus-seed after thermal processing, the hardness was gradually increased during the first 7 days and then hold steady. And the hardness of dried lotus-seed was all higher than fresh lotus-seed which was 1.4 to 1.6 times than that of fresh lotus-seed. The cataclysmic hot and cold made the changes of hardness of fresh lotus-seed relatively stable (from 99.11% down to 55.58%) and kekt a better structure, which was beneficial to the deep processing of lotus-seed.

  6. A comparison of two strategies to modify the hydroxylation of condensed tannin polymers in Lotus corniculatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mark P; Bavage, Adrian D; Allison, Gordon; Davies, Teri; Hauck, Barbara; Morris, Phillip

    2005-05-01

    A full-length sense Antirrhinum majus dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) sequence was introduced into birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) in experiments aimed at modifying condensed tannin content and polymer hydroxylation in a predictable manner. Analysis of transgenic plants indicated lines that showed enhanced tannin content in leaf and stem tissues. In contrast to previous data from root cultures, levels of propelargonidin units were not markedly elevated in lines with enhanced tannin content. RT-PCR analysis of four selected lines indicated a correlation between enhanced tannin content and expression of the introduced DFR transgene. Using a contrasting approach we introduced a flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) sequence derived from Eustoma grandiflorum into Lotus root cultures. Expression of the transgene was associated with increased levels of condensed tannins and in this case there was also no alteration in polymer hydroxylation. These results suggest that additional mechanisms may exist that control the hydroxylation state of condensed tannins in this model species.

  7. Alkalinity of Lanzarote soils is a factor shaping rhizobial populations with Sinorhizobium meliloti being the predominant microsymbiont of Lotus lancerottensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Dorta, Paola; Garrido, Ana; Jiménez, Concepción

    2017-02-02

    Lotus lancerottensis is an endemic species that grows widely throughout Lanzarote Island (Canary Is.). Characterization of 48 strains isolated from root nodules of plants growing in soils from eleven locations on the island showed that 38 isolates (79.1%) belonged to the species Sinorhizobium meliloti, whereas only six belonged to Mesorhizobium sp., the more common microsymbionts for the Lotus. Other genotypes containing only one isolate were classified as Pararhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Phyllobacterium sp. and Bradyrhizobium-like. Strains of S. meliloti were distributed along the island and, in most of the localities they were exclusive or major microsymbionts of L. lancerottensis. Phylogeny of the nodulation nodC gene placed the S. meliloti strains within symbiovar lancerottense and the mesorhizobial strains with the symbiovar loti. Although strains from both symbiovars produced effective N2-fixing nodules, S. meliloti symbiovar lancerottense was clearly the predominant microsymbiont of L. lancerottensis. This fact correlated with the better adaptation of strains of this species to the alkaline soils of Lanzarote, as in vitro characterization showed that while the mesorhizobial strains were inhibited by alkaline pH, S. meliloti strains grew well at pH 9.

  8. ACTIVITE ANTIMICROBIENNE ET ANTIOXYDANTE D’EXTRAIT AQUEUX DE FRUIT DE Zyziphus lotus.L. DE LA REGION TAOUNATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LAIRINI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, Zyziphus lotus.L. is widely used in traditional edicine plant. It is mainly harvested in the region Taounate. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of an aqueous extract prepared from the fruit of this plant on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, E. Coli, Penicillium expansum and Candidum geotricum diffusion on the one hand, and analyze both the rate of total polyphenols by the Folin-Ciocalteu's and the antioxidant power of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH secondly. The results show that the extract contains total polyphenols of 5μg/mg and has an antimicrobial effect from 0.31 mg /ml for Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition diameter :7,10±0,20 mm and Listeria monocytogenes (6.93 ± 0.15 mm, 0.46 mg / ml for E. coli (9.10 ± 0 , 20mm, 0.62 mg / ml for Penicillium expansum (5.07 ± 0.25 mm and Geotricum Candidum (6.13 ± 0.21 mm. Moreover, the test of the aqueous extract by DPPH shows anti-radical of about 85.79% activity. The extract of Zizyphus lotus.L. seems to have a very interesting antioxidant power.

  9. Microbial quality evaluation and effective decontamination of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds by electron beams and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeevbhat1304@gmail.co [Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Sridhar, K.R. [Microbiology and Biotechnology, Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574199, Karnataka (India); Karim, A.A. [Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Lotus seeds are nutraceutically valued natural plant produce, which succumbs to microbial contamination, predominantly to toxigenic moulds. Results of the present study revealed seed coat portion to harbor higher proportion of microbial load, particularly fungi than cotyledon portion. Among the mycotoxins analyzed, aflatoxins (B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}) were below detectable limits, while the seeds were devoid of Ochratoxin-A (OTA). Application of different doses of electron beam and gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) for decontamination purpose revealed significant dose-dependent decrease in the fungal contaminants (P<0.05). However, the contaminant yeasts could survive up to 10 kGy dose, which could be completely eliminated at 15 kGy. From the results obtained, a dose range between 10 and 15 kGy is recommended for complete decontamination, as these doses have also been shown earlier to have minimal effects on nutritional and functional properties of lotus seeds.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an anti-H(O) lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Martil, Daiana Evelin [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15054-000 (Brazil); Cavada, Benildo Sousa [BioMol-Lab UFC, Caixa Postal 6043, 60.455-970, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Azevedo, Walter Filgueira Jr de, E-mail: walter.junior@pucrs.br [Faculdade de Biociências-PUCRS, Av. Ipiranga 6681, Porto Alegre-RS, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Biofísica Molecular, Departamento de Física, UNESP, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15054-000 (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The seed lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) has been crystallized. The best crystals grew over several days and were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K. The seed lectin from Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA) has been crystallized. The best crystals grew over several days and were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K. A complete structural data set was collected at 2.00 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. LTA crystals were found to be monoclinic, belonging to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.89, b = 65.83, c = 102.53 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 92°. Molecular replacement yielded a solution with a correlation coefficient and R factor of 34.4 and 51.6%, respectively. Preliminary analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates a new quaternary association in the LTA structure. Crystallographic refinement is under way.

  11. [Determination of thiourea dioxide in lotus seed paste fillings by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zeng, Xiwen; Chang, Xiaotu; Peng, Xinkai; Xia, Lixin; Li, Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    A method of solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine thiourea dioxide which was illegally added into lotus seed paste fillings. An amount of 0.05% (v/v) acetic acid was used to extract thiourea dioxide from fillings, and the BOND ELUT PLEXA column (60 mg/3 mL) was used as the SPE column to clean-up the extraction. Then, an Agilent HILIC column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) was applied to separate target compounds by using the mobile phases of 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were operated by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curve showed a good linearity for the target compound in the detection range of 10 - 1 000 microg/L. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of this method were 8.0 microg/kg and 30.0 microg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were in the ranges of 75.3% - 80.7% with the RSDs of no more than 4.83%. This proposed method was rapid, highly specific and suitable for the confirmation and quantitative determination of thiourea dioxide in lotus seed paste fillings.

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Electronic Performance Support Systems within IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6 Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet BAYRAM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A Conceptual Framework for the Electronic PerformanceSupport Systems within IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6 Example Assoc. Prof. Dr. Servet BAYRAM Computer Education & Instructional Technologies Marmara University, TURKEYsbayram@marmara.edu.tr ABSTRACT The concept of Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS is containing multimedia or computer based instruction components that improves human performance by providing process simplification, performance information and decision support system. EPSS has become a hot topic for organizational development, human resources, performance technology, training, and educational development professionals. A conceptual framework of EPSS is constructed under five interrelated and interdependent domains for educational implications. The domains of the framework are online collaboration, cost-effectiveness, motivation, service management, and performance empowering. IBM Lotus Notes 6 (LN6 is used as an example application tool to illustrate the power of this framework. The framework describes a set of relevant events based upon deductive analyses for improving our understanding of the EPSS and its implications on education and training. The article is also pointed out that there are some similarities between the EPSS’ and the LN6’s specific features within this conceptual framework. It can provide some guidelines and benefits to researchers, educators, and designers as well.

  13. Microbial quality evaluation and effective decontamination of nutraceutically valued lotus seeds by electron beams and gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Sridhar, K. R.; Karim, A. A.

    2010-09-01

    Lotus seeds are nutraceutically valued natural plant produce, which succumbs to microbial contamination, predominantly to toxigenic moulds. Results of the present study revealed seed coat portion to harbor higher proportion of microbial load, particularly fungi than cotyledon portion. Among the mycotoxins analyzed, aflatoxins (B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2) were below detectable limits, while the seeds were devoid of Ochratoxin-A (OTA). Application of different doses of electron beam and gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 and 30 kGy) for decontamination purpose revealed significant dose-dependent decrease in the fungal contaminants ( P<0.05). However, the contaminant yeasts could survive up to 10 kGy dose, which could be completely eliminated at 15 kGy. From the results obtained, a dose range between 10 and 15 kGy is recommended for complete decontamination, as these doses have also been shown earlier to have minimal effects on nutritional and functional properties of lotus seeds.

  14. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  15. De Novo Alanine Synthesis by Bacteroids of Mesorhizobium loti Is Not Required for Nitrogen Transfer in the Determinate Nodules of Lotus corniculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Shalini; Bourdès, Alexandre; Poole, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Deletion of both alanine dehydrogenase genes (aldA) in Mesorhizobium loti resulted in the loss of AldA enzyme activity from cultured bacteria and bacteroids but had no effect on the symbiotic performance of Lotus corniculatus plants. Thus, neither indeterminate pea nodules nor determinate L. corniculatus nodules export alanine as the sole nitrogen secretion product.

  16. De novo alanine synthesis by bacteroids of Mesorhizobium loti is not required for nitrogen transfer in the determinate nodules of Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shalini; Bourdès, Alexandre; Poole, Philip

    2005-08-01

    Deletion of both alanine dehydrogenase genes (aldA) in Mesorhizobium loti resulted in the loss of AldA enzyme activity from cultured bacteria and bacteroids but had no effect on the symbiotic performance of Lotus corniculatus plants. Thus, neither indeterminate pea nodules nor determinate L. corniculatus nodules export alanine as the sole nitrogen secretion product.

  17. Specialized roles for the two UDP-glucosyltransferases UGT85K2 and UGT85K3 in hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Camilla Knudsen; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    in vitro. Mutants in the UGT85K2 gene, obtained by TILLING, almost lacked rhodiocyanosides and showed severe growth defects. This suggested the toxicity of the rhodiocyanoside aglycones and supports their proposed defense role. The observed specificity of these UGTs further highlights the metabolic...... flexibility of the hydroxynitrile glucoside based defense pathway in Lotus japonicus....

  18. Long-term outcome of microscopic esophagitis in chronic GERD patients treated with esomeprazole or laparoscopic antireflux surgery in the LOTUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca; Engström, Cecilia;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-associated changes in esophageal histology have been reported mainly after short-term medical antireflux therapy, and few individual lesions have been examined. We report detailed histological findings from the LOTUS study, at baseline and at 1 a...

  19. Tales of Recombinant Femininity: "The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus," the "Chin P'ing Mei," and the Politics of Melodrama in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Examines the film "The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus" and the text upon which it is loosely based, the "Chin P'ing Mei," and the relationship between it and modern Chinese culture. States that the film's screenplay is much less an adaptation of the source novel than it is a female-centered reworking of a particular narrative…

  20. Diospyros lotus L. fruit extract protects G6PD-deficient erythrocytes from hemolytic injury in vitro and in vivo: prevention of favism disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, M; Hosseinimehr, S J; Shokrzadeh, M; Habibi, E; Ahmadi, A

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Diospyros lotus L. fruit extract against the hemolytic damage induced by Vicia faba beans extract in both G6PD enzyme-deficient human and rat erythrocyte in vitro and in vivo. In the former model, venous blood samples were obtained from five subjects with known G6PD deficiency and erythrocyte hemolysis induced by Vicia faba L. bean extract was asessed spectrophotometrically in the presence and absence of Diospyros lotus L. fruits extract. In the in vivo model, G6PD-deficient rats (induced by intraperitoneal injection of dehydroepiandrosterone for 35 days) pre-treated with different doses of Diospyros lotus L. (500, 750, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg, p.o for 7 days) were challenged with Vicia faba beans extract and the protective effect of the fruit extract against hemolysis was evaluated as above. The results have shown that Diospyros lotus L. fruits extract has antioxidant activity that may protect against hemolytic damage induced by Vicia faba bean extract in both G6PD-deficient human and rat erythrocytes. The study gives a scientific basis for the efficacy of the fruit extract as used in Iran. The fact that this was shown in human erythrocytes in vitro is significant and provides a rationale for further testing in vivo in G6PD-deficient human populations.