WorldWideScience

Sample records for lost mold-rapid infiltration

  1. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    The strength of nanoparticulate enabled microdevices and components is directly related to the interfacial control between particles and the flaws introduced as these particles come together to form the device or component. One new application for micro-scale or meso-scale (10's microm to 100's microm) devices is surgical instruments designed to enter the body, perform a host of surgeries within the body cavity, and be extracted with no external incisions to the patient. This new concept in surgery, called natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), requires smaller and more functional surgical tools. Conventional processing routes do not exist for making these instruments with the desired size, topology, precision, and strength. A process, called lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF), was developed to satisfy this need. A tetragonally stabilized zirconia polycrystalline material (3Y-TZP) is a candidate material for this process and application because of its high strength, chemical stability, high elastic modulus, and reasonably high toughness for a ceramic. Modern technical ceramics, like Y-TZP, are predicated on dense, fine grained microstructures and functional mesoscale devices must also adhere to this standard. Colloid and interfacial chemistry was used to disperse and concentrate the Y-TZP nanoparticles through a very steep, yet localized, potential energy barrier against the van der Waals attractive force. The interparticle interaction energies were modeled and compared to rheological data on the suspension. At high concentrations, the suspension was pseudoplastic, which is evidence that a structure was formed within the suspension that could be disrupted by a shearing force. The LM-RIF process exploits this rheological behavior to fill mold cavities created by photolithography. The premise of the LM-RIF process is to process the particulate material into a dense ceramic body while the unsintered mesoscale parts are supported en masse

  2. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  3. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...... that illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...... performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site...

  4. Lost spoiler practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül; Drotner, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    narratives, and viewers through tracing, dismantling – and sometimes questioning – content in order to create coherent meanings in the maze of narratives. Online audiences, such as spoiler communities, may uncover components of transmedia storytelling, discuss their validity and enhance them with individual...... and documents that interactions between Lost audiences and producers operate as forms of social participation when spoiler-seeking audiences work to unravel, challenge and predict the narrative while the producers seek to orchestrate transmedia storytelling experiences. Our results serve as a sobering empirical...

  5. The Lost Guidewire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Shah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 44-year-old female called 911 complaining of abdominal pain, but was unresponsive upon arrival by emergency medical services (EMS. She presented to the emergency department (ED as a full cardiac arrest and had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and epinephrine. The patient had a splenic embolization 1 week prior to presentation. Bedside ultrasound demonstrated free fluid throughout the abdomen. As part of the resuscitation, femoral central venous access was obtained by the Emergency Department (ED physician, and a medical student was allowed to place a Cordis over the guidewire. The attending was next to the student, though became distracted when the patient again lost pulses. The student lost control of the guidewire upon re-initiation of CPR. Another Cordis was placed in the same location by the ED physician after the guidewire was seen on a chest radiograph. The patient was taken to the operating room with massive transfusion protocol, and the guidewire was left in the vena caval system until the patient could be stabilized. Two days later, interventional radiology removed the guidewire via a right internal jugular (IJ approach without complications. The patient had a prolonged and complicated course, but was discharged home two weeks later at her baseline. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph shows a guidewire in the inferior vena cava (IVC, superior vena cava (SVC, and right IJ veins. Discussion: Central line complications include failure to place the catheter, improper catheter location, hemothorax from vascular injury, infection, arrhythmia, and cardiac arrest1. Complications from lost guidewires include cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac conduction abnormalities, perforation of vessels/heart chambers, kinking/looping/knotting of the wire, entanglement of previously placed intravascular devices, breakage of the tip of the wire and subsequent embolization and

  6. Infiltration SuDS Map

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  7. Nostalgia and lost identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtova, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Nostalgia for the Soviet Union is a major social phenomenon in Russia today due to the irrevocable losses of the recent past in which Soviet citizens involuntarily became immigrants in their own country. With reference to discussions of nostalgia in philosophical and psychoanalytic literature, I suggest that nostalgia may represent either a defensive regression to the past or a progressive striving for wholeness through re-connecting with what has been lost in the service of a greater integration. I compare this with the processes of adaptation seen in immigrants and provide a clinical illustration of a young man coming to terms with loss and change in the post-Soviet era. When nostalgia is recognized as a legitimate emotional experience it may facilitate mourning and enable the integration of the past with the present and the development of a new identity. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  9. Lost in transformation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and values from evidence-based medicine are being lost in the transformation into the current evidence-based hospital culture which potentially leads to a McDonaldization of nursing practice reflected as ‘one best way’. We argue for reviving ethics of care perspectives in today’s evidence practice...... as the fundamental values of nursing may potentially bridge conflicts between evidence-based practice and the ideals of patient participation thus preventing a practice of ‘McNursing’. Key words: nursing practice, evidence-based practice, nursing theory, nursing theorists, ethics of care, hospital culture, patient......Drawing on our previous empirical research, we provide an exemplary narrative to illustrate how patients have experienced hospital care organized according to evidence-based fast-track programmes. The aim of this paper is to analyse and discuss if and how it is possible to include patients...

  10. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  11. Smartphone lost - Privacy gone

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Who doesn't own an iPhone, Android or Blackberry mobile phone today? Lucky you if you don’t! In previous issues (Issue 06/07, 2012 and Issue 32/33/34, 2011) we have pointed out their lack of security. But what happens if you lose your smartphone or it gets stolen?   Today, a smartphone clones your personality into the digital world. Your phone archives all your emails and messaging communications with your family, friends, peers and colleagues; contains photos and videos of the top moments of your life; holds your favourite music and movies and zillions of other bits of personal information stored in the apps of your choice (like GPS information of your jogging paths, a vault of your passwords, access to your Facebook or Twitter profiles, bank access information, flight and hotel bookings). In the future, your phone might also be used for making payments in shops. Have you ever thought of how you would feel if you lost your smartphone or it got stolen? Nak...

  12. Lost by Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, Luca; Reck, Barbara K; Nassar, N T; Graedel, T E

    2015-08-18

    In some common uses metals are lost by intent-copper in brake pads, zinc in tires, and germanium in retained catalyst applications being examples. In other common uses, metals are incorporated into products in ways for which no viable recycling approaches exist, examples include selenium in colored glass and vanadium in pigments. To determine quantitatively the scope of these "losses by design", we have assessed the major uses of 56 metals and metalloids, assigning each use to one of three categories: in-use dissipation, currently unrecyclable when discarded, or potentially recyclable when discarded. In-use dissipation affects fewer than a dozen elements (including mercury and arsenic), but the spectrum of elements dissipated increases rapidly if applications from which they are currently unrecyclable are considered. In many cases the resulting dissipation rates are higher than 50%. Among others, specialty metals (e.g., gallium, indium, and thallium) and some heavy rare earth elements are representative of modern technology, and their loss provides a measure of the degree of unsustainability in the contemporary use of materials and products. Even where uses are currently compatible with recycling technologies and approaches, end of life recycling rates are in most cases well below those that are potentially achievable. The outcomes of this research provide guidance in identifying product design approaches for reducing material losses so as to increase element recovery at end-of-life.

  13. An Analysis of Lost Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Jarrett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to shed light on problems associated with lost sales and the incurring of cost associated with lost sales. An investigation is made to determine if seasonality in sales and lost sales have effects on the efficient operations of supply chains. Optimization is always a goal of management supply chains, but cost increases due to insufficient inventory, low-quality product and the like lead to customers not returning. These are lost sales that occur for many reasons. We study a data set to determine if the ignoring of time series component also has an effect on the variation in lost sales. If so, can we measure the magnitude of the effects of seasonal variation in lost sales, and what are their consequences?

  14. The lost children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S

    1999-03-01

    Women who have lost children to perinatal complications, are subjected to pain and grief continuously; however their agony increases on remembrance days such as birthdate, or on Mother's Day. Fathers, siblings and grandparents suffer too. Common disorders of pregnancy, such as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), or the more serious pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia, can lead to devastating effects such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death; or at the very least, a sick infant. With many of these consequences, the loss of the dreams, hopes and plans that parents have made is imminent. The investigation of the psychosocial aspects of 'high-risk' pregnancy has never been fully addressed. However, the threat of loss, or the actual experience, may provoke the onset of a potential psychological crisis during the perinatal period. Therefore, it is important that these issues be addressed by the nurse in order to aid the development of coping mechanisms to enable women and their families to deal with what may happen. This may be done by predicting the stages of the bereavement process experienced by these women and their family members, as outlined in the Kubler-Ross model of bereavement (1969), which is indicative of many types of grief reactions. Other issues including the restriction in activity, uncertainty of pregnancy outcomes, disruption in work or career activities, financial strains, and reduced labour and birthing options, become concerns for high-risk pregnant women. The way women deal with these issues and the pathways nurses can take to help these women develop effective coping strategies, will be addressed also.

  15. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  16. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  17. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  18. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  19. Lost in a Transmedia Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo (previamente publicado como um capítulo de minha tese analisa os mecanismos transmidiáticos de storytelling por trás da narrativa do seriado Lost, da ABC. Por ter sua narrativa sustentada em uma complexa mitologia, Lost faz um grande esforço para suplementar a narrativa de seu programa de TV através de valiosas e distintas extensões narrativas. Em um primeiro momento, eu examino como as técnicas de construção de mundo em Lost encorajam os fãs mais ávidos a “jogar” com o espaço narrativo. Eu então faço avaliações sobre as extensões que Lost oferece como opcionais, através de experiências convincentes em seus textos expandido. Ao  ser muito bem-sucedida ao balancear seus fãs mais ávidos com os casuais espectadores, Lost representa o futuro de muitos programas de televisão que se propõem a colocar os fãs em situações imersivas, usando um vasto universo transmídia, ao mesmo tempo prometendo um programa de televisão coerente em seu interior

  20. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  1. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  2. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  3. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  4. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  5. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  6. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  7. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  9. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  10. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  11. Demystifying communication signal lost for network redundancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies report on the communication signal lost factors that were analyzed and supported by evidences on coverage analysis activities for Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems. We have categorized the influential signal lost factors into four core elements that were concluded based on our field measurement ...

  12. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    LASSABATERE, Laurent; ANGULO JARAMILLO, R; GOUTALAND, David; LETELLIER, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; WINIARSKI, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  13. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  14. Xanthomatous infiltration of ankle tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, C.G.; Disler, D.G.; Kremer, J.M.; Jennings, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of type II hyperbetalipoproteinemia in a patient whose diagnosis had been previously unrecognized, and who had previously been misdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and later gout. Radiographic and MR imaging features of the patient's ankles were pronounced but otherwise typical of xanthomatous infiltration. Radiologic assessment can be useful in permitting a specific diagnosis to be made in patients with periarticular and tendinous swelling. (orig.). With 4 figs

  15. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  16. Hidden costs, value lost: uninsurance in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance

    2003-01-01

    Hidden Cost, Value Lost , the fifth of a series of six books on the consequences of uninsurance in the United States, illustrates some of the economic and social losses to the country of maintaining...

  17. Lost Cause: an interactive movie project

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in designing an interactive cinematic experience is to offer interactive choices which do not distract from immersion into the story. The interactive movie project, Lost Cause focuses on the life of the main character explored through the inter-related perspectives of three other characters. Lost Cause supports an immersive interactive story experience through its correlated design of an interface, narrative content and narrative structure. The movie project is examined ...

  18. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  19. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  20. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  1. Lost-sales inventory theory : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvank, Marco; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2011-01-01

    In classic inventory models it is common to assume that excess demand is backordered. However, studies analyzing customer behavior in practice show that most unfulfilled demand is lost or an alternative item/location is looked for in many retail environments. Inventory systems that include this

  2. Retail inventory management with lost sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curseu - Stefanut, A.

    2012-01-01

    The inventory control problem of traditional store-based grocery retailers has several challenging features. Demand for products is stochastic, and is typically lost when no inventory is available on the shelves. As the consumer behavior studies reveal, only a small percentage of customers are

  3. Concern about Lost Talent: Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Lost talent? The occupational ambitions and attainments of young Australians", and is an added resource for further information. The purpose of this supplement is to provide greater detail about the background of research into the topic of human talent in…

  4. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward

  5. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  6. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  7. Modeling snowmelt infiltration in seasonally frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, S.; Ireson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In cold regions, freezing and thawing of the soil govern soil hydraulic properties that shape the surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The partitioning of snowmelt into infiltration and runoff has also important implications for integrated water resource management and flood risk. However, there is an inadequate representation of the snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils in most land-surface and hydrological models, creating the need for improved models and methods. Here we apply, the Frozen Soil Infiltration Model, FroSIn, which is a novel algorithm for infiltration in frozen soils that can be implemented in physically based models of coupled flow and heat transport. In this study, we apply the model in a simple configuration to reproduce observations from field sites in the Canadian prairies, specifically St Denis and Brightwater Creek in Saskatchewan, Canada. We demonstrate the limitations of conventional approaches to simulate infiltration, which systematically over-predict runoff and under predict infiltration. The findings show that FroSIn enables models to predict more reasonable infiltration volumes in frozen soils, and also represent how infiltration-runoff partitioning is impacted by antecedent soil moisture.

  8. Has Microfinance Lost its Moral Compass?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme; Mathilde Maitrot

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that microfinance in South Asia, like mainstream finance in North America and Europe, "has lost its moral compass". Our particular concern is with microloans to vulnerable clients. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have increasingly focussed on financial performance and have neglected their declared social mission of poverty reduction and empowerment. Loans officers in the field are under enormous pressure to achieve individual financial targets and now routinely mis...

  9. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  10. The lost art of finding our way

    CERN Document Server

    Huth, Edward John

    2013-01-01

    Long before GPS, Google Earth, and global transit, humans traveled vast distances using only environmental clues and simple instruments. John Huth asks what is lost when modern technology substitutes for our innate capacity to find our way. Encyclopedic in breadth, weaving together astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, and ethnography, The Lost Art of Finding Our Way puts us in the shoes, ships, and sleds of early navigators for whom paying close attention to the environment around them was, quite literally, a matter of life and death. Haunted by the fate of two young kayakers lost in a fogbank off Nantucket, Huth shows us how to navigate using natural phenomena—the way the Vikings used the sunstone to detect polarization of sunlight, and Arab traders learned to sail into the wind, and Pacific Islanders used underwater lightning and “read” waves to guide their explorations. Huth reminds us that we are all navigators capable of learning techniques ranging from the simplest to the most sophisticated skil...

  11. Years of life lost through Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M B

    1979-10-01

    A congenital genetic condition does not act either as a cause of death or at the time of death only. Hence, years of life lost through such a conditon cannot be calculated in the same way as for a conventional cause of death. The main difference is that a cause of death acting at age x cuts off as many years of life as the dead person might otherwise have expected to live (life expectancy at age x), whereas a congenital genetic condition exposes an affected person to a different schedule of life-threatening risks from birth onwards. In the latter case, years of life lost is calculated as the difference in life expectancy at birth for affected and non-affected persons. This reasoning is worked out in algebraic form and then applied to Down's syndrome. The data base is provided by two large and recent studies, one in Massachusetts and the other in Denmark, of mortality rates among all cases of Down's syndrome, whether in an institution or not, born during a given period of years or living at a given point in time in a fixed geographical area. So calculated, years of life lost through Down's syndrome relative to the United States general population in 1970 was 53.6 years per 1000 livebirths. Prenatal mortality is also discussed.

  12. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  13. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  14. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  15. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  16. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  17. America’s Lost Innocence and Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja Włodek

    2015-01-01

    In my paper America’s Lost Innocence I intend to focus on American cinema of the ’50s, part of ’60s, and contemporary throwbacks to those decades. The ’50s have been called “the last decade of American innocence”, “the happiest decade in America’s history – when things were going on – that everybody misses” (by Jean Baudrillard). That era symbolically ceased on 22 November 1963; however, many scholars and publicists undermine the belief in its very existence. Michael Wood calls the ’50s a tim...

  18. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  19. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  20. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  1. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  2. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  3. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  4. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  5. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E

    2000-01-01

    -associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...

  6. The use of acetone to enhance the infiltration of HA nanoparticles into a demineralized dentin collagen matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besinis, Alexandros; van Noort, Richard; Martin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the role of acetone, as a carrier for nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) in solution, to enhance the infiltration of fully demineralized dentin with HA nanoparticles (NPs). Dentin specimens were fully demineralized and subsequently infiltrated with two types of water-based nano-HA solutions (one containing acetone and one without). Characterization of the dentin surfaces and nano-HA particles was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface wettability and infiltration capacity of the nano-HA solutions were quantified by means of contact angle measurements and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. Contact angle measurements were taken at baseline and repeated at regular intervals to assess the effect of acetone. The P and Ca levels of infiltrated dentin specimens were measured and compared to sound dentin and non-infiltrated controls. The presence of acetone resulted in an eight-fold decrease in the contact angles of the nano-HA solutions recorded on the surface of demineralized dentin compared to nano-HA solutions without acetone (one-way ANOVA, pacetone. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with the nano-HA solution containing acetone restored the lost mineral content by 50%, whereas the mean mineralization values for P and Ca in dentin treated with the acetone-free nano-HA solution were less than 6%. Acetone was shown to act as a vehicle to enhance the capacity to infiltrate demineralized dentin with HA NPs. The successful infiltration of dentin collagen with HA NPs provides a suitable scaffold, whereby the infiltrated HA NPs have the potential to act as seeds that may initiate heterogenous mineral growth when exposed to an appropriate mineral-rich environment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 21 CFR 1305.26 - Lost electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lost electronic orders. 1305.26 Section 1305.26... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.26 Lost electronic orders. (a) If a purchaser determines that an unfilled electronic order has been lost before or after receipt, the purchaser must provide, to...

  8. 50 CFR 25.22 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found articles. 25.22 Section 25.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Lost and found articles. Lost articles or money found on a national wildlife refuge are to be...

  9. Lost Talent? The Occupational Ambitions and Attainments of Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Joanna; Saha, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Given ongoing interest in increasing productivity and participation in the workforce, understanding when talent is lost is a useful exercise. The term "lost talent" describes the underutilisation or wastage of human potential. Focusing on young people, Sikora and Saha define lost talent as occurring when students in the top 50% of…

  10. Lost Causes in and Beyond Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Streater, R F

    2007-01-01

    Lost Causes in and Beyond Physics deals with a selection of research topics mostly from theoretical physics that have been shown to be a dead-end or continue at least to be highly controversial. Nevertheless, whether it is about Bohmian mechanics, physics from Fisher information or the quantum theory of the brain, small but dedicated research communities continue to work on these issues. R.F. Streater, renowned mathematical physicist and co-author of the famous book "PCT, Spin and Statistics, and all that", in a series of essays describes the work and struggle of these research commnities, as well as the chances of any breakthrough in these areas. This book is written as both an entertainment and serious study and should be accessible to anyone with a background in theoretical physics and mathematics.

  11. Lost in the mall: misrepresentations and misunderstandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    1999-01-01

    Readers of Ethics and Behavior have been treated to a misrepresentation of my research on planting false memories, to a misstatement of the actual empirical finidngs, and to a distortion of the history of the development of the idea for this line of research. The partisan essay by Crook and Dean which appears in this issue ("'Lost in a Shopping Mall' -- A Breach of Professional Ethics") is disturbing not only because of its errors, exaggerations, and omissions, but because, in some instances, the quality of the argument makes one wonder whether these were innocent mistakes or a deliberate attempt to distort my work. Some of these errors can be explained by simple lack of scientific competence. However, others are sufficiently bizarre that they cast doubt on the process that led to the acceptance of a manuscript written by an individual who has continually made her animosity toward me very publicly known (e.g., Boerner, 1996; Neimark, 1996).

  12. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  14. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  15. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  17. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  18. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  19. The lost honour of Henrietta Leavitt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2011-11-01

    The first scene opens with the music of Shirley Bassey. The astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt is writing a diary when visited by the famous CBS reporter Edward Roscoe Murrow. Henrietta is surprised that this American television channel should want to pay such a tribute to her, but she agrees to be interviewed. Annie Jump Cannon, her friend and colleague from Harvard College Observatory, accompanies her during most of the sessions. Everything goes so well that the journalist tries to touch on certain issues that Henrietta seems to want to keep secret, such as her relationship with Edward Charles Pickering, Director of the Observatory, and the reason why she failed to get the recognition for her work that she deserved.This is the argument of the play The Lost Honor of Henrietta Leavitt, a project of the Museo de la Ciencia y el Cosmos (Museum of Science and the Cosmos), run by the Organismo Autonomo de Museos y Centros of Cabildo de Tenerife (Autonomous Organism of Museums and Centres of the island government, Cabildo of Tenerife), with funding from the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT) and designed for the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The play, written and directed by the author, Carmen del Puerto, has been staged eight times in Tenerife and Pamplona. The poster values this experience as a resource for scientific popularization.

  20. [How much water is lost during breathing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Arising from the Antoine equation and the ideal gas law, the volume of exhaled water has been calculated. Air temperature, humidity and minute ventilation has been taken into account. During physical exercise amount of exhaled H(2)O is linear, but not proportional to heart rate. And so at the heart rate of 140 bpm amount of exhaled water is approximately four times higher than during the rest and equals about 60-70 ml/h. The effect of external temperature and humidity on water lost via lungs was assessed as well. When temperature of inspired air and its humidity is 35°C an 75% respectively loss of water is 7 ml/h. Whereas when above parameters are changed to minus 10°C and 25% lung excretion of H(2)O increases up to 20 ml/h. The obtained results may become the basis for the assessment of osmolarity changes on the surface of the lower airways. The increase of which is recently considered as one of the factors responsible for exercise induced bronchospasm.

  1. Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/19/2018 Poster 01/19/2018-01/21/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Plasmacytoma...Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Capt Eden, Rina Se. TASK NUMBER Sf

  2. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  3. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  4. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  5. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  6. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  7. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  8. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  9. America’s Lost Innocence and Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Włodek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In my paper America’s Lost Innocence I intend to focus on American cinema of the ’50s, part of ’60s, and contemporary throwbacks to those decades. The ’50s have been called “the last decade of American innocence”, “the happiest decade in America’s history – when things were going on – that everybody misses” (by Jean Baudrillard. That era symbolically ceased on 22 November 1963; however, many scholars and publicists undermine the belief in its very existence. Michael Wood calls the ’50s a time of “self-deception”; therefore, the question raised is – has America ever been innocent? By concentrating on the message conveyed by mostly genre (e.g. drama, melodrama, musical, romantic comedy and mainstream movies made in the ’50s and early ’60s (e.g. A Place In the Sun, Cat on the Hot, Tin Roof, Home From the Hill, I intend to analyze the portrait of American society of that time, it’s rules and expectations towards individuals and system as a whole. In the second part of my paper I will focus on contemporary throwbacks to those times depicted mostly in movies made in the 21st century, although not exclusively (e.g. Far From Heaven, The Hours, Revolutionary Road, the TV series Mad Men [2007–], Pleasantville. Using those and other movies as examples, I intend to prove the thesis that the phenomenon of retro and contemporary retromania are not always and not by definition conservative, and can serve as a means to a critical approach towards society.

  10. Cause-specific measures of life years lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Kragh Andersen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new measure of the number of life years lost due to specific causes of death is introduced. Methods: This measure is based on the cumulative incidence of death, it does not require "independence" of causes, and it satisfies simple balance equations: "total number of life years lost = sum of cause-specific life years lost", and "total number of life years lost before age x + temporary life expectancy between birth and age x = x". Results: The measure is contrasted to alternatives suggested in the demographic literature and allmethods are illustrated using Danish and Russian multiple decrement life-tables.

  11. Considering lost sale in inventory routing problems for perishable goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Seifi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    , the average optimality gaps are less than 10.9% and 13.4% using linear and exponential lost sale functions, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the optimality gaps found by CPLEX grow exponentially with the problem size while those obtained by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithm increase linearly....... is considered as lost sale. The proposed model balances the transportation cost, the cost of inventory holding and lost sale. In addition to the usual inventory routing constraints, we consider the cost of lost sale as a linear or an exponential function of the inventory age. The proposed model is solved...

  12. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  13. 36 CFR 327.16 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost and found articles. 327... CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.16 Lost and found articles. All articles found shall be deposited by the finder at the Manager's office or with a ranger. All such articles shall be disposed of in accordance with...

  14. Lost circulation technology workshop, October 9-10, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C. (ed.)

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the presentations and discussions of a workshop on lost circulation technology. The workshop identified and defined lost circulation problem areas in field operations, materials, mud effects, and standards. Problem solution needs were also categorized as requiring analytical evaluation and procedure, instrument, and material development.

  15. 42 CFR 102.32 - Benefits for lost employment income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 102.32 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX... pay for lost employment income or to provide disability or retirement benefits to the requester. As provided in § 102.84, the Secretary retains the right to recover benefits for lost employment income paid...

  16. 32 CFR 635.31 - Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. 635.31 Section 635.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.31 Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. This is...

  17. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  18. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  19. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  20. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  1. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  2. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  3. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  4. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1 Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or...

  5. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  6. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  7. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  8. In search for the lost identity: a post-modern look at Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Thimóteo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the American television show Lost, in order to establish a relationship among technological advances, media and configuration of the contemporary subject, based on phenomenon of convergence as a possibility that integrates and modifies the subject. The analysis focuses on two moments. The first characterizes its structure as a transmedia narrative, resulting in a format called convergence culture, that emerges nowadays with the mass of content and media that surround us. In the second moment, some elements are observed in the series that are correlated to themes addressed by postmodernity. Thus we intend to demonstrate how the narrative presented portrays situations of reality in fiction, providing an identification of the post-modern subject with the show.

  9. Paradise Lost Dressed in the Costume of History: John Martin’s Rendition of Paradise Lost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Atashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The story of the loss of paradise has been read and interpreted in different ages. Commentary on Milton's Paradise Lost is not limited to verbal texts; painters and illustrators have contributed greatly to the poem by presenting their own time-bound readings and interpretations of the poem through their illustrations that are far beyond mere decorations. John Martin, in the aftermath of the Industrial Revolution, deletes the Father and the Son from his illustrations. Only angels such as Raphael are the representations of deity and are as powerless and tiny as Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve, after the Fall seem as small, powerless and as subjugated to the natural surrounding as they were before the Fall. Satan is the only powerful figure in his elegant palace. Through a new historical outlook, the researchers aim at exposing the workings of ideology and dominant discourses that informed John Martin's pictorial reading of Milton's poem in the early 19th century

  10. Comparison of infiltration models in NIT Kurukshetra campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Sihag, Parveen; Singh, Karan

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the performance of infiltration models used to calculate the infiltration rate of the soils. Ten different locations were chosen to measure the infiltration rate in NIT Kurukshetra. The instrument used for the experimentation was double ring infiltrometer. Some of the popular infiltration models like Horton's, Philip's, Modified Philip's and Green-Ampt were fitted with infiltration test data and performance of the models was determined using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (C.C) and Root mean square error (RMSE) criteria. The result suggests that Modified Philip's model is the most accurate model where values of C.C, NSE and RMSE vary from 0.9947-0.9999, 0.9877-0.9998 to 0.1402-0.6913 (mm/h), respectively. Thus, this model can be used to synthetically produce infiltration data in the absence of infiltration data under the same conditions.

  11. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  12. [Work days lost due to health problems in industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sylvia Regina Trindade; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work days lost due to health problems and associated factors among industrial workers. The study population was a simple random cluster sample of 3,403 workers from 16 to 65 years of age in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected with individual home interviews. Among industrial workers, one-year prevalence of work days lost to health problems was 12.5%, of which 5.5% were directly work-related and 4.1% aggravated by work. There were no statistically significant differences when compared to other worker categories. Self-perceived workplace hazards, history of work-related injury, and poor self-rated health were associated with work days lost due to work-related injuries/diseases. The findings showed that work days lost are common among both industrial and non-industrial workers, thereby affecting productivity and requiring prevention programs.

  13. Ship Track for Lost City 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Lost City 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  14. Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfelder, J.J.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

  15. Lost in Location:- on how (not) to situate aliens

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: June The article investigates how users of personal satellite navigation devices (often referred to as sat-nav) are sometimes lost and led astray and argues that the satnav's aim to remove every insecurity about the correct route seems to remove the individual's conscious perception of the space traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong l...

  16. In-situ infiltration performance of different permeable pavements in a employee used parking lot--A four-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Kozak, Joseph; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Cox, Albert; Zhang, Heng; Granato, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Permeable pavements are being adopted as a green solution in many parts of the world to manage urban stormwater quantity and quality. This paper reports on the measured in-situ infiltration performance over a four-year period since construction and use of three permeable parking sections (permeable pavers, permeable concrete and permeable asphalt) of an employee car parking lot. There was only a marginal decline in infiltration rates of all three pavements after one year of use. However, between years two to four, the infiltration rates declined significantly due to clogging of pores either by dry deposition of particles and/or shear stress of vehicles driving and degrading the permeable surfaces; during the last two years, a greater decline was also observed in driving areas of the parking lots compared to parking slots, where minimal wear and tear are expected. Maintenance strategies were employed to reclaim some of the lost infiltration rate of the permeable pavements to limited success. Despite this decline, the infiltration rates were still four to five times higher than average rainstorm intensity in the region. Thus, these permeable pavement parking lots may have significant ecological importance due to their ability to infiltrate rainwater quickly, reduce the runoff in the catchment area, and also dampen runoff peak flows that could otherwise enter the collection system for treatment in a combined sewer area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  18. [Treatment of lymphangioma with OK-432 infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Cáceres, F; Vargas, P

    2012-10-01

    The management of lymphangioma using sclerotherapy has proven to be an effective therapeutic. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil) in patients with lymphagioma. The study was performed from November 2010 to July 2011. Fifteen patients of both genders were diagnosed with lymphangioma, 12 days to 12 years old. All patients were infiltrated with OK-432. The studied variables were: previous surgery, localization, type of lymphangioma, number of effective injections, reduction of mass valued as excellent (100% reduction), good (reduction > 50%) and bad (reduction < 50%), presence of recurrence and complications. 40% of pacients had prior surgery and 53.3% were located in the cervical-face region. The type of macrocystic lymphangioma was present in 40% of the series, mixed type in 46.6% and microcystic type in 13.4%. The number of effective infiltrations were 3. In 6 cases (40%) the result was excellent in 5 cases (33.4%) the result was good and in 4 cases (26.6%). We had 1 recurrence (6.6%) and we haven't had complications. Injection of OK-432 in macrocystic lymphangioma and mixed had a safe therapeutic modality with satisfactory results. So it is a valid alternative to conventional surgery.

  19. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  20. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  1. Method of forming catalyst layer by single step infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Lee, Shiwoo; Dowd, Regis

    2018-05-01

    Provided herein is a method for electrocatalyst infiltration of a porous substrate, of particular use for preparation of a cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The method generally comprises preparing an electrocatalyst infiltrate solution comprising an electrocatalyst, surfactant, chelating agent, and a solvent; pretreating a porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate; and applying the electrocatalyst infiltration solution to the porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate.

  2. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  3. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  4. Wound infiltration with local anesthetic after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Haider, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect of analgesia with local wound infiltration with 20ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in post operative wounds with the control group having no infiltration. Patients were mobilized much earlier than in the control group while the demand of analgesics was considerably delayed in the study group. No any complications was noticed during local infiltration of wounds after abdominal surgery and is, therefore, applicable in routine surgery. (author)

  5. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  6. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  7. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  8. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  9. Forested infiltration areas (FIA; principles, experiences, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mezzalira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the origin and the main features of a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR measure known as Forested Infiltration Area (FIA, conceived by Veneto Agricoltura in 2007 and currently implemented at 7 pilot sites over the Vicenza Upper Plain in the Veneto region, with the financial and technical support of several public and private partners. In particular the outputs of the first recharge season (2013-2014 of two demonstrative FIA are presented and discussed (plants realized in 2013 by Consorzio di Bonifica Brenta within the framework of the Life Project AQUOR. The main peculiarities of the FIA measures are the multifunctionality guaranteed by the integration of hydraulic and biologic aspects, the high environmental compatibility and the friendly design and management.

  10. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  12. Net lost revenue from DSM: State policies that work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-07-01

    A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenue incurred through successful operation of demand-side management (DSM) programs. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This paper examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The paper has three objectives: (1) determine whether NLRA is a feasible and effective approach to the lost-revenue disincentive for utility DSM programs, (2) identify the conditions linked to effective implementation of NLRA mechanisms and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior, and (3) suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach. Seven of the ten states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation. Observed changes in utility investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. Utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states.

  13. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Jagoš J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud and due to the skin and clothes contamination. The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on the ground (groundshine. Three nuclides, 131I, 137Cs, and 239Pu, and with the extremely wide range of half-life are considered in order to examine their possible influence on the calculated values of years of life lost. For each of these nuclides, the number of years of life lost has been found as a decreasing function of the age at the expo sure and presented graphically in this paper. For protracted exposures, the fully averaged number of years of life lost is negative correlated with the nuclide’s half-life. On the other hand, the short-term external exposures do not depend on the nuclide’s half-life. In addition, a weak years of life lost dependence of the dose has been commented.

  14. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredni, S.

    1977-10-01

    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  15. A Joint Replenishment Inventory Model with Lost Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devy, N. L.; Ai, T. J.; Astanti, R. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with two items joint replenishment inventory problem, in which the demand of each items are constant and deterministic. Inventory replenishment of items is conducted periodically every T time intervals. Among of these replenishments, joint replenishment of both items is possible. It is defined that item i is replenished every ZiT time intervals. Replenishment of items are instantaneous. All of shortages are considered as lost sales. The maximum allowance for lost sales of item i is Si. Mathematical model is formulated in order to determining the basic time cycle T, replenishment multiplier Zi , and maximum lost sales Si in order to minimize the total cost per unit time. A solution methodology is proposed for solve the model and a numerical example is provided for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  16. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  17. Depth of Intestinal Wall Infiltration and Clinical Presentation of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Evaluation of 553 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Roberto; Lisi, Giorgio; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Irene; Rettore, Lorenzo; Ruffo, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    Intestinal involvement in endometriosis was first described by Sampson in 1922. The reported incidence ranges between 3% and 37% in patients diagnosed with endometriosis. In literature, there are few studies that correlate the severity of endometriosis (in terms of intestinal infiltration) and its clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to review the correlation between the severity of symptoms, the depth of intestinal wall infiltration, and lymph node involvement in our tertiary referral center. We retrospectively analyzed 553 patients who had undergone intestinal resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis at our institution (Sacro Cuore Negrar Hospital) between 2004 and 2009. Based on intestinal wall infiltration, we divided patients into three groups (Group A: intestinal infiltration that reaches the muscle layer, Group B: infiltration to the submucosa, and Group C: endometriosis reaches the mucosa). Symptoms, intestinal stenosis, and positive lymph nodes were compared in the three groups with the chi-square test. No statistical correlation was found between symptoms and the intestinal wall infiltrations. The three groups were also compared on the basis of positive visceral lymph nodes and we did find a statistical difference (P = .05) in the lymph node count in the two main groups. There seems to be no statistically significant difference in symptoms between patients with different degrees of infiltration. Although visceral lymph node involvement has been occasionally described in literature, we found that it is related to submucosal infiltration.

  18. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  19. MILTON’S PARADISE LOST AND A POSTCOLONIAL FALL

    OpenAIRE

    LUIZ FERNANDO FERREIRA DE SÁ

    2006-01-01

    In John Milton’s Paradise Lost epic and empire are dissociated. Contrary to many misreadings, this all-important work of the English Renaissance intersects postcolonial thinking in a number of ways. By using Gayatri Spivak’s circuit of postcolonial theory and practice, this paper enacts a counterpointal (mis)reading of Milton’s text: Paradise Lost may at last free its (post-)colonial (dis)content. Since every reading is a misreading, my (mis)reading of Milton’s paradis...

  20. Infiltration and Runoff Measurements on Steep Burned Hillslopes Using a Rainfall Simulator with Variable Rain Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, David A.; Moody, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple rainfall intensities were used in rainfall-simulation experiments designed to investigate the infiltration and runoff from 1-square-meter plots on burned hillslopes covered by an ash layer of varying thickness. The 1-square-meter plots were on north- and south-facing hillslopes in an area burned by the Overland fire northwest of Boulder near Jamestown on the Front Range of Colorado. A single-nozzle, wide-angle, multi-intensity rain simulator was developed to investigate the infiltration and runoff on steep (30- to 40-percent gradient) burned hillslopes covered with ash. The simulated rainfall was evaluated for spatial variability, drop size, and kinetic energy. Fourteen rainfall simulations, at three intensities (about 20 millimeters per hour [mm/h], 35 mm/h, and 50 mm/h), were conducted on four plots. Measurements during and after the simulations included runoff, rainfall, suspended-sediment concentrations, surface ash layer thickness, soil moisture, soil grain size, soil lost on ignition, and plot topography. Runoff discharge reached a steady state within 7 to 26 minutes. Steady infiltration rates with the 50-mm/h application rainfall intensity approached 20?35 mm/h. If these rates are projected to rainfall application intensities used in many studies of burned area runoff production (about 80 mm/h), the steady discharge rates are on the lower end of measurements from other studies. Experiments using multiple rainfall intensities (three) suggest that runoff begins at rainfall intensities around 20 mm/h at the 1-square-meter scale, an observation consistent with a 10-mm/h rainfall intensity threshold needed for runoff initiation that has been reported in the literature.

  1. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  2. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in three soil management systems: minimum tillage (MT, conventional tillage (CT, and no tillage (NT. In NT, four levels of plant residue on the soil surface were evaluated: 0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. The models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton, and Philip were used to estimate the infiltration rate. In the MT system, the final infiltration rate was 54 mm h-1, whereas in the CT and NT systems with up to 3 t ha-1 of plant residue on the soil surface, the rate was near 17 mm h-1. In addition, the results indicated that in the NT system the infiltration rate increased with plant residue coverage greater than 6 t ha-1, i.e., there was a positive correlation between plant cover and the water infiltration rate. The Horton model was the most suitable in representing the water infiltration process in the soil. Therefore, this model can be recommended for estimation of this variable regardless of the soil tillage system used.

  3. A METHOD AND AN ELECTRODE PRODUCED BY INFILTRATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperatur...

  4. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  5. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  6. Surface stability analysis of dikes subject to overtopping and infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, U. F.A.; Tran, Q.T.; Meij, R.

    2015-01-01

    The key contribution of this paper is the coupling of hydraulic loading conditions due to wave overtopping with slope stability of the surface layer of earthen flood protection embankments. Overtopping wave conditions impact overtopping discharges and infiltration time, and thereby the infiltration

  7. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  8. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Dušek, J.; Votrubová, J.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2016), s. 289-299 ISSN 0042-790X Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : ponded infiltration experiment * two-parameter infiltration equation * three-dimensional axisymmetric dualcontinuum model * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  9. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  10. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  11. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  12. Soil infiltration characteristics in the Tarim River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overflow from rivers play an important role for ecological conservation in Tarim Basin, however, there was limited information on infiltration from overflow of the Tarim River. The objective of this study was to investigate steady infiltration rate for three types of land use (forest, shrub and bare...

  13. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook

    1990-01-01

    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  14. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  15. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  17. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Slaughter, Richard; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  18. 32 CFR 310.50 - Lost, stolen, or compromised information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Official for Privacy within 24 hours of discovering that a breach of personally identifiable information... Privacy Office of the breach within 48 hours upon being notified that a loss, theft, or compromise has... (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.50 Lost, stolen, or compromised...

  19. Lost in localization: A solution with neuroinformatics 2.0?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2009-01-01

    The commentary by Derrfuss and Mar (Derrfuss, J., Mar, R.A., 2009. Lost in localization: The need for a universal coordinate database. NeuroImage, doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.053.) discusses some of the limitations of the present databases and calls for a universal coordinate database. Here I...

  20. Lost but Not Forgotten: Finding Pages on the Unarchived Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurdeman, H.C.; Kamps, J.; Samar, T.; de Vries, A.P.; Ben-David, A.; Rogers, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Web archives attempt to preserve the fast changing web, yet they will always be incomplete. Due to restrictions in crawling depth, crawling frequency, and restrictive selection policies, large parts of the Web are unarchived and, therefore, lost to posterity. In this paper, we propose an approach to

  1. Lost but not forgotten: finding pages on the unarchived web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Huurdeman; J. Kamps; T. Samar (Thaer); A.P. de Vries (Arjen); A. Ben-David; R.A. Rogers (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWeb archives attempt to preserve the fast changing web, yet they will always be incomplete. Due to restrictions in crawling depth, crawling frequency, and restrictive selection policies, large parts of the Web are unarchived and, therefore, lost to posterity. In this paper, we propose an

  2. Transforming Dance History: The Lost History of Rehearsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Stuart

    1989-01-01

    Explains that an important aspect of dance history is lost by not recording dance rehearsals. Argues that recording rehearsals can reveal the creative process and illuminate the environment that engendered this art form. Concludes that a transformed dance history will influence curriculum development. (GG)

  3. Paradise Lost: Introducing Students to Climate Change through Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennon, Brady

    2013-01-01

    "This country has been the basis of my being. And when it's no longer there, you know, it's unthinkable." Ueantabo Mackenzie's haunting words in the PBS NOW documentary "Paradise Lost" shook the author. He knew he wanted to teach a unit on global warming, especially after participating in the Portland-area Rethinking Schools…

  4. Notes from the Lost Property Department. Bridget Pitt. Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a loss of motor-skills and memory, and changes in behaviour. Bridget Pitt's Notes from the Lost Property Department (2015) is primarily concerned with the ways in which these invisible wounds cause dis- junctions in personal identity and fissures in relationships. ... together her cracked sense of self, all the time keeping ...

  5. Quasilinear infiltration from an elliptical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    2008-08-01

    We develop analytic solutions to the linearized steady-state Richards equation for head and total flowrate due to an elliptic cylinder cavity with a specified pressure head boundary condition. They are generalizations of the circular cylinder cavity solutions of Philip [Philip JR. Steady infiltration from circular cylindrical cavities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984;48:270-8]. The circular and strip sources are limiting cases of the elliptical cylinder solution, derived for both horizontally- and vertically-aligned ellipses. We give approximate rational polynomial expressions for total flowrate from an elliptical cylinder over a range of sizes and shapes. The exact elliptical solution is in terms of Mathieu functions, which themselves are generalizations of and computed from trigonometric and Bessel functions. The required Mathieu functions are computed from a matrix eigenvector problem, a modern approach that is straightforward to implement using available linear algebra libraries. Although less efficient and potentially less accurate than the iterative continued fraction approach, the matrix approach is simpler to understand and implement and is valid over a wider parameter range.

  6. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  7. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Thoday, K.L.; Henfrey, J.I.; Simpson, J.W.; Burnie, A.G.; Mooney, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  8. Infiltrated TiC/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frage, N.; Froumin, N.; Rubinovich, L.; Dariel, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    One approach for the fabrication of ceramic-metal composites is based on the pressureless impregnation of a porous ceramic preform by a molten metal. Molten Cu does not react with TiC and the wetting angle is close to 90 o . Nonetheless, molten Cu readily impregnates partially sintered TiC preforms. A model that describes the dependence of the critical contact angle for spontaneous impregnation by molten metals in partially sintered preforms on the level of densification and on the morphology of the particles was developed. For high aspect ratios of the particles forming the preform, wetting angles close to 90 o still allow impregnation by the molten metal. The results of the model were confirmed by infiltration of partially sintered TiC preforms with molten Cu and by fabrication of the TiC/Cu composites with various ceramic-to metal ratios. Decreasing of the metal content in the composite from 50 vol.% to 10 vol.% leads to a hardness increase from 250 to 1800 HV, and to the decrease of the bending strength from 960 to 280 MPa. The resistivity of these TiC/Cu composites decreases from 142 ohm cm to 25 ohm cm. (author)

  9. Atrazine distribution measured in soil and leachate following infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Susan K; Sadeghi, Ali M; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Isensee, Allan R; Torrents, Alba

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume, and upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor (MVE). Measured recoveries were analyzed to understand the influence of infiltration rate and delay time on atrazine transport and distribution in the column. Four time periods (0.28, 0.8, 1.8, and 5.5 h) representing very high to moderate infiltration rates (26.8, 9.4, 4.2, and 1.4 cm/h) were used. Replicate soil columns were tested immediately and following a 2-d delay after atrazine application. Results indicate atrazine recovery in leachate was independent of infiltration rate, but significantly lower for infiltration following a 2-d delay. Atrazine distribution in the 0-1 and 9-10 cm soil layers was affected by both infiltration rate and delay. These results are in contrast with previous field and laboratory studies that suggest that atrazine recovery in the leachate increases with increasing infiltration rate. It appears that the difference in atrazine recovery measured using the MVE and other leaching experiments using intact soil cores from this field site and the rain simulation equipment probably illustrates the effect of infiltrating water interacting with the atrazine present on the soil surface. This work suggests that atrazine mobilization from the soil surface is also dependent on interactions of the infiltrating water with the soil surface, in addition to the rate of infiltration through the surface soil.

  10. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  12. 28 CFR 301.204 - Continuation of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of lost-time wages. 301.204... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.204 Continuation of lost-time wages. (a) Once approved, the inmate shall receive lost-time wages until the inmate: (1) Is released; (2) Is transferred to another...

  13. 28 CFR 301.203 - Payment of lost-time wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of lost-time wages. 301.203... ACCIDENT COMPENSATION Lost-Time Wages § 301.203 Payment of lost-time wages. (a) An inmate worker may receive lost-time wages for the number of regular work hours absent from work due to injury sustained in...

  14. Lignite zone as an indicator to lost circulation belt: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen (18) water boreholes were studied for lost circulation. When locations of the boreholes associated with lost circulation were plotted on the map of Anambra State a lost circulation belt was observed around the River Niger – Onitsha – Oba – Nnewi axis. Lost circulation intervals range between 20-50m and 75-90m ...

  15. [Is therapy with local infiltrations feasible in primary care consultations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña Loarte, J E; Pérez Franco, J; Sánchez Sánchez, G

    1999-01-01

    To study the feasibility of local infiltration in primary care consultations. Before-and-after intervention study. Two clinics at an urban health centre. Patients diagnosed with pathology of tender areas and treated with corticosteroid infiltration between May 1997 and May 1998. Corticoid infiltration plus local anaesthetic. Weekly check-up. Analysis of the variables: sex, age, diagnosis, time elapsed between indication and start of treatment, subjective assessment of pain before and after treatment (VRS scale), number of infiltrations per patient, side-effects. Evaluation of overall and individual effectiveness. 41 patients were infiltrated. Average age was 58. Most common pathologies were: rotary joint tendinitis (48.7%), anserine bursitis (24.4%), plantar fasciitis (7.3%). Average number of infiltrations per pathology: 1.3. Mean waiting time: 3.5 days. Comparison of pain by means of VRS (range 0-5) before and after treatment used the Wilcoxon test, with a statistically significant difference and p < 0.001 (z = -5.5109). For 35 patients (85.4%), pain was solved very well (values 0 and 1 on the VRS). For 3 patients (7.3%), improvement was moderate; and for 3 (7.3%) there was no improvement. 1. Treatment with local infiltration of corticosteroids is effective in dealing with pain, and is an alternative to treatment with NSAIDs. 2. It is feasible in primary care, and there are many advantages if the general practitioner employs this therapeutic technique.

  16. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  17. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  18. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......, microstructural characterization and electrochemical testing are discussed. Data on polarization resistance, Rp, are obtained from impedance spectra recorded on quasi-symmetrical cells (YSZ backbones/YSZ/LSM-YSZ (screen printed)). The backbones are infiltrated with LSM and compared to a standard LSM-YSZ screen...

  19. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  20. MILTON’S PARADISE LOST AND A POSTCOLONIAL FALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ FERNANDO FERREIRA DE SÁ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In John Milton’s Paradise Lost epic and empire are dissociated. Contrary to many misreadings, this all-important work of the English Renaissance intersects postcolonial thinking in a number of ways. By using Gayatri Spivak’s circuit of postcolonial theory and practice, this paper enacts a counterpointal (misreading of Milton’s text: Paradise Lost may at last free its (post-colonial (discontent. Since every reading is a misreading, my (misreading of Milton’s paradise is amo(vement of resistance against and intervention in a so-called grand narrative of power (Milton’s epic with a view to proposing a postcolonial conversation with this text.

  1. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the experiences that states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. Contrary to concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate the NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive. Seven of the 10 states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation and, for those states reporting problems, conditions linked to implementation difficulties. Finally, observed changes in utility-investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. We find that utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states. (Author)

  2. Device for preventing coolant in a reactor from being lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent all of coolant from being lost from the core at the time of failure in rupture of pipe in a recirculation system to cool the core with the coolant remained within the reactor. Structure: A valve, which will be closed when a water level of the coolant within the core is in a level less than a predetermined level, is provided on a recirculating water outlet nozzle in a pressure vessel to thereby prevent the coolant from being lost when the pipe is broken, thus cooling the core by means of reduced-pressure boiling of coolant remained within the core and boiling due to heat, and restraining core reactivity by means of void produced at that time. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Is Ecotourism Just Another Story of Paradise Lost?

    OpenAIRE

    English, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses Milton’s epic Paradise Lost as a metaphor to highlight the pitfalls of the label “ecotourism”. Critics of ecotourism view the label as a misnomer and an advertising ploy. Therefore, in order to provide a balanced perspective of ecotourism, this paper will review the definition of ecotourism, discuss the challenges of implementing successful ecotourism projects and provide some examples of ecotourism-gone-wrong. Since seeking economic benefits of increased tourism is contradict...

  4. DIGITAL MARKETING FOR FOREIGN MARKETS. CASE: LOST IN KAJAANI

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmetyanova, Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Different marketing researches report that participation in adventure races had grown over the last 2-3 years. However, adventure races have received relatively little attention in academic literature. The focus of existing studies in this field tends to be on accidents or medical issues. At the same time social media networks have become popular. The purpose of this thesis was to describe how increased social media activity would affect awareness of the Lost in Kajaani (LiK) adventure race. ...

  5. Trade finance and Latin America's lost decade: The forgotten link

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Sebastian; Flores Zendejas, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Great recession has brought back to foreground the link between trade credit international trade and economic growth. Scholars have recently found that the effects of the fall in trade finance are strong and accurately explain the recent fall in international trade. We argue that the lost decade that followed Latin America's debt crisis is a useful comparative benchmark to recognize the scope of impact on international trade stemming from a sharp decline in trade finance. The years that f...

  6. Mental illness and lost income among adult South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Flisher, Alan J

    2013-05-01

    Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV. The presence of severe depression or anxiety disorders was associated with a significant reduction in earnings in the previous 12 months among both employed and unemployed South African adults (p = 0.0043). In simulations of costs to individuals, the mean estimated lost income associated with severe depression and anxiety disorders was $4,798 per adult per year, after adjustment for age, gender, substance abuse, education, marital status, and household size. Projections of total annual cost to South Africans living with these disorders in lost earnings, extrapolated from the sample, were $3.6 billion. These data indicate either that mental illness has a major economic impact, through the effect of disability and stigma on earnings, or that people in lower income groups are at increased risk of mental illness. The indirect costs of severe depression and anxiety disorders stand in stark contrast with the direct costs of treatment in South Africa, as illustrated by annual government spending on mental health services, amounting to an estimated $59 million for adults. The findings of this study support the economic argument for investing in mental health care as a means of mitigating indirect costs of mental illness.

  7. Life years lost among patients with a given disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh

    2017-01-01

    A number of suggested measures of life years lost among patients with a given disease are reviewed, and some new ones are proposed. The methods are all phrased in the framework of a (Markov or non-Markov) illness-death model in combination with a population life table. The methods are illustrated...... using data on Danish male patients with bipolar disorder, and some recommendations are given. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  9. Restoration of lost connectivity of partitioned wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Ranga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The lost connectivity due to failure of large scale nodes plays major role to degrade the system performance by generating unnecessary overhead or sometimes totally collapse the active network. There are many issues and challenges to restore the lost connectivity in an unattended scenario, i.e. how many recovery nodes will be sufficient and on which locations these recovery nodes have to be placed. A very few centralized and distributed approaches have been proposed till now. The centralized approaches are good for a scenario where information about the disjoint network, i.e. number of disjoint segments and their locations are well known in advance. However, for a scenario where such information is unknown due to the unattended harsh environment, a distributed approach is a better solution to restore the partitioned network. In this paper, we have proposed and implemented a semi-distributed approach called Relay node Placement using Fermat Point (RPFP. The proposed approach is capable of restoring lost connectivity with small number of recovery relay nodes and it works for any number of disjoint segments. The simulation experiment results show effectiveness of our approach as compared to existing benchmark approaches.

  10. The Living Donor Lost Wages Trial: Study Rationale and Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Carroll, Michaela; Evenson, Amy R; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Baliga, Prabhakar; Howard, David H; Schold, Jesse D

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the background, rationale, and design of an NIH-funded, single-center study to test the impact of offering reimbursement for donor lost wages incurred during the post-nephrectomy recovery period on the live donor kidney transplant (LDKT) rate in newly evaluated kidney transplant candidates, to examine whether offering reimbursement for donor lost wages reduces racial disparity in LDKT rates, and to determine whether higher reimbursement amounts lead to higher LDKT rates. LDKT is the optimal treatment for renal failure. However, living kidney donation has declined in the past decade, particularly among men, younger adults, blacks, and low-income adults. There is evidence that donation-related costs may deter both transplant candidates and potential donors from considering LDKT. Lost wages is a major source of financial loss for some living donors and, unlike travel and lodging expenses, is not reimbursed by financial assistance programs. The study addresses the transplant community's call to reduce the financial burden of living donation and examine its impact on LDKT rates. Findings have the potential to influence policy, clinical practice, LDKT access, and income-related and racial disparities in LDKT and living donation.

  11. Development of environmental friendly lost circulation material from banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Hasan, Nur â.€˜Izzati; Naimi, Fardelen Binti Md; Othman, Nur Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Loss of expensive mud could lead to major financial problem in executing a drilling project and is one of the biggest problems that need to be tackled during drilling. Synthetic Based Mud (SBM) is the most stable state of the art drilling mud used in current drilling technologies. However, the problem with lost circulation is still inevitable. The focus of this project is to develop a new potential waste material from banana peel in order to combat lost circulation in SBM. Standard industrial Lost Circulation Material (LCM) is used to compare the performance of banana peel as LCM in SBM. The effects of different sizing of banana peels (600 micron, 300 micron and 100 micron) were studied on the rheological and filtration properties of SBM and the bridging performance of banana peel as LCM additive. The tests were conducted using viscometer, HTHP filter press and sand bed tester. Thermal analysis of banana peel was also studied using TGA. According to the results obtained, 300 and 100 micron size of banana peel LCM exhibited an improved bridging performance by 65% as compared to industrial LCM. However, banana peel LCM with the size of 600 micron failed to act as LCM due to the total invasion of mud into the sand bed.

  12. Restoration of Lost Lake, recovery of an impacted Carolina Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.; Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Rogers, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lost Lake is one of approximately 200 Carolina bays found on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Until 1984 Lost Lake was contaminated by heavy metals and solvents overflowing from a nearby settling basin. Up to 12 inches of surface soil and all vegetation was removed from the bay as part of a RCRA removal action. A plan for restoration was initiated in 1989 and implemented in 1990 and 1991. Extensive planning led to defined objectives, strategies, treatments, and monitoring programs allowing successful restoration of Lost Lake. The primary goal of the project was to restore the wetland ecosystem after a hazardous waste clean up operation. An additional goal was to study the progress of the project and the success of the restoration activity. Several strategy considerations were necessary in the restoration plan. The removal of existing organic soils had to have compensation, a treatment scheme for planting and the extent of manipulation of the substrate had to be considered, monitoring decisions had to be made, and the decision whether or not to actively control the hydrology of the restored system

  13. Comparison of infiltration capacity of permanent grassland and arable land during the 2011 growing season

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Mašíček; F. Toman; M. Vičanová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the rate of infiltration and cumulative infiltration in permanent grassland (PG) and in arable land over the course of the 2011 growing season. The measurement of water infiltration into soil was conducted via ponded infiltration method based on the use of two concentric cylinders in field conditions. Kostiakov equations were applied to evaluate the ponded infiltration. Based on field measurements, the dependence of infiltration rate (v) on time (t) was de...

  14. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... reduced surface runoff and soil losses, but increased infiltration rates. The effectiveness of ... Soil and water conservation is essential for sustaining food production and ...... Earth Surface Processes, 4:241-255. McIntyre DS ...

  15. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  16. Infiltration Variability in Agricultural Soil Aggregates Caused by Air Slaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkova, L.; Urik, M.

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on variation in infiltration rates of soil aggregates as a result of phenomenon known as air slaking. Air slaking is caused by the compression and subsequent escape of air captured inside soil aggregates during water saturation. Although it has been generally assumed that it occurs mostly when dry aggregates are rapidly wetted, the measurements used for this paper have proved that it takes place even if the wetting is gradual, not just immediate. It is a phenomenon that contributes to an infiltration variability of soils. In measuring the course of water flow through the soil, several small aggregates of five agricultural soils were exposed to distilled water at zero tension in order to characterize their hydraulic properties. Infiltration curves obtained for these aggregates demonstrate the effect of entrapped air on the increase and decrease of infiltration rates. The measurements were performed under various moisture conditions of the A-horizon aggregates using a simple device.

  17. Calibration and validation of a general infiltration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Ranjan Kumar, Shashi; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-08-01

    A general infiltration model proposed by Singh and Yu (1990) was calibrated and validated using a split sampling approach for 191 sets of infiltration data observed in the states of Minnesota and Georgia in the USA. Of the five model parameters, fc (the final infiltration rate), So (the available storage space) and exponent n were found to be more predictable than the other two parameters: m (exponent) and a (proportionality factor). A critical examination of the general model revealed that it is related to the Soil Conservation Service (1956) curve number (SCS-CN) method and its parameter So is equivalent to the potential maximum retention of the SCS-CN method and is, in turn, found to be a function of soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity. The general model was found to describe infiltration rate with time varying curve number.

  18. Fabrication and optical characterization of gold-infiltrated silica opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Gang; Tang Fangqiong; Tam, W.Y.; Li Jensen; Chan, C T; Sheng Ping

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of metal-infiltrated silica opals for optical studies. Highly mono-dispersed silica microspheres are fabricated and assembled by a force packing method to form opals with large domain sizes. The opals are then infiltrated with gold by an electroplating technique. The optical properties of the infiltrated opals in the visible range are studied and model calculations based on a multiple-scattering formalism are used to interpret the experimental results. The calculated position of the directional gap of the silica opal agrees very well with experimental observation. We found that the optical properties of the infiltrated sample can be explained using a model system in which the voids in the silica opal are partially filled with Au and the surface of the slab is covered with a thin layer of Au

  19. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...

  20. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  1. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon; Cerwinsky, Derrick; Gahalaut, Krishan Pratap Singh; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration

  2. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  3. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  4. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  5. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  6. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  7. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  8. Impact of Weight Loss on Physical Function with Changes in Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Fat Infiltration in Overweight to Moderately Obese Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Santanasto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Evaluate the effects of weight loss on muscle mass and area, muscle fat infiltration, strength, and their association with physical function. Methods. Thirty-six overweight to moderately obese, sedentary older adults were randomized into either a physical activity plus weight loss (PA+WL or physical activity plus successful aging health education (PA+SA program. Measurements included body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, knee extensor strength, and short physical performance battery (SPPB. Results. At 6 months, PA+WL lost greater thigh fat and muscle area compared to PA+SA. PA+WL lost 12.4% strength; PA+SA lost 1.0%. Muscle fat infiltration decreased significantly in PA+WL and PA+SA. Thigh fat area decreased 6-fold in comparison to lean area in PA+WL. Change in total SPPB score was strongly inversely correlated with change in fat but not with change in lean or strength. Conclusion. Weight loss resulted in additional improvements in function over exercise alone, primarily due to loss of body fat.

  9. Mechanisms of water infiltration into conical hydrophobic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhao, Jianbing; Yin, Chun-Yang; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen, Xi

    2009-08-14

    Fluid channels with inclined solid walls (e.g. cone- and slit-shaped pores) have wide and promising applications in micro- and nano-engineering and science. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanisms of water infiltration (adsorption) into cone-shaped nanopores made of a hydrophobic graphene sheet. When the apex angle is relatively small, an external pressure is required to initiate infiltration and the pressure should keep increasing in order to further advance the water front inside the nanopore. By enlarging the apex angle, the pressure required for sustaining infiltration can be effectively lowered. When the apex angle is sufficiently large, under ambient condition water can spontaneously infiltrate to a certain depth of the nanopore, after which an external pressure is still required to infiltrate more water molecules. The unusual involvement of both spontaneous and pressure-assisted infiltration mechanisms in the case of blunt nanocones, as well as other unique nanofluid characteristics, is explained by the Young's relation enriched with the size effects of surface tension and contact angle in the nanoscale confinement.

  10. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  11. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  12. Remittances in the Republic of Moldova:Lost opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel CHISTRUGA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of the relationship between remittances and economic growth as well as the use of remittances for productive investment in order to contribute to long-run development. Also, there are given some stylized facts of remittances in the Republic of Moldova and their impact over the national economy. Because of its business and investment climate, because of its financial system and macroeconomic policies that were conducted, Moldova has lost almost all opportunities to benefit from remittances.

  13. Years of life lost due to infectious diseases in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Marek; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bryla, Pawel; Pikala, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An evaluation of mortality due to infectious diseases in Poland in 1999–2012 and an analysis of standard expected years of life lost due to the above diseases. Methods The study material included a database created on the basis of 5,219,205 death certificates of Polish inhabitants, gathered between 1999 and 2012 and provided by the Central Statistical Office. Crude Death Rates (CDR), Standardized Death Rates (SDR) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost (SEYLL) due to infectious and parasitic diseases were also evaluated in the study period as well as Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per living person (SEYLLp) and Standard Expected Years of Life Lost per dead person (SEYLLd). Time trends were evaluated with the application of joinpoint models and an annual percentage change in their values. Results Death certificates report that 38,261 people died due to infectious diseases in Poland in the period 1999–2012, which made up 0.73% of the total number of deaths. SDR caused by these diseases decreased, particularly in the male group: Annual Percentage Change (APC = -1.05; 95% CI:-2.0 to -0.2; p<0.05). The most positive trends were observed in mortality caused by tuberculosis (A15-A19) (APC = -5.40; 95% CI:-6.3 to -4.5; p<0.05) and also meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis (G03-G04) (APC = -3.42; 95% CI:-4.7 to -2.1; p<0.05). The most negative mortality trends were observed for intestinal infectious diseases (A00-A09) Annual Average Percentage Change (AAPC = 7.3; 95% CI:3.1 to 11.7; p<0.05). SDR substantially decreased in the first half of the study period, but then significantly increased in the second half. Infectious and parasitic diseases contributed to a loss of around 37,000 standard expected years of life in 1999 and more than 28,000 in 2012. During the study period, the SEYLLp index decreased from 9.59 to 7.39 per 10,000 population and the SEYLLd index decreased from 14.26 to 10.34 years (AAPC = 2.3; 95% CI:-2,9 to -1.7; p<0

  14. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Modiba

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die ervaring van moeders met betrekking tot die dood van ‘n baba tydens swangerskap te verken en te beskryf, asook die versorging wat hulle van vroedvroue en dokters gedurende die periode ontvang het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. A Serpentinite-Hosted Ecosystem: The Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Deborah S.; Karson, Jeffrey A.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Shank, Timothy M.; Butterfield, David A.; Hayes, John M.; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Olson, Eric J.; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S.; Brazelton, William J.; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J.; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Baross, John A.; Summons, Roger E.; Sylva, Sean P.

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

  16. The Psychopaths in Caroline Roberts’ Novel the Lost Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Mia Pratiwi

    2015-01-01

    The Lost Girl novel is a true story that tells about the author, Caroline Roberts’ experiences when she accepted a job at 25 Cromwell Street, the infamous address of Fred and Rose West, she was only 16. She realized that there was something very malevolent about the couple, so she left their employment soon after, glad to be rid of them. The story should have ended there, but a month, later she was abducted by the West and suffered violent sexual abuse at their hands before being told that sh...

  17. Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ravid; London, Anat; Varol, Chen; Raposo, Catarina; Cusimano, Melania; Yovel, Gili; Rolls, Asya; Mack, Matthias; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Jung, Steffen; Schwartz, Michal

    2009-07-01

    Although macrophages (MPhi) are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally homogenous. Given the massive accumulation in the injured spinal cord of activated resident microglia, which are the native immune occupants of the central nervous system (CNS), the recruitment of additional infiltrating monocytes from the peripheral blood seems puzzling. A key question that remains is whether the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi contribute to repair, or represent an unavoidable detrimental response. The hypothesis of the current study is that a specific population of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi is functionally distinct from the inflammatory resident microglia and is essential for recovery from SCI. We inflicted SCI in adult mice, and tested the effect of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi on the recovery process. Adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras were used to functionally distinguish between the resident microglia and the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi. We followed the infiltration of the monocyte-derived MPhi to the injured site and characterized their spatial distribution and phenotype. Increasing the naïve monocyte pool by either adoptive transfer or CNS-specific vaccination resulted in a higher number of spontaneously recruited cells and improved recovery. Selective ablation of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi following SCI while sparing the resident microglia, using either antibody-mediated depletion or conditional ablation by diphtheria toxin, impaired recovery. Reconstitution of the peripheral blood with monocytes resistant to ablation restored the lost motor functions. Importantly, the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi displayed a local anti

  18. Automated dose estimation for lost or damaged dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deininger, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that some dosimetry vendors will compute doses for their customers' lost/damaged dosimeters based upon an average of recent dosimeter readings. However, the vendors usually require authorization from the customer for each such occurrence. Therefore, the tedious task of keeping track of the overdue status of each missing dosimeter and constantly notifying the vendor is still present. Also, depending on the monthly variability of a given person's doses, it may be more valid to use the employee's average dose, his/her highest dose over a recent period, an average dose of other employees with similar job duties for that period, or the maximum permissible dose. Thus, the task of estimating doses for lost/damaged dosimeters cannot be delegated to dosimetry vendor. Instead, the radiation safety department must sue the data supplied by the vendor as input for performing estimates. The process is performed automatically at the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont using a personal computer and a relational database

  19. Ecological aspects of the use of lost foam patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some aspects of ecology in the use of lost foam patterns for piece production of large castings poured from ferrousalloys under the conditions of Metalodlew SA. Foundry. The technological processes used in the manufacture of castings are related with numerous hazards. Numerous problems requiring prompt solution occur also during the process of foundry mould pouring, to mention only various contaminants, air pollution, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment. Varioustechnological processes cause strenuous work conditions in foundry shops. Many of the publications that have appeared so far dealing withthe problems of environmental protection and hard work conditions in foundries [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] discuss in both general anddetailed way problems related with various pollutants, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment,responsible for hazards faced by foundry workers. Studies carried out by various R&D centres are mainly focussed on the problem of howto reduce the harmful effect of technological processes on the environment through modification of the already existing or development of new ecological and energy-saving materials and technologies. This paper shows the opportunities and threats resulting from the application of the Lost Foam Process in a foundry, which up to now has been using a more traditional technology.

  20. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-29

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds! But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost.

  1. Light's labour's lost - policies for energy-efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When William Shakepeare wrote Love's Labour's Lost he would have used light from tallow candles at a cost (today) of 12,000 British pounds per million-lumen hours. The same amount of light from electric lamps now costs only 2 pounds. But today's low-cost illumination still has a dark side. Globally, lighting consumes more electricity than is produced by either hydro or nuclear power and results in CO2 emissions equivalent to two thirds of the world's cars. A standard incandescent lamp may be much more efficient than a tallow candle, but it is far less efficient than a high-pressure sodium lamp. Were inefficient light sources to be replaced by the equivalent efficient ones, global lighting energy demand would be up to 40% less at a lower overall cost. Larger savings still could be realised through the intelligent use of controls, lighting levels and daylight. But achieving efficient lighting is not just a question of technology; it requires policies to transform current practice. This book documents the broad range of policy measures to stimulate efficient lighting that have already been implemented around the world and suggests new ways these could be strengthened to prevent light's labour's from being lost

  2. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  3. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)cathode was found to depend on the infiltrate firing temperature and is suggested to originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  4. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Freitag, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T 2 -TSE and T 2 -HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T 2 -HASTE and T 2 -TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T 2 -weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p 2 -weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to detect pneumonia in patients. (orig.) [de

  5. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  6. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  8. Tunable photoluminescence of porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qinglan; Xiong Rui; Huang Yuanming

    2011-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon films has been investigated as a function of the amount of liquid crystal molecules that are infiltrated into the constricted geometry of the porous silicon films. A typical nematic liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl was employed in our experiment as the filler to modify the PL of porous silicon. It is found that the originally red PL of porous silicon films can be tuned to blue by simply adjusting the amount of liquid crystal molecules in the microchannels of the porous films. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the recorded PL spectra. The mechanism of the tunable PL is discussed. Our results have demonstrated that the luminescent properties of porous silicon films can be efficiently tuned by liquid crystal infiltration. - Highlights: → Liquid crystal infiltration can tune the photoluminescence of porous silicon. → Red emission of porous silicon can be switched to blue by the infiltration. → Chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the tuned emissions. → White emission is realized for porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration.

  9. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  10. 21 CFR 1305.16 - Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222. 1305.16 Section... II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.16 Lost and stolen DEA Forms 222. (a) If a purchaser ascertains that an unfilled DEA Form 222 has been lost, he or she must execute another in triplicate and...

  11. Performance Improvement of an Inhomogeneous Cathode by Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed-Vakili, S. V.; Graves, Christopher R.; Babaei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is considerably influenced by the microstructure and chemical composition of cathode materials. Porous La0.85Sr0.15FeO3– Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 composite electrodes were infiltrated by La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3. The effects of infiltration loading...... performance of the electrodes. The electrochemical results revealed that the polarization resistance of the cathodes significantly was decreased by infiltration from 2.59 to 0.034 Ω cm2 measured at 670 °C. The best electrode performance was achieved at a calcination temperature of 770 °C. It was also found...

  12. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  13. Effect of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated soil using soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A.; Mukhlisin, M.; Jaafar, O.

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall especially in tropical region caused infiltration to the soil slope. The infiltration may change pore water pressure or matric suction of the soil. The event of rainfall infiltration into soil is a complex mechanism. Therefore, the main objectives of this research paper is to study the influence of rainfall intensity and duration that changed pore water pressure to soil. There are two types of soils used in this study; forest soil and kaolin. Soil column apparatus is used for experiments. Rainfall were applied to the soil and result for 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours were retrieved. Result shows that for the both types of soil, the negative pore water pressures were increased during wetting process and gradually decreased towards drying process. The results also show that pore water pressure at top part was increased greatly as the wetting process started compared to the middle and bottom part of the column.

  14. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  15. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates in association with disseminated actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontfraid, F; Ramphal, R

    1994-07-01

    The most common infectious cause of bilateral upper-lobe pulmonary disease is tuberculosis. However, we recently encountered a patient with bilateral apical infiltrates and multiple soft-tissue abscesses caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus. Other findings included fever, weight loss, and leukocytosis, and the patient's only known source of immunosuppression was a long history of alcoholism. There was no history of diabetes, steroid use, or other chronic underlying disease. The diagnosis was made by culture of drainage fluid from one abscess. Therapy with intravenous penicillin G led to rapid clinical improvement and reduction in the infiltrates. To our knowledge, the presentation of pulmonary infection, with bilateral apical infiltrates due to A. odontolyticus has not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  16. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  17. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-03-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  18. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap; Bengisu, Ergin; Yavuz, Ekrem

    2004-01-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  19. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of sa...... of samples with Ni remained in the YSZ structure at high temperatures. All impregnated backbones, presented Rs comparable to a standard screen printed cathode, which proves that LSM nanoparticles forms a pathway for electron conduction....

  20. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  1. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  2. Peri-optic nerve infiltration during leukaemic relapse: MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Christophe, C. [Department of Imaging, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium); Ferster, A.; Dan, B. [Department of Paediatrics, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium)

    2000-01-01

    Background. A 10-year-old boy with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but without previous evidence of central nervous system involvement, presented with seizures 3 years after complete remission. Materials and methods. MRI showed bilateral enlargement of the optic nerves despite normal ophthalmological examination. Results. Only the third cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 2 % blasts without concomitant bone-marrow infiltration. Enlargement of the optic nerves was consistent with bilateral leukaemic peri-optic nerve infiltration. The appearances returned to normal after chemotherapy. Conclusion. The optic nerves are a potential site of relapse in patients with systemic and meningeal ALL, even in the absence of ophthalmological signs. (orig.)

  3. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M and O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide

  4. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  5. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  6. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate

  7. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  8. Years of potential life lost and life expectancy in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Stürup, Anne Emilie; McGrath, John J

    2017-01-01

    was least in the Asian study and greatest in Africa. The overall weighted average life expectancy was 64·7 years (95% CI 61·1-71·3), and was lower for men than women (59·9 years, 95% CI 55·5-64·3 vs 67·6 years, 63·1-72·1). Life expectancy was lowest in Asia and Africa. Timing of publication and risk of bias...... (Africa n=1, Asia n=1, Australia n=1, Europe n=7, and North America n=3) that involved up to 247 603 patients. Schizophrenia was associated with a weighted average of 14·5 years of potential life lost (95% CI 11·2-17·8), and was higher for men than women (15·9, 13·8-18·0 vs 13·6, 11·4-15·8). Loss...

  9. Response to The Lost Thing: Notes from a Secondary Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses students’ responses to the picturebook The Lost Thing (Tan, 2000 and its film (2010. It describes a small-scale project in a secondary school in Portugal, which involved 16-18 year-old students, learning English as a foreign language. Following a socio-constructivist approach to language learning and the basic tenets of reader response theory, discussion and an interpretative stance to meaning making were encouraged. The aim was to foster students’ appreciation of the visual during their interpretative discussions as well as developing their English language skills. This paper demonstrates how the picturebook in particular afforded the students with opportunities for language development through talk. It closes with notes on the implications of using picturebooks and their films in the classroom.

  10. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2016-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  11. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2017-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  12. "Lost in a shopping mall" -- a breach of professional ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Lynn S; Dean, Martha C

    1999-01-01

    The "lost in a shopping mall" study has been cited to support claims that psychotherapists can implant memories of false autobiographical information of childhood trauma in their patients. The mall study originated in 1991 as 5 pilot experiments involving 3 children and 2 adult participants. The University of Washington Human Subjects Committee granted approval for the mall study on August 10, 1992. The preliminary results with the 5 pilot subjects were announced 4 days laters. An analysis of the mall study shows that beyond the external misrepresentions, internal scientific methodological errors cast doubt on the validity of the claims that have been attributed to the mall study within scholarly and legal arenas. The minimal involvement -- or, in some cases, negative impact -- of collegial consultation, acadmic supervision, and peer review throughout the evolution of the mall study are reviewed.

  13. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  14. Evaluation of infiltrations from Yeso reservoir, using no conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli D-F, Alejandro; Espinoza F, Diana; Olavarria R, Jose M.; Pollastri J, Alberto; Aguirre D, Evelyn; Moya V, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to measure with the aid of natural isotope technique the speed flow of the water filtrating from Yeso reservoir. The hydrochemistry and temperature of water has also proved to be an excellent tracer and has allowed the identification of the infiltration zone of an important fraction of the seepage

  15. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... the changes in the patients' heart rates were compared between the groups. The obtained data were evaluated statistically. ... The increase in the heart rate of the patients was significantly higher in the buccal infiltration ..... in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 1992;12:2104‑11. 4. Tortamano IP ...

  16. Water Infiltration in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite : Fast and Inconspicuous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Plogmeyer, Marcel; Sendner, Michael; Doering, Sebastian; Bakulin, Artem A.; Brzuska, Carlo; Scheer, Roland; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie; Lovrincic, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While the susceptibility of CH3NH3PbI3 to water is well-documented, the influence of water on device performance is not well-understood. Herein, we use infrared spectroscopy to show that water infiltration into CH3NH3PbI3 occurs much faster and at a humidity much lower than previously thought. We

  17. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; Beecham, Simon

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  18. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater...

  19. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  20. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallowing and conservation agriculture are sustainable farming practices that can be used for soil and water conservation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of different conservation agriculture practices on rainfall infiltration and soil and water losses across 4 sites, using simulated rainfall. The study ...

  1. Areal variation and chemical modification of weathered shale infiltration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Spalding, B.P.; Munro, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial variability of infiltration into a weathered shale subsoil was evaluated at a site proximal to one used for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Double-ring infiltometers were installed at 48 locations on a 2- by 2-m grid after the removal of 1 to 2 m of soil (Litz-Sequoia association, Typic Hapludults). Infiltration rates were measured before and during the 0- to 20- and 239- to 259-day periods following treatment with solutions of NaOH, KOH, NaF, NaAlO 2 , and Na 2 SiO 3 at rates of 151 equivalents/m 2 . None of these chemical treatments significantly altered infiltration rate, indicating that chemical modification of soil exchange properties may be achieved without inducing hydrologic disturbance in these subsoils. A semivariogram analysis of infiltration data showed that areal variability was random; any spatial patterning must therefore occur at a smaller scale than 2 m

  2. Effects of termites on infiltration in crusted soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Brussaard, L.

    1996-01-01

    In northern Burkina Faso (West Africa), a study was undertaken to explore the possibilities of restoring the infiltration capacity of crusted soils through the stimulation of termite activity. Treatments consisted of the application of a mulch of a mixture of wood and straw without insecticides

  3. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I

    2015-04-01

    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  4. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.

  5. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface

  6. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih

    2017-06-20

    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  7. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  8. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol P. Harden*; P. Delmas Scruggs

    2003-01-01

    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at...

  9. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high temperature.

  10. 40 CFR 35.2120 - Infiltration/Inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rainfall induced peak inflow rate results or will result in chronic operational problems during storm... during periods of high groundwater, the applicant shall build the project including sufficient capacity to transport and treat any existing infiltration. However, if the applicant believes any specific...

  11. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically

  12. Three-dimensional micro structured nanocomposite beams by microfluidic infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, L L; Paez, O A; Therriault, D; Aïssa, B; El Khakani, M A

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro structured beams reinforced with a single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT)/polymer nanocomposite were fabricated using an approach based on the infiltration of 3D microfluidic networks. The 3D microfluidic network was first fabricated by the direct-write assembly method, which consists of the robotized deposition of fugitive ink filaments on an epoxy substrate, forming thereby a 3D micro structured scaffold. After encapsulating the 3D micro-scaffold structure with an epoxy resin, the fugitive ink was liquefied and removed, resulting in a 3D network of interconnected microchannels. This microfluidic network was then infiltrated by a polymer loaded with C-SWNTs and subsequently cured. Prior to their incorporation in the polymer matrix, the UV-laser synthesized C-SWNTs were purified, functionalized and dispersed into the matrix using a three-roll mixing mill. The final samples consist of rectangular beams having a complex 3D skeleton structure of C-SWNT/polymer nanocomposite fibers, adapted to offer better performance under flexural solicitation. Dynamic mechanical analysis in flexion showed an increase of 12.5% in the storage modulus compared to the resin infiltrated beams. The nanocomposite infiltration of microfluidic networks demonstrated here opens new prospects for the achievement of 3D reinforced micro structures

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M

    2015-01-01

    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...

  14. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  15. Standardized assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Di Caterino, Tina; Jylling, Anne-Marie B

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may have clinical utility and may be able to direct clinical decisions for subgroups of patients. Clinical utility is, however, not sufficient for warranting the implementation of a new...

  16. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Meng, Qingda; Bartek, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may represent a viable source of T cells for the biological treatment of patients with gliomas. Glioma tissue was obtained from 16 patients, tumor cell lines were established, and TILs were expanded in 16/16 cases using a combination of IL-2/IL-15/IL-21...

  17. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff

  18. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  19. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  20. Magnesium based composites fabricated by low pressure infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Micski, A.; Savage, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnesiumbased fiber composites have been produced by so called low pressure infiltration. The initial material consist of 'saffil' pre-forms and two magnesium alloys, Mg-9Al-1Zn and WE 54 (approximate composition Mg-5Y-1.5Nd-2(Tb,Er,Dy,Gd)-0.5Zr), and pure magnesium. The preforms consists of 10-30 vol% of short fibers linked together by SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 . Three different routes have been tested in the search for a good low pressure infiltration method. The experiments cover corrosion testing in NaCl-solution, sliding wear, abrasion and erosion testing. Of the tested infiltration methods the best results were obtained in a resistance heated evacuable furnace, in which the metal was molted in a steel crucible and the preform was conveyed into the melt under protective atmosphere. The infiltration takes place at atmospheric pressure and the cooling is performed in a sealed tube in air. The microscopy studies shows that low pressure infiltrated composites contain considerable amounts of porosity in distinction from those fabricated by squeeze casting. The corrosion test has shown that in the tested environment the alloy WE 54 has good corrosion resistance while Mg-9Al-1Zn and pure magnesium show low corrosion resistance. The influence of fibres in the matrix seems to be very small. Both magnesium and the alloy Mg-9Al-1Zn show for two body abrasion an almost linear improvement of abrasion resistance with increased fiber content. Pure magnesium shows decreasing erosion resistance with increasing fibre content. The Mg-9Al-1Zn-alloy appears to show a maximum in erosion resistance at 10 vol% fibers. In sliding wear the materials show an optimum initial and steady state wear resistance at a fiber content of about 10%. In general Al 2 O 3 -binder gives better wear resistance than SiO 2 -binder. Tensile testing was performed on low pressure infiltrated and squeeze cast composites with WE 54 matrix. It shows that the low pressure infiltrated composites are inferior to those

  1. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  3. Modelling of the chemical state in groundwater infiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysset, A.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater is replenished by water stemming either from precipitations, lakes or rivers. The area where such an infiltration occurs is characterized by a change in the environmental conditions, such as a decrease of the flow velocity and an increase in the solid surface marking the boundary of the flow field. With these changes new chemical processes may become relevant to the transport behavior of contaminants. Since the rates of chemical processes usually are a function of the concentrations of several species, an understanding of infiltration sites may require a multicomponent approach. The present study aims at formulating a mathematical model together with its numerical solution for groundwater infiltration sites. Such a model should improve the understanding of groundwater quality changes related to infiltrating contaminants. The groundwater quality is of vital interest to men because at many places most of the drinking water originates from groundwater. In the first part of the present study two partial models are formulated: one accounting for the transport in a one-dimensional, homogeneous and saturated porous medium, the other accounting for chemical reactions. This second model is initially stated for general kinetic systems. Then, it is specified for two systems, namely for a system governed only by reactions which are fast compared to the transport processes and for a system with biologically mediated redox reactions of dissolved substrates. In the second part of the study a numerical solution to the model is developed. For this purpose, the two partial models are coupled. The coupling is either iterative as in the case of a system with fast reactions or sequential as in all other cases. The numerical solutions of simple test cases are compared to analytical solutions. In the third part the model is evaluated using observations of infiltration sites reported in the literature. (author) figs., tabs., 155 refs

  4. Unconfined aquifer response to infiltration basins and shallow pump tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, David W.; DeGroot, Don J.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryWe measure and model the unsteady, axisymmetric response of an unconfined aquifer to delayed, arbitrary recharge. Water table drainage follows the initial elastic aquifer response, as modeled for uniform, instantaneous recharge by Zlotnik and Ledder [Zlotnik, V., Ledder, G., 1992. Groundwater flow in a compressible unconfined aquifer with uniform circular recharge. Water Resources Research 28(6), 1619-1630] and delayed drainage by Moench [Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer. Ground Water 33(3), 378-384]. We extend their analyses with a convolution integral that models the delayed response of an aquifer to infiltration from a circular infiltration basin. The basin routes the hydrograph to the water table with a decay constant dependent on a Brooks and Corey [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division ASCE 92(2), 61-88] unsaturated permeability exponent. The resulting closed form model approaches Neuman's [Neuman, S.P., 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resources Research 8(4), 1031-1045] partially penetrating pump test equation for a small source radius, instantaneous, uniform drainage and a shallow screen section. Irrigation pump data at a well characterized part of the Plymouth-Carver Aquifer in southeastern Massachusetts calibrate the small source model, while infiltration data from the closed drainage system of State Route 25 calibrate the infiltration basin model. The calibrated permeability, elasticity, specific yield, and permeability exponent are plausible and consistent for the pump and infiltration data sets.

  5. Physical studies of porphyrin-infiltrated opal crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabataityte, J. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: julija@pfi.lt; Simkiene, I.; Babonas, G.-J.; Reza, A. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baran, M.; Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, PAN, PL 02668, Warsaw (Poland); Vaisnoras, R.; Rasteniene, L. [Vilnius Pedagogical University, LT 08106, Vilnius (Lithuania); Golubev, V.; Kurdyukov, D. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-15

    Artificial opals made of silica spheres and infiltrated with aqueous solution of iron porphyrin (FeTPPS) possessing the absorption band in a visible spectral range were studied. The structural, optical and magnetic properties of composite structures were investigated. Bulk samples of opal structure were obtained by sedimentation technique from colloidal solution of SiO{sub 2} spheres of diameter 240 and 245 nm. The structure of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy. The properties of photonic crystals were demonstrated by optical measurements in transmission and reflection modes. The stop band was observed in the region 510-550 nm. In samples annealed at 900 deg. C the width of the stop band increased to {approx} 70 nm. Aqueous solutions of FeTPPS of concentration {approx} 1.0 mM and various pH-values were used for infiltration. The infiltration has led to a change of photonic characteristics, position of the stop band and dependence on light incidence angle. The absorption bands typical of FeTPPS were observed in the vicinity of the stop band. The photonic properties of infiltrated opal structures were determined to depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, which was used in technological procedure. Magnetic properties of FeTPPS-infiltrated opal samples, which have been studied at 5-300 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T, were discussed. From magnetic measurements it followed that magnetic Fe-Fe interactions have practically vanished in hybrid samples and Fe centers should be treated as isolated ones.

  6. Physical studies of porphyrin-infiltrated opal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabataityte, J.; Simkiene, I.; Babonas, G.-J.; Reza, A.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Vaisnoras, R.; Rasteniene, L.; Golubev, V.; Kurdyukov, D.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial opals made of silica spheres and infiltrated with aqueous solution of iron porphyrin (FeTPPS) possessing the absorption band in a visible spectral range were studied. The structural, optical and magnetic properties of composite structures were investigated. Bulk samples of opal structure were obtained by sedimentation technique from colloidal solution of SiO 2 spheres of diameter 240 and 245 nm. The structure of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy. The properties of photonic crystals were demonstrated by optical measurements in transmission and reflection modes. The stop band was observed in the region 510-550 nm. In samples annealed at 900 deg. C the width of the stop band increased to ∼ 70 nm. Aqueous solutions of FeTPPS of concentration ∼ 1.0 mM and various pH-values were used for infiltration. The infiltration has led to a change of photonic characteristics, position of the stop band and dependence on light incidence angle. The absorption bands typical of FeTPPS were observed in the vicinity of the stop band. The photonic properties of infiltrated opal structures were determined to depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, which was used in technological procedure. Magnetic properties of FeTPPS-infiltrated opal samples, which have been studied at 5-300 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T, were discussed. From magnetic measurements it followed that magnetic Fe-Fe interactions have practically vanished in hybrid samples and Fe centers should be treated as isolated ones

  7. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descour, J.

    2001-01-01

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  8. Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons (IAU S244)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jonathan I.; Disney, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    Preface; Conference prelims; The HI that barked in the night M. J. Disney; The detection of dark galaxies in blind HI surveys J. I. Davies; Red haloes of galaxies - reservoirs of baryonic dark matter? E. Zackrisson, N. Bergvall, C. Flynn, G. Ostlin, G. Micheva and B. Baldwell; Constraints on dark and visible mass in galaxies from strong gravitational lensing S. Dye and S. Warren; Lost baryons at low redshift S. Mathur, F. Nicastro and R. Williams; Observed properties of dark matter on small spatial scales R. Wyse and G. Gilmore; The mass distribution in spiral galaxies P. Salucci; Connecting lost baryons and dark galaxies via QSO absorption lines T. Tripp; ALFALFA: HI cosmology in the local universe R. Giovanelli; The ALFALFA search for (almost) dark galaxies across the HI mass function M. Haynes; HI clouds detected towards Virgo with the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey B. Kent; Cosmic variance in the HI mass function S. Schneider; The Arecibo Galaxy Environments Survey - potential for finding dark galaxies and results so far R. Minchin et al.; Free-floating HI clouds in the M81 group E. Brinks, F. Walter and E. Skillman; Where are the stars in dark galaxies J. Rosenberg, J. Salzer and J. Cannon; The halo by halo missing baryon problem S. McGaugh; The local void is really empty R. Tully; Voids in the local volume: a limit on appearance of a galaxy in a dark matter halo A. Tikhonov and A. Klypin; Dim baryons in the cosmic web C. Impey; A census of baryons in galaxy clusters and groups A. Gonzalez, D. Zaritsky and A. Zabludo; Statistical properties of the intercluster light from SDSS image stacking S. Zibetti; QSO strong gravitational lensing and the detection of dark halos A. Maccio; Strong gravitational lensing: bright galaxies and lost dark-matter L. Koopmans; Mapping the distribution of luminous and dark matter in strong lensing galaxies I. Ferreras, P. Saha, L. Williams and S. Burles; Tidal debris posing as dark galaxies P. Duc, F. Bournaud and E. Brinks

  9. Ecosystem of silicon utilizing organisms in the lost world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.

    2010-12-01

    It was Charles Darwin who first conceived the idea of “the Lost World” which spanned more than 80% of Earth History. This is about the rocks of the Precambrian period, in which Charles Darwin did not find any fossils during his study in 1859. Although Logan’s Foraminosphere and The Cyanosphere were the proposed concepts of the possible Precambrian life, however, these studies were flawed with non-biological artifacts, post-depositional contamination etc. Although now scientists believe the ‘hydrothermal cradle for life’ following the important studies in deep-sea vents, this is still a hypothetic view. All important experiments on the origin of life which were done with a reducing atmosphere, were also not correct. Scientists recently opined that probably life originated as silicon utilizing coacervates spontaneously in cosmos, and are transferred on the Earth in the Precambrian. These silicon utilizing coacervates could originate spontaneously in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) dust particles containing silicates with carbon, many organic molecules, and with mantles of ices. Thus ultraviolet ray from molecular hydrogen after collision excitation by electrons produced by cosmic-ray ionization may initiate seeds of life with formation of silicon utilizing coacervates; which are then scattered throughout the Universe. Similarly they can also originate in the GMCs, which have the clouds of dust and gases. These were also probably the last common ancestor (LCA) of all living creatures on the Earth. They are also still entering the surface of the Earth in small numbers during volcanic eruptions, blue lightning etc., but are quickly lost in the thickly inhabited Earth surface with ~ 1,00,000 diversified earthly species. These coacervates showed a direct correlation with non-cultivable spherical clusters found in the stratosphere, and the unknown spheroid bodies in microfossils ( ~ 3,200 Ma to >3,700 Ma) recovered in Australia, Africa and in Greenland. Both

  10. Evaluating the infiltration performance of eight Dutch permeable pavements using a new full-scale infiltration testing method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; van de Giesen, Nick; van de Ven, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban Stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  11. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, F.C.; Lucke, T.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  12. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  13. Lost Productivity in Stroke Survivors: An Econometrics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manav V; Hackam, Daniel G; Silver, Frank L; Laporte, Audrey; Kapral, Moira K

    2016-01-01

    Stroke leads to a substantial societal economic burden. Loss of productivity among stroke survivors is a significant contributor to the indirect costs associated with stroke. We aimed to characterize productivity and factors associated with employability in stroke survivors. We used the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012 to identify stroke survivors and employment status. We used multivariable logistic models to determine the impact of stroke on employment and on factors associated with employability, and used Heckman models to estimate the effect of stroke on productivity (number of hours worked/week and hourly wages). We included data from 91,633 respondents between 18 and 70 years and identified 923 (1%) stroke survivors. Stroke survivors were less likely to be employed (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.33-0.46) and had hourly wages 17.5% (95% CI 7.7-23.7) lower compared to the general population, although there was no association between work hours and being a stroke survivor. We found that factors like older age, not being married, and having medical comorbidities were associated with lower odds of employment in stroke survivors in our sample. Stroke survivors are less likely to be employed and they earn a lower hourly wage than the general population. Interventions such as dedicated vocational rehabilitation and policies targeting return to work could be considered to address this lost productivity among stroke survivors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Cavalcante Valença Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traffic accidents represent a serious public health problem, because they kill approximately 1.24 million persons annually, and leave another 20 to 50 million with non-fatal lesions and traumatisms worldwide. In Brazil, in the year 2011, motorcyclists alone were responsible for one third of these deaths. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the years of potential life lost due to motorcycle accidents, according to sex and age group, and analyze the trend of the indicator for the state of Pernambuco in the period from 2005 to 2014. Methods and Results an ecological study based on data from the System of Information about Mortality was used. The indicator and rate were calculated by using the age limit of 70 years. The linear regression model and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used, at the level of significance of 5% and confidence of 95%. The most affected sex and age-range were men between 20-29 years of age. The rates followed a trend of growth in both sexes, in the young population with the exception of those from 10 to 19 years of age. Conclusions: This context points out the magnitude and precociousness of motorcycle accidents in both sexes and the young population.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of lost foam cast 356 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-gui Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of lost foam cast aluminum alloys have been investigated in both primary A356 (0.13% Fe and secondary 356 (0.47%. As expected, secondary 356 shows much higher content of Fe-rich intermetallic phases, and in particular the porosity in comparison with primary A356. The average area percent and size (length of Fe-rich intermetallics change from about 0.5% and 6 祄 in A356 to 2% and 25 祄 in 356 alloy. The average area percent and maximum size of porosity also increase from about 0.4% and 420 祄 to 1.4% and 600 祄, respectively. As a result, tensile ductility decreases about 60% and ultimate tensile strength declines about 8%. Lower fatigue strength was also experienced in the secondary 356 alloy. Low cycle fatigue (LCF strength decreased from 187 MPa in A356 to 159 MPa in 356 and high cycle fatigue (HCF strength also declined slightly from 68 MPa to 64 MPa.

  16. Novel technologies for the lost foam casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian

    2018-03-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) is a green precision casting process categorized as a near net forming technology. Yet, despite its popularity, it still suffers from some technological problems, such as poor filling ability of the castings, coarse and non-dense microstructure, low mechanical properties for the Al and Mg LFC processes, and defective carburization for the low carbon steel LFC process. These drawbacks restrict the development and widespread application of the LFC process. To solve these problems, the present study developed several novel LFC technologies, namely, LFC technologies under vacuum and low pressure, vibration solidification, and pressure solidification conditions; expendable shell casting technology; and preparation technology of bimetallic castings based on the LFC process. The results showed that the LFC under vacuum and low pressure evidently improved the filling ability and solved the oxidization problem of the alloys, which is suitable for producing complex and thinwall castings. The vibration and pressure solidifications increased the compactness of the castings and refined the microstructure, significantly improving the mechanical properties of the castings. The expendable shell casting technology could solve the pore, carburization, and inclusion defects of the traditional LFC method, obtaining castings with acceptable surface quality. Moreover, the Al/Mg and Al/Al bimetallic castings with acceptable metallurgical bonding were successfully fabricated using the LFC process. These proposed novel LFC technologies can solve the current technological issues and promote the technological progress of the LFC process.

  17. Big Bang Day : Afternoon Play - Torchwood: Lost Souls

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Martha Jones, ex-time traveller and now working as a doctor for a UN task force, has been called to CERN where they're about to activate the Large Hadron Collider. Once activated, the Collider will fire beams of protons together recreating conditions a billionth of a second after the Big Bang - and potentially allowing the human race a greater insight into what the Universe is made of. But so much could go wrong - it could open a gateway to a parallel dimension, or create a black hole - and now voices from the past are calling out to people and scientists have started to disappear... Where have the missing scientists gone? What is the secret of the glowing man? What is lurking in the underground tunnel? And do the dead ever really stay dead? Lost Souls is a spin-off from the award-winning BBC Wales TV production Torchwood. It stars John Barrowman, Freema Agyeman, Eve Myles, Gareth David-Lloyd, Lucy Montgomery (of Titty Bang Bang) and Stephen Critchlow.

  18. Geologic evolution of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Alden R.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.

    2016-02-01

    The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel serpentinite-hosted vent field located on the Atlantis Massif southern wall. Results of 2 m resolution bathymetry, side scan, and video and still imagery, integrated with direct submersible observations provide the first high-resolution geologic map of the LCHF. These data form the foundation for an evolutionary model for the vent system over the past >120,000 years. The field is located on a down-dropped bench 70 m below the summit of the massif. The bench is capped by breccia and pelagic carbonate deposits underlain by variably deformed and altered serpentinite and gabbroic rocks. Hydrothermal activity is focused at the 60 m tall, 100 m across, massive carbonate edifice "Poseidon," which is venting 91°C fluid. Hydrothermal activity declines south and west of the Poseidon complex and dies off completely at distances greater than 200 m. East of Poseidon, the most recent stage of hydrothermal flow is characterized by egress of diffuse fluids from narrow fissures within a low-angle, anastomosing mylonite zone. South of the area of current hydrothermal activity, there is evidence of two discrete previously unrecognized relict fields. Active venting sites defined by carbonate-filled fissures that cut the carbonate cap rock at the summit of the massif mark the present-day northernmost extent of venting. These spatial relationships reflect multiple stages of field development, the northward migration of venting over time, and the likely development of a nascent field at the massif summit.

  19. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Merkle, J.M.; Ehrhardt, J.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death (YLL) due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud (CL) and due to the skin and clothes contamination (SK). The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on ground (GR). Three nuclides, 131 I , 137 Cs and 239 Pu with extremely wide range of the half-life are considered to examine its possible influence on the calculated YLL values. For each of these nuclides, the YLL is found as a decreasing function of the age at exposure and presented graphically in this paper. Another negative correlation is established between the fully averaged YLL and the duration of the nuclide's half-life has been found for protracted exposure (GR). On the other hand, the YLL for the short-term external exposures (CL and SK) practically does not depend on the nuclide's half-life. In addition, a weak YLL dependence of the dose was commented. (author)

  20. Who cares? The lost legacy of Archie Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askheim, Clemet; Sandset, Tony; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-03-01

    Over the last 20 years, the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement has sought to develop standardised approaches to patient treatment by drawing on research results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The Cochrane Collaboration and its eponym, Archie Cochrane, have become symbols of this development, and Cochrane's book Effectiveness and Efficiency from 1972 is often referred to as the first sketch of what was to become EBM. In this article, we claim that this construction of EBM's historical roots is based on a selective reading of Cochrane's text. Through a close reading of this text, we show that the principal aim of modern EBM, namely to warrant clinical decisions based on evidence drawn from RCTs, is not part of Cochrane's original project. He had more modest ambitions for what RCTs can accomplish, and, more importantly, he was more concerned with care and equality than are his followers in the EBM movement. We try to reconstruct some of Cochrane's lost legacy and to articulate some of the important silences in Effectiveness and Efficiency From these clues it might be possible, we argue, to remodel EBM in a broader, more pluralistic, more democratic and less authoritarian manner. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Management of Gout in a Hospital Setting: A Lost Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Chapman, Peter T; Frampton, Christopher; O'Donnell, John L; Raja, Rafi; Stamp, Lisa K

    2017-10-01

    Management of gout is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients presenting to Christchurch Hospital for a gout flare and to determine whether management for both acute flares and urate lowering was in accordance with international recommendations. A retrospective audit was undertaken of all admissions to Christchurch Hospital from June 1, 2013, to May 31, 2014, in which gout was coded as a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis. Information including demographics, comorbidities, concomitant medications, treatment of acute gout, and urate lowering was collected. A total of 235 acute admissions for gout in 216 individuals were identified. Eleven individuals had 2 admissions and 4 individuals had 3 admissions. In 95/235 admissions (40.4%), gout was the primary diagnosis. Gout accounted for 95/77,321 (0.12%) of acute admissions. The treatment of acute gout was prednisone monotherapy in 170/235 (72.3%) of admissions. Serum urate was measured at some point during 123/235 (52.3%) of admissions, with only 19/123 (15.4%) at target urate level (gout are similar to that observed in other studies. Failure to initiate, change, or recommend alterations in urate-lowering therapy to achieve target urate in people with gout admitted to hospital represents a significant lost opportunity to improve longterm gout management.

  2. Mitochondrial respiratory control is lost during growth factor deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Eyal; Armour, Sean M; Thompson, Craig B

    2002-10-01

    The ability of cells to maintain a bioenergetically favorable ATP/ADP ratio confers a tight balance between cellular events that consume ATP and the rate of ATP production. However, after growth factor withdrawal, the cellular ATP/ADP ratio declines. To investigate these changes, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells isolated before the onset of apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells have lost their ability to undergo matrix condensation in response to ADP, which is accompanied by a failure to perform ADP-coupled respiration. At the time of analysis, mitochondria from growth factor-deprived cells were not depleted of cytochrome c and cytochrome c-dependent respiration was unaffected, demonstrating that the inhibition of the respiratory rate is not due to loss of cytochrome c. Agents that disrupt the mitochondrial outer membrane, such as digitonin, or maintain outer membrane exchange of adenine nucleotide, such as Bcl-x(L), restored ADP-dependent control of mitochondrial respiration. Together, these data suggest that the regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability contributes to respiratory control.

  3. Lost fishing gear and litter at Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rui P.; Raposo, Isabel P.; Sobral, Paula; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-06-01

    Studies concerning marine litter have received great attention over the last several years by the scientific community mainly due to their ecological and economic impacts in marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep ocean seafloor. The distribution, type and abundance of marine litter in Ormonde and Gettysburg, the two seamounts of Gorringe Bank, were analyzed from photo and video imagery obtained during ROV-based surveys carried out at 60-3015 m depths during the E/V Nautilus cruise NA017. Located approximately 125 nm southwest of Portugal, Gorringe Bank lays at the crossroad between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and is therefore characterized by an intense maritime traffic and fishing activities. The high frequency of lost or discarded fishing gear, such as cables, longlines and nets, observed on Gorringe Bank suggests an origin mostly from fishing activities, with a clear turnover in the type of litter (mostly metal, glass and to a much lesser extent, plastic) with increasing depth. Litter was more abundant at the summit of Gorringe Bank (ca. 4 items·km- 1), decreasing to less than 1 item·km- 1 at the flanks and to ca. 2 items·km- 1 at greater depths. Nevertheless, litter abundance appeared to be lower than in continental margin areas. The results presented herein are a contribution to support further actions for the conservation of vulnerable habitats on Gorringe Bank so that they can continue contributing to fishery productivity in the surrounding region.

  4. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  5. Vadose Zone Infiltration Rates from Sr isotope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Maher, K.; DePaolo, D. J.; DePaolo, D. J.; Conrad, M.

    2001-12-01

    Predicting infiltration rates and recharge through the vadose zone in arid regions is difficult and hence developing methods for the measurement of infiltration rates is important. We have been investigating the use of Sr isotope measurements for determining infiltration at the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford reservation in central Washington. In this context, infiltration affects the transport of contaminants to the water table as well as recharge of the groundwater system. Using Sr isotopes for this purpose requires drill core and water samples from the vadose zone, although leaches of the cores can substitute for water samples. Complementary information, including some constraints on regional recharge, can also be obtained using water samples from groundwater monitoring wells. The VZ method is based on the fact that the Sr isotope ratio of soil water just below the surface is often set by dissolution of aeolian material including carbonate, and this ratio is different from the average value in the deeper underlying vadose zone rock matrix. As water infiltrates, the Sr isotopic composition of the water changes toward the rock values as a result of Sr released from the rocks by weathering reactions. The rate of change with depth of the Sr isotope ratio of the vadose zone water is a function ultimately of q/R; the ratio of the infiltration flux (q) to the bulk rock weathering rate (R). Where it is possible to evaluate R, q can be estimated. As data accumulate it may be possible to improve the calibration of the method. At Hanford the vadose zone rock material is mostly unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel of broadly granitic composition, which constitute the Hanford and Ringold formations. Annual precipitation is about 160 mm/yr. Drilling and coring of a ca. 70m hole to the water table in 1999 as part of the Hanford groundwater monitoring program, in a relatively undisturbed area of the site, allowed us to generate a unique Sr isotope data set. The Sr isotope

  6. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.

  7. Zachary Solomon's Aggressions In Achieving Apotheosis Depicted In dan Brown's The Lost Symbol

    OpenAIRE

    FAIDAH, IRNA NUR

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Aggression, Apotheosis, Hierarchy of Needs, The Lost Symbol, Self-Actualization, Zachary Solomon The basic concept of self-actualization is that people tend to be the best that they can be. This phenomenon is also portrayed in Dan Brown's The Lost Symbol. The Lost Symbol deals with a character named Zachary Solomon who wants to transform into status of God or it is called as apotheosis. In achieving the apotheosis, Zachary Solomon should satisfy his needs according to Abraham Masl...

  8. 29 CFR 779.251 - Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity. 779.251... Coverage Interstate Inflow Test Under Prior Act § 779.251 Goods that have lost their out-of-State identity... been processed or manufactured so as to have lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are...

  9. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  10. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...... of the experimental soils. The results indicate clearly that soils play a crucial role for water retention and therefore, in overland flow prevention. There is a need to have more awareness on the intimate link between the land use and soil properties and their possible effects on flooding.......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...

  11. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders

  12. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... scanning electron microscopy and simulations of the measured polarization resistances, an expression for the area specific resistance (rp) associated with the oxygen exchange on the surface of the infiltrated LSC particles was extracted and compared with literature values. A series of microstructural...

  13. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  14. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  15. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically pleasing result in the long term. Bonded indirect partial restorations are highly dependent on their adhesive interface, as these thin restorations have a relatively low cohesive strength. Therefore, preservation of sound enamel, conditioning of the restorations and of the substrate, and luting procedures are of paramount importance for a successful outcome. Even when utmost care is taken during every step of the procedure, failures such as fractures, chipping, or marginal discoloration and defects sometimes occur. Only very few of these cases of failure are presented or are a subject of interest. In this case presentation, a fracture repair is performed using an infiltration technique with a resin composite material.

  16. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  17. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  18. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated...

  19. Description of the G-A Infiltration Model Using Chu and Chow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    conditions and divided the infiltration into two stages of before ponding and during ... been paid attention to for calculation of the excess rain in unsteady rainfall ..... Serrano S. E.(2001), Explicit Solution to Green and. Ampt Infiltration Equation.

  20. Bulk vs wedge shape layering techniques in V class cavities: marginal infiltration evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Giudice Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Considering the limitation related to the technique used for the infiltration analysis in small V class cavities, the infiltration score is not influenced by the different stratification techniques.

  1. Kodak Digital Camera and The Lost Business Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamsa; Thota

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of Kodak’s annual operations and business strategies during 2000-2010revealed that Kodak management faltered in transitioning the Kodak Company from an analog business model to a digital business model.In 2000 Kodak delivered strong performance and it appeared to be smart to be in the picture business.In 2002Kodak was the best-performing stock among companies that made up the Dow Jones Industrial Average.In 2005Kodak future looked bright.A confident Chairman and CEO Antonio M.Perez pronounced that by 2008he expected all of Kodak’s businesses to be leaders in their industry segments.In 2008Kodak remained as the most recognized and respected brands in the world but it played in the hyper competitive markets in which price and technological advances drove the market.So Kodak was unable to reap premium prices from its famous brand and it became a nonviable business due to sustained losses from continuing operations.During 2008-2012 Kodak fell from being a market leader to becoming a bankrupt Company.Using the analogy of"behind the power curve",this article shines light on Kodak’s crash to the ground,i.e.bankruptcy filing in 2012and asserts that Kodak management triggered the process of falling behind the power curve in 2000when it embraced the infoimaging strategy to extend the benefits of film.Kodak’s 2003digital business model and other strategies that followed it did not allow Kodak to become a strong competitor in the digital world.Kodak digital camera business became a lost business opportunity.

  2. Lost in Translation (LiT): IUPHAR Review 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollery, Colin T

    2014-05-01

    Translational medicine is a roller coaster with occasional brilliant successes and a large majority of failures. Lost in Translation 1 ('LiT1'), beginning in the 1950s, was a golden era built upon earlier advances in experimental physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology, with a dash of serendipity, that led to the discovery of many new drugs for serious illnesses. LiT2 saw the large-scale industrialization of drug discovery using high-throughput screens and assays based on affinity for the target molecule. The links between drug development and university sciences and medicine weakened, but there were still some brilliant successes. In LiT3, the coverage of translational medicine expanded from molecular biology to drug budgets, with much greater emphasis on safety and official regulation. Compared with R&D expenditure, the number of breakthrough discoveries in LiT3 was disappointing, but monoclonal antibodies for immunity and inflammation brought in a new golden era and kinase inhibitors such as imatinib were breakthroughs in cancer. The pharmaceutical industry is trying to revive the LiT1 approach by using phenotypic assays and closer links with academia. LiT4 faces a data explosion generated by the genome project, GWAS, ENCODE and the 'omics' that is in danger of leaving LiT4 in a computerized cloud. Industrial laboratories are filled with masses of automated machinery while the scientists sit in a separate room viewing the results on their computers. Big Data will need Big Thinking in LiT4 but with so many unmet medical needs and so many new opportunities being revealed there are high hopes that the roller coaster will ride high again. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Training and replacing a 'lost generation' of uranium professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    It wasn't long ago, actually only a few years ago, when uranium companies and skilled uranium professionals receive little attention and limited interest from other sections of the mining and resource industries. Actually, there were many uranium professionals, whom in some cases, spent over a decade unwinding their CV's to limit the emphasis on uranium exploration and development from the past. Actually, when the bottom fell out of the uranium industry in the late 70's and early 80's there were literally tens of thousands of professionals internationally that were in a major regroup with their careers to get back into mining proper without the uranium connection and believe me, that wasn't always easy. As in most cases, there was no or limited places for uranium professionals wanting to stay in the industry and consequently, virtually all were forced to leave the sector. Who could have predicted that, after nearly 25 years of limited international investment and significant interest in new uranium exploration and development, that the price for yellowcake today would be in excess of US$100/pound? Concerns over energy security and global warming on top of the all-time high uranium price have really come together to make a true uranium renaissance. A renaissance which looks sounder and more sustainable than ever before. So, how is the industry facing a chronic shortage of experience and the huge task of training a multidisciplinary professional workforce going to cope? Effectively there is a 'lost generation' of professionals and very few people available or knowledgeable enough to train those new to the industry. This is a unique problem in the industry and likely more chronic than the other mining sectors, as typically the economic cycles are seven or eight years, not 25 years as has been seen with uranium

  4. Concern for Lost Income Following Donation Deters Some Patients From Talking to Potential Living Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Schold, Jesse D; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Taber, David J; Phan, Van; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2016-12-01

    Some living kidney donors report lost income during recovery from surgery. Little is known about whether concern for living donor's lost income affects the decision to undergo donation evaluation and the willingness of transplant candidates to discuss living kidney donation (LKD) with others. To examine whether transplant patients were told by potential donors about lost income concerns and whether patients chose not to discuss LKD with others due to lost income concerns. Kidney transplant patients (185 wait-listed candidates, 171 deceased donor recipients, and 100 live donor recipients) at 2 centers completed a questionnaire to assess whether concern about donor's lost income was a consideration in discussion about LKD with others. One-third (32%) were told by a family member/friend that they were willing to donate but were concerned about potential lost income. The majority of those who expressed financial concern (64%) did not initiate donation evaluation. Many patients (42%) chose not to discuss living donation with a family member/friend due to concern about the impact of lost income on the donor. In the multivariable model, lower annual household income was the only statistically significant predictor of both having a potential donor expressing lost income concern and choosing not to talk to someone because of lost income concern. Findings from the current study underscore how concern about income loss for living donors may affect decision-making by both transplant candidates and potential donors.

  5. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  6. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  7. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2005-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  8. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  9. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltrate in human dental pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, K F; Silva, J A; Silva, T A; Batista, A C; Alencar, A H G; Estrela, C

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the microscopic characteristics and densities (per mm(2) ) of tryptase(+) mast cells, CD4(+) T helper lymphocytes, CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes, foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes, CD20(+) B lymphocytes, CD68(+) macrophages, and CD31(+) blood vessels in human dental pulpitis (n=38) and healthy pulpal tissue (n=6). The pulps of 38 human teeth with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis were removed by pulpectomy. The pulp tissue was immersed in 10% buffered formalin for evaluation using light microscopy. Tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, foxp3, CD20, CD68, and CD31 expressions were analysed using immunohistochemistry; other microscopic features, such as intensity of inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition, were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin stain. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at α=5%. Two microscopic patterns of pulpitis were found: group 1 (G1) (n=15) had an intense inflammatory infiltrate and mild collagen deposition; conversely, group 2 (G2) (n=23) had a scarce inflammatory infiltrate and intense collagen deposition. The numbers of CD68(+) macrophages (P=0.004) and CD20(+) B (P=0.068) lymphocytes and the density of blood vessels (P=0.002) were higher in G1 than in G2. However, a similar number of CD4(+) and CD45RO(+) T lymphocytes was found in both groups (P>0.05). When present, tryptase(+) mast cells were equally distributed in G1 and G2, whereas foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes were detected in 59% and 14% of the samples of G1 and G2. Controls exhibited lower numbers of foxp3, tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, CD68 and CD20 positive cells than G1 and G2. Irreversible pulpitis had distinct microscopic features with important quantitative and qualitative differences in inflammatory cell infiltration. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  10. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  11. Graphite fiber/copper composites prepared by spontaneous infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbao; Tao, Zechao; Li, Xiangfen; Yan, Xi; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-05-01

    The major bottleneck in developing graphite fiber reinforced copper (GF/Cu) composites is the poor wettability of Cu/graphite system. Alloying element of chromium (Cr) is introduced to improve the wettability of liquid copper on graphite. Sessile drop method experiments illustrate that the contact angle of liquid Cu-Cr (1.0 wt.%) alloy on graphite substrate decreases to 43° at 1300 °C. The improvement of wettability is related to the formation of chromium carbide layer at interface zone. Based on the wetting experiment, a spontaneous infiltration method for preparing GF/Cu composites is proposed. Unidirectional GF preforms are infiltrated by Cu-Cr alloys without external pressure in a tubular furnace. Results reveal that the GF preform can be fully infiltrated by Cu-Cr alloy (8 wt.%) spontaneously when fiber volume fraction is 40%. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of GF/Cu-Cr (8.0 wt.%) composites is 4.68 × 10-6/K along the longitudinal direction.

  12. Excitations in opal photonic crystals infiltrated with polarizable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eradat, Nayer; Sivachenko, A. Y.; Raikh, Mikhail E.; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Li, S.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2002-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) are a class of artificial structures with a periodic dielectric function. PCs can be a laboratory for testing fundamental processes involving interactions of radiation with matter in novel conditions. We have studied the optical properties of opal PCs that are infiltrated with highly polarizable media such as j-aggregates of cyanine dyes. Opals are self-assembled structures of silica spheres. We report our studies on clarifying the relationship between a polaritonic gap and a photonic stop band (Bragg gap) when they resonantly coexist in the same structure. Infiltration of opal with polarizable molecules combines the polaritonic and Bragg diffractive effects. Both effects exist independently when the Bragg (at ω = ωB) and polaritonic (ω = ωT) resonances are well separated in frequency. A completely different situation occurs when ωT ~ωB. Such a condition was achieved in opals that were infiltrated with J-aggregates of cyanine dyes that have large Rabi frequency. Our measurements show some dramatic changes in the shape of the reflectivity plateaus, which are due to the interplay between the photonic band gap and the polaritonic gap. The experimental results on reflectivity and its dependence on the light propagation angle and concentration of the cyanie dyes are in agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  13. Numerical modeling of NI-monitored 3D infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir; Snehota, Michal; Sacha, Jan; Vogel, Tomas; Votrubova, Jana

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that the temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity caused by the occurrence of air phase discontinuities often play an important role in water flow and solute transport experiments. In the present study, a series of infiltration-outflow experiments was conducted to test several working hypotheses about the mechanism of air phase trapping. The experiments were performed on a porous sample with artificial internal structure, using three sandy materials with contrasting hydraulic properties. The sample was axially symmetric with continuous preferential pathways and separate porous matrix blocks (the sample was 3.4 cm in diameter and 8.8 cm high). The infiltration experiments were monitored by neutron imaging (NI). The NI data were then used to quantify the water content of the selected sample regions. The flow regime in the sample was studied using a three-dimensional model based on Richards' equation. The equation was solved by the finite element method. The results of the numerical simulations of the infiltration experiments were compared with the measured outflow rates and with the spatial distribution of water content determined by NI. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

  14. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    mm in 2 h) and extreme (100 mm in 3 h) rain events. The objectives were to understand the behaviour of the anionic and toxic Cr(VI) in soil at neutral pH and to asses treatment efficiency towards Cr(VI). During normal rain events Cr(VI) was largely retained (more than 50, even though pH was neutral......The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  15. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  16. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  17. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions is an indic......T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  18. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  19. Study on water infiltration in loess aerated zone at CIRP's field test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongde; Zhao Yingjie; Ni Dongqi; Ma Binghui; Xu Zhaoyi; Tadao Tanaka; Masayuki Mukai

    2000-01-01

    Vertical joints and large pores existing uniquely in loess cause difference between loess and other homogenous soil media in water infiltration. Field test of water infiltration in loess aerated zone of and analysis with hydraulic theory of soil concludes that for the loess aerated zone of vertical joints existing in it makes little contribution to water infiltration under unsaturated condition, and large pores in the media would significantly retard water infiltration

  20. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two differ...

  1. Infiltrative lipoma compressing the spinal cord in 2 large-breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Marc K; Brauer, Christina; Dziallas, Peter; Gerhauser, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of infiltrative lipomas compressing the spinal cord and causing nonambulatory paraparesis in 2 large-breed dogs are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe extradural spinal cord compression by inhomogenous masses that infiltrated the adjacent tissues and the muscles of the spine in both dogs. The presumptive clinical diagnoses were infiltrative lipomas, which were confirmed by histopathology. In rare cases infiltrative lipomas are able to compress the spinal cord by the agressive growth of invasive adipocytes causing neurological deficits.

  2. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  3. Modeling rainfall infiltration on hillslopes using Flux-concentration relation and time compression approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Li; Yu, Zhongbo

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall infiltration on hillslopes is an important issue in hydrology, which is related to many environmental problems, such as flood, soil erosion, and nutrient and contaminant transport. This study aimed to improve the quantification of infiltration on hillslopes under both steady and unsteady rainfalls. Starting from Darcy's law, an analytical integral infiltrability equation was derived for hillslope infiltration by use of the flux-concentration relation. Based on this equation, a simple scaling relation linking the infiltration times on hillslopes and horizontal planes was obtained which is applicable for both small and large times and can be used to simplify the solution procedure of hillslope infiltration. The infiltrability equation also improved the estimation of ponding time for infiltration under rainfall conditions. For infiltration after ponding, the time compression approximation (TCA) was applied together with the infiltrability equation. To improve the computational efficiency, the analytical integral infiltrability equation was approximated with a two-term power-like function by nonlinear regression. Procedures of applying this approach to both steady and unsteady rainfall conditions were proposed. To evaluate the performance of the new approach, it was compared with the Green-Ampt model for sloping surfaces by Chen and Young (2006) and Richards' equation. The proposed model outperformed the sloping Green-Ampt, and both ponding time and infiltration predictions agreed well with the solutions of Richards' equation for various soil textures, slope angles, initial water contents, and rainfall intensities for both steady and unsteady rainfalls.

  4. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  5. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizeau Sébastien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  6. Ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent single-ring infiltrometers: Spatial versus temporal variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Tesař, Miroslav; Jelínková, V.; Cislerova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2017), s. 244-253 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05665S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : soil infiltrability * infiltration instability * infiltration modes * burrowing animals * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  7. Mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration des eaux dans le sol : Cas des sols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C'est donc une infiltration superficielle qui ne peut pas modifier la composition des eaux de l'aquifère. Ces sols sont alors favorables à une telle agriculture. Mots clés: mesure, vitesse, infiltration, sols, pollutions, eau, Niari, Congo. English Title: Measuring the speed of the water infiltration into the soil: case of the soil of the ...

  8. Numerical analysis on infiltration-driven decarbonation during skarnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Lee, C. T.; Dasgupta, R.

    2017-12-01

    Interaction of arc magmas with carbonate sequences on active margins leads to contact metamorphism and metasomatism by infiltrating magmatic fluids. This skarnification process releases CO2 to the metasomatic fluids, which transport carbon to shallow reservoirs and can affect the long-term carbon budget in the exogenic system [1]. In this study, we apply a self-consistent 1D finite difference model to an impure marble consisting of quartz and calcite, in a similar scheme as ref [2]. The Darcian flow is modeled with a fixed boundary condition of water influx, taking into account the reaction kinetics [3,4] and pore space compaction. The modeling results show that the reaction front lags the fluid infiltration front and propagates at the rate scaling with: = k × [infiltrating fluid flux] / [reactant amount], where k is a function of the reaction kinetics and rock rheology. The reaction front does not advance until one reactant is exhausted; thus a protolith assemblage of 50:50 quartz:calcite has the slowest-moving reaction front. The steady-state carbon flux scales with the distance of reaction front to comply with mass conservation, and thus yields a linear relationship with the infiltrating flux and is largely independent of the protolith quartz:calcite ratio. Assuming that the rate of global magma emplacement on the continental arcs is 3 km3/yr [5], the arc magmas exsolve 5 vol.% water as they crystallize, and 40% of such magmas intrude carbonate sequences, the total steady-state carbon flux due to skarnification is 0.2 Tmol/yr. By contrast, Mount Etna alone emits carbon up to 0.2 Tmol/yr, most of which is the product of magma-carbonate interaction [6]. We note that the infiltration of pure water produces a wollastonite marble; natural metasomatic fluid is saturated with silica and other components, which leads to greater decarbonation and the formation of calc-silicate skarn. Wallrock assimilation also adds to the carbon flux from arcs, so the simplified

  9. Vocal fold composition and early glottic carcinoma infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging techniques provide only limited information pertaining to the extent of infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas into vocal fold tissue layers. Therefore, it is needed to seek the contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding examination and characterization in laryngeal carcinoma infiltration. Methods Excised larynges were collected from 30 male laryngectomy patients with an average age of 43.5 years (ranging 36 to 55 years and history of smoking (≥10 years exhibiting T1, T2, or subglottal (normal vocal fold carcinomas. Vocal folds were preserved via freezing or immersion in paraffin. The depth of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in both normal vocal folds and tumor tissues of afflicted vocal folds was measured. Results The average depths of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in normal vocal folds were 0.15 ± 0.06 mm, 2.30 ± 0.59 mm, and 2.87 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Infiltration measurements of T1 tumors showed a depth of 1.62 ± 0.51 mm and 1.32 ± 0.49 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. Similarly, T2 tumors showed a depth of 2.87 ± 0.68 mm and 2.58 ± 0.67 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. T1 and T2 tumors occupied 24.8 ± 10 and 48.5 ± 15 percent of the normal vocal fold depth, respectively. Conclusion This data provides a baseline for estimating infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas in vocal fold tissue layers, of particular interest to surgeons. This information may be used to assess typical depths of infiltration, thus allowing for more appropriate selection of surgical procedures based on individual patient assessment.

  10. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to evaluate the results for a 60.5 h ponded infiltration experiment done around a 24 m deep, 0.15 m diameter, cased borehole at Yucca Mountain, NV. Nine distinct morphological horizons in the soil profile has been identified; physical and hydraulic properties had been measured for each horizon; and a porosity profile at the borehole had been measured. During the infiltration experiment, 10 cm of water was ponded in a 3.5 m diameter infiltrometer around the borehole, the volume of water applied was measured, and water content profiles were measured with a neutron moisture meter. The infiltrometer applied 86.9 cm of water during the first 60.5 h of infiltration, but only 52.8 cm of additional water was measured in the borehole profiles. Assuming a linear relationship between cumulative infiltration (I) and the square root of time (t 0.5 ), an experimental sorptivity of 11.5 cm h -1 was estimated for the first 4.5 h of infiltration. An assumed washout zone around the borehole casing accounted for the discrepancy between the measured water content profiles and the applied water. A uniform property, 1-D model with an applied flux upper boundary described by the sorptivity confirmed the probable washout zone, and indicated that significant lateral flow into the dry soil around the infiltrometer could occur. A 2-D radial flow model with the same properties and upper boundary demonstrated that significant lateral flow occurred. The upper boundary in this model caused the upper portion of the profile to drain. This suggested using a saturated upper boundary to keep the upper portion of the profile saturated. When the saturated upper boundary was used, the permeability of the soil was decreased from the measured value of 3.28 E-11 m 2 to 1.5E-12 m 2 so that the simulated wetting front at a similar depth as the observed wetting front after 60.5 h

  11. Lost productivity in four European countries among patients with rheumatic disorders: are absenteeism and presenteeism transferable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Saskia; Candel, Math J J M; Boonen, Annelies; Evers, Silvia M A A; Ament, Andre J H A; Severens, Johan L

    2012-09-01

    When national pharmacoeconomic guidelines are compared, different recommendations are identified on how to identify, measure and value lost productivity, leading to difficulties when comparing lost productivity estimates across countries. From a transferability point of view, the question arises of whether differences between countries regarding lost productivity are the result of using different calculation methods (methodological differences) or of other between-country differences. When lost productivity data differ significantly across countries, the transferability of lost productivity data across countries is hindered. The objective of this study was to investigate whether country of residence has a significant influence on the quantity of lost productivity among patients with rheumatic disorders. Confounding factors that might differ between countries were corrected for, while the methodology used to identify and measure lost productivity was kept the same. This question was investigated by means of an online questionnaire filled out by 200 respondents with a rheumatic disorder per country in four European countries, namely the Netherlands, the UK, Germany and France. In addition to those regarding lost productivity, the questionnaire contained questions about patient characteristics, disability insurance, disease characteristics, quality of life and job characteristics as these variables are expected to influence lost productivity in terms of absenteeism and presenteeism. The data were analysed by regression analyses, in which different components - being absent in last 3 months, number of days absent and presenteeism - of lost productivity were the main outcome measures and other variables, such as gender, impact of disease, shift work, job control, partial disability and overall general health, were corrected for. The results showed that country sometimes has a significant influence on lost productivity and that other variables such as, for example, age

  12. Modeling soil processes - are we lost in diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Hans-Joerg; Schlüter, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Soils are among the most complex environmental systems. Soil functions - e.g. production of biomass, habitat for organisms, reactor for and storage of organic matter, filter for ground water - emerge from a multitude of processes interacting at different scales. It still remains a challenge to model and predict these functions including their stability and resilience towards external perturbations. As an inherent property of complex systems it is prohibitive to unravel all the relevant process in all detail to derive soil functions and their dynamics from first principles. Hence, when modeling soil processes and their interactions one is close to be lost in the overwhelming diversity and spatial heterogeneity of soil properties. In this contribution we suggest to look for characteristic similarities within the hyperdimensional state space of soil properties. The underlying hypothesis is that this state space is not evenly and/or randomly populated but that processes of self organization produce attractors of physical, chemical and biological properties which can be identified. (The formation of characteristic soil horizons is an obvious example). To render such a concept operational a suitable and limited set of indicators is required. Ideally, such indicators are i) related to soil functions, ii) are measurable and iii) are integral measures of the relevant physical, chemical and biological soil properties. This would allow for identifying suitable attractors. We will discuss possible indicators and will focus on soil structure as an especially promising candidate. It governs the availability of water and gas, it effects the spatial distribution of organic matter and, moreover, it forms the habitat of soil organisms and it is formed by soil biota. Quantification of soil structural properties became possible only recently with the development of more powerful tools for non-invasive imaging. Future research need to demonstrate in how far these tools can be used to

  13. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by...

  14. 38 CFR 12.24 - Operation of lost and found service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... custodian. VA Form 3771, Record of Lost or Found Article, will be used for recording articles of any... articles and to recover items which have been reported lost. Currency, including readily negotiable... closing hour. The currency or negotiable instruments will be delivered to the agent cashier before the...

  15. Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Utility shareholders can lose money on demand-side management (DSM) investments between rate cases. Several industry analysts argue that the revenues lost from utility DSM programs are an important financial disincentive to utility DSM investment. A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenues incurred through successful operation of DSM programs. Explicitly defined net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states` preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This report examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The report has three objectives. First, we determine whether NLRA is a feasible and successful approach to removing the lost-revenue disincentive to utility operation of DSM programs. Second, we identify the conditions linked to successful implementation of NLRA mechanisms in different states and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior. Third, we suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. We first identify states with NLRA mechanisms where utilities are recovering lost revenues from DSM programs. We interview staff at regulatory agencies in all these states and utility staff in four states. These interviews focus on the status of NLRA, implementation issues, DSM measurement issues, and NLRA results. We also analyze regulatory agency orders on NLRA, as well as associated testimony, reports, and utility lost revenue recovery filings. Finally, we use qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess NLRA`s effectiveness. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive.

  16. 29 CFR 779.250 - Goods that have not lost their out-of-State identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods that have not lost their out-of-State identity. 779...-State identity. Goods which are purchased or received by the enterprise from within the State will be... and have not lost their identity as out-of-State goods before they are purchased or received by the...

  17. Cost optimization in the (S-1,S) lost sales inventory model with multiple demand classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, A.A.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2007-01-01

    For the (S-1,S) lost sales inventory model with multiple demand classes that have different lost sales penalty cost parameters, three accurate and efficient heuristic algorithms are presented that, at a given base stock level, aim to find optimal values for the critical levels, i.e., values that

  18. Y2K affiliation, immediate pedestrian density, and helping responses to lost letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, F S; Thompson, P C

    2001-06-01

    Of 75 letters "lost" in Florida, 41 were returned in the mail (the helpful response). Immediate pedestrian density was significantly related to nonhelping responses. The greater the number of subjects passing by a lost letter, the less likely any one of them would respond to it. The rates of return did vary with the addressees' affiliations. Returned responses for the affiliates, Y2K Arkbuilders and the Believers of God's Judgement Against Homosexuals: Y2K Millennium Bug, were substantially lower than for the affiliate, Y2K Computer Repair & Programming, Inc. Returns for the Believers of God's Judgement Against Homosexuals: Y2K Millennium Bug affiliate were significantly lower than for the Y2K Arkbuilders affiliate. Variables such as sex, race, and estimated age of subjects were not associated with helping to return a lost letter. The rate of return of lost letters is not the only important measure to be examined in studies using lost letters.

  19. Lost Muon Study for the Muon G-2 Experiment at Fermilab*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crnkovic, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morse, W. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Fermilab Muon g-2 Experiment has a goal of measuring the muon anomalous magnetic moment to a precision of 140 ppb - a fourfold improvement over the 540 ppb precision obtained by the BNL Muon g-2 Experiment. Some muons in the storage ring will interact with material and undergo bremsstrahlung, emitting radiation and loosing energy. These so called lost muons will curl in towards the center of the ring and be lost, but some of them will be detected by the calorimeters. A systematic error will arise if the lost muons have a different average spin phase than the stored muons. Algorithms are being developed to estimate the relative number of lost muons, so as to optimize the stored muon beam. This study presents initial testing of algorithms that can be used to estimate the lost muons by using either double or triple detection coincidences in the calorimeters.

  20. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  1. CLIMATIC FORECASTING OF NET INFILTRATION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, USING ANALOGUE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2005-01-01

    Net infiltration is a key hydrologic parameter that controls the rate of deep percolation through the unsaturated zone, the groundwater recharge, radionuclide transport, and seepage into the underground tunnels. Because net infiltration is largely affected by climatic conditions, future changes in climatic conditions will potentially alter net infiltration. The objectives of this presentation are to: (1) Present a conceptual model and a semi-empirical approach for regional, climatic forecasting of net infiltration, based on the precipitation and temperature data from analogue meteorological stations, and (2) Demonstrate the results of forecasting net infiltration for future climates--interglacial, monsoon and glacial--over the Yucca Mountain region for the period of 500,000 years. Calculations of the net infiltration were performed using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, for which potential evapotranspiration was evaluated from the temperature-based Thornthwaite formula. (Both Budyko's and Thornthwaite's formulae have been used broadly in hydrological studies.) The results of calculations were used for ranking net infiltration, along with the aridity and precipitation-effectiveness (P-E) indexes, for future climatic scenarios. Using this approach, we determined a general trend of increasing net infiltration from the present-day (interglacial) climate to monsoon, intermediate (glacial transition), and then to the glacial climate. Ranking of the aridity and P-E indexes is practically the same as that of net infiltration. The validation of the computed net infiltration rates yielded a good match with other field and modeling study results of groundwater recharge and net infiltration evaluation

  2. Estimation of lost circulation amount occurs during under balanced drilling using drilling data and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Behnoud far

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation can cause an increase in time and cost of operation. Pipe sticking, formation damage and uncontrolled flow of oil and gas may be consequences of lost circulation. Dealing with this problem is a key factor to conduct a successful drilling operation. Estimation of lost circulation amount is necessary to find a solution. Lost circulation is influenced by different parameters such as mud weight, pump pressure, depth etc. Mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate of mud should be designed to prevent induced fractures and have the least amount of lost circulation. Artificial neural network is useful to find the relations of parameters with lost circulation. Genetic algorithm is applied on the achieved relations to determine the optimum mud weight, pump pressure, and flow rate. In an Iranian oil field, daily drilling reports of wells which are drilled using UBD technique are studied. Asmari formation is the most important oil reservoir of the studied field and UBD is used only in this interval. Three wells with the most, moderate and without lost circulation are chosen. In this article, the effect of mud weight, depth, pump pressure and flow rate of pump on lost circulation in UBD of Asmari formation in one of the Southwest Iranian fields is studied using drilling data and artificial neural network. In addition, the amount of lost circulation is predicted precisely with respect to two of the studied parameters using the presented correlations and the optimum mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate are calculated to minimize the lost circulation amount.

  3. Error Analysis on the Estimation of Cumulative Infiltration in Soil Using Green and AMPT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Askari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Green and Ampt infiltration model is still useful for the infiltration process because of a clear physical basis of the model and of the existence of the model parameter values for a wide range of soil. The objective of thise study was to analyze error on the esimation of cumulative infiltration in sooil using Green and Ampt model and to design laboratory experiment in measuring cumulative infiltration. Parameter of the model was determined based on soil physical properties from laboratory experiment. Newton –Raphson method was esed to estimate wetting front during calculation using visual Basic for Application (VBA in MS Word. The result showed that  contributed the highest error in estimation of cumulative infiltration and was followed by K, H0, H1, and t respectively. It also showed that the calculated cumulative infiltration is always lower than both measured cumulative infiltration and volumetric soil water content.

  4. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  5. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  6. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Detection of lymphomatous infiltration in the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M. O.; Santos, A. O.; Costa, S.C.; Ramos, C.D.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Metze, I.L.; Barbosa, M.N.S.; Souza, C.A.; Camargo, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The scintillographic follow-up of patients with lymphoma is obtained by making whole body research (WBR) with gallium-67. However, the abnormal accumulation of this pharmaceutical in the long bones is not an specific for lymphomatous infiltration and can be representative of hematopoietic expansion of bone marrow, as well. The differential diagnosis can be done using bone scintillography (BS) and bone marrow scintillography (BMS). We present a case where the diagnosis of lymphomatous infiltration indicated by the WBR with gallium-67, was confirmed by the BS and BMS. Male patient, 57 years old, with diagnosis of a high level malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma, was submitted to the WBR with gallium-67 during the chemotherapy. The gallium-67 was high uptaked in the third distal of the right femur and in the proximal of the right tibia. One month after finishing the chemotherapy, a new WBR with gallium-67 shows the persistence of the high uptake in the same areas and the appearance of new ones in the third distal of the left femur. The study was complemented with BS and BMS. The BS revealed high uptake in focal areas, in the same regions where high uptake of gallium-67 has been detected in the study, after chemotherapy. The BMS showed absence of functioning bone marrow in these areas reducing the probability of medullar expansion. The absence of answering to the chemotherapy has been verified, changing the patient behavior and prognostic. The BMS with colloidal Tc-99m sulfur in this patient was useful for the differential diagnosis between medullar expansion and lymphomatous medullar infiltration

  8. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Gilbert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  9. Advances in modeling of chemical vapor infiltration for tube fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Technology

    1998-04-01

    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) can be used for fabrication of tube-shaped components of ceramic matrix composites. Recent experimental work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes process and materials development studies using a small tube reactor. Use of FCVI for this geometry involves significant changes in fixturing as compared to disk-shaped preforms previously fabricated. The authors have used their computer model of the CVI process to simulate tube densification and to identify process modifications that will decrease processing time. This report presents recent model developments and applications.

  10. Gene-specific sex effects on eosinophil infiltration in leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Volkova, Valeriya; Čepičková, Marie; Kobets, Tetyana; Šíma, Matyáš; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, podzim (2016), č. článku 59. ISSN 2042-6410 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30186S; GA ČR GP13-41002P; GA MŠk LH12049; GA ČR GA16-22346S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leishmania major * Mouse model * Eosinophii infiltration * Genetic control * QTL * Sex influence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.635, year: 2016

  11. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  12. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  13. Infiltration liquid crystal in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Bang, Ole

    2009-01-01

    7 is then infiltrated into about 6 cm of the length of mPOF by using capillary forces with the duration of 45 minutes. The transmission spectrum is measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 nm resolution, and normalized to that of the unfilled fiber as shown by the solid line. The difference......POF is butt-coupled to a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) with the broadband light from a supercontinuum source. It is clear to see the colour of the guided modes is red, since some wavelengths are attenuated by the material loss of PMMA in visible region. A positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal E...

  14. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2004-01-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  15. Effects of incorporated straw on dye tracer infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Garnier, P.; Vachier, P.; Coquet, Y.

    2003-04-01

    Crop residue incorporation by conventional tillage increases the heterogeneity in the soil surface layer due to the soil tillage itself and to the presence of a zone with a high density of vegetal residues. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of incorporated straw on the transport behaviour of the dye Brilliant Blue. We used an image analysis technique to calculate the Brilliant Blue concentration from the spectral signature (i.e. RGB values) using a calibration relationship. This method was already successfully applied in soils without organic matter and in this study we want to extend it to soils that contain fresh organic matter. The experiment took place in a loamy bare soil in the north of France at Mons-en-Chaussée in May, 2002. The soil was ploughed under dry conditions to 30 cm depth and straw was incorporated at the content of 10 Tonnes of C/ha. The infiltration experiment was carried out using an infiltrometer of 25 cm diameter at the head potential of -1 cm of water. First, water was infiltrated followed by the dye solution. The day after the infiltration, the soil was cut in horizontal sections of 50 times 50 cm. In total, 15 cross-section were photographed which were separated by a vertical distance of about 2 or 3 cm. Samples of soil and small pieces of straw were taken from the soil surface in order to measure the Brilliant Blue concentration for the calibration procedure. The volumetric water content and bulk density were measured with small cylindrical samples. After geometrical and illumination corrections of the images, we separated the soil from the straw and established a separate second-order polynomial calibration function for both relating the Brilliant Blue content to the spectral signature in each pixel. In this way we obtained spatially highly resolved concentration patterns of the dye tracer. The dye concentration distribution was found to be very heterogeneous in the soil at the local scale. In the plough layer, dye

  16. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies; Sensitivitaet der MRT fuer alveolaere Infiltrate. Experimentelle Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinikum fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Muhle, C. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Freitag, S. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Statistik

    2002-08-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T{sub 2}-TSE and T{sub 2}-HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T{sub 2}-HASTE and T{sub 2}-TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T{sub 2}-weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p<0.01) and 60% at 200 ml (p<0.01). With 2D- and 3D-GRE the infiltrates were not visible, although the lung parenchyma signal increase was statistically significant. On 2D-GRE the increase in signal intensity reached 0.74% (p=0.32) after 100 ml and 5.6% (p<0.01) after 200 ml for 3D-GRE: 2.2% [p=0.02] at 100 ml and 4.4% at 200 ml [p<0.001]. The CT controls revealed a significant increase of lung density of 17. H.E. at 100 ml (p=0.02) and 75 H.E. at 200 ml (p<0.01). Conclusions: MRI with T{sub 2}-weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to

  17. Effect of Fruits Waste in Biopore Infiltration Hole Toward The Effectiveness of Water Infiltration Rate on Baraya Campus Land of Hasanuddin University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Slamet

    2018-03-01

    The infiltration of water into the soil decreases due to the transfer of soill function or the lack of soil biopores. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the use of fruits waste toward the water infiltration rate. Observation of the water level decrease is done every 5 minutes interval. Observation of biopore water infiltration rate was done after fruits waste decomposed for 15 and 30 days. Result of standard water infiltration rate at the first of 5 minutes is 2.18 mm/min, then decreases at interval of 5 minutes on next time as the soil begins to saturate the water. Baraya campus soil observed in soil depths of 100cm has a dusty texture character, grayish brown color and clumping structure. Soil character indicates low porosity. While biopore water infiltration rate at the first of 5 minute interval is 6.61and 6.95 mm/min on banana waste; 5.55 and 6.61mm/min on papaya waste and 4.26 and 5.39 mm/min on mango waste. The effectiveness of water infiltration rate is 44.45% and 41.93% on banana; 44.61% and 30.09% on papaya and 15.79% and 28.36% on mango. Study concluded that banana waste causes the water infiltration rate most effective in biopore infiltration hole.

  18. The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45-64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Deborah; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle M; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon J

    2017-01-09

    To project the number of people aged 45-64 years with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to diabetes and related costs (lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue); and lost gross domestic product (GDP) attributable to diabetes in Australia from 2015 to 2030. A simulation study of how the number of people aged 45-64 years with diabetes increases over time (based on population growth and disease trend data) and the economic losses incurred by individuals and the government. Cross-sectional outputs of a microsimulation model (Health&WealthMOD2030) which used the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009 as a base population and integrated outputs from two microsimulation models (Static Incomes Model and Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model), Treasury's population and labour force projections, and chronic disease trends data. Australian population aged 45-64 years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030. Lost PLYs, lost income, extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue, lost GDP. 18 100 people are out of the labour force due to diabetes in 2015, increasing to 21 400 in 2030 (18% increase). National costs consisted of a loss of $A467 million in annual income in 2015, increasing to $A807 million in 2030 (73% increase). For the government, extra annual welfare payments increased from $A311 million in 2015 to $A350 million in 2030 (13% increase); and lost annual taxation revenue increased from $A102 million in 2015 to $A166 million in 2030 (63% increase). A loss of $A2.1 billion in GDP was projected for 2015, increasing to $A2.9 billion in 2030 attributable to diabetes through its impact on PLYs. Individuals incur significant costs of diabetes through lost PLYs and lost income in addition to disease burden through human suffering and healthcare costs. The government incurs extra welfare payments, lost taxation revenue and lost GDP, along with direct healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ

  19. Modeling the probability distribution of peak discharge for infiltrating hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-07-01

    Hillslope response plays a fundamental role in the prediction of peak discharge at the basin outlet. The peak discharge for the critical duration of rainfall and its probability distribution are needed for designing urban infrastructure facilities. This study derives the probability distribution, denoted as GABS model, by coupling three models: (1) the Green-Ampt model for computing infiltration, (2) the kinematic wave model for computing discharge hydrograph from the hillslope, and (3) the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model for computing design rainfall intensity. The Hortonian mechanism for runoff generation is employed for computing the surface runoff hydrograph. Since the antecedent soil moisture condition (ASMC) significantly affects the rate of infiltration, its effect on the probability distribution of peak discharge is investigated. Application to a watershed in Sicily, Italy, shows that with the increase of probability, the expected effect of ASMC to increase the maximum discharge diminishes. Only for low values of probability, the critical duration of rainfall is influenced by ASMC, whereas its effect on the peak discharge seems to be less for any probability. For a set of parameters, the derived probability distribution of peak discharge seems to be fitted by the gamma distribution well. Finally, an application to a small watershed, with the aim to test the possibility to arrange in advance the rational runoff coefficient tables to be used for the rational method, and a comparison between peak discharges obtained by the GABS model with those measured in an experimental flume for a loamy-sand soil were carried out.

  20. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Treese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected intact, but had to be air-dried, and the columns repacked when soil shrinkage caused bypassing of water along the walls of the column. The undisturbed soil was collected and used intact, with no repacking. The disturbed soil showed elevated releases of nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the undisturbed soil for approximately 0.4 and 0.8 m of runoff loading, respectively. For the undisturbed soil, the nitrogen release was delayed, indicating that the soil disturbance accelerated the release of nitrogen into a very short time period. Leaving the soil undisturbed resulted in lower but still elevated effluent nitrogen concentrations over a longer period of time. For phosphorus, these results confirm prior research which demonstrated that the soil, if shown to be phosphorus-deficient during fertility testing, can remove phosphorus from runoff even when disturbed.

  1. Evaluation of infiltration for the determination of palms water needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlarbi, Dalila; Boutaoutaou, Djamel; Saggaï, Sofiane

    2018-05-01

    In arid climate conditions, irrigation water requirements increase, but available water resources are limited. And therefore the Saharan regions, large consumers of water can be seriously threatened if they do not make the necessary to become as parsimonious as allow the irrigation techniques whose technological aspect on their improvement has been privileged until now but all the problems are not solved. The objective of this work is to know the process of infiltration of water in the soil, i.e.: to try to determine exactly its value with obtaining the best combination (flow of entry, board length and irrigation time) in order to have a more or less uniform distribution in the soil and especially by avoiding significant water losses that would cause rise in the water table. The infiltration will allow us to calculate at any point the dose of water received that we will compare with the needs of the date palm. For this purpose; we varied the input flow for a constant board length. Then we varied the board length for a constant input rate. In both cases we varied the irrigation time according to the water requirements of the date palm. The flow remains of course constant during the entire feeding period. This study is primarily experimental and aims to meet practical applications but not immediately because it is necessary to continue the experiments with several other combinations to achieve practical results.

  2. Optical effects in artificial opals infiltrated with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoretto, Davide; Morandi, Valentina; Marabelli, Franco; Amendola, Vincenzo; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2006-04-01

    Polystyrene artificial opals are directly grown with embedded gold nanoparticles (NpAu) in their interstices. Reflectance spectra of samples having different sphere diameters and nanoparticles load clearly show a red shift of the photonic band gap as well as a reduction of its width without showing direct evidence of NpAu absorption. The case of transmission spectra is instead more complicated: here, overlapped to a broad NpAu absorption, a structure having unusual lineshape is detected. The infiltration of opal with NpAu removes the polarization dependence of the photonic band structure observed in bare opals. The lineshape of the absorption spectra suggest a spatial localization of the electromagnetic field in the volume where NpAu are confined thus enhancing its local intensity. This effect seems to be effective to stimulate optical nonlinearities of NpAu. Nanosecond transient absorption measurements on NpAu infiltrated opals indicate that a variation of transmission of about 10% is observed. Since this effect takes place within the pump pulse and since NpAu photoluminescence has been subtracted to the signal, we attribute it to an optical switching process.

  3. Clonal dominance among T-lymphocyte infiltrates in arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.; Krane, S.M.; Amento, E.P.; Colvin, R.B.; Duquesnoy, R.J.; Kurnick, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders

  4. A stable isotope approach for the quantification of sewer infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Oliver; Gresch, Markus; Gujert, Willi

    2007-08-15

    Extraneous flows in wastewater collection systems are conventionally evaluated solely on the consideration of discharge hydrographs, which often involves a great degree of subjectivity and oversimplification. To obtain reliable information on the material fluxes within the urban environment, the use of intrinsic tracers can be the optimal choice. We demonstrate the successful use of naturally occurring stable isotopes of water (18O/16O and D/H) to accurately quantify extraneous discharge of groundwater in a combined sewer network. Fresh water supply from a distant hydrological regime provided usable isotopic separations between drinking water (proxy for real foul sewage) and local groundwater (proxy for sewer infiltration) of 1.8 per thousand in delta18O and 11.7 per thousand in 62H. Diurnal variation of wastewater isotopic composition reflected both the varying rates of foul sewage production and irregular dispersion effects in the pipe network. The latter suggest the existence of larger cumulative backwater zone volumes, which have not been attended to yet. Infiltrating groundwater contributed 39% (95% confidence interval = +/- 2.5%) of the total daily dry weather wastewater discharge. This paper discusses all relevant aspects for practical application of the method. It presents a comprehensive framework for uncertainty analysis and details on the detection and discrimination of possibly interfering effects.

  5. Modelling of laboratory high-pressure infiltration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report describes the modelling of break-through curves from a series of two-tracer dynamic infiltration experiments, which are intended to complement larger scale experiments at the Nagra Grimsel Test Site. The tracers are 82 Br, which is expected to be non-sorbing, and 24 Na, which is weakly sorbing. The 24 Na concentration is well below the natural Na concentration in the infiltration fluid, so that sorption on the rock is governed by isotopic exchange, exhibiting a linear isotherm. The rock specimens are sub-samples (cores) of granodiorite from the Grimsel Test Site, each containing a distinct shear zone. Best-fits to the break-through curves using single-porosity and dual-porosity transport models are compared and several physical parameters are extracted. It is shown that the dual-porosity model is required in order to reproduce the tailing part of the break-through curves for the non-sorbing tracer. The single-porosity model is sufficient to reproduce the break-through curves for the sorbing tracer within the estimated experimental errors. Extracted K d values are shown to agree well with a field rock-water interaction experiment and in situ migration experiments. Static, laboratory batch-sorption experiments give a larger K d , but this difference could be explained by the larger surface area available for sorption in the artificially crushed samples used in the laboratory and by a slightly different water chemistry. (author) 13 figs., tabs., 19 refs

  6. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.; O'Donnell, E.

    1992-10-01

    The project objective is to assess means for controlling waste infiltration through waste disposal unit covers in humid regions. Experimental work is being performed in large scale lysimeters (70inch x 45inch x lOinch) at Beltsville, MD and results of the assessment are applicable to disposal of LLW, uranium mill tailings, hazardous waste, and sanitary landfills. Three concepts are under investigation: (1) resistive layer barrier, (2) conductive layer barrier, and bioengineering water management. The resistive layer barrier consists of compacted earth (clay). The conductive layer barrier is a special case of the capillary barrier and it requires a flow layer (e.g. fine sandy loam) over a capillary break. As long as unsaturated conditions am maintained water is conducted by the flow layer to below the waste. This barrier is most efficient at low flow rates and is thus best placed below a resistive layer barrier. Such a combination of the resistive layer over the conductive layer barrier promises to be highly effective provided there is no appreciable subsidence. Bioengineering water management is a surface cover that is designed to accommodate subsidence. It consists of impermeable panels which enhance run-off and limit infiltration. Vegetation is planted in narrow openings between panels to transpire water from below the panels. TWs system has successfully dewatered two lysimeters thus demonstrating that this procedure could be used for remedial action (''drying out'') existing water-logged disposal sites at low cost

  7. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  8. Determining Surface Infiltration Rate of Permeable Pavements with Digital Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Valeo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phone images of pervious pavement surfaces were used to explore relationships between surface infiltration rates (SIR measured using the ASTM C1701 standard test and using a simple falling head test. A fiber-reinforced porous asphalt surface and a highly permeable material comprised of stone, rubber and a polymer binder (Porous Pave were tested. Images taken with a high-resolution cellphone camera were acquired as JPEG files and converted to gray scale images in Matlab® for analysis. The distribution of gray levels was compared to the surface infiltration rates obtained for both pavements with attention given to the mean of the distribution. Investigation into the relationships between mean SIR and parameters determined from the gray level distribution produced in the image analysis revealed that mean SIR measured in both pavements were proportional to the inverse of the mean of the distribution. The relationships produced a coefficient of determination over 85% using both the ASTM and the falling head test in the porous asphalt surface. SIR measurements determined with the ASTM method were highly correlated with the inverse mean of the distribution of gray levels in the Porous Pave material as well, producing coefficients of determination of over 90% and Kendall’s tau-b of roughly 70% for nonparametric data.

  9. Mechanical properties of polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldea, Andrea; Swain, Michael V; Thiel, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    To determine and identify correlations between flexural strength, strain at failure, elastic modulus and hardness versus ceramic network densities of a range of novel polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network (PICN) materials. Four ceramic network densities ranging from 59% to 72% of theoretical density, resin infiltrated PICN as well as pure polymer and dense ceramic cross-sections were subjected to Vickers Indentations (HV 5) for hardness evaluation. The flexural strength and elastic modulus were measured using three-point-bending. The fracture response of PICNs was determined for cracks induced by Vickers-indentation. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the indented areas. Depending on the density of the porous ceramic the flexural strength of PICNs ranged from 131 to 160MPa, the hardness values ranged between 1.05 and 2.10GPa and the elastic modulus between 16.4 and 28.1GPa. SEM observations of the indentation induced cracks indicate that the polymer network causes greater crack deflection than the dense ceramic material. The results were compared with simple analytical expressions for property variation of two phase composite materials. This study points out the correlation between ceramic network density, elastic modulus and hardness of PICNs. These materials are considered to more closely imitate natural tooth properties compared with existing dental restorative materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  10. Deep infiltrating ureteral endometriosis with catamenial hydroureteronephrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yoon Soon

    2017-12-13

    This aim of this case report is to raise awareness of ureteral endometriosis in women of reproductive age with hydronephrosis in the absence of urolithiasis to enable early diagnosis and prevent loss of renal function. A 44-year-old Asian woman presented with a 4-year history of cyclic right flank pain and right hydronephrosis during menstruation. Despite several evaluations by physicians, including gynecologists, the cause of her symptoms was not diagnosed. On transvaginal ultrasonography, the uterus was observed deviated to the right, with a nodular lesion at the right uterosacral ligament, and the right ovary was attached to the uterus with no apparent cystic lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass in the right uterine wall and mild wall thickening with delayed enhancement of the right distal ureter. Right ureteral endometriosis was suspected. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed narrowing of the distal right ureter between the right uterosacral ligament and the right ovary with adhesions caused by deep infiltrating endometriosis. The adhesion bands and infiltrating endometriosis around the right ureter were dissected. The nonspecific symptoms of ureteral endometriosis can result in incorrect diagnosis, with renal damage as a result of prolonged hydronephrosis. A high index of suspicion and use of imaging modalities enable earlier diagnosis and preservation of renal function.

  11. Short-term Lost Productivity per Victim: Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, or Stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots.

  13. Local infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Yvonne H; Agerlin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery and provide a detailed description of the infiltration technique.......To evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery and provide a detailed description of the infiltration technique....

  14. Survival of resin infiltrated ceramics under influence of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Elsafi, Mohamed H

    2016-04-01

    to evaluate influence of cyclic fatigue on two resin infiltrated ceramics and three all-ceramic crowns manufactured using CAD/CAM technology. CAD/CAM anatomically shaped crowns were manufactured using two resin infiltrated ceramics (Lava Ultimate and Vita Enamic), two reinforced glass ceramic milling blocks ((IPS)Empress CAD and (IPS)e.max CAD) and a veneered zirconia core ((IPS)Zir CAD). (IPS)e.max CAD and (IPS)Zir CAD were milled into 0.5mm thick anatomically shaped core structure which received standardized press-on veneer ceramic. The manufactured crowns were cemented on standardized resin dies using a resin adhesive (Panavia F2.0). Initial fracture strength of half of the specimens was calculated using one cycle load to failure in a universal testing machine. The remaining crowns were subjected to 3.7 million chewing cycles (load range 50-200N at 3s interval) in a custom made pneumatic fatigue tester. Survival statistics were calculated and Weibull modulus was measured from fitted load-cycle-failure diagrams. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to fractographically analyze fractured surfaces. Data were analyzed using two way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc tests (α=0.05). Dynamic fatigue resulted in significant reduction (F=7.54, Pceramics and (IPS)Empress demonstrated the highest percent of fracture incidences under the influence of fatigue (35-45% splitting). None of the tested veneered zirconia restorations were fractured during testing, however, chipping of the veneer ceramics was observed in 6 crowns. The lowest percent of failure was observed for (IPS)e.max crowns manifested as 3 cases of minor chipping in addition to two complete fracture incidences. SEM images demonstrated the internal structure of the tested materials and detected location and size of the critical crack. The internal structure of the tested materials significantly influenced their fatigue behavior. Resin infiltrated ceramics were least influenced by fatigue while

  15. Infiltration and runoff generation processes in fire-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-wildfire runoff was investigated by combining field measurements and modelling of infiltration into fire-affected soils to predict time-to-start of runoff and peak runoff rate at the plot scale (1 m2). Time series of soil-water content, rainfall and runoff were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during cyclonic and convective rainstorms in the spring and summer of 2011. Some of the field measurements and measured soil physical properties were used to calibrate a one-dimensional post-wildfire numerical model, which was then used as a ‘virtual instrument’ to provide estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and high-resolution (1 mm) estimates of the soil-water profile and water fluxes within the unsaturated zone.Field and model estimates of the wetting-front depth indicated that post-wildfire infiltration was on average confined to shallow depths less than 30 mm. Model estimates of the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, near the soil surface ranged from 0.1 to 5.2 mm h−1. Because of the relatively small values of Ks, the time-to-start of runoff (measured from the start of rainfall),  tp, was found to depend only on the initial soil-water saturation deficit (predicted by the model) and a measured characteristic of the rainfall profile (referred to as the average rainfall acceleration, equal to the initial rate of change in rainfall intensity). An analytical model was developed from the combined results and explained 92–97% of the variance of  tp, and the numerical infiltration model explained 74–91% of the variance of the peak runoff rates. These results are from one burned site, but they strongly suggest that  tp in fire-affected soils (which often have low values of Ks) is probably controlled more by the storm profile and the initial soil-water saturation deficit than by soil hydraulic properties.

  16. Visibly marked and microchipped lost dogs have a higher chance to find their owners in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vučinić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the demographic characteristics of lost and found dogs in Belgrade, Serbia. The demographic data concerning the 246 lost and 81 found dogs in the period of 5 consecutive years (January, 2009 to January 2014 was sampled and analysed from the data bases of four organizations for animal protection in Belgrade. The recovery rate of lost dogs and the chance to be reunited again with their owners was 33%. The highest recovery rate was estimated in the category of lost dogs with visible marks such as tags or collars (30%.The chi-square test disclosed that besides dogs with special visible marks, significantly more females, light colour coated, friendly/sociable and neutered dogs were reunited with their owners (P<0.0001.

  17. Matthew's Messianic Shepherd-king: In search of “the lost sheep of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    the Messianic Shepherd-King expectation with its attending expectations for territorial ... Messianic Shepherd-King: In Search of the Lost Sheep of the House of Israel. September. 2007. Berlin: De Gruyter. ...... Exile in the early. Persian Period”.

  18. Infiltration Behavior Of Mechanical Alloyed 75 wt% Cu-25 wt% WC Powders Into Porous WC Compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şelte A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work infiltration behavior of mechanical alloyed 75 wt% Cu – 25 wt% WC powders into porous WC compacts were studied. Owing to their ductile nature, initial Cu powders were directly added to mechanical alloying batch. On the other hand initial WC powders were high energy milled prior to mechanical alloying. Contact infiltration method was selected for densification and compacts prepared from processed powders were infiltrated into porous WC bodies. After infiltration, samples were characterized via X-Ray diffraction studies and microstructural evaluation of the samples was carried out via scanning electron microscopy observations. Based on the lack of solubility between WC and Cu it was possible to keep fine WC particles in Cu melt since solution reprecipitation controlled densification is hindered. Also microstructural characterizations via scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the transport of fine WC fraction from infiltrant to porous WC skeleton can be carried out via Cu melt flow during infiltration.

  19. The Incidence of Malignant Infiltration in the Biopsy Tract of Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohana

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy is a crucial step in the management of musculoskeletal sarcoma. The surgical approach to the biopsy site is important, as the tract must be removed en bloc with the tumour during limb sparing surgery so as to reduce the risk of local recurrence. The biopsy tracts of 26 osteosarcoma patients were evaluated histologically for tumour infiltration. Horizontal sections of 1 mm thickness with 2 cm radius from were evaluated from each excised biopsy tract. Five out of 26 cases (19.2% showed positive tumour infiltration. One case (3.85% had tumour infiltration in the pseudocapsule, two cases (7.69% had tumour infiltration into the muscle and two other cases (7.69% had tumour infiltration into the subcutaneous tissue. None had skin infiltration. We conclude that resection of the entire biopsy tract is indeed mandatory for surgical treatment of osteosarcoma.

  20. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man, Alexander Stojadinovic, Jeffrey Mason, Itzhak Avital, Anton Bilchik, Bjoern Bruecher, Mladjan Protic, Aviram Nissan, Mina Izadjoo, Xichen Zhang, Anahid Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

  1. [Characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil in Northeast China under different tillage patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Yan; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Luo, Jin-Ming; Yang, Xue-Ming

    2008-07-01

    By using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques, the characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil under no-tillage (NT) and fall moldboard plow (MP) were compared after six years continuous management. The results showed that the infiltration rate was higher under NT than under MP. When the infiltration reached steady, the infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration capacity under NT were 1.35 and 1.44 times as high as those under MP, respectively. The penetration depth of methylene blue reached a depth of 43 cm in NT soil, being 16 cm deeper than that in MP soil. Comparing with MP soil, NT soil had better development of pore structure and more biological pores, and presented better preferential flow character, which were of importance for water infiltration and soil and water conservation.

  2. A simplified model of soakaway infiltration interaction with a shallow groundwater table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldin, Maria; Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simplified modeling concept for soakaway infiltration in the presence of a shallow groundwater table, including representation of the local groundwater mound and its effects on the infiltration rate. The soil moisture retention curve is used to represent the influence......, and its effects on the infiltration rate, can be represented even if the spatial resolution of the groundwater flow model is coarser than the extent of the mound. The new model has been run for a number of scenarios and soil parameters, and the results compared to the output from a two...... of the mound on infiltration rates. The model is intended to be used in situations when distributed urban drainage models with soakaways or similar infiltration devices are coupled to distributed groundwater flow models. With this new modeling concept, the local mounding from small-scale infiltration systems...

  3. Resonant infiltration of an opal: Reflection line shape and contribution from in-depth regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Isabelle; Bloch, Daniel

    2015-06-21

    We analyze the resonant variation of the optical reflection on an infiltrated artificial opal made of transparent nanospheres. The resonant infiltration is considered as a perturbation in the frame of a previously described one-dimensional model based upon a stratified effective index. We show that for a thin slice of resonant medium, the resonant response oscillates with the position of this slice. We derive that for adequate conditions of incidence angle, this spatially oscillating behavior matches the geometrical periodicity of the opal and hence the related density of resonant infiltration. Close to these matching conditions, the resonant response of the global infiltration varies sharply in amplitude and shape with the incidence angle and polarization. The corresponding resonant reflection originates from a rather deep infiltration, up to several wavelengths or layers of spheres. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the present predictions and our previous observations on an opal infiltrated with a resonant vapor.

  4. Ductile cast iron obtaining by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of manufacturing of ductile cast iron castings by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process was presented in this work. The spheroidization was carried out by magnesium master alloy in amounts of 1% casting mass. Nodulizer was located in the reactive chamber in the gating system made of foamed polystyrene. Pretests showed, that there are technical possibilities of manufacturing of casts from ductile cast iron in the LOST FOAM process with use of spheroidization in mould.

  5. Axysimetrical water infiltration in soil imaged by non-invasive electrical resistivimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Coquet, Yves; Tucholka, Piotr; Vachier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Axisymetrical infiltration of water in soil has been largely studied since the development of tension disc infiltrometers. Procedures have been developed to derive the hydraulic properties of soils from axisymetrical infiltration measurements but rely on some simplifying and/or a priori assumptions on the homogeneity of the soil from the point of view of its hydraulic properties and its initial water status prior to infiltration. Such assumptions are difficult to ascertain. We present here an...

  6. Effects of sodium polyacrylate on water retention and infiltration capacity of a sandy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Wenhua; Li, Longguo; Liu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Based on the laboratory study, the effects of sodium polyacrylate (SP) was investigated at 5 rates of 0, 0.08, 0.2, 0.5, and 1%, on water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity(Ks), infiltration characteristic and water distribution profiles of a sandy soil. The results showed that water retention and available water capacity effectively increased with increasing SP rate. The Ks and the rate of wetting front advance and infiltration under certain pond infiltration was significantly reduc...

  7. The Decline of Soil Infiltration Capacity Due To High Elevation Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Isri Ronald Mangangka

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration capacity of soil mainly depends on two factors; the particle size and the moisture content of the soil. Groundwater increases the soil moisture, not only below the water table but also within the capillary zone, above the water table. Field experiment in a high groundwater area was conducted to understand the relationship among the groundwater, soil moisture and infiltration capacity. Using a single ring infiltrometer, the effect of groundwater in the infiltration rate was observ...

  8. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors and observation...

  9. Virus removal during groundwater recharge: effects of infiltration rate on adsorption of poliovirus to soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, J M; Landry, E F; Beckwith, C A; Thomas, M Z

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of infiltration rate on poliovirus removal during groundwater recharge with tertiary-treated wastewater effluents. Experiments were conducted at a uniquely designed, field-situated test recharge basin facility through which some 62,000 m3 of sewage had been previously applied. Recharge at high infiltration rates (75 to 100 cm/h) resulted in the movement of considerable numbers of seeded poliovirus to the groundwater. Moderately reduced infiltr...

  10. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  11. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...... (range 2-7) days. Interpretation Intraoperative high-volume infiltration with 0.2% ropivacaine with repeated intraarticular injections postoperatively may not give a clinically relevant analgesic effect in THA when combined with a multimodal oral analgesic regimen with gabapentin, celecoxib...

  12. Slug flow model for infiltration into fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A model for transient infiltration into a periodically fractured porous layer is presented. The fracture is treated as a permeable-walled slot and the moisture distribution is in the form of a slug being an advancing meniscus. The wicking of moisture from the fracture to the unsaturated porous matrix is a nonlinear diffusion process and is approximately by self-similar solutions. The resulting model is a nonlinear Volterra integral equation with a weakly singular kernel. Numerical analysis provides solutions over a wide range of the parameter space and reveals the asymptotic forms of the penetration of this slug in terms of dimensionless variables arising in the model. The numerical solutions corroborate asymptotic results given earlier by Nitao and Buscheck (1991), and by Martinez (1988). Some implications for the transport of liquid in fractured rock are discussed

  13. LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are ∼20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed

  14. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose High-volume infiltration analgesia may be effective in postoperative pain management after hip arthroplasty but methodological problems prevent exact interpretation of previous studies. Methods In a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 12 patients undergoing...... bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...

  15. Infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, traced by 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S.K.; Bentley, H.W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of chloride and 36 Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the 36 Cl fallout from nuclear weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum 0.5m below the surface. The structure of the 36 Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and quantity of 36 Cl in the bomb pulse was 12 atoms 36 Cl/m 2 in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the 36 Cl bomb pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location. 11 refs

  16. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  17. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  18. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  19. A study on water infiltration barriers with compacted layered soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Y.; Komori, K.; Fujiwara, A.

    1993-01-01

    In shallow-ground disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, water movements due to natural processes in the soil covering the disposal facility must be properly controlled. A capillary barrier with compacted layered soils can provide an effective means of controlling water movement in the soil covering placed on a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. An experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of a full-scale fill as a capillary barrier. The fill used in the experiment was constructed of compacted layers of clay, fine sand, and gravel. Man-made rain was caused to fall on the surfaces of the fill to observe the infiltration of rainwater into the fill and to measure the amount of water drained from within. The experiment established the effectiveness of the capillary barrier

  20. Control of water infiltration into near surface LLW disposal units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Ridky, R.W.; Schulz, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Water infiltration to buried waste is the prime problem of concern in designing waste disposal units for the humid areas. Conventional compacted clay layers (resistance layer barriers) have been subject to failure by subsidence and by permeability increases brought about by plant roots. A clay barrier with a rock cover sans plants is being investigated. Also a combination of a resistive layer overlying a conductive layer is being investigated. Laboratory studies indicate that this approach can be very effective and field evaluations are underway. However, it must be noted that subsidence will negate the effectiveness of any buried layer barriers. A surface barrier (bioengineering management) has been valuated in the field and found to be very effective in preventing water entry into waste disposal units. This surface barrier is easily repairable if damaged by subsidence and could be the system of choice under active subsidence conditions

  1. Fever, petechiae, and pulmonary infiltrates in an immunocompromised Peruvian man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, C. S.; Dobuler, K. J.; Bia, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnostic considerations raised by immunocompromised patients with opportunistic infection continue to expand. When such patients harbor latent or persistent infection acquired in a tropical environment, the diagnostic challenge is even greater. The Infectious Disease Service at Yale-New Haven Hospital was asked to see a middle-aged man from Peru with known T-cell lymphoma who had recently completed a course of chemotherapy. He presented to the hospital with fever, petechial skin rash, pulmonary infiltrates, and neutropenia. Ultimately this case illustrated the necessity for careful evaluation of such patients, looking, in particular, for evidence of opportunistic parasitic infection. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:3424876

  2. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non Infiltrating Angiolipoma of the Palate in Geriatric Patient: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Chinnaswami, Ravindran; Narasimhan, Malathi; Kumar, Annie Evangelin Nithia; Natarajan, Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Angiolipoma is one of the rare variant of lipoma. This benign tumour consists of both fatty and vascular elements. It mostly occur in the trunk and extremities and is uncommon in head and neck region. Angiolipoma is classified as infiltrating and non- infiltrating types. Among all neoplasms of the oral cavity, lipomas account for 1 to 5% and the incidence of angiolipoma is 5 to 17% in it. There is no sex predilection for this tumour. It is classified as infiltrative and non-infiltrative type....

  4. Fabrication of Cf/SiC composite by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Weon Ju

    2003-07-01

    This technical report reviewed the fabrication process of fiber reinforced ceramic composites, characteristics of the chemical vapor infiltration process, and applications for C f /SiC composite to develop a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite. Infiltration process was performed by the chemical vapor infiltration process using methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen gas as a source and a diluent, respectively. Infiltration behavior, phase analysis, microstructure observation were carried out. Parameter study results of C f /SiC composite fabricated with some variables such as reaction pressure, reaction temperature, input gas ratio and preform thickness were described

  5. Net-infiltration map of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop area in western Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying groundwater resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area.Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map.Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm/yr are

  6. Variably-saturated groundwater modeling for optimizing managed aquifer recharge using trench infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Benoit, Jerome; Healy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Spreading-basin methods have resulted in more than 130 million cubic meters of recharge to the unconfined Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah in the past decade, but infiltration rates have slowed in recent years because of reduced hydraulic gradients and clogging. Trench infiltration is a promising alternative technique for increasing recharge and minimizing evaporation. This paper uses a variably saturated flow model to further investigate the relative importance of the following variables on rates of trench infiltration to unconfined aquifers: saturated hydraulic conductivity, trench spacing and dimensions, initial water-table depth, alternate wet/dry periods, and number of parallel trenches. Modeling results showed (1) increased infiltration with higher hydraulic conductivity, deeper initial water tables, and larger spacing between parallel trenches, (2) deeper or wider trenches do not substantially increase infiltration, (3) alternating wet/dry periods result in less overall infiltration than keeping the trenches continuously full, and (4) larger numbers of parallel trenches within a fixed area increases infiltration but with a diminishing effect as trench spacing becomes tighter. An empirical equation for estimating expected trench infiltration rates as a function of hydraulic conductivity and initial water-table depth was derived and can be used for evaluating feasibility of trench infiltration in other hydrogeologic settings

  7. Initial conditions of urban permeable surfaces in rainfall-runoff models using Horton’s infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Høegh Ravn, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration is a key process controlling runoff, but varies depending on antecedent conditions. This study provides estimates on initial conditions for urban permeable surfaces via continuous simulation of the infiltration capacity using historical rain data. An analysis of historical rainfall...... records show that accumulated rainfall prior to large rain events does not depend on the return period of the event. Using an infiltration-runoff model we found that for a typical large rain storm, antecedent conditions in general lead to reduced infiltration capacity both for sandy and clayey soils...... and that there is substantial runoff for return periods above 1–10 years....

  8. Evaluation of the Fitness of Glass-Infiltrated Zirconia Core in Maxillary Central Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Won; Oh, Gye-Jeong; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Ban, Jae-Sam; Park, Sang-Won; Yim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fitness of zirconia cores according to the amount and treated surface of glass infiltration. A maxillary right central incisor customized abutment was milled to have a 6° slope and a 1 mm deep chamfer margin and was manufactured in an intaglio mold using silicone impression material. Fifty-six stone dies were produced by injecting high strength dental stone into a mold and then zirconia cores were milled with CAD/CAM systems. The control group (Control) used non glass-infiltrated zirconia, and the experiment group was divided by one with the glass and distilled water ratio of 1:300 and the other with the ratio of 1:100. Each group was divided into subgroups by glasstreated surface: external surface infiltration, internal surface infiltration, and both surface infiltration. The zirconia cores sintered after glass infiltration were attached to the stone dies and then cut. Afterwards, the absolute marginal discrepancies and internal gaps of the buccal and lingual sides were measured. The buccal absolute marginal discrepancies and lingual internal gaps were influenced by the glass infiltration amount (p 0.05). As a result of the above experiments, the glass-infiltrated zirconia cores showed a clinically acceptable fitness, which is within 120 μm. This means that glass infiltration can be clinically used.

  9. Duodenal Hemorrhage from Pancreatic Cancer Infiltration Controlled through Combination Therapy with Gemcitabine and S-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Takada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 2.6% of pancreatic cancer patients have the primary manifestation of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is not feasible to stop the duodenal hemorrhage caused by the pancreatic cancer infiltration. A 43-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer with multiple hepatic metastases and duodenal infiltration was administered gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy. During the chemotherapy, initially, bleeding occurred due to duodenal infiltration. However, we continued the chemotherapy and duodenal infiltration was markedly reduced in size and did not rebleed. Aggressive chemotherapy contributed to maintenance of performance status as well as improvement of quality of life for the patient.

  10. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data demonstr...... IM are reconstituted once inflammation subsides, indicating that the peri-islet BM-producing cells are not lost due to the inflammation, which has important ramifications to islet transplantation studies.......We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data...... demonstrate global loss of peri-islet BM and IM components only at sites of leukocyte infiltration into the islet. Stereological analyses reveal a correlation between incidence of insulitis and the number of islets showing loss of peri-islet BM versus islets with intact BMs, suggesting that leukocyte...

  11. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain Using Analogue Meteorological Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes

  12. The monetary value of human lives lost due to neglected tropical diseases in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Mburugu, Gitonga N

    2017-12-18

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an important cause of death and disability in Africa. This study estimates the monetary value of human lives lost due to NTDs in the continent in 2015. The lost output or human capital approach was used to evaluate the years of life lost due to premature deaths from NTDs among 10 high/upper-middle-income (Group 1), 17 middle-income (Group 2) and 27 low-income (Group 3) countries in Africa. The future losses were discounted to their present values at a 3% discount rate. The model was re-analysed using 5% and 10% discount rates to assess the impact on the estimated total value of human lives lost. The estimated value of 67 860 human lives lost in 2015 due to NTDs was Int$ 5 112 472 607. Out of that, 14.6% was borne by Group 1, 57.7% by Group 2 and 27.7% by Group 3 countries. The mean value of human life lost per NTD death was Int$ 231 278, Int$ 109 771 and Int$ 37 489 for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 countries, respectively. The estimated value of human lives lost in 2015 due to NTDs was equivalent to 0.1% of the cumulative gross domestic product of the 53 continental African countries. Even though NTDs are not a major cause of death, they impact negatively on the productivity of those affected throughout their life-course. Thus, the case for investing in NTDs control should also be influenced by the value of NTD morbidity, availability of effective donated medicines, human rights arguments, and need to achieve the NTD-related target 3.3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 (on health) by 2030.

  13. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was markedly higher than fibroadenoma, and associated with expression of ARHI, p53 and ER in infiltrating duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei-Xu; Li, Jia; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui; Li, Li-Liang; Xu, Hong-Fei; Shen, Yi-Wen; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhao, Zi-Qin

    2013-03-01

    Jumonji Domain Containing 2A (JMJD2A) may be a cancer-associated gene involved in human breast cancer. With a view to investigating expression of JMJD2A in human breast cancer and benign lesion tissues as well as relationship between JMJD2A and tumor related proteins, histological and immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma and fibroadenoma for JMJD2A and immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma for tumor related proteins (ARHI, p53, ER, PR and CerbB-2) were performed. Histological examination validated the clinical diagnosis. The JMJD2A positive rate of infiltrating duct carcinoma was significantly higher than fibroadenoma by immunohistochemical analysis. The mean optical density of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by western blot. JMJD2A mRNA level in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by quantitative real-time PCR. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from immunohistochemical results respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from quantitative real-time PCR results respectively. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher, and associated with ARHI, p53 and ER. The results may take JMJD2A as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in human breast cancer.

  14. Hours Lost to Planned and Unplanned Dental Visits Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekar, Uma; Naavaal, Shillpa

    2018-01-11

    Poor oral health is associated with lost hours at work or school, which may affect a person's productivity. The objective of our study was to estimate work or school hours lost to dental visits among adults aged 18 and older by the types of visits (emergency or unplanned; routine, planned, or orthodontic; or cosmetic) and to determine the factors associated with hours lost. We used the most recent Oral Health Supplement data, from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), to estimate the total hours lost at work or school for dental visits among adults in the United States. The associations of the hours lost in unplanned and planned dental visits with socioeconomic characteristics, oral health status, and affordability were calculated. We used χ 2 tests and logistic regression to determine associations at P work or school hours were lost annually for dental care in the United States, of which 92.4 million hours were for emergency (unplanned) care (0.99 h/adult), 159.8 million for routine (planned) care or orthodontic care (1.71 h/adult), and 68.6 million for cosmetic care (0.73 h/adult). Adults with poor oral health were more likely to lose one or more hours in unplanned dental visits (OR = 5.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.25-9.63) than those who reported very good oral health. Not being able to afford dental care was positively associated with more work hours lost in unplanned care (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; 95% CI, 1.76-3.73). Compared with Hispanic adults, non-Hispanic white adults (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.40-3.11) and non-Hispanic Asian adults and adults of other races/ethnicities (OR =1.91; 95% CI, 1.06-3.47) were more likely to lose any hours for planned care. Consistently, those with more than a high school education were more likely to lose any hours in planned care (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.83) than those with a high school education or less. Dental problems result in hours lost from work and may adversely affect a person's productivity. There is

  15. Infiltration of commercially available, anode supported SOFC’s via inkjet printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell-Williams, T.B.; Tomov, R.I.; Saadabadi, S.A.; Krauz, M.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Glowacki, B.A.; Kumar, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    Commercially available anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (NiO-8YSZ/8YSZ/LSCF- 20 mm in diameter) were anode infiltrated with gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) using a scalable drop-on-demand inkjet printing process. Cells were infiltrated with two different precursor solutions—water based or

  16. Double porosity models for the description of water infiltration in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2004-01-01

    In this paper some of the possibilities of applying double porosity and permeability models to the problem of water infiltration in wood are explored. It is shown that the double porosity model can capture a number of commonly reported anomalies including two-stage infiltration...

  17. Soil water infiltration affected by biofuel and grain crop production systems in claypan landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of soil management systems on water infiltration is very crucial within claypan landscapes to maximize production as well as minimize environmental risks. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and biofuel...

  18. The impact of subterranean termite activity on water infiltration and topsoil properties in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, I.S.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2013-01-01

    Few quantitative experimental studies have been carried out on the influence of subterranean termite activity on the water infiltration capacity of crusted soils in the semi-arid Sahelian region. These studies found increased infiltration rates on soils that were affected by foraging galleries of

  19. Effects of climate change on residential infiltration and air pollution exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilacqua, Vito; Dawson, John; Breen, Michael; Singer, Sarany; Berg, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Air exchange through infiltration is driven partly by indoor/outdoor temperature differences, and as climate change increases ambient temperatures, such differences could vary considerably even with small ambient temperature increments, altering patterns of exposures to both indoor and outdoor pollutants. We calculated changes in air fluxes through infiltration for prototypical detached homes in nine metropolitan areas in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, and Seattle) from 1970-2000 to 2040-2070. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory model of infiltration was used in combination with climate data from eight regionally downscaled climate models from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Averaged over all study locations, seasons, and climate models, air exchange through infiltration would decrease by ~5%. Localized increased infiltration is expected during the summer months, up to 20-30%. Seasonal and daily variability in infiltration are also expected to increase, particularly during the summer months. Diminished infiltration in future climate scenarios may be expected to increase exposure to indoor sources of air pollution, unless these ventilation reductions are otherwise compensated. Exposure to ambient air pollution, conversely, could be mitigated by lower infiltration, although peak exposure increases during summer months should be considered, as well as other mechanisms.

  20. Simultaneous Infiltration of Polyfunctional Effector and Suppressor T Cells into Renal Cell Carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attig, Sebastian; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Pawelec, Graham; Klein, Gerd; Koch, Sven D.; Pircher, Hanspeter; Feyerabend, Susan; Wernet, Dorothee; Stenzl, Arnulf; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Gouttefangeas, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is frequently infiltrated by cells of the immune system. This makes it important to understand interactions between cancer cells and immune cells so they can be manipulated to bring clinical benefit. Here, we analyze subsets and functions of T lymphocytes infiltrating renal cell

  1. Description of the G-A Infiltration Model Using Chu and Chow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil infiltration process is one of the hydrological cycle processes, attracting the attention of the hydrologists more than any other process. This process provides conversion of the raw rainfall into the excess rainfall; and ultimately the excess rainfall is used for describing the rainfall-runoff models. In most of the infiltration ...

  2. Brooks–Corey Modeling by One-Dimensional Vertical Infiltration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Xing

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory methods used for the soil water retention curve (SWRC construction and parameter estimation is time-consuming. A vertical infiltration method was proposed to estimate parameters α and n and to further construct the SWRC. In the present study, the relationships describing the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate with the depth of the wetting front were established, and simplified expressions for estimating α and n parameters were proposed. The one-dimensional vertical infiltration experiments of four soils were conducted to verify if the proposed method would accurately estimate α and n. The fitted values of α and n, obtained from the RETC software, were consistent with the calculated values obtained from the infiltration method. The comparison between the measured SWRCs obtained from the centrifuge method and the calculated SWRCs that were based on the infiltration method displayed small values of root mean square error (RMSE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and mean absolute error. SWMS_2D-based simulations of cumulative infiltration, based on the calculated α and n, remained consistent with the measured values due to small RMSE and MAPE values. The experiments verified the proposed one-dimensional vertical infiltration method, which has applications in field hydraulic parameter estimation.

  3. New procedure for sampling infiltration to assess post-fire soil water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Robichaud; S. A. Lewis; L. E. Ashmun

    2008-01-01

    The Mini-disk Infiltrometer has been adapted for use as a field test of post-fire infiltration and soil water repellency. Although the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test is the common field test for soil water repellency, the Mini-disk Infiltrometer (MDI) test takes less time, is less subjective, and provides a relative infiltration rate. For each test, the porous...

  4. Estimating Infiltration Rates for a Loessal Silt Loam Using Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Dean Knighton

    1978-01-01

    Soil properties were related to infiltration rates as measured by single-ringsteady-head infiltometers. The properties showing strong simple correlations were identified. Regression models were developed to estimate infiltration rate from several soil properties. The best model gave fair agreement to measured rates at another location.

  5. [Infiltration characteristics of soil water on loess slope land under intermittent and repetitive rainfall conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming-An

    2008-07-01

    Based on the experiments of controlled intermittent and repetitive rainfall on slope land, the infiltration and distribution characteristics of soil water on loess slope land were studied. The results showed that under the condition of intermittent rainfall, the cumulative runoff during two rainfall events increased linearly with time, and the wetting front also increased with time. In the interval of the two rainfall events, the wetting front increased slowly, and the infiltration rate was smaller on steeper slope than on flat surface. During the second rainfall event, there was an obvious decreasing trend of infiltration rate with time. The cumulative infiltration on 15 degrees slope land was larger than that of 25 degrees slope land, being 178 mm and 88 mm, respectively. Under the condition of repetitive rainfall, the initial infiltration rate during each rainfall event was relatively large, and during the first rainfall, both the infiltration rate and the cumulative infiltration at various stages were larger than those during the other three rainfall events. However, after the first rainfall, there were no obvious differences in the infiltration rate among the next three rainfall events. The more the rainfall event, the deeper the wetting front advanced.

  6. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  7. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the liver exhibits infiltrative and nodular growth patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Zhang, Qing; You, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined liver specimens from 15 patients with uveal melanoma (UM) who had died of their disseminated disease. We found 2 distinct growth patterns of UM metastasis: infiltrative (n = 12) and nodular (n = 3). In the infiltrative pattern, individual UM cells with a CD133+ cancer stem cell-like p...

  8. The effect of seasonal grazing on the infiltration capacity of soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infiltration measurements were determined by means of a flood type concentric ring infiltrometer. The results showed that grazing during any one of the seasons reduced the infiltration capacity of the soils. The detrimental effects of summer and autumn grazing were, however, larger titan those of winter and spring ...

  9. A Non-linear Stochastic Model for an Office Building with Air Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thavlov, Anders; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a non-linear heat dynamic model for a multi-room office building with air infiltration. Several linear and non-linear models, with and without air infiltration, are investigated and compared. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations and the model...

  10. Method of Abdominal Cavity Postoperative Infiltrates Treatment in Children with Appendiceal Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melnichenko, M. G.; Antoniuk, V. V.; Tkachenko, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of postoperative abdominal infiltrates in children operated on appendicular peritonitis with the use of antibiotics and physical factors on the abdominal region according to the utility model includes two stages. The first stage involves regional antibacterial electrophoresis and therapeutic antibacterial microclysters. The second stage includes the impact of diadynamic therapy in infiltration projection and NSAIDs as rectal suppositories.

  11. Multispectral imaging for highly accurate analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary melanoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasaturo, A.; Di Blasio, S.; Verweij, D.; Blokx, W.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Vries, I.J.M. de; Figdor, C.G.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The quality and quantity of the infiltration of immune cells into tumour tissues have substantial impacts on patients' clinical outcomes, and are associated with response to immunotherapy. Therefore, the precise analysis of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is becoming an important

  12. Increase of infiltrating monocytes in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Wu, Hongyan; Liu, Yong; Yang, Chenchen; Pan, Zhiyun; Xia, Juan; Xiong, Yali; Wang, Guiyang; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Jun; Yan, Xiaomin; Zhang, Zhaoping; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating monocytes have been demonstrated to contribute to tissue damage in experimental models of liver injury and fibrosis. However, less is known about monocyte infiltration in the livers of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). In the present study, we demonstrated that CD68+ hepatic macrophages and MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies as compared with normal liver tissue. In addition, CLD patients with higher inflammatory grading scores had more CD68+ macrophages and MAC387+ monocytes infiltration in their livers compared to those with lower scores. Significantly more MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes were found in the liver tissue of CLD patients with higher fibrotic staging scores compared to those with lower scores. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was significantly increased in the livers of CLD patients with different etiologies. MCP-1 staining scores were significantly positively associated with the numbers of MAC387+ infiltrating monocytes in CLD patients. Taken together, our results demonstrate that infiltrating monocytes may play a pathological role in exacerbating chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD. MCP-1 may be involved in the monocyte infiltration and progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis in CLD.

  13. Characterization of the Infiltration Capacity of Porous Concrete Pavements with Low Constant Head Permeability Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio C. Andres-Valeri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous concrete (PC has been extensively used as a surface layer in permeable pavements. The effectiveness of this material in managing stormwater runoff depends not only on subsurface storage, but on infiltration capacity during rainfall events. A variety of tests have been traditionally used for assessing their infiltration capacity, however, there is still uncertainty about whether these tests produce representative performance results under real conditions. This study aims to propose a methodology based on saturated and unsaturated low constant head (LCH permeability tests, in order to characterize in detail the infiltration performance of PC materials during storm events and predict their infiltration behavior over time. To this end, three different infiltration tests were performed on PC specimens, both in newly built conditions and after being clogged. These experiments included unsaturated LCH, Laboratorio Caminos Santander (LCS (one falling head permeameter and saturated LCH tests. The results achieved were analyzed to describe the infiltration performance of the PC pavements tested. Finally, the correlation between the results obtained from on-site tests and laboratory scale devices was studied, providing the regression equations required to apply the infiltration models developed with easily measurable parameters. Consequently, the outputs of this research showed the suitability of the proposed methodology for assessing the infiltration behavior of PC pavements during storm events.

  14. Applicability of five models to simulate water infiltration into soil with added biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a soil amendment, biochar can reduce soil bulk density, increase soil porosity, and alter soil aggregates and thus affect the infiltration. Researchers have proposed and revised several theoretical models to describe the process of soil infiltration. Although these models have been successfully u...

  15. In Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Infiltrating Macrophages Are Immune Activated, Whereas Microglia Remain Immune Suppressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vainchtein, I. D.; Vinet, J.; Brouwer, N.; Brendecke, S.; Biagini, G.; Biber, K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Eggen, B. J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by loss of myelin accompanied by infiltration of T-lymphocytes and monocytes. Although it has been shown that these infiltrates are important for the progression of MS, the role of

  16. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  17. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  18. Factors affecting the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS in clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockhorn, B.; Klint, K.E.S.; Locatelli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The influence of small scale soil heterogeneity on the hydraulic performance of infiltration based SUDS was studied using field data from a clayey glacial till and groundwater simulations with the integrated surface water and groundwater model HydroGeoSphere. Simulations of homogeneous soil blocks...... with hydraulic properties ranging from sand to clay showed that infiltration capacities vary greatly for the different soil types observed in glacial till. The inclusion of heterogeneities dramatically increased infiltration volume by a factor of 22 for a soil with structural changes above and below the CaC03...... boundary. Infiltration increased further by 8% if tectonic fractures were included and by another 61% if earthworm burrows were added. Comparison of HydroGeoSphere infiltration hydrographs with a simple soakaway model (Roldin et al. 2012) showed similar results for homogenous soils but indicated...

  19. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method....... Both procedures resulted in a mixture of independent transformants and sibling transformants. The transformants were genetically stable, and analysis of the T-2 generation indicates that the transgenes are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. These transformation systems will increase the utility of M...

  20. Indoor air quality/air infiltration in selected low-energy houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohl Wagner, B.; Phillips, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Indoor air quality and air infiltration were measured in 16 low-energy California houses. Eleven has gas stoves; all had average infiltration rates of 0.5 h -1 of less, recent construction dates, low natural ventilation, and no mechanical ventilation. HCHO levels in 12 houses and radon-222 and NO 2 levels in all houses were measured using passive monitors. Blower door measurements and local weather data were used to calculate average infiltration rates during the monitoring period. Correlation of pollutant concentrations with infiltration rates and building characteristics indicate that new houses with average heating season infiltration rates less than 0.5 h -1 do not necessarily experience poor indoor air quality, HCHO and radon-222 levels in new houses exceeded the lowest currently proposed standards or guidelines, and much higher levels probably exist elsewhere. Therefore, some strategy for identifying 'problem' houses is needed. We recommend an approach for future research in this area. (Author)

  1. Pressureless infiltration of porous Al2O3 preform in molten 6061 commercial aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, J.; Olivares, L.; Moreno, C.; Ordonez, S.; Martinez, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an infiltration study of Al 2 O 3 samples containing, approximately, 40% of pores with 1μ average radios. These samples were totally infiltrated with Al-6061 at 1100 deg C for 24 hs in air. Microstructural analysis showed the presence of an alumina matrix infiltrated through mechanisms that combine reactive processes and capillarity, and thus being coherent with the presence of open and closed porosity. The metallographic analysis showed open porosity infiltrated with Al-6061 by capillarity, while SEM micrographs corresponding to this system also showed closed pores filled with metal, that was transported into the ceramic matrix through a reactivate infiltration mechanism. The EDAX analysis for the Al 2 O 3 /Al 6061 system showed areas rich in silicon and copper at the metal-ceramic interface, while the ceramic phase showed the presence of Mg. XRD identified the presence of the MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in the ceramic phase

  2. A study on the manufacturing conditions of metal matrix composites by low pressure infiltration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Jo; Hessian, Md Anowar; Park, Sung Ho [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyoung (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Sun Chul [Gyeongsang National University, JinJu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Metal fiber preform reinforced aluminum alloy composite as made by the infiltration of molten metal under low pressure casting process. The infiltration behavior of filling pattern and the velocity profile with low-pressure casting process was investigated. The thermocouple was inserted into the preform in order to observe the infiltration behavior. The infiltration of applied pressure time, 1, 2 and 5 s under constant pressure of 0.4 MPa was completely filled during 0.4 s. In these conditions, molten aluminum alloy has successfully infiltrated to FeCrSi metal fiber preform by low-pressure casting process. It was observed the porosity of composites for reliability of composites. The automobile piston was developed with FeCrSi reinforced aluminum alloy that is 0% porosity by the optimal applied pressure and applied pressure time.

  3. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  4. Stable isotopes applied as water tracers for infiltration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Chen Jiansheng; Sun Xiaoxu; Su Zhiguo

    2011-01-01

    The δD and δ 18 O vertical profiles of soil water were measured prior to and after a rainfall event. Mechanisms of soil water movement were deciphered by comparing the soil water isotope profiles with the isotopic composition of precipitation. The results show that evaporation at the upper depth led to enrichment of the heavy isotopes. Compared to the loess profile, the shallow soil water of sand profile is relatively enriched in D and 18 O due to macro-pore and low water-holding capacity. The precipitation is infiltrated into soil in piston mode, accompanied with significant mixing of older soil water. The preferential fluid flow in loess was observed at depths of 0-20 cm, caused by cracks in the depths. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions in outflow are close to the precipitation, which shows a mixing of the precipitation and old soil water, and indicates that the isotopic composition of outflow water is mainly controlled by that of the precipitation. The δD and δ 18 O in outflow decreased with time until stable δ values of outflow are close to those of the precipitation. (authors)

  5. Bilateral fungal keratitis with ring infiltrates: a rare scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaniyara, Manthan Hasmukhbhai; Pujari, Amar; Urkude, Jayanand; Sharma, Namrata

    2017-10-09

    A 12-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with chief complaints of pain, redness, discharge and diminution of vision in both eyes over the previous 20 days. There was no history of preceding trauma, contact lens use, any eye drop usage or ocular surgery. Systemic history was not significant. Presenting uncorrected visual acuity in his right eye was counting fingers at 1 m and 20/200 in the left eye, with accurate projection of rays in both eyes. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed the presence of bilateral diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ring infiltrates and epithelial defect with corneal oedema. Potassium hydroxide wet mount showed the presence of septate fungal hyphae. The patient was treated with topical 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole over a period of 6 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/600 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye at 6-month follow-up. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian Zhang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  7. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission.

  8. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional.

  9. Lymphocytic infiltration of bladder after local cellular immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Bishai, M B; Techy, G B; Narayan, K S; Saroufeem, R; Yazan, O; Marshall, C E

    2000-01-01

    This is a case report of a patient who received cellular immunotherapy, in the form of local injections of autologous stimulated lymphocytes (ASL) into individual tumors in the urinary bladder. A major consideration in cellular immunotherapy being the ability of immune cells to reach all target areas, we hypothesized that direct delivery of effector cells into individual bladder tumors might assure such access. ASL were generated by exposing the patient's PBL to phytohemagglutinin and culturing them in the presence of IL-2 to expand the population. ASL were injected into the base of individual bladder tumors three times at intervals of 3 weeks. The patient died of a myocardial infarct, unrelated to cell therapy, 20 days after the third injection. An autopsy was performed. Histological sections of the bladder showed extensive lymphocytic infiltration of virtually the entire organ. No conclusions about the therapeutic efficacy of local immunotherapy using ASL are possible. Nevertheless, the observations reported, taken together with reports of therapeutic efficacy of other immunotherapy regimens in the management of bladder cancer, suggest that ready access of stimulated lymphocytes to all regions of the organ may account, in part, for the relatively high rate of therapeutic success reported for various immunotherapy regimens for this malignancy.

  10. Indoor air quality and infiltration in multifamily naval housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.; Wilfert, G.L.; Dennis, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements of indoor air quality and air infiltration were taken in three units of a multifamily housing complex at the Naval Submarine base in Bangor, Washington, over 5 consecutive days during the heating season of 1983. Three dwelling units of identical size constructed in 1978 were monitored, each in a separate two-story four-unit complex. One unit was a downstairs unit and the other two units were upstairs units. Two of the units were occupied by smokers (one downstairs and one upstairs). None of the units had combustion appliances. Pollutants monitored indoors included radon, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide. Indoor and outdoor temperature and windspeed were also recorded. Outdoor formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide were also measured. Air exchange was measured about three times during each 24-h period, using a perfluorocarbon tracer with automatic tracer sampling. The daily average air exchange rate ranged from 0.22 to 0.91 air changes per hour (ACH). Pollutant concentrations were generally low except for particulate matter in the units with smokers, which were two to four times higher than in the unit with nonsmokers. Levels of carbon monoxide were also slightly elevated in one of the units with a smoker compared to the unit with nonsmokers. 5 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  11. Napropamide residues in runoff and infiltration water from pepper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Patterson, Matthew A

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted on a Lowell silty loam soil of 2.7% organic matter at the Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, Kentucky. Eighteen universal soil loss equation (USLE) standard plots (22 x 3.7 m each) were established on a 10% slope. Three soil management practices were used: (i) class-A biosolids (sewage sludge), (ii) yard waste compost, each mixed with native soil at a rate of 50 ton acre(-1) on a dry-weight basis, and (iii) a no-mulch (NM) treatment (rototilled bare soil), used for comparison purposes. Devrinol 50-DF "napropamide" [N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthyloxy) propionamide] was applied as a preemergent herbicide, incorporated into the soil surface, and the plots were planted with 60-day-old sweet bell pepper seedlings. Napropamide residues one hour following spraying averaged 0.8, 0.4, and 0.3 microg g(-1) dry soil in sewage sludge, yard waste compost, and no-mulch treatments, respectively. Surface runoff water, runoff sediment, and napropamide residues in runoff were significantly reduced by the compost and biosolid treatments. Yard waste compost treatments increased water infiltration and napropamide residues in the vadose zone compared to sewage sludge and NM treatments. Total pepper yields from yard waste compost amended soils (9187 lbs acre(-1)) was significantly higher (P soil amended with class-A biosolids (6984 lbs acre(-1)) or the no-mulch soil (7162 lbs acre(-1)).

  12. Inflammatory Cell Infiltrates in Acute and Chronic Thoracic Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Darrell; Choi, Justin C; Sameri, Aryan; Minard, Charles G; Coselli, Joseph S; Shen, Ying H; LeMaire, Scott A

    2013-12-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a highly lethal cardiovascular disease. Injury to the intima and media allows pulsatile blood to enter the media, leading to dissection formation. Inflammatory cells then infiltrate the site of aortic injury to clear dead cells and damaged tissue. This excessive inflammation may play a role in aneurysm formation after dissection. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared aortic tissues from patients with acute TAD (n = 11), patients with chronic TAD (n = 35), and donor controls (n = 20) for the presence of CD68+ macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, and CD3+ T lymphocytes. Tissue samples from patients with acute or chronic TAD generally had significantly more inflammatory cells in both the medial and adventitial layers than did the control samples. In tissues from patients with acute TAD, the adventitia had more of the inflammatory cells studied than did the media. The pattern of increase in inflammatory cells was similar in chronic and acute TAD tissues, except for macrophages, which were seen more frequently in the adventitial layer of acute TAD tissue than in the adventitia of chronic TAD tissue. The inflammatory cell content of both acute and chronic TAD tissue was significantly different from that of control tissue. However, the inflammatory cell profile of aneurysmal chronic TAD was similar to that of acute TAD. This may reflect a sustained injury response that contributes to medial degeneration and aneurysm formation.

  13. On the Maas problem of seawater intrusion combated by infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryThe problem of Maas [Maas, K. 2007. Influence of climate change on a Ghijben-Herzberg lens. J. Hydrol. 347, 223-228] for infiltration inflow into a porous flat-roofed fresh water lens floating on the interface of an ascending Darcian saline water flow is shown to be in exact match with the Polubarinova-Kochina [Polubarinova-Kochina, P.Ya., 1977. Theory of Ground Water Movement. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)] problem for flow in a lens capped by a cambered phreatic surface with a uniform accretion. The Maas complex potential in the domain of a heavy saline water seeping beneath the lens corresponds to one of an ideal fluid flow past an elliptical cylinder that makes possible conversion of this potential into ascending-descending seepage flows with floating (but stagnant) DNAPL-LNAPL volumes. Similar matching is possible for the velocity potential of an axisymmetric flow past an ellipsoid and hydrostatic pressure of a stagnant NAPL body stored in a semi-ellipsoidal pond.

  14. Fabrication of superconducting wire using organometallic precursors and infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Organometallic precursors from naphthenic acid and metal nitrates were used for the synthesis of YBCO oxide superconducting compounds. The characteristics of metal naphthenates as organometallic precursors were investigated by IR spectra, viscosity measurements, and infiltration. 123 superconducting compound obtained from 123 naphthenate showed a Tc of 90 degree K and a rather dense and elongated microstructure. Also, the melting behavior of Ba-cuprates which were used for 123 making was studied. A low-temperature melting process was developed to fabricate silver-sheathed superconducting wire with the powder-in-tube method; flowing argon gas is introduced to the system at 930-945 degree C to reduce the melting temperature of the 123 compound without silver sheath melting. It resulted in a 90 degree K Tc superconducting core with dense and locally aligned microstructure. SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, 4-probe resistance and Jc measurements, and carbon-content determinations were carried out to characterize the microstructure, grain alignment, and superconducting properties of the samples

  15. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  16. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  17. Testing the goodness of fit of selected infiltration models on soils with different land use histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1993-10-01

    Six infiltration models, some obtained by reformulating the fitting parameters of the classical Kostiakov (1932) and Philip (1957) equations, were investigated for their ability to describe water infiltration into highly permeable sandy soils from the Nsukka plains of SE Nigeria. The models were Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Modified Kostiakov (B), Philip, Modified Philip (A) and Modified Philip (B). Infiltration data were obtained from double ring infiltrometers on field plots established on a Knadic Paleustult (Nkpologu series) to investigate the effects of land use on soil properties and maize yield. The treatments were; (i) tilled-mulched (TM), (ii) tilled-unmulched (TU), (iii) untilled-mulched (UM), (iv) untilled-unmulched (UU) and (v) continuous pasture (CP). Cumulative infiltration was highest on the TM and lowest on the CP plots. All estimated model parameters obtained by the best fit of measured data differed significantly among the treatments. Based on the magnitude of R 2 values, the Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Philip and Modified Philip (A) models provided best predictions of cumulative infiltration as a function of time. Comparing experimental with model-predicted cumulative infiltration showed, however, that on all treatments the values predicted by the classical Kostiakov, Philip and Modified Philip (A) models deviated most from experimental data. The other models produced values that agreed very well with measured data. Considering the eases of determining the fitting parameters it is proposed that on soils with high infiltration rates, either Modified Kostiakov model (I = Kt a + Ict) or Modified Philip model (I St 1/2 + Ict), (where I is cumulative infiltration, K, the time coefficient, t, time elapsed, 'a' the time exponent, Ic the equilibrium infiltration rate and S, the soil water sorptivity), be used for routine characterization of the infiltration process. (author). 33 refs, 3 figs 6 tabs

  18. Effect of Irrigation Water Type on Infiltration Rates of Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.M.; Al-Matrood, S.M.; Choudhary, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the effect of three water types (tap water, well water and sewage water) on the infiltration rate of three soils varying in texture (sand. loamy sand and sandy loam). A stationary rainfall simulator dispensing water at a rate of 45 mm h-1, connected to the different sources of water, was used to measure the infiltration rates. A total of 5 runs were carried out using each water quality. The volume of runoff against the time was recorded at each 5 minute interval. The infiltration rate was calculated as the difference between the water applied and the excesses water measured as surface runoff. Infiltration rate at first run were rapid in all the three soils and then progressively declined as the number of runs increased. The same trend was observed for each water quality tested. The reduction in infiltration rate with increasing number of runs for prewetted surface than for the initial dry surface was attributed to break down and settling of fine particles that took place earlier during prewetting. The infiltration curves for all the three soils when irrigared with different qualities of water was not distinguishable. The relationship between infiltration rate as function of time for the treatments applied were tested using Kostiakov equation I=bt-n. The infiltration data gave a coefficient of determination R2 >0.90 for all the treatments. The infiltration parameters B, and n varied strongly with respect to soil texture. Values of B decreased with changing soil textures, being highest for the sandy soil, and lowest for the sandy loamy soil, whereas n values showed the opposite trend. It was concluded that effect of soil texture on the infiltration rate was very pronounced while water qualities showed a little effect. (author)

  19. Novel hydroxyapatite nanorods improve anti-caries efficacy of enamel infiltrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, D M; Carvalho, E V; Rodrigues, E A; Feitosa, V P; Sauro, S; Mele, G; Carbone, L; Mazzetto, S E; Rodrigues, L K; Fechine, P B A

    2016-06-01

    Enamel resin infiltrants are biomaterials able to treat enamel caries at early stages. Nevertheless, they cannot prevent further demineralization of mineral-depleted enamel. Therefore, the aim of this work was to synthesize and incorporate specific hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAps) into the resin infiltrant to overcome this issue. HAps were prepared using a hydrothermal method (0h, 2h and 5h). The crystallinity, crystallite size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized through XRD, FT-IR and TEM. HAps were then incorporated (10wt%) into a light-curing co-monomer resin blend (control) to create different resin-based enamel infiltrants (HAp-0h, HAp-2h and HAp-5h), whose degree of conversion (DC) was assessed by FT-IR. Enamel caries lesions were first artificially created in extracted human molars and infiltrated using the tested resin infiltrants. Specimens were submitted to pH-cycling to simulate recurrent caries. Knoop microhardness of resin-infiltrated underlying and surrounding enamel was analyzed before and after pH challenge. Whilst HAp-0h resulted amorphous, HAp-2h and HAp-5h presented nanorod morphology and higher crystallinity. Resin infiltration doped with HAp-2h and HAp-5h caused higher enamel resistance against demineralization compared to control HAp-free and HAp-0h infiltration. The inclusion of more crystalline HAp nanorods (HAp-2h and HAp-5h) increased significantly (p<0.05) the DC. Incorporation of more crystalline HAp nanorods into enamel resin infiltrants may be a feasible method to improve the overall performance in the prevention of recurrent demineralization (e.g. caries lesion) in resin-infiltrated enamel. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the Penetrating Abilities of Experimental Preparation with Dental Infiltrant Features Using Optical Microscope: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the infiltration technique is to penetrate demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. Icon® (DMG) is the first ever and so far the only dental infiltrant. Bacteriostaticity is one of the properties that should be inherent in dental infiltrants, but Icon lacks this feature. The aim of the preliminary study was to properly choose a dye which would allow us to assess the penetrating abilities of our own, experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant with bacteriostatic properties and to compare using an optical microscope the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available on the market. The preparation is supposed to infiltrate decalcified human enamel and be assessed with an optical microscope. Eosin, neutral fuchsine and methylene blue were added to experimental preparation with dental infiltrant features and to Icon® (DMG) in order to assess the depth of penetration of the experimental solution into the decalcified layers of enamel. The experimental solution mixes well with eosin, neutral fuchsine, and methylene blue. During the preliminary study, the authors concluded that the experimental solution mixes well with methylene blue, neutral fuchsine, and eosin. An addition of eosin to a preparation which infiltrates inner, demineralized enamel layers, facilitates the assessment of such a preparation with an optical microscope. A designed experimental solution with the main ingredients, i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a ratio of 75% to 25% penetrates the demineralized (decalcified) inner parts of the enamel and polymerizes when exposed to light. In order to assess the infiltration of the experimental solution into the demineralized enamel layers, it is required to improve the measurement techniques that utilize optical microscopy.

  1. 2D SPLASH: a new method to determine the fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenn, Werner; Huemmer, Christian; Koestler, Herbert; Hahn, Dietbert; Boehm, Dirk; Gohlke, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to quantify the fatty degeneration (infiltration) of rotator cuff muscles with a new spectroscopic FLASH (SPLASH) sequence. Before planned surgery (reconstruction or muscle transfer), 20 patients (13 men, 7 women; 35-75 years) with different stages of rotator cuff disease underwent an MR examination in a 1.5-T unit. The protocol consists of imaging sequences and a newly implemented SPLASH, which allows an exact quantification of the fat/water ratio with a high spatial resolution in an arbitrarily shaped region of interest (ROI). The percentages of fat in the rotator cuff muscles were determined. To determine statistically significant differences between the different stages of rotator cuff tear, a Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. Fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus muscle was correlated with cross-sectional area (CSA) measures (Bravais-Pearson). We found significant differences between different stages of rotator cuff disease, the fatty infiltration and the volume loss (determined by the occupation ratio) of the supraspinatus muscle. With the increasing extent of rotator cuff disease, fatty infiltration increases significantly, as does the volume loss of the supraspinatus muscle. Comparing fatty infiltration and the occupation ratio individually, there was only a moderate inverse correlation between fatty infiltration and the occupation ratio, with considerable variation of data. Fatty infiltration of the infraspinatus muscle occurred when the infraspinatus tendon was involved to a lesser extent. The SPLASH sequence allows exact quantification of fatty infiltration in an arbitrarily shaped ROI. The extent of atrophy and fatty infiltration correlates with the size of the tear. Atrophy and fatty infiltration correlate only moderately and should be evaluated separately. (orig.)

  2. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  3. Paradise Lost: Difference between Adam and Eve’s Lament on Leaving Paradise - A Contrastive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Torres Servín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between Adam and Eve’s lament on leaving Paradise in Milton’s Paradise Lost is striking in its contrastive content and depth. This paper analyzes the difference that exists between the feelings and spiritual attitudes that Adam and Eve express on the occasion when they are informed by the angel Michael that they have to abandon the Garden of Eden. It is a comparison of their lament in order to understand the contrast of the two attitudes that Milton wove in the tapestry that Paradise Lost is. The paper also explores male and female roles in Paradise Lost and concludes that Adam and Eve are equal yet different, that difference being the cause of their contrastive ways of expressing their sorrow. Adam and Eve manifest two contrastive worldviews in opposition, one spiritual (heavenly, and the other material (earthly.

  4. Realidade Ambígua: imersão em The Lost Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Mesquita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo discurrerá sobre como o Alternate Reality Game (ARG foi utilizado como uma extensão imersiva do universo de Lost através da campanha The Lost Experience (LTE. Assim, faremos um levantamento sobre alguns aspectos pertinentes do seriado. Então será realizado um estudo sobre a estrutura dos ARGs, partindo de seus principais preceitos que buscam mimetizar um mundo ficcional acoplado ao mundo real utilizando os meios de comunicação. Por seguinte analisaremos o LTE, que surgiu assumidamente como uma campanha com objetivos publicitários, com o propósito de enriquecer a experiência narrativa do público de Lost.

  5. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  6. Location-based technologies for supporting elderly pedestrian in "getting lost" events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Herrera, Edith

    2017-05-01

    Localization-based technologies promise to keep older adults with dementia safe and support them and their caregivers during getting lost events. This paper summarizes mainly technological contributions to support the target group in these events. Moreover, important aspects of the getting lost phenomenon such as its concept and ethical issues are also briefly addressed. Papers were selected from scientific databases and gray literature. Since the topic is still in its infancy, other terms were used to find contributions associated with getting lost e.g. wandering. Trends of applying localization systems were identified as personal locators, perimeter systems and assistance systems. The first system barely considered the older adult's opinion, while assistance systems may involve context awareness to improve the support for both the elderly and the caregiver. Since few studies report multidisciplinary work with a special focus on getting lost, there is not a strong evidence of the real efficiency of localization systems or guidelines to design systems for the target group. Further research about getting lost is required to obtain insights for developing customizable systems. Moreover, considering conditions of the older adult might increase the impact of developments that combine localization technologies and artificial intelligence techniques. Implications for Rehabilitation Whilst there is no cure for dementia such as Alzheimer's, it is feasible to take advantage of technological developments to somewhat diminish its negative impact. For instance, location-based systems may provide information to early diagnose the Alzheimer's disease by assessing navigational impairments of older adults. Assessing the latest supportive technologies and methodologies may provide insights to adopt strategies to properly manage getting lost events. More user-centered designs will provide appropriate assistance to older adults. Namely, customizable systems could assist older adults

  7. Lost working years due to mental disorders: an analysis of the Norwegian disability pension registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kristin Knudsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders are prevalent diagnoses in disability benefit statistics, with awards often granted at younger age than for other diagnoses. We aimed to compare the number of lost working years following disability benefit award for mental disorders versus other diagnostic groups. METHODS: Data from the complete Norwegian official registry over disability benefit incidence, including primary diagnoses, were analyzed for the period 2001 to 2003 (N = 77,067, a time-period without any reform in the disability benefit scheme. Lost working years due to disability benefit award before scheduled age retirement at age 67 were calculated. RESULTS: Musculoskeletal disorders were the commonest reason for disability benefit awards (36.3% with mental disorders in second place (24.0%. However, mental disorders were responsible for the most working years lost (33.8% compared with musculoskeletal disorders (29.4%. Individuals awarded disability benefit for a mental disorder were on average 8.9 years younger (46.1 years than individuals awarded for a musculoskeletal disorder (55.0 years, and 6.9 years younger than individuals awarded for any other somatic disorder (53.0 years. Anxiety and depressive disorders were the largest contributors to lost working years within mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Age at award is highly relevant when the total burden of different diagnoses on disability benefits is considered. There is great disparity in total number of lost working years due to disability benefit award for different diagnostic groups. The high number of lost working years from mental disorders has serious consequences for both the individual and for the wider society and economy.

  8. Telomerase lost?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, J. M.; Randall, T. A.; Čapková Frydrychová, Radmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 1 (2016), s. 65-73 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; GA JU(CZ) 038/2014/P; European Union Seventh Framework Programme(CZ) 316304 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : telomerase * DNA sequences * Bombyx mori Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00412-015-0528-7

  9. Lost criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Egorovich Manoylov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians have been found to be inadequately aware of the structure of the causes of headache, vertigo, and their clinical importance in patients with essential hypertension. Incorrect ideas lead to the unfounded application of diagnostic techniques for imaging the great arteries of the head and to extremely simplified approaches to treating cerebrovascular diseases as short-term courses of therapy with vasoactive and metabolic agents.

  10. Conformality lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, ξ∼exp(c/|T-T c | 1/2 ). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.

  11. Lost Priorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernandez, Rhett

    1998-01-01

    A review of the administration's National Security Strategy highlights the administration's inability to identify what's really important and focus its limited resources on accomplishing the essential...

  12. Paradise lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1980-01-01

    The United States conducted 66 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Marshall Islands. Twenty-two years later the authorities continue to disagree on when the islands will be safe for resettlement. This article discusses the events that have occurred in the past 30 years

  13. The Old English Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost: the characterisation of Satan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ramazzina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether and to what extent the English poet John Milton may have been influenced in the composition of Paradise Lost by the Old English poem known as Genesis B. The paper will examine similarities and dif-ferences in the characterisation of Satan and of the temptation of Adam and Eve in both poems. The comparison between two of the illuminations of the Junius 11 ms. and the corresponding passages in Paradise Lost will be part of the analysis.

  14. The Old English Genesis and Milton's Paradise Lost: the characterisation of Satan

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazzina, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether and to what extent the English poet John Milton may have been influenced in the composition of Paradise Lost by the Old English poem known as Genesis B. The paper will examine similarities and dif-ferences in the characterisation of Satan and of the temptation of Adam and Eve in both poems. The comparison between two of the illuminations of the Junius 11 ms. and the corresponding passages in Paradise Lost will be part of the analysis.

  15. Can increasing adult vaccination rates reduce lost time and increase productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses limited vaccination coverage by providing an overview of the epidemiology of influenza, pertussis, and pneumonia, and the impact these diseases have on work attendance for the worker, the worker's family, and employer profit. Studies focused on the cost of vaccination programs, lost work time, lost employee productivity and acute disease treatment are discussed, as well as strategies for increasing vaccination coverage to reduce overall health care costs for employers. Communicating the benefits of universal vaccination for employees and their families and combating vaccine misinformation among employees are outlined. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Love in Love’s Labour’s Lost: Ontological Foundation or Laughing Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mousley, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Love’s labour is often lost in Shakespeare’s (un)romantic comedy because love is folly and lovers, ridiculous. We know, however, that Shakespeare delights in paradoxes and reversals which alert us to the possibility of finding wisdom in folly and folly in self-professed wisdom. Given the insisted-upon interchangeability of wisdom and folly in Shakespeare’s plays, how can we be confident of being able to tell them apart? If lovers are foolish in Love’s Labour’s Lost then what wisdom might ther...

  17. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  18. Lost foam casting of aluminum alloy-SiCp composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalasuburamaniam, R.; Cvetnic, C.; Ravindran, C.

    2002-01-01

    Metal matrix composites are a viable alternative to cast irons in automotive components with possible increase in strength-to-weight ratio. Lost foam casting of aluminum alloy matrix composite containing 20 volume percent SiC was carried out at 690, 730, and 770 o C with a view to determining the effects of cooling rate on microstructure, particle distribution, microporosity and mechanical properties. These results were compared with those for the matrix material cast under similar conditions. The results and the correlations are of particular interest as there is no published literature on lost foam casting of composite materials. (author)

  19. The M/M/1 queue with inventory, lost sale and general lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffari, Mohammad; Asmussen, Søren; Haji, Rasoul

    We consider an M/M/1 queueing system with inventory under the (r,Q) policy and with lost sales, in which demands occur according to a Poisson process and service times are exponentially distributed. All arriving customers during stockout are lost. We derive the stationary distributions of the joint...... queue length (number of customers in the system) and on-hand inventory when lead times are random variables and can take various distributions. The derived stationary distributions are used to formulate long-run average performance measures and cost functions in some numerical examples....

  20. Pressing back: Split Britches' Lost Lounge and the retro performativity of lesbian performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Using theories of affect and queer temporality, this article examines Split Britches' Lost Lounge as lesbian resistance to the pressures to remember or forget the past, condemn or embrace the future. In this piece, butch-femme duo Peggy Shaw and Lois Weaver develop a retro performativity that pushes back against systems that strive to make lesbianism invisible, private, and apolitical. Through performances that resignify past pop culture artifacts, particularly the duo of Louis Prima and Keely Smith, Shaw and Weaver perform a past that is simultaneously lost and embodied, pressuring the audience to reconsider notions of progress and beauty.